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1.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(2): 144-151, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248815

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Male hypogonadism (MH) is common among infertile men. Besides testosterone, limited MH biomarkers are available, while researchers have suggested the use of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) to help diagnose MH. Hence, we sought to evaluate the potential use of PSA to predict MH among relatively young men with infertility in Nigeria. Materials and methods: The study included 707 male partners (35-44 years) in infertile couples seeking infertility evaluation at a third-level care center in Nigeria. MH was diagnosed using standard guidelines. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and regression analyses explored the potential of serum free PSA (fPSA) and total PSA (tPSA) in predicting MH and MH-related clinical features. Results: In all, 29.7% of the patients had MH (MH+ve). The MH+ve group had lower mean values of fPSA and tPSA than the group without MH (MH-ve). The best fPSA threshold of < 0.25 μg/L compared with the best tPSA threshold of < 0.74 μg/L had higher accuracy (area under the curve [AUC] 0.908 versus 0.866, respectively), sensitivity (87% versus 83%, respectively), and specificity (42% versus 37%, respectively) for MH diagnosis. After adjustment for confounders, fPSA level ≤ 0.25 μg/L was more likely to predict MH-related decreased libido (odds ratio [OR] 2.728, p<0.001) and erectile dysfunction (OR 3.925, p<0.001) compared with tPSA ≤ 0.74 μg/L in the MH+ve group. Conclusion: For MH diagnosis, fPSA and tPSA had good sensitivity but very poor specificity, although fPSA had better potential for MH diagnosis and association with MH-related clinical features than tPSA. Hence, fPSA could complement other biomarkers for MH diagnosis in men 35-44 years, although we recommend further studies to confirm these findings.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Hypogonadism/diagnosis , Biomarkers/blood , ROC Curve , Nigeria
2.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 19(1): 51-53, março 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361751

ABSTRACT

A metastização ganglionar cervical por neoplasia da próstata é rara, sendo ainda menos frequente como manifestação inicial da doença. O presente estudo é um relato de um caso clínico de uma pessoa do sexo masculino, com 72 anos, que apresentava massa cervical esquerda, indolor, com 2 meses de evolução e dores ósseas lombar e torácica. A citologia aspirativa por agulha fina com estudo imuno-histoquímico revelou positividade para o antígeno prostático específico, concluindo se tratar de metástase ganglionar de carcinoma da próstata. Analiticamente, constatou-se que o valor do antígeno prostático específico foi maior que 1.000ng/mL, além da elevação da fosfatase alcalina. A cintilografia óssea de corpo inteiro revelou envolvimento ósseo secundário. Após o diagnóstico, o paciente iniciou hormonoterapia e recusou radioterapia com intuito paliativo. Oito meses após o diagnóstico, constatou-se a recorrência da doença, com elevação do valor do antígeno prostático específico novamente. Dessa forma, relata-se um caso de neoplasia da próstata com metastização óssea e ganglionar cervical esquerda em um indivíduo assintomático do ponto de vista urológico. Salienta-se que, no diagnóstico diferencial de adenopatias cervicais, deve-se considerar a neoplasia da próstata em pessoas do sexo masculino. (AU)


Cervical lymph nodes involvement is rare in prostate cancer and uncommon as an initial manifestation. This study is a clinical case report of a 72-year-old man who presented with a left cervical painless mass of 2-month progression, and bone pain on the lumbar and thoracic regions. Fine-needle aspiration cytology with immunohistochemistry staining was performed and revealed positivity for prostate-specific antigen consistent with prostate adenocarcinoma metastasis. Blood tests revealed a prostate-specific antigen of more than 1,000ng/mL, as well as high alkaline phosphatase. Whole-body bone scan showed secondary bone involvement. Following diagnosis, the patient started hormonal therapy and refused palliative radiotherapy. Eight months after diagnosis, recurrence was observed, with prostate-specific antigen elevation again. Thus, a clinical case of prostate cancer with bone and cervical lymph node metastasis in a patient with no urologic symptoms is reported. It should be noted that prostate cancer shall always be considered in the differential diagnosis of cervical lymphadenopathies in male patients. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Bone Neoplasms/secondary , Carcinoma/secondary , Lymphadenopathy/etiology , Lymphatic Metastasis/diagnosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/therapy , Recurrence , Chest Pain/etiology , Immunohistochemistry , Carcinoma/diagnosis , Carcinoma/therapy , Tomography , Radionuclide Imaging , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Low Back Pain/etiology , Fatal Outcome , Diagnosis, Differential , Alkaline Phosphatase/blood , Hospitalization
3.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 138(6): 483-489, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1145135

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Population-wide screening for prostate cancer remains a controversial topic, given the need for an individualized approach to patients regarding the risks and benefits of prostate-specific antigen testing and digital rectal examination. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of, and factors associated with, prostate examination among men aged 45 or older. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional population-based study developed in the city of Rio Grande (RS), Brazil. METHODS: The outcome of interest was a history of prostate examination (prostate-specific antigen testing or digital rectal examination). The following independent variables were analyzed: age group, skin color, marital status, schooling, economic level, leisure-time physical activity, smoking habits, excessive alcohol consumption, overweight, health insurance, visits to the doctor during the preceding year, hypertension and diabetes. After a two-stage sampling process, the final sample consisted of 281 male individuals. RESULTS: The prevalence of a history of prostate-specific antigen testing or digital rectal examination was 68.3% (95% confidence interval (CI): 62.2 to 74.5). The highest prevalence rates were observed among men aged 70 years or older (88%) and the lowest among smokers (36%). The following characteristics were found to be associated with the outcome: advanced age; marital status other than single; more schooling and higher economic status; practicing physical activity; non-smoking habits; overweight; having health insurance; and having visited a doctor during the preceding year. CONCLUSION: Approximately two thirds of the study population had been screened for prostate examination, mostly older individuals, with higher socioeconomic status and a healthier lifestyle.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Digital Rectal Examination/statistics & numerical data , Early Detection of Cancer/statistics & numerical data , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cities
4.
Rev. argent. radiol ; 84(3): 85-92, ago. 2020. tab, graf, il.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1143920

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar la relación de las cinéticas del antígeno prostático específico (PSA por su sigla en inglés) con la positividad de la tomografía por emisión de positrones/tomografía computada [PET/TC colina (PETC)]en pacientes con una recaída de cáncer de próstata (RCP). Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un trabajo retrospectivo de 48 pacientes con RCP post prostatectomía radical (PR) evaluados con PETC. Resultados: La PETC negativa tuvo una mediana de 16,3 meses y la PETC positiva de 5,5 meses (p = < 0,001) para el tiempo de doblaje de PSA (PSADT por su sigla en inglés); la PETC fue positiva en el 96% de los pacientes con un PSADT< 12 meses. La PETC negativa tuvo una mediana de 0,03 ng/ml/año y la PETC positiva de 4,1 ng/ml/año (p = < 0,001) para la velocidad del PSA (PSAVpor su sigla en inglés); la PETC fue positiva en el 92% de los pacientes con un PSAV > 0,75 ng/ml/año. Las áreas bajo la curva ROC para PSAV fue de 0,984 con un punto de corte de mayor discriminación de 0.785 ng/ml/año, mostrando razones de verosimilitud (LR por su sigla en inglés) LR + = 25 y LR- = 0,1. Para PSADT el ROC fue de 0,992 con un punto de corte de mayor discriminación de 11 meses, mostrando LR + = 11 y LR- = 0. Discusión: El PSA es un indicador inespecífico de PETC positiva. Un estudio inicial demostró que los pacientes con una RCP con una PETC positiva tenían un menor PSADT y una mayor PSAV que los pacientes con una PETC negativa. Conclusión: La positividad de la PETC se vio influenciada por las cinéticas del PSA, observándose que a menor PSADT y que a mayor PSAV mayor fue la probabilidad de la positividad de la PETC.


Abstract Purpose: The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) kinetics and the detection of Prostate Cancer Relapse (PCR) with Positron-Emission Tomography (PETC). Material and methods: A retrospective study of 48 patients with a PCR after a radical prostatectomy evaluated with PETC was performed. Results: PSA Doubling Time (PSADT), with negative PETC, had a median of 16.3 months and the positive PETC a median of 5.5 months (p = < 0.001); 96% of patients with a PSADT <12 months had positive PETC. PSA Velocity (PSAV), negative PETC, had a median of 0.03 ng/ml/year and positive PETC a median of 4.1 ng/ml/year (p = < 0.001); 92% of patients who had a PSAV > 0.75 ng/ml/year had positive PETC. The ROC for PSAV was 0.984 with a cut-off value of 0.785 ng/ml/year, Showing Likelihood Ratios (LR) LR + = 25 and LR- = 0.1. The ROC for PSADT was 0.992 with a cut off value of 11 months, showing LR + = 11 and LR- = 0. Discussion: PSA is a nonspecific indicator of positive PETC. An initial study demon-strated that patients with a PCR and positive PETC had lower PSADT and higher PSAV than patients with a negative PETC. Conclusion: The rate of detection of PCR with PETC was influenced by the kinetics of PSA, and it was observed that the lower the PSADT and the higher the PSAV, the greater the probability of the positivity of the PETC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Prostate-Specific Antigen/pharmacokinetics , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/diagnostic imaging , Prostatic Neoplasms/physiopathology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Positron-Emission Tomography/methods
5.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 46(2): 244-252, Mar.-Apr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090589

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose To evaluate the usefulness of natural killer cell activity (NKA) in diagnosing prostate cancer (PC). Materials and Methods The medical records of patients who underwent transrectal prostate biopsy (TRBx) at Korea University Ansan Hospital between May 2017 and December 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. NKA levels were measured using NK Vue® Tubes (ATgen, Sungnam, Korea). All blood samples were obtained at 8 AM on the day of biopsy. Patients with other malignancies, chronic inflammatory conditions, high prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level (>20ng/mL), or history of taking 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor or testosterone replacement therapy were excluded. Results A total of 102 patients who underwent TRBx for PC diagnosis were enrolled. Among them, 50 were diagnosed with PC. Significant differences in age and NKA level were observed between the PC and no-PC groups. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed that the optimal cut-off of NKA level for the prediction of PC was 500pg/dL, with a sensitivity of 68.0% and a specificity of 73.1%. In addition, NKA level (0.630) had the greatest area under the ROC curve compared to those for the ratio of total PSA to free PSA (0.597) and PSA density (0.578). Conclusions The results of this pilot study revealed that low NKA and high PSA levels were likely to be associated with a positive TRBx outcome. NKA detection was easy and improved the diagnostic accuracy of PC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Killer Cells, Natural/metabolism , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Prostatic Neoplasms , Prostatic Neoplasms/blood , Killer Cells, Natural/physiology , Biomarkers/metabolism , Biomarkers/blood , Pilot Projects , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Image-Guided Biopsy , Middle Aged
6.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 46(1): 34-41, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056354

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: Prostate cancer screening in the elderly is controversial. The Brazilian government and the National Cancer Institute (INCA) do not recommend systematic screening. Our purpose was to assess prevalence and aggressiveness of prostate cancer in men aged 70 years and above, on the first Latin American database to date. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study (n=17,571) from 231 municipalities, visited by Mobile Cancer Prevention Units of a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) based opportunistic screening program, between 2004 and 2007. The criteria for biopsy were: PSA>4.0ng/ml, or PSA 2.5-4.0ng/ml with free/total PSA ratio ≤15%, or suspicious digital rectal examination findings. The screened men were stratified in two age groups (45-69 years, and ≥70 years). These groups were compared regarding prostate cancer prevalence and aggressiveness criteria (PSA, Gleason score from biopsy and TNM staging). Results: The prevalence of prostate cancer found was 3.7%. When compared to men aged 45-69 years, individuals aged 70 years and above presented cancer prevalence about three times higher (prevalence ratio 2.9, p<0.01), and greater likelihood to present PSA level above 10.0ng/ml at diagnosis (odds ratio 2.63, p<0.01). The group of elderly men also presented prevalence of histologically aggressive disease (Gleason 8-10) 3.6 times higher (p<0.01), and 5-fold greater prevalence of metastases (PR 4.95, p<0.05). Conclusions: Prostate cancer screening in men aged over 70 may be relevant in Brazil, considering the absence of systematic screening, higher prevalence and higher probability of high-risk disease found in this age range of the population studied.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Mass Screening/methods , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Biopsy , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Risk Assessment , Digital Rectal Examination , Early Detection of Cancer , Neoplasm Grading , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Staging
7.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 46(1): 42-52, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056364

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Tables predicting the probability of a positive bone scan in men with non-metastatic, castrate-resistant prostate cancer have recently been reported. We performed an external validation study of these bone scan positivity tables. Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients seen at a tertiary care medical center (1996-2012) to select patients with non-metastatic, castrate-resistant prostate cancer. Abstracted data included demographic, anthropometric, and disease-specific data such as patient race, BMI, PSA kinetics, and primary treatment. Primary outcome was metastasis on bone scan. Multivariable logistic regression was performed using generalized estimating equations to adjust for repeated measures. Risk table performance was assessed using ROC curves. Results: We identified 6.509 patients with prostate cancer who had received hormonal therapy with a post-hormonal therapy PSA ≥2ng/mL, 363 of whom had non-metastatic, castrate-resistant prostate cancer. Of these, 187 patients (356 bone scans) had calculable PSA kinetics and ≥1 bone scan. Median follow-up after castrate-resistant prostate cancer diagnosis was 32 months (IQR: 19-48). There were 227 (64%) negative and 129 (36%) positive bone scans. On multivariable analysis, higher PSA at castrate-resistant prostate cancer (4.67 vs. 4.4ng/mL, OR=0.57, P=0.02), shorter time from castrate-resistant prostate cancer to scan (7.9 vs. 14.6 months, OR=0.97, P=0.006) and higher PSA at scan (OR=2.91, P <0.0001) were significantly predictive of bone scan positivity. The AUC of the previously published risk tables for predicting scan positivity was 0.72. Conclusion: Previously published risk tables predicted bone scan positivity in men with non-metastatic, castrate-resistant prostate cancer with reasonable accuracy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Bone Neoplasms/secondary , Bone Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant/diagnostic imaging , Reference Values , Time Factors , Bone and Bones/diagnostic imaging , Logistic Models , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , ROC Curve , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Risk Assessment , Neoplasm Grading , Middle Aged
8.
Rev. chil. radiol ; 25(4): 119-127, dic. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058212

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Objetivo: Analizar las biopsias realizadas en paciente categorizados PIRADS 3 en nuestra institución desde el segundo semestre del año 2016 al primer semestre del año 2018 y describir la correlación de la densidad de PSA con la incidencia de cáncer de próstata. Evaluar el rol de la densidad de PSA en la indicación de estudio histológico en pacientes PIRADS 3. Método: Trabajo autorizado por el comité de ética de nuestra institución. Se realizó búsqueda en el PACs, de todos los informes de RM multiparamétricas de próstata que incluyeran la categoría ¨PIRADS 3¨ en el periodo señalado. De ellos se calculó la densidad de PSA, con el último valor de PSA registrado en la ficha clínica previo a RM y volumen prostático en RM. Se procedió a buscar los pacientes con estudio histológico. Se correlacionó los resultados de biopsias con el valor de densidad de PSA. Realizamos análisis uni y multivariados, análisis estadísticos con sensibilidad, especificidad y uso de curva ROC. Resultados: De las 2416 RMmp de próstata realizadas en nuestra institución en las fechas ya descritas, se encontraron 424 informes catalogados con score PIRADS 3, y 267 de esos pacientes tenían estudio y seguimiento institucional, de los cuales 134 contaban con biopsia. La muestra tenía un promedio de edad de 60 años, y una mediana de densidad de PSA de 0,10 (RIC 0,07-0,14). Se encontraron 36 biopsias con cáncer clínicamente significativo (Gleason > 6), lo que corresponde a 26,8% de la muestra, valor similar al encontrado en la literuatua. En estos pacientes se obtuvo un punto de corte óptimo de densidad de PSA de 0,11, con una sensibilidad y especificidad de 67% y un AUC de 0,68. Una densidad de PSA de 0,11 presenta un OR de 4,1, con una probabilidad de 4 veces más de encontrar un cáncer de próstata por sobre este valor (IC 95% 1,3-9,8), lo cuál es estadísticamente significativo con un p igual a 0,01. Conclusión: La DAPE sobre 0,11 ng/ml/cc puede considerarse como una herramienta adicional para indicar biopsia en pacientes con RMmp PI-RADS 3, aumentando la precisión para la detección de cáncer de próstata clínicamente significativos ayudando a disminuir estudios histológicos innecesarios.


Abstract: Objective: To analyze the biopsies performed in patients categorized PIRADS 3 in our institution from the second half of 2016 to the first half of 2018 and describe the correlation of PSA density with the incidence of prostate cancer. To evaluate the role of PSA density in the indication of histological study in PIRADS 3 patients. Method: Work authorized by the ethics committee of our institution. The PACs were searched for all multiparameter prostate MRI reports that included the category "PIRADS 3" in the period indicated. The PSA density was calculated, with the last PSA value recorded in the clinical record before MRI and prostate volume in MRI. We proceeded to look for patients with the histological study. The biopsy results were correlated with the PSA density value. We perform uni and multivariate analyzes, statistical analyzes with sensitivity, specificity and use of the ROC curve. Results: Of the 2416 RMmp of the prostate performed in our institution on the dates already described, 424 reports catalogued with PIRADS 3 score were found, and 267 of those patients had study and institutional follow-up, of which 134 had a biopsy. The sample had an average age of 60 years and a median PSA density of 0.10 (RIC 0.075-0.146). We found 36 biopsies with clinically significant cancer (Gleason> 6), which corresponds to 26.8% of the sample, a value similar to that found in the literature. In these patients, an optimal cut-off point of PSA density of 0.11 was obtained, with a sensitivity and specificity of 67% and an AUC of 0.68. A PSA density of 0.11 has an OR of 4.1, with a 4-fold probability of finding prostate cancer above this value (95% CI 1.3-9.8), which It is statistically significant with a p equal to 0.01. Conclusion: DAPE over 0.11 ng/ml/cc can be considered as an additional tool to indicate biopsy in patients with RMmp PI-RADS 3, increasing the accuracy for the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer helping to reduce unnecessary histological studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Prostate/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms/classification , Prostatic Neoplasms/blood , Biopsy , Multivariate Analysis , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Risk Assessment , Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging
9.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(6): 1113-1121, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056346

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To establish whether the citrate concentration in the seminal fluid ([CITRATE]) measured by means of high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1HNMRS) is superior to the serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration in detecting of clinically significant prostate cancer (csPCa) in men with persistently elevated PSA. Materials and Methods: The group of patients consisted of 31 consecutively seen men with histological diagnosis of clinically localized csPCa. The control group consisted of 28 men under long-term follow-up (mean of 8.7 ± 3.0 years) for benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), with persistently elevated PSA (above 4 ng/mL) and several prostate biopsies negative for cancer (mean of 2.7 ± 1.3 biopsies per control). Samples of blood and seminal fluid (by masturbation) for measurement of PSA and citrate concentration, respectively, were collected from patients and controls. Citrate concentration in the seminal fluid ([CITRATE]) was determined by means of 1HNMRS. The capacities of PSA and [CITRATE] to predict csPCa were compared by means of univariate analysis and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results: Median [CITRATE] was significantly lower among patients with csPCa compared to controls (3.93 mM/l vs. 15.53 mM/l). There was no significant difference in mean PSA between patients and controls (9.42 ng/mL vs. 8.57 ng/mL). The accuracy of [CITRATE] for detecting csPCa was significantly superior compared to PSA (74.8% vs. 54.8%). Conclusion: Measurement of [CITRATE] by means of 1HNMRS is superior to PSA for early detection of csPCa in men with elevated PSA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Semen/chemistry , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Citric Acid/analysis , Prostatic Hyperplasia/diagnosis , Prostatic Hyperplasia/blood , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms/blood , Biopsy , Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Statistics, Nonparametric , Risk Assessment , Middle Aged
10.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(9): 3265-3274, set. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019671

ABSTRACT

Resumo Disparidades na atenção ao câncer de próstata têm sido reveladas e associadas a fatores sociodemográficos e clínicos, os quais determinam os tempos para diagnóstico e início do tratamento. O objetivo deste artigo é avaliar a associação de variáveis sociodemográficas e clínicas com os tempos para o início do tratamento do câncer de próstata. Estudo de coorte longitudinal prospectivo utilizando dados secundários, cuja população é de homens com câncer de próstata atendidos nos períodos de 2010-2011 e 2013-2014 no Hospital Santa Rita de Cássia, Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brasil. A população do estudo foi de 1.388 homens, do total, os com idade inferior a 70 anos (OR = 1,85; IC = 1,49-2,31), não brancos (OR = 1,30; IC = 1,00-1,70), com menos de oito anos de estudo (OR = 1,52; IC = 1,06-2,17) e encaminhados pelos serviços do Sistema Único de Saúde (OR = 2,52; IC = 1,84-3,46) apresentaram maior risco de atraso no tratamento. Da mesma forma, quanto menor o escore de Gleason (OR = 1,78; IC = 1,37-2,32) e os níveis de Antígeno Prostático Específico (OR = 2,71; IC = 2,07-3,54) maior a probabilidade de atraso para iniciar o tratamento. Portanto, as características sociodemográficas e clínicas exerceram uma forte influência no acesso ao tratamento do câncer de próstata.


Abstract Introduction: Disparities in prostate cancer care have been evidenced and associated with sociodemographic and clinical factors, which establish the time for diagnosis and initiation of treatment. Objective: To evaluate the association of sociodemographic and clinical variables with the onset of prostate cancer treatment. Methods: This is a prospective longitudinal cohort study with secondary data with a population of men with prostate cancer attended in the periods 2010-2011 and 2013-2014 at the Santa Rita de Cássia Hospital in Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brazil. Results: The study population consisted of 1,388 men. Of the total, those younger than 70 years (OR = 1.85; CI = 1.49-2.31), nonwhite (OR = 1.30; CI = 1.00-1.70), less than 8 years of schooling (OR = 1.52; CI = 1.06-2.17) and referred by the Unified Health System services (OR = 2.52; CI = 1.84-3.46) were more likely to have a delayed treatment. Similarly, the lower the Gleason score (OR = 1.78; CI = 1.37-2.32) and Prostate-Specific Antigens levels (OR = 2.71; CI = 2.07-3.54), the greater the likelihood of delay for the onset of treatment. Conclusion: Therefore, sociodemographic and clinical characteristics exerted a strong influence on the access to prostate cancer treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Prostatic Neoplasms/therapy , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Healthcare Disparities , Health Services Accessibility , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil , Prospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Age Factors , Neoplasm Grading , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged
11.
Salud pública Méx ; 61(4): 542-544, Jul.-Aug. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1099331

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-based early detection for prostate cancer is the subject of intense debate. Implementation of organized prostate cancer screening has been challenging, in part because the PSA test is so amenable to opportunistic screening. To the extent that access to cancer screening tests increases in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), there is an urgent need to thoughtfully evaluate existing and future cancer screening strategies to ensure benefit and control costs. We used Mexico's prostate cancer screening efforts to illustrate the challenges LMICs face. We provide five considerations for policymakers for a smarter approach and implementation of PSA-based screening.


Resumen : El uso del Antígeno Prostático Específico (APE) para tamizaje para cáncer de próstata sigue siendo tema de amplio debate. La implementación de estrategias de tamiz organizado de cáncer de próstata ha sido un reto en parte porque la prueba de APE se presta para detección oportunista. A medida que aumenta el acceso a las pruebas de detección de cáncer en los países de ingresos bajos y medianos (PIBM), existe la necesidad urgente de evaluar cuidadosamente las estrategias actuales y futuras de detección oportuna de cáncer para garantizar su beneficio y controlar sus costos. Utilizamos los esfuerzos de tamizaje de cáncer de próstata de México para ilustrar los retos para PIBM. Ofrecemos cinco consideracio nes dirigidas a tomadores de decisión que permitan contar con estrategias racionales de implementación de tamizaje para cáncer de próstata basado en el uso de APE.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Developing Countries , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Policy Making , Prostatic Neoplasms/blood , Health Education , Age Factors , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Mexico
12.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(4): 724-731, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019880

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives To evaluate the diagnostic performance and interobserver agreement of PI-RADS v2. Materials and Methods In this Institutional Review Board approved single-center retrospective study, 98 patients with clinically suspected PCa who underwent 3-T multiparametric MRI followed by MRI/TRUS fusion-guided prostate biopsy were included from June 2013 to February 2015. Two radiologists (R1 and R2) with 8 and 1 years of experience in abdominal radiology reviewed the MRI scans and assigned PI-RADS v2 scores in all prostate zones. PI-RADS v2 were compared to MRI/TRUS fusion-guided biopsy results, which were classified as negative, PCa, and significant PCa (sPCa). Results Sensitivity, specificity, NPV, PPV and accuracy for PCa was 85.7% (same for all metrics) for R1 and 81.6%, 79.6%, 81.2%, 80.0% and 80.6% for R2. For detecting sPCa, the corresponding values were 95.3%, 85.4%, 95.9%, 83.7% and 89.8% for R1 and 93.0%, 81.8%, 93.7%, 86.7% and 86.7% for R2. There was substantial interobserver agreement in assigning PI-RADS v2 score as negative (1, 2, 3) or positive (4, 5) (Kappa=0.78). On multivariate analysis, PI-RADS v2 (p <0.001) was the only independent predictor of sPCa compared with age, abnormal DRE, prostate volume, PSA and PSA density. Conclusions Our study population demonstrated that PI-RADS v2 had high diagnostic accuracy, substantial interobserver agreement, and it was the only independent predictor of sPCa.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Reference Values , Brazil , Logistic Models , Observer Variation , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sensitivity and Specificity , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Statistics, Nonparametric , Risk Assessment , Neoplasm Grading , Image-Guided Biopsy/methods , Middle Aged
13.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(4): 713-723, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019891

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose To determine if PSAD, PSADtz, and ADC values improve the accuracy of PI-RADS v2 and identify men whose concurrent systematic biopsy detects clinically significant cancer on areas without mpMRI visible lesions. Materials and methods Single reference-center, cross-sectional, retrospective study of consecutive men with suspected or known low to intermediate-risk prostate cancer who underwent 3T mpMRI and TRUS-MRI fusion biopsy from 07/15/2014 to 02/17/2018. Cluster-corrected logistic regression analyses were utilized to predict clinically significant prostate cancer (Gleason score ≥3+4) at targeted mpMRI lesions and on systematic biopsy. Results 538 men (median age=66 years, median PSA=7.0ng/mL) with 780mpMRI lesions were included. Clinically significant disease was diagnosed in 371 men. PI-RADS v2 scores of 3, 4, and 5 were clinically significant cancer in 8.0% (16/201), 22.8% (90/395), and 59.2% (109/184). ADC values, PSAD, and PI-RADS v2 scores were independent predictors of clinically significant cancer in targeted lesions (OR 2.25-8.78; P values <0.05; AUROC 0.84, 95% CI 0.81-0.87). Increases in PSAD were also associated with upgrade on systematic biopsy (OR 2.39-2.48; P values <0.05; AUROC 0.69, 95% CI 0.64-0.73). Conclusions ADC values and PSAD improve characterization of PI-RADS v2 score 4 or 5 lesions. Upgraded on systematic biopsy is slightly more likely with PSAD ≥0.15 and multiple small PI-RADS v2 score 3 or 4 lesions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms/blood , Reference Values , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Logistic Models , Cross-Sectional Studies , Multivariate Analysis , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve , Neoplasm Grading , Image-Guided Biopsy , Middle Aged
14.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(3): 459-467, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012312

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT imaging is a promising modality for the staging of recurrent prostate cancer (PCa). Current evidence suggests limited diagnostic value of the 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT in PSA-levels ≤0.3ng/mL. Experimental data have demonstrated an increase in PSMA-expression in PCa metastases by androgen deprivation in vitro. The aim of the current study was to investigate a possible enhancing effect of PSMA with low-dose androgen deprivation in patients with BCR and low PSA-levels. Materials and Methods: Five patients with PCa and BCR, following radical prostatectomy, underwent 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT. A consecutive 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT was performed 6 to 11 days after injection of 80mg of Degarelix (Firmagon®). We recorded PSA and testosterone serum-levels and changes of PSMA-uptake in 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT images. Results: Median PSA prior 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT was 0.27ng/mL. All patients had a decrease in testosterone serum levels from median 2.95μg/l to 0.16μg/l following Degarelix injection. We observed an increase in the standardized uptake value (SUV) in PSMA-positive lymphogenous and osseous lesions in two patients following androgen deprivation. In another two patients, no PSMA positive signals were detected in either the first or the second scan. Conclusion: Our preliminary results of this feasibility assessment indicate a possible enhancing effect of PSMA-imaging induced by low-dose ADT. Despite several limitations and the small number of patients, this could be a new approach to improve staging by 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT in PCa patients with BCR after primary therapy. Further prospective studies with larger number of patients are needed to validate our findings.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Organometallic Compounds , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Membrane Glycoproteins , Radiopharmaceuticals , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography/methods , Androgen Antagonists/therapeutic use , Neoplasm Metastasis/diagnostic imaging , Oligopeptides/therapeutic use , Reference Values , Time Factors , Reproducibility of Results , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Neoplasm Grading , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/pathology
15.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(3): 468-477, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012330

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: To determine the impact of time from biopsy to surgery on outcomes following radical prostatectomy (RP) as the optimal interval between prostate biopsy and RP is unknown. Material and methods: We identified 7, 350 men who underwent RP at our institution between 1994 and 2012 and had a prostate biopsy within one year of surgery. Patients were grouped into five time intervals for analysis: ≤ 3 weeks, 4-6 weeks, 7-12 weeks, 12-26 weeks, and > 26 weeks. Oncologic outcomes were stratified by NCCN disease risk for comparison. The associations of time interval with clinicopathologic features and survival were evaluated using multivariate logistic and Cox regression analyses. Results: Median time from biopsy to surgery was 61 days (IQR 37, 84). Median follow-up after RP was 7.1 years (IQR 4.2, 11.7) while the overall perioperative complication rate was 19.7% (1,448/7,350). Adjusting for pre-operative variables, men waiting 12-26 weeks until RP had the highest likelihood of nerve sparing (OR: 1.45, p = 0.02) while those in the 4-6 week group had higher overall complications (OR: 1.33, p = 0.01). High risk men waiting more than 6 months had higher rates of biochemical recurrence (HR: 3.38, p = 0.05). Limitations include the retrospective design. Conclusions: Surgery in the 4-6 week time period after biopsy is associated with higher complications. There appears to be increased biochemical recurrence rates in delaying RP after biopsy, for men with both low and high risk disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Prostatectomy/adverse effects , Prostatic Neoplasms/surgery , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Time-to-Treatment , Intraoperative Complications/etiology , Prostatectomy/methods , Time Factors , Biopsy , Logistic Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Analysis of Variance , Treatment Outcome , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Risk Assessment , Disease Progression , Neoplasm Grading , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Neoplasm Staging
16.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(3): 478-485, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012323

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the trend of use of Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) for screening of prostate cancer (PC) among Brazilian doctors, from the beginning of its regular availability in clinical laboratories. Material and Methods: A serial cross-sectional study was performed using data obtained from a large database between 1997 and 2016. The general PSA screening trend during this period, adjusted for the total number of exams performed in men, was analyzed. Time-series analysis was performed through observation of the general regression curve using the generalized least squares method, and the impact of the recommendations was assessed with autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models. Results: During the period studied 2,521,383 PSA determinations were done. The age of the participants ranged from 21 to 111 years, with an average of 56.7 ± 22.7 years. The relative number of PSA tests/100.000 exams in males showed a constant reduction since 2001, and this trend was more evident in the group aged 55-69 years. Although statistically significant, the impact of reduced PSA screening after the 2012 USPSTF publication was clinically irrelevant. Conclusions: Our results indicated a continuous reduction in the use of PSA screening over time, regardless of the publication of recommendations or clinical guidelines. The fact that this trend was more pronounced among those with a greater benefit potential (55-69 years), relative to groups with a greater damage potential due to overdiagnosis and overtreatment (aged >74 years and <40 years), is a matter of concern. Follow-up studies of these trends are advisable.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Early Detection of Cancer/statistics & numerical data , Prostatic Neoplasms/blood , Time Factors , Brazil , Mass Screening/methods , Mass Screening/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Age Factors , Age Distribution , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Middle Aged
17.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(2): 246-252, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002205

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives: To evaluate the frequency of NIH category IV prostatitis, and the use of expressed prostatic secretions tests in an effort to improve the reliability of prostate specific antigen as an indicator, to avoid unnecessary prostate biopsy. Materials and Methods: 178 expressed prostatic secretion positive patients with serum prostate specific antigen levels of ≥ 2.5 ng / mL were included in present prospective study. The diagnostic evaluation included detailed history and physical examination, digital rectal examination, urine analysis, urine culture, and expressed prostatic secretions tests. Transrectal ultrasonography was used both to measure prostate volume and conduct 12 core prostate biopsy. Results: The prevalence of NIH category IV prostatitis was 36.9% (178 / 482) in our population of men. In our study patients (n: 178) prostate biopsy results were classified as; 66 prostatitis, 81 BPH, and 31 Pca. In asymptomatic prostatitis group, expressed prostatic secretion mean leucocyte ratio was higher compared to other two groups (p < 0.0001). The relation between number of expressed prostatic secretion leucocytes and prostatitis, benign prostate hyperplasia, and prostate cancer is analyzed. If 16 is taken as the cut of number for leucocyte presence, its sensitivity is 0.92 (AUC = 0.78 p = 0.01). Conclusions: The number of leucocytes in expressed prostatic secretion is higher in the chronic prostatitis group. If the leukocyte presence of 16 and above is taken as the cut off point, the sensitivity becomes 0.92 (AUC = 0.78). We firmly believe that our new cut off value may be used as to aid prostate specific antigen and derivates while giving biopsy decision.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Prostate/pathology , Prostatic Hyperplasia/metabolism , Prostatic Neoplasms/metabolism , Prostatitis/mortality , Biopsy/standards , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Prostate/metabolism , Prostatic Hyperplasia/diagnosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Prostatitis/classification , Prostatitis/pathology , Biomarkers, Tumor/metabolism , Chronic Disease , Prospective Studies , Diagnosis, Differential , Digital Rectal Examination , Middle Aged
18.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(2): 237-245, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002192

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To build a model to evaluate the impact of salvage radiotherapy (SRT) in men with PSA rise or persistent PSA after undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP). Materials and Methods: The study included 107 node-negative patients treated with SRT after RP at a single institution. Patients received SRT for either prostate-specific antigen (PSA) rising, or PSA persistence after RP. All patients received local radiation to the prostate / seminal vesicle bed. The primary measured outcome was the biochemical recurrence (BCR) free survival. Multivariable Cox regression analysis was used to develop a risk-stratification group to identify predictive factors associated with the probability of BCR at 5yr. Results: At a median follow-up of 52 months, the BCR free survival rate and overall survival in 5 years was 73% and 94%, respectively. At multivariable analysis, pre-SRT PSA level > 0.35ng / mL (p = 0.023), negative margins (p = 0.038), and seminal vesicles invasion (p = 0.001) were significantly associated with BCR free survival. Three risk groups using regression analysis for SRT administration was built. Low-, intermediate- and the high-risk groups had a BCR free survival in 5-years of 96%, 84%, and 44% (p = 0.0001), respectively. Conclusions: We developed a risk group stratification to show the impact of SRT based on prostate cancer characteristics. SRT showed to be extremely beneficial for patients with low- and intermediate-risk tumors. Moreover, the risk-group built could identify patients classified as high-risk who might benefit from more aggressive treatment for SRT.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Prostatectomy , Prostatic Neoplasms/surgery , Salvage Therapy/adverse effects , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/radiotherapy , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Radiotherapy Dosage , Survival Rate , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Follow-Up Studies , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Disease-Free Survival , Early Medical Intervention , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/pathology , Neoplasm Staging
19.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(1): 45-53, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989983

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Parameters predictive of biochemical or clinical recurrence after Radical Prostatectomy (RP) were determined as pre-treatment PSA value, pathologic tumor stage, tumor grade and presence of Positive Surgical Margin (PSM), extracapsular extension and seminal vesicle invasion and the status of pelvic lymph nodes. The aim of our study is to evaluate the effect of additional features in patients undergoing RP in our clinic. Materials and Methods: We studied 556 RP operations performed between 2009 and 2016 for prostate cancer at this clinic. Preoperative and postoperative data of the patients were retrospectively reviewed. RP specimens were examined by two pathologists specialized in this subject. Of these patients, 78 (14.02%) patients with PSM were included in the study. The pathology slides of these patients were reassessed. The length of PSM (mm), localization (apex, basis and posterolateral) and Gleason pattern at this margin was determined and statistical correlations with BCR were calculated. Results: The mean follow-up after the RP of 41 patients included in the study was 37.4 ± 13.2 months. During the follow-up period of the patients, BCR was observed in 16 patients (39.02%). No statistically significant difference was observed in age and prostate volume between the groups with and without BCR development (p > 0.05). Preoperative PSA level was found to be statistically significantly higher in the group with BCR development compared to the group without recurrence (p = 0.004). In-group comparisons in each aforementioned Gleason score groups were performed in terms of BCR development and the preoperative Gleason score in the group with development of recurrence was found to be statistically significantly higher compared to the group without recurrence (p = 0.007). The length of the surgical margin was measured as 7.4 ± 4.4 mm in the BCR-developing group and 4.7 ± 3.8 mm in the no-BCR- developing group; it was statistically significantly higher in the group with development of recurrence (p = 0.03). Conclusion: Length and location of the PSM and the Gleason score detected in the PSM region could not predict biochemical recurrence according to the results of this present study. However high preoperative PSA value is an independent prognostic factor for biochemical recurrence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Prostatectomy/methods , Prostatic Neoplasms/surgery , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Robotic Surgical Procedures/methods , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Prognosis , Prostatectomy/adverse effects , Prostatic Neoplasms/blood , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Robotic Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Margins of Excision , Middle Aged
20.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(1): 61-67, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989966

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Prostate - specific antigen (PSA) is a useful biomarker for detection of prostate cancer (PCa) and for risk classification in addition to TNM classification and Gleason score (GS). We reported the role of PSA in patients with low (< 20 ng / mL) and extremely high (≥ 100 ng / mL) PSA levels. However, it is unclear whether a correlation exists between middle range PSA levels (20 - 100 ng / mL) at diagnosis and prognosis. Materials and Methods: Between January 2000 and December 2014, 1873 patients underwent prostate biopsy at Kanazawa University Hospital. Of 802 patients who were diagnosed with PCa, 148 patients with middle range PSA levels (20 - 100 ng / mL) were retrospectively analyzed. Results: The percentage of patients with T3 - 4 consistently increased as PSA levels increased from 20 to 100 ng / mL. Although the percentage of patients with GS ≥ 8 or metastases increased as PSA levels increased up to approximately 70 ng / mL, there was no significant increase between 70 and 100 ng / mL. PCa - specific and castration - resistant PCa - free survivals were adversely associated with PSA levels up to 70 ng / mL, but not between 70 and 100 ng / mL. Conclusion: PSA is a useful biomarker for predicting prognosis at levels between 20 and 70 ng / mL. However, PSA cannot be used as a prognostic factor in patients with PCa and PSA levels ≥ 70 ng / mL. When the PSA level reaches approximately 70 ng / mL, prognosis might bottom and reach a plateau.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Prostatic Neoplasms/blood , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Prognosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/mortality , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Neoplasm Grading , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Staging
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