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1.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 19(1): 51-53, março 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361751

ABSTRACT

A metastização ganglionar cervical por neoplasia da próstata é rara, sendo ainda menos frequente como manifestação inicial da doença. O presente estudo é um relato de um caso clínico de uma pessoa do sexo masculino, com 72 anos, que apresentava massa cervical esquerda, indolor, com 2 meses de evolução e dores ósseas lombar e torácica. A citologia aspirativa por agulha fina com estudo imuno-histoquímico revelou positividade para o antígeno prostático específico, concluindo se tratar de metástase ganglionar de carcinoma da próstata. Analiticamente, constatou-se que o valor do antígeno prostático específico foi maior que 1.000ng/mL, além da elevação da fosfatase alcalina. A cintilografia óssea de corpo inteiro revelou envolvimento ósseo secundário. Após o diagnóstico, o paciente iniciou hormonoterapia e recusou radioterapia com intuito paliativo. Oito meses após o diagnóstico, constatou-se a recorrência da doença, com elevação do valor do antígeno prostático específico novamente. Dessa forma, relata-se um caso de neoplasia da próstata com metastização óssea e ganglionar cervical esquerda em um indivíduo assintomático do ponto de vista urológico. Salienta-se que, no diagnóstico diferencial de adenopatias cervicais, deve-se considerar a neoplasia da próstata em pessoas do sexo masculino. (AU)


Cervical lymph nodes involvement is rare in prostate cancer and uncommon as an initial manifestation. This study is a clinical case report of a 72-year-old man who presented with a left cervical painless mass of 2-month progression, and bone pain on the lumbar and thoracic regions. Fine-needle aspiration cytology with immunohistochemistry staining was performed and revealed positivity for prostate-specific antigen consistent with prostate adenocarcinoma metastasis. Blood tests revealed a prostate-specific antigen of more than 1,000ng/mL, as well as high alkaline phosphatase. Whole-body bone scan showed secondary bone involvement. Following diagnosis, the patient started hormonal therapy and refused palliative radiotherapy. Eight months after diagnosis, recurrence was observed, with prostate-specific antigen elevation again. Thus, a clinical case of prostate cancer with bone and cervical lymph node metastasis in a patient with no urologic symptoms is reported. It should be noted that prostate cancer shall always be considered in the differential diagnosis of cervical lymphadenopathies in male patients. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Prostatic Neoplasms/complications , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Carcinoma/complications , Carcinoma/diagnosis , Lymphadenopathy/etiology , Lymphadenopathy/diagnostic imaging , Lymphatic Metastasis/diagnosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Prostatic Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Prostatic Neoplasms/blood , Recurrence , Bone Neoplasms/secondary , Bone Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Immunohistochemistry , Carcinoma/drug therapy , Carcinoma/radiotherapy , Tomography , Radionuclide Imaging , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Fatal Outcome , Diagnosis, Differential , Alkaline Phosphatase/blood , Hospitalization , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use
2.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 46(2): 244-252, Mar.-Apr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090589

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose To evaluate the usefulness of natural killer cell activity (NKA) in diagnosing prostate cancer (PC). Materials and Methods The medical records of patients who underwent transrectal prostate biopsy (TRBx) at Korea University Ansan Hospital between May 2017 and December 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. NKA levels were measured using NK Vue® Tubes (ATgen, Sungnam, Korea). All blood samples were obtained at 8 AM on the day of biopsy. Patients with other malignancies, chronic inflammatory conditions, high prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level (>20ng/mL), or history of taking 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor or testosterone replacement therapy were excluded. Results A total of 102 patients who underwent TRBx for PC diagnosis were enrolled. Among them, 50 were diagnosed with PC. Significant differences in age and NKA level were observed between the PC and no-PC groups. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed that the optimal cut-off of NKA level for the prediction of PC was 500pg/dL, with a sensitivity of 68.0% and a specificity of 73.1%. In addition, NKA level (0.630) had the greatest area under the ROC curve compared to those for the ratio of total PSA to free PSA (0.597) and PSA density (0.578). Conclusions The results of this pilot study revealed that low NKA and high PSA levels were likely to be associated with a positive TRBx outcome. NKA detection was easy and improved the diagnostic accuracy of PC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Killer Cells, Natural/metabolism , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Prostatic Neoplasms , Prostatic Neoplasms/blood , Killer Cells, Natural/physiology , Biomarkers/metabolism , Biomarkers/blood , Pilot Projects , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Image-Guided Biopsy , Middle Aged
3.
Rev. chil. radiol ; 25(4): 119-127, dic. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058212

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Objetivo: Analizar las biopsias realizadas en paciente categorizados PIRADS 3 en nuestra institución desde el segundo semestre del año 2016 al primer semestre del año 2018 y describir la correlación de la densidad de PSA con la incidencia de cáncer de próstata. Evaluar el rol de la densidad de PSA en la indicación de estudio histológico en pacientes PIRADS 3. Método: Trabajo autorizado por el comité de ética de nuestra institución. Se realizó búsqueda en el PACs, de todos los informes de RM multiparamétricas de próstata que incluyeran la categoría ¨PIRADS 3¨ en el periodo señalado. De ellos se calculó la densidad de PSA, con el último valor de PSA registrado en la ficha clínica previo a RM y volumen prostático en RM. Se procedió a buscar los pacientes con estudio histológico. Se correlacionó los resultados de biopsias con el valor de densidad de PSA. Realizamos análisis uni y multivariados, análisis estadísticos con sensibilidad, especificidad y uso de curva ROC. Resultados: De las 2416 RMmp de próstata realizadas en nuestra institución en las fechas ya descritas, se encontraron 424 informes catalogados con score PIRADS 3, y 267 de esos pacientes tenían estudio y seguimiento institucional, de los cuales 134 contaban con biopsia. La muestra tenía un promedio de edad de 60 años, y una mediana de densidad de PSA de 0,10 (RIC 0,07-0,14). Se encontraron 36 biopsias con cáncer clínicamente significativo (Gleason > 6), lo que corresponde a 26,8% de la muestra, valor similar al encontrado en la literuatua. En estos pacientes se obtuvo un punto de corte óptimo de densidad de PSA de 0,11, con una sensibilidad y especificidad de 67% y un AUC de 0,68. Una densidad de PSA de 0,11 presenta un OR de 4,1, con una probabilidad de 4 veces más de encontrar un cáncer de próstata por sobre este valor (IC 95% 1,3-9,8), lo cuál es estadísticamente significativo con un p igual a 0,01. Conclusión: La DAPE sobre 0,11 ng/ml/cc puede considerarse como una herramienta adicional para indicar biopsia en pacientes con RMmp PI-RADS 3, aumentando la precisión para la detección de cáncer de próstata clínicamente significativos ayudando a disminuir estudios histológicos innecesarios.


Abstract: Objective: To analyze the biopsies performed in patients categorized PIRADS 3 in our institution from the second half of 2016 to the first half of 2018 and describe the correlation of PSA density with the incidence of prostate cancer. To evaluate the role of PSA density in the indication of histological study in PIRADS 3 patients. Method: Work authorized by the ethics committee of our institution. The PACs were searched for all multiparameter prostate MRI reports that included the category "PIRADS 3" in the period indicated. The PSA density was calculated, with the last PSA value recorded in the clinical record before MRI and prostate volume in MRI. We proceeded to look for patients with the histological study. The biopsy results were correlated with the PSA density value. We perform uni and multivariate analyzes, statistical analyzes with sensitivity, specificity and use of the ROC curve. Results: Of the 2416 RMmp of the prostate performed in our institution on the dates already described, 424 reports catalogued with PIRADS 3 score were found, and 267 of those patients had study and institutional follow-up, of which 134 had a biopsy. The sample had an average age of 60 years and a median PSA density of 0.10 (RIC 0.075-0.146). We found 36 biopsies with clinically significant cancer (Gleason> 6), which corresponds to 26.8% of the sample, a value similar to that found in the literature. In these patients, an optimal cut-off point of PSA density of 0.11 was obtained, with a sensitivity and specificity of 67% and an AUC of 0.68. A PSA density of 0.11 has an OR of 4.1, with a 4-fold probability of finding prostate cancer above this value (95% CI 1.3-9.8), which It is statistically significant with a p equal to 0.01. Conclusion: DAPE over 0.11 ng/ml/cc can be considered as an additional tool to indicate biopsy in patients with RMmp PI-RADS 3, increasing the accuracy for the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer helping to reduce unnecessary histological studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Prostate/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms/classification , Prostatic Neoplasms/blood , Biopsy , Multivariate Analysis , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Risk Assessment , Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging
4.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(6): 1113-1121, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056346

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To establish whether the citrate concentration in the seminal fluid ([CITRATE]) measured by means of high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1HNMRS) is superior to the serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration in detecting of clinically significant prostate cancer (csPCa) in men with persistently elevated PSA. Materials and Methods: The group of patients consisted of 31 consecutively seen men with histological diagnosis of clinically localized csPCa. The control group consisted of 28 men under long-term follow-up (mean of 8.7 ± 3.0 years) for benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), with persistently elevated PSA (above 4 ng/mL) and several prostate biopsies negative for cancer (mean of 2.7 ± 1.3 biopsies per control). Samples of blood and seminal fluid (by masturbation) for measurement of PSA and citrate concentration, respectively, were collected from patients and controls. Citrate concentration in the seminal fluid ([CITRATE]) was determined by means of 1HNMRS. The capacities of PSA and [CITRATE] to predict csPCa were compared by means of univariate analysis and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results: Median [CITRATE] was significantly lower among patients with csPCa compared to controls (3.93 mM/l vs. 15.53 mM/l). There was no significant difference in mean PSA between patients and controls (9.42 ng/mL vs. 8.57 ng/mL). The accuracy of [CITRATE] for detecting csPCa was significantly superior compared to PSA (74.8% vs. 54.8%). Conclusion: Measurement of [CITRATE] by means of 1HNMRS is superior to PSA for early detection of csPCa in men with elevated PSA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Semen/chemistry , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Citric Acid/analysis , Prostatic Hyperplasia/diagnosis , Prostatic Hyperplasia/blood , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms/blood , Biopsy , Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Statistics, Nonparametric , Risk Assessment , Middle Aged
5.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(4): 713-723, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019891

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose To determine if PSAD, PSADtz, and ADC values improve the accuracy of PI-RADS v2 and identify men whose concurrent systematic biopsy detects clinically significant cancer on areas without mpMRI visible lesions. Materials and methods Single reference-center, cross-sectional, retrospective study of consecutive men with suspected or known low to intermediate-risk prostate cancer who underwent 3T mpMRI and TRUS-MRI fusion biopsy from 07/15/2014 to 02/17/2018. Cluster-corrected logistic regression analyses were utilized to predict clinically significant prostate cancer (Gleason score ≥3+4) at targeted mpMRI lesions and on systematic biopsy. Results 538 men (median age=66 years, median PSA=7.0ng/mL) with 780mpMRI lesions were included. Clinically significant disease was diagnosed in 371 men. PI-RADS v2 scores of 3, 4, and 5 were clinically significant cancer in 8.0% (16/201), 22.8% (90/395), and 59.2% (109/184). ADC values, PSAD, and PI-RADS v2 scores were independent predictors of clinically significant cancer in targeted lesions (OR 2.25-8.78; P values <0.05; AUROC 0.84, 95% CI 0.81-0.87). Increases in PSAD were also associated with upgrade on systematic biopsy (OR 2.39-2.48; P values <0.05; AUROC 0.69, 95% CI 0.64-0.73). Conclusions ADC values and PSAD improve characterization of PI-RADS v2 score 4 or 5 lesions. Upgraded on systematic biopsy is slightly more likely with PSAD ≥0.15 and multiple small PI-RADS v2 score 3 or 4 lesions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms/blood , Reference Values , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Logistic Models , Cross-Sectional Studies , Multivariate Analysis , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve , Neoplasm Grading , Image-Guided Biopsy , Middle Aged
6.
Salud pública Méx ; 61(4): 542-544, Jul.-Aug. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1099331

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-based early detection for prostate cancer is the subject of intense debate. Implementation of organized prostate cancer screening has been challenging, in part because the PSA test is so amenable to opportunistic screening. To the extent that access to cancer screening tests increases in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), there is an urgent need to thoughtfully evaluate existing and future cancer screening strategies to ensure benefit and control costs. We used Mexico's prostate cancer screening efforts to illustrate the challenges LMICs face. We provide five considerations for policymakers for a smarter approach and implementation of PSA-based screening.


Resumen : El uso del Antígeno Prostático Específico (APE) para tamizaje para cáncer de próstata sigue siendo tema de amplio debate. La implementación de estrategias de tamiz organizado de cáncer de próstata ha sido un reto en parte porque la prueba de APE se presta para detección oportunista. A medida que aumenta el acceso a las pruebas de detección de cáncer en los países de ingresos bajos y medianos (PIBM), existe la necesidad urgente de evaluar cuidadosamente las estrategias actuales y futuras de detección oportuna de cáncer para garantizar su beneficio y controlar sus costos. Utilizamos los esfuerzos de tamizaje de cáncer de próstata de México para ilustrar los retos para PIBM. Ofrecemos cinco consideracio nes dirigidas a tomadores de decisión que permitan contar con estrategias racionales de implementación de tamizaje para cáncer de próstata basado en el uso de APE.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Developing Countries , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Policy Making , Prostatic Neoplasms/blood , Health Education , Age Factors , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Mexico
7.
Rev. méd. Maule ; 34(1): 9-15, ago. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1371496

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Prostate cancer has become an important public health problem affecting millions of men worldwide every year. Like other malignant tumors, prostate cancer shows evidence of a strong inflammatory component that is dependent on the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which might play a major role in the development and progression of the tumor, helping in its early stage, progression and aggressiveness. AIMS: The goal of this study was to determine the relationships between the serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the different stages of prostate cancer. To this end, sera from patients enrolled by The Laboratory of Metabolic Diseases and Cancer of the Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry at the University Juan Agustín Maza in Argentina, were analyzed through ELISA and their pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α and MCP-1) quantified. Patients were first classified into three groups (Control, at Risk, and Cancer subjects) and anthropometric, biochemical and histological parameters of prostate were then determined for all groups. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Despite displaying elevated serum concentrations of IL-6 and TNF-α in the Cancer and the Risk groups compared to the Control group, the differences did not reach significance. However, there was a positive correlation between these cytokines only in the Risk and Cancer groups, showing a general inflammatory behavior in these patients. The results obtained provide general data about the behavior of pro-inflammatory cytokines in prostate cancer. However, they do not demonstrate a direct correlation between serum levels and neoplastic progression. Nevertheless, these findings do not rule out a possible relationship between prostate cancer and serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Cytokines/blood , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Prostatic Neoplasms/blood , Body Mass Index , Case-Control Studies , Prostate-Specific Antigen
8.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(3): 478-485, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012323

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the trend of use of Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) for screening of prostate cancer (PC) among Brazilian doctors, from the beginning of its regular availability in clinical laboratories. Material and Methods: A serial cross-sectional study was performed using data obtained from a large database between 1997 and 2016. The general PSA screening trend during this period, adjusted for the total number of exams performed in men, was analyzed. Time-series analysis was performed through observation of the general regression curve using the generalized least squares method, and the impact of the recommendations was assessed with autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models. Results: During the period studied 2,521,383 PSA determinations were done. The age of the participants ranged from 21 to 111 years, with an average of 56.7 ± 22.7 years. The relative number of PSA tests/100.000 exams in males showed a constant reduction since 2001, and this trend was more evident in the group aged 55-69 years. Although statistically significant, the impact of reduced PSA screening after the 2012 USPSTF publication was clinically irrelevant. Conclusions: Our results indicated a continuous reduction in the use of PSA screening over time, regardless of the publication of recommendations or clinical guidelines. The fact that this trend was more pronounced among those with a greater benefit potential (55-69 years), relative to groups with a greater damage potential due to overdiagnosis and overtreatment (aged >74 years and <40 years), is a matter of concern. Follow-up studies of these trends are advisable.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Early Detection of Cancer/statistics & numerical data , Prostatic Neoplasms/blood , Time Factors , Brazil , Mass Screening/methods , Mass Screening/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Age Factors , Age Distribution , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Middle Aged
9.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(3): 495-502, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012326

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Our study investigates whether Native Thiol, Total Thiol and disulphide levels measured in serum of patients with prostate cancer and prostatitis and of healthy subjects, have any role in differential diagnosis. Materials and Methods: Patients followed up for histopathologically verified diagnosis of prostate cancer and prostatitis in 2016-2017 at the Medicalpark Gaziantep Hospital Urology Clinic were included in the study. Native Thiol (NT), Total Thiol (TT), Dynamic Disulphide (DD) levels in serum were measured by a novel automated method. Results: NT, TT, DD, NT / TT ratios, DD / TT ratio and DD / NT ratio were measured as 118.4 ± 36.8μmoL / L, 150.3 ± 45.3μmoL / L, 15.9 ± 7μmoL / L, 78.8 ± 7μmoL / L, 10.5 ± 3.5μmoL / L, 13.8 ± 5.8μmoL / L respectively in patients with prostate cancer; as 116.4 ± 40.5μmoL / L, 147.5 ± 50.1μmoL / L, 15.5 ± 8.7μmoL / L, 79.7 ± 9μmoL / L, 10.1 ± 4.5μmoL / L, 13.5 ± 7.2μmoL / L in patients with prostatitis and as 144.1 ± 21.2μmoL / L, 191 ± 32.3μmoL / L, 23.4 ± 10.1μmoL / L, 76.1 ± 98.3μmoL / L, 11.9 ± 4.1μmoL / L, 16.4 ± 6.9μmoL / L in healthy subjects. Significant difference was detected between groups of NT, TT and DD levels (p = 0.008, p = 0.001, p = 0.002). No significant difference was detected in terms of the NT / TT, DD / TT and DD / NT rates (p = 0.222, p = 0.222, p = 0.222). Conclusions: Serum NT, TT, DD levels in patients with prostatitis and prostate cancer were found significantly lower compared to the control group. This indicates that just as inflammation, prostate cancer also increases oxidative stress on tissues.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Prostatic Neoplasms/blood , Prostatitis/blood , Sulfhydryl Compounds/blood , Disulfides/blood , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Prostatitis/diagnosis , Reference Values , Biomarkers, Tumor/blood , Case-Control Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Risk Assessment , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Diagnosis, Differential , Middle Aged
10.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(2): 220-228, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002214

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Obesity is defined as a chronic and excessive growth of adipose tissue. It has been associated with a high risk for development and progression of obesity-associated malignancies, while adipokines may mediate this association. Adiponectin is an adipose tissue-derived adipokines, with significant anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerotic and anti-proliferative properties. Plasma adiponectin levels are decreased in obese individuals, and this feature is closely correlated with development of several metabolic, immunological and neoplastic diseases. Recent studies have shown that prostate cancer patients have lower serum adiponectin levels and decreased expression of adiponectin receptors in tumor tissues, which suggests plasma adiponectin level is a risk factor for prostate cancer. Furthermore, exogenous adiponectin has exhibited therapeutic potential in animal models. In this review, we focus on the potential role of adiponectin and the underlying mechanism of adiponectin in the development and progression of prostate cancer. Exploring the signaling pathways linking adiponectin with tumorigenesis might provide a potential target for therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Prostatic Neoplasms/blood , Adiponectin/blood , Receptors, Adiponectin/blood , Prostatic Neoplasms/etiology , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Adipose Tissue , Risk Factors , Disease Progression , Disease Models, Animal , Obesity/complications
11.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(1): 45-53, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989983

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Parameters predictive of biochemical or clinical recurrence after Radical Prostatectomy (RP) were determined as pre-treatment PSA value, pathologic tumor stage, tumor grade and presence of Positive Surgical Margin (PSM), extracapsular extension and seminal vesicle invasion and the status of pelvic lymph nodes. The aim of our study is to evaluate the effect of additional features in patients undergoing RP in our clinic. Materials and Methods: We studied 556 RP operations performed between 2009 and 2016 for prostate cancer at this clinic. Preoperative and postoperative data of the patients were retrospectively reviewed. RP specimens were examined by two pathologists specialized in this subject. Of these patients, 78 (14.02%) patients with PSM were included in the study. The pathology slides of these patients were reassessed. The length of PSM (mm), localization (apex, basis and posterolateral) and Gleason pattern at this margin was determined and statistical correlations with BCR were calculated. Results: The mean follow-up after the RP of 41 patients included in the study was 37.4 ± 13.2 months. During the follow-up period of the patients, BCR was observed in 16 patients (39.02%). No statistically significant difference was observed in age and prostate volume between the groups with and without BCR development (p > 0.05). Preoperative PSA level was found to be statistically significantly higher in the group with BCR development compared to the group without recurrence (p = 0.004). In-group comparisons in each aforementioned Gleason score groups were performed in terms of BCR development and the preoperative Gleason score in the group with development of recurrence was found to be statistically significantly higher compared to the group without recurrence (p = 0.007). The length of the surgical margin was measured as 7.4 ± 4.4 mm in the BCR-developing group and 4.7 ± 3.8 mm in the no-BCR- developing group; it was statistically significantly higher in the group with development of recurrence (p = 0.03). Conclusion: Length and location of the PSM and the Gleason score detected in the PSM region could not predict biochemical recurrence according to the results of this present study. However high preoperative PSA value is an independent prognostic factor for biochemical recurrence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Prostatectomy/methods , Prostatic Neoplasms/surgery , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Robotic Surgical Procedures/methods , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Prognosis , Prostatectomy/adverse effects , Prostatic Neoplasms/blood , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Robotic Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Margins of Excision , Middle Aged
12.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(1): 61-67, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989966

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Prostate - specific antigen (PSA) is a useful biomarker for detection of prostate cancer (PCa) and for risk classification in addition to TNM classification and Gleason score (GS). We reported the role of PSA in patients with low (< 20 ng / mL) and extremely high (≥ 100 ng / mL) PSA levels. However, it is unclear whether a correlation exists between middle range PSA levels (20 - 100 ng / mL) at diagnosis and prognosis. Materials and Methods: Between January 2000 and December 2014, 1873 patients underwent prostate biopsy at Kanazawa University Hospital. Of 802 patients who were diagnosed with PCa, 148 patients with middle range PSA levels (20 - 100 ng / mL) were retrospectively analyzed. Results: The percentage of patients with T3 - 4 consistently increased as PSA levels increased from 20 to 100 ng / mL. Although the percentage of patients with GS ≥ 8 or metastases increased as PSA levels increased up to approximately 70 ng / mL, there was no significant increase between 70 and 100 ng / mL. PCa - specific and castration - resistant PCa - free survivals were adversely associated with PSA levels up to 70 ng / mL, but not between 70 and 100 ng / mL. Conclusion: PSA is a useful biomarker for predicting prognosis at levels between 20 and 70 ng / mL. However, PSA cannot be used as a prognostic factor in patients with PCa and PSA levels ≥ 70 ng / mL. When the PSA level reaches approximately 70 ng / mL, prognosis might bottom and reach a plateau.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Prostatic Neoplasms/blood , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Prognosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/mortality , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Neoplasm Grading , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Staging
13.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(1): 38-44, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989971

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: The main cause of slightly elevated human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) after successful treatment of male germ cell tumors is considered to be pituitary-derived HCG. It is well known that pituitary-derived HCG is frequently detected in postmenopausal women. We evaluated the status of serum HCG in men with elevated gonadotropins, which were induced by androgen deprivation therapy, using commercially available assays. Materials and Methods: We enrolled 44 patients with prostate cancer, who underwent luteinizing-hormone releasing hormone agonist treatment. We measured serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), serum luteinizing hormone (LH), serum total HCG, serum free HCG-β subunit, and urine total HCG 3 times per patient, on the day of treatment initiation, the next day, and 3 months after. Results: On the day after treatment initiation, serum and urine HCG was detected in 61% and 73% of patients, respectively. Markedly strong correlations were observed between serum/urine HCG and FSH/LH. In particular, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis indicated excellent area under the curve (0.977, 95% confidence interval 0.951-1.003)) for serum HCG-detectable LH. At the cutoff value of 21.07 mIU/mL for serum HCG-detectable LH, the sensitivity and specificity were 96.7% and 95.3%, respectively. Serum HCG-β was not detectable at any times in any patients. Conclusions: Suggested pituitary-derived HCG can be frequently detected in patients with elevated gonadotropins, and there is a firm association between HCG detection and gonadotropin levels.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Prostatic Neoplasms/blood , Testosterone/blood , Luteinizing Hormone/blood , Follicle Stimulating Hormone/blood , Chorionic Gonadotropin/biosynthesis , Chorionic Gonadotropin/blood , Prostatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human/urine , Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human/blood , Androgen Antagonists/administration & dosage , Middle Aged
14.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 44(6): 1139-1146, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975664

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: The present study evaluates chondroitin sulfate (CS) and heparan sulfate (HS) in the urine and hyaluronic acid (HA) in the plasma of patients with prostate cancer before and after treatment compared to a control group. Materials and Methods: Plasma samples were used for HA dosage and urine for quantification of CS and HS from forty-four cancer patients and fourteen controls. Clinical, laboratory and radiological information were correlated with glycosaminoglycan quantification by statistical analysis. Results: Serum HA was significantly increased in cancer patients (39.68 ± 30.00 ng/ mL) compared to control group (15.04 ± 7.11 ng/mL; p=0.004) and was further increased in high-risk prostate cancer patients when compared to lower risk patients (p = 0.0214). Also, surgically treated individuals had a significant decrease in seric levels of heparan sulfate after surgical treatment, 31.05 ± 21.01 μg/mL (before surgery) and 23.14 ± 11.1 μg/mL (after surgery; p=0.029). There was no difference in the urinary CS and HS between prostate cancer patients and control group. Urinary CS in cancer patients was 27.32 ± 25.99 μg/mg creatinine while in the men unaffected by cancer it was 31.37 ± 28.37 μg/mg creatinine (p=0.4768). Urinary HS was 39.58 ± 32.81 μg/ mg creatinine and 35.29 ± 28.11 μg/mg creatinine, respectively, in cancer patients and control group (p=0.6252). Conclusions: Serum HA may be a useful biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of prostate cancer. However, urinary CS and HS did not altered in the present evaluation. Further studies are necessary to confirm these preliminary findings.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Prostatic Neoplasms/urine , Prostatic Neoplasms/blood , Chondroitin Sulfates/urine , Heparitin Sulfate/urine , Hyaluronic Acid/blood , Biomarkers, Tumor/urine , Biomarkers, Tumor/blood , Case-Control Studies , Prospective Studies , Middle Aged
15.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 44(6): 1114-1121, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975648

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: The baseline PSA has been proposed as a possible marker for prostate cancer. The PSA determination before 40 years seems interesting because it not suffers yet the drawbacks related to more advanced ages. Considering the scarcity of data on this topic, an analysis of PSA kinetics in this period seems interesting. Materials and Methods: A retrospective assay in a database of a private diagnostic center was performed from 2003 to 2016. All subjects with a PSA before 40 years were included. Results: 92995 patients performed PSA between the ages of 21 - 39. The mean value ranged from 0.66 ng / mL (at age 22) to 0.76 ng / mL (at age 39) and the overall mean was 0.73 ng / mL. As for outliers, 3783 individuals presented a baseline PSA > 1.6 ng / mL (p95). A linear regression model showed that each year there is a PSA increase of 0.0055 ng / mL (β = 0.0055; r2 = 0.0020; p < 0.001). A plateau in PSA between 23 and 32 years was found and there were only minimal variations among the ages regardless of the evaluated percentile. Conclusion: It was demonstrated that PSA kinetics before 40 years is a very slow and progressive phenomenon regardless of the assessed percentile. Considering our results, it could be suggested that any PSA performed in this period could represent the baseline value without significant distortions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Prostatic Neoplasms/blood , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Reference Values , Kinetics , Retrospective Studies
16.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 44(5): 892-899, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975631

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: The purpose of our study was to evaluate the clinical impact of 68Ga-PSMA PET / CT in the setting of biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 125 prostate cancer patients submitted to the 68Ga-PSMA PET / CT due to biochemical recurrence. The parameters age, Gleason score, PSA levels, and the highest SUVmax were correlated to potential treatment changes. The highest SUVmax values were correlated with age and Gleason score. The median follow-up time was 24 months. Results: 68Ga-PSMA PET / CT led to a treatment change in 66 / 104 (63.4%) patients (twenty-one patients were lost to follow-up). There was a significant change of treatment plan in patients with a higher Gleason score (P = 0.0233), higher SUVmax (p = 0.0306) and higher PSA levels (P < 0.0001; median PSA = 2.55 ng / mL). Conclusion: 68Ga-PSMA PET / CT in prostate cancer patients with biochemical recurrence has a high impact in patient management.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Oligopeptides , Prostatic Neoplasms/blood , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Edetic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography/methods , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/diagnostic imaging , Prostatic Neoplasms/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Neoplasm Grading , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/therapy
17.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 44(4): 697-703, July-Aug. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954078

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: We compared characteristics of patients undergoing prostate biopsy in a high-risk inner city population before and after the 2012 USPSTF recommendation against PSA based prostate cancer screening to determine its effect on prostate biopsy practices. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study including patients who received biopsies after an abnormal PSA measurement from October 2008-December 2015. Patients with previously diagnosed prostate cancer were excluded. Chi-square tests of independence, two sample t-tests, Mann-Whitney U tests, and Fisher's exact tests were performed. Results: There were 202 and 208 patients in the pre-USPSTF and post-USPSTF recommendation cohorts, respectively. The post-USPSTF cohort had higher median PSA (7.8 versus 7.1ng/mL, p=0.05), greater proportion of patients who were black (96.6% versus 90.5%, p=0.01), and greater percentage of biopsy cores positive for disease (58% versus 29.5%, p<0.001). Multivariable analysis supported that the increase in PSA was independent of the increase in the proportion of patients who were black. The proportion of patients who were classified as D'Amico intermediate and high-risk disease increased in the post-USPSTF cohort and approached statistical significance (70.1% versus 58.8%, p=0.12). Conclusions: Our study suggests that the USPSTF recommendations may have led to an increase in pre-biopsy PSA as well as greater volume of disease. Also, a greater proportion of patients were being classified with intermediate or high risk disease. While the clinical significance of these findings is unknown, what the data suggests is somewhat troubling. Future research should further examine these changes in a larger cohort as well as resultant long-term outcomes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Practice Guidelines as Topic/standards , Risk Assessment/methods , Image-Guided Biopsy/standards , Prostatic Neoplasms/ethnology , Prostatic Neoplasms/blood , Reference Standards , Hospitals, Urban , Multivariate Analysis , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Statistics, Nonparametric , Early Detection of Cancer/standards , Neoplasm Grading , Middle Aged
18.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 44(4): 709-716, July-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954076

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To assess the accuracy of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) adjusted for the transition zone volume (PSATZ) in predicting prostate cancer by comparing the ability of several PSA parameters in predicting prostate cancer in men with intermediate PSA levels of 2.6 - 10.0 ng/mL and its ability to reduce unnecessary biopsies. Materials and Methods: This study included 656 patients referred for prostate biopsy who had a serum PSA of 2.6 - 10.0 ng/mL. Total prostate and transition zone volumes were measured by transrectal ultrasound using the prolate ellipsoid method. The clinical values of PSA, free-to-total (F/T) ratio, PSA density (PSAD) and PSATZ for the detection of prostate cancer were calculated and statistical comparisons between biopsy-positive (cancer) and biopsy-negative (benign) were conducted. Results: Cancer was detected in 172 patients (26.2%). Mean PSA, PSATZ, PSAD and F/T ratio were 7.5 ng/mL, 0.68 ng/mL/cc. 0.25 ng/mL/cc and 0.14 in patients with prostate cancer and 6.29 ng/mL, 0.30 ng/mL/cc, 0.16 ng/mL/cc and 0.22 in patients with benign biopsies, respectively. ROC curves analysis demonstrated that PSATZ had a higher area under curve (0,838) than F/T ratio (0.806) (P<0.001) and PSAD (0.806) (P<0.001). With a cut-off value of 0.22 ng/mL/cc, PSATZ had 100% of sensitivity and could have prevented 24% of unnecessary biopsies. Conclusions: PSATZ may be useful in enhancing the specificity of serum PSA. Compared to other PSA related parameters, it was better in differentiating between prostate cancer and benign prostatic enlargement. Also, PSATZ could reduce a significant number of unnecessary biopsies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Prostate/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms/blood , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Unnecessary Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Image-Guided Biopsy/statistics & numerical data , Prostatic Hyperplasia/diagnosis , Prostatic Hyperplasia/pathology , Prostatic Hyperplasia/blood , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Reference Standards , Reference Values , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Middle Aged
19.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 44(4): 704-708, July-Aug. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954066

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Aim: Although prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common cancer type in men, a replaceable risk factor has not yet been established. In our study, we assessed the relationship between the number of sexual partners, age of first sexual experience and age of first masturbation and prostate cancer incidence. Materials and Methods: In Ordu University Department of Urology between January 2013 and September 2016, in PSA elevation and rectal examination, patients with prostate biopsy were evaluated due to nodule palpation in the prostate. At younger ages and at present, their first masturbation ages, first sexual debut ages, and total sexual partner numbers were recorded. The correlation between the obtained data and PCa frequency was evaluated. Results: The study included 146 patients with PCa identified on biopsy and 171 patients with benign biopsy results who answered the questions. 66.7% of the ones whose biopsy results were benign and 40.6% of cancer suspects had only one sexual partner. The median number of sexual partners was 1±4 (1-100) in the benign group and 2±6 (1-500) in the malignant group (p=0.039). There was a negative correlation between age of first sexual debut and number of partners (r: −0,479; p <0.001). Conclusion: In our study, it appears that there may be an association between the number of sexual partners and prostate cancer in the patient group with PSA level above 4ng/mL. Avoidance of sexual promiscuity or participation in protected sex may be beneficial to protect against prostate cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Prostatic Neoplasms/etiology , Sexual Behavior/statistics & numerical data , Sexual Partners , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms/blood , Risk-Taking , Turkey/epidemiology , Biopsy , Incidence , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Coitus , Statistics, Nonparametric , Risk Assessment , Black Sea , Middle Aged
20.
Colomb. med ; 49(2): 164-168, Apr.-June 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-952910

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: To investigate serum and urine levels of Alpha-methylacyl-CoA-racemase (AMACR) and Netrin 1 in patients with and without prostate cancer and to determine whether these markers could be used as alternatives in diagnosis of prostate cancer instead of serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels. Methods: One hundred and seventy five patients between 45-75 years to whom transrectal ultrasound guided biopsies were performed for abnormal serum PSA levels or digital rectal examinations were included. The levels of AMACR and Netrin 1 levels of blood and urine samples of 5 mL those were taken prior to biopsies were measured. . Results: The mean age of the patients was 62.7 ±6.4 years. Prostate cancer was detected in 40 patients (22.8%) while 135 of them (77.2%) were diagnosed as benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). In BPH group, serum and urine levels of AMACR and Netrin 1 were 13.4 ±16.9 ng/mL; 7.1 ±3.4 ng/mL; 164.1±46 pg/mL and 19.5 ±5.0 pg/mL respectively. The levels of serum and urine levels of AMACR and Netrin 1 were 10.2 ±9.8 ng/mL; 6.8 ±2.5 ng/mL; 159.1 ±44.1 pg/mL and 20.1 ±5.3 pg/mL respectively in prostate cancer group. There was no statistically significant difference or correlation between these two groups serum and urine AMACR and Netrin 1 results Conclusions: Serum and urine levels of AMACR and Netrin 1 were not found to be alternatives for serum PSA levels in the diagnosis of prostate cancer in this study.


Resumen Objetivos: Investigar los niveles de alfa-metil acilcoenzima-A y Netrina 1 en pacientes con y sin cáncer de próstata y determinar si estos marcadores pueden ser usados como una alternativa en el diagnóstico de cáncer de próstata en lugar del antígeno prostático específico en suero (PSA). Métodos: Fueron incluidos 175 pacientes entre 45-75 años, a quienes se les realizó una biopsia de próstata guiada por ultrasonido por presentar un nivel anormal de PSA en el suero o un tacto rectal. Se tomó una muestra de 5 mL de sangre y orina para medir los niveles de alfa-metil acilcoenzima-A y Netrina 1. Estos niveles se midieron antes del análisis de la biopsia. Resultados: La edad media de los pacientes fue de 62.7±6.4 años. Se detectó cander en 40 pacientes (22.8%), mientras que a 135 de ellos (77.2%) se les diagnóstico una hiperplasia benigna de próstata (HBP). En el grupo HBP los niveles en suero y orina de alfa-metil acilcoenzima-A y Netrina 1 fueron 13.4 ±16.9 ng/mL; 7.1 ±3.4 ng/mL; 164.1 ±46 pg/mL y 19.5 ±5.0 pg/mL respectivamente. En el grupo con cáncer de próstata los niveles en suero y orina de alfa-metil acilcoenzima-A y Netrina 1 fueron 10.2 ±9.8 ng/mL; 6.8 ±2.5 ng/mL; 159.1 ±44.1 pg/mL y 20.1 ±5.3 pg/mL respectivamente. No hubo una diferencia significativa o una correlación entre los niveles de alfa-metil acilcoenzima-A y Netrina 1 en suero y orina al comparar estos dos grupos de pacientes. Conclusiones: Los niveles de alfa-metil acilcoenzima-A y Netrina 1 en suero y orina no son una alternativa para reemplazar el PSA en suero para el diagnóstico de cáncer de próstata.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Racemases and Epimerases/analysis , Netrin-1/analysis , Prostatic Neoplasms/urine , Prostatic Neoplasms/blood , Biomarkers, Tumor/urine , Biomarkers, Tumor/blood , Ultrasonography, Interventional/methods , Racemases and Epimerases/urine , Racemases and Epimerases/blood , Image-Guided Biopsy/methods , Netrin-1/urine , Netrin-1/blood
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