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Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(4): 705-729, Jul.-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286767


ABSTRACT Introduction: Prostate cancer (PC) is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer in males. 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT, a non-invasive diagnostic tool to evaluate PC with prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) expression, has emerged as a more accurate alternative to assess disease staging. We aimed to identify predictors of positive 68Ga-PSMA PET and the accuracy of this technique. Materials and methods: Diagnostic accuracy cross-sectional study with prospective and retrospective approaches. We performed a comprehensive literature search on PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Embase database in search of studies including PC patients submitted to radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy with curative intent and presented biochemical recurrence following ASTRO 1996 criteria. A total of 35 studies involving 3910 patients submitted to 68-Ga-PSMA PET were included and independently assessed by two authors: 8 studies on diagnosis, four on staging, and 23 studies on restaging purposes. The significance level was α=0.05. Results: pooled sensitivity and specificity were 0.90 (0.86-0.93) and 0.90 (0.82-0.96), respectively, for diagnostic purposes; as for staging, pooled sensitivity and specificity were 0.93 (0.86-0.98) and 0.96 (0.92-0.99), respectively. In the restaging scenario, pooled sensitivity and specificity were 0.76 (0.74-0.78) and 0.45 (0.27-0.58), respectively, considering the identification of prostate cancer in each described situation. We also obtained specificity and sensitivity results for PSA subdivisions. Conclusion: 68Ga-PSMA PET provides higher sensitivity and specificity than traditional imaging for prostate cancer.

Humans , Male , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Radiopharmaceuticals , Positron-Emission Tomography
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922596


The diagnosis of bone metastasis of prostate cancer (PC) is of great significance to the treatment and prognosis of patients with PC.Bone scan is the most commonly used in the early diagnosis of bone metastasis, but its specificity is low and there is a high false positive.In recent years, with the in-depth study of the application of CT, MRI, emission computed tomography (ECT), positron emission computed tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and deep learning algorithm-convolutional neural networks (CNN) in the diagnosis of bone metastasis, the combined application of various auxiliary parameters in the diagnosis of bone metastasis has significantly been improved. The therapeutic effect of PC patients with bone metastasis can also be evaluated, which is expected to achieve the treatment of bone metastasis as well as diagnosis. By systematically expounding the research progress of the above-mentioned techniques in the diagnosis of bone metastasis, it can provide clinicians with new methods for the diagnosis of bone metastasis and improve the diagnostic efficiency for bone metastasis.

Bone Marrow Diseases , Bone Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging
National Journal of Andrology ; (12): 886-891, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922171


Objective@#To investigate the risk factors for clinically significant PCa diagnosed by transrectal ultrasound-guided systematic prostate biopsy in patients with MRI-negative and PSA-abnormal findings.@*METHODS@#From January 2014 to December 2017, 335 male patients with MRI-negative (PI-RADS 2.0 score ≤ 2) and PSA-abnormal (4-30 ng/ml ) findings underwent systematic prostate biopsy guided by transrectal ultrasound under local anesthesia in our department. We collected and analyzed the demographic data, clinical symptoms, complications, past history and PSA density (PSAD) of the patients.@*RESULTS@#Clinically significant PCa was diagnosed in 21 (6.3%) of the 335 patients. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the independent risk factors were higher age (AUC: 0.704, P 71 years old or with PSAD >0.18 ng/ml/ml so as to avoid missed diagnosis and unnecessary invasive biopsy as well. /.

Aged , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Risk Factors
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880675


Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a very important imaging method for diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer (PCa) in clinical practice. As functional MRI is growing and maturing, its quantitative parameters are expected to enhance the clinical value of MRI furtherly. Intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, and diffusion kurtosis imaging, which were derived from diffusion weighted imaging, have provided richer and more accurate parameters. The newly-developed magnetic resonance elastography can complement the mechanical characteristics of PCa.

Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Diffusion Tensor Imaging , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Motion , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 48: e20212965, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340675


ABSTRACT A main challenge in the clinical management of prostate cancer is to identify which tumor is aggressive and needs invasive treatment. Thus, being able to predict which cancer will progress to biochemical recurrence is a great strategy to stratify prostate cancer patients. With that in mind, we created a mathematical formula that takes into account the patients clinical and pathological data resulting in a quantitative variable, called PSA density of the lesion, which has the potential to predict biochemical recurrence. To test if our variable is able to predict biochemical recurrence, we use a cohort of 219 prostate cancer patients, associating our new variable and classic parameters of prostate cancer with biochemical recurrence. Total PSA, lesion weight, volume and classic PSA density were positively associated with biochemical recurrence (p<0.05). ISUP score was also associated with biochemical recurrence in both biopsy and surgical specimen (p<0.001). The increase of PSA density of the lesion was significantly associated with the biochemical recurrence (p=0.03). Variables derived from the formula, PSA 15% and PSA 152, were also positive associated with the biochemical recurrence (p=0.01 and p=0.002 respectively). Logistic regression analysis shows that classic PSA density, PSA density of the lesion and total PSA, together, can explain up to 13% of cases of biochemical recurrence. PSA density of the lesion alone would have the ability to explain up to 7% of cases of biochemical recurrence. In conclusion, this new mathematical approach could be a useful tool to predict disease recurrence in prostate cancer.

RESUMO Um dos principais desafios no manejo clínico do câncer de próstata é identificar qual tumor é agressivo e precisa de tratamento invasivo. Assim, ser capaz de prever qual irá progredir para recorrência bioquímica é uma ótima estratégia para estratificar pacientes com câncer de próstata. Pensando nisso, criamos uma fórmula matemática que leva em consideração os dados clínicos e patológicos resultando em uma variável quantitativa, denominada densidade de PSA da lesão, que tem potencial para predizer recidiva bioquímica. Para testar se nossa variável é capaz de predizer recorrência bioquímica, usamos uma coorte de 219 pacientes com câncer de próstata, associando nossas variáveis e parâmetros clássicos como a recorrência bioquímica. PSA total, peso da lesão, volume e densidade de PSA clássico foram associados com recorrência bioquímica (p<0,05). O escore ISUP também foi associado à recorrência bioquímica na biópsia e na amostra cirúrgica (p<0,001). O aumento da densidade do PSA da lesão foi significativamente associado à recidiva bioquímica (p=0,03). As variáveis ??derivadas da fórmula, PSA 15% e PSA 152, também foram associadas positivamente à recorrência bioquímica (p=0,01 e p=0,002 respectivamente). A análise de regressão logística mostra que a densidade do PSA clássico, do PSA da lesão e PSA total, juntos, podem explicar até 13% dos casos de recorrência. A densidade de PSA da lesão por si só poderia explicar até 7% dos casos de recorrência. Em conclusão, esta nova abordagem matemática pode ser uma ferramenta útil para prever a recorrência da doença no câncer de próstata.

Humans , Male , Prostatic Neoplasms/surgery , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Prostatectomy , Biopsy , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/diagnosis
Clinics ; 76: e3198, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345808


OBJECTIVES: This study aims to evaluate the ability of deep learning algorithms to detect and grade prostate cancer (PCa) in radical prostatectomy specimens. METHODS: We selected 12 whole-slide images of radical prostatectomy specimens. These images were divided into patches, and then, analyzed and annotated. The annotated areas were categorized as follows: stroma, normal glands, and Gleason patterns 3, 4, and 5. Two analyses were performed: i) a categorical image classification method that labels each image as benign or as Gleason 3, Gleason 4, or Gleason 5, and ii) a scanning method in which distinct areas representative of benign and different Gleason patterns are delineated and labeled separately by a pathologist. The Inception v3 Convolutional Neural Network architecture was used in categorical model training, and a Mask Region-based Convolutional Neural Network was used to train the scanning method. After training, we selected three new whole-slide images that were not used during the training to evaluate the model as our test dataset. The analysis results of the images using deep learning algorithms were compared with those obtained by the pathologists. RESULTS: In the categorical classification method, the trained model obtained a validation accuracy of 94.1% during training; however, the concordance with our expert uropathologists in the test dataset was only 44%. With the image-scanning method, our model demonstrated a validation accuracy of 91.2%. When the test images were used, the concordance between the deep learning method and uropathologists was 89%. CONCLUSION: Deep learning algorithms have a high potential for use in the diagnosis and grading of PCa. Scanning methods are likely to be superior to simple classification methods.

Humans , Male , Prostatic Neoplasms/surgery , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Deep Learning , Prostatectomy , Neural Networks, Computer , Neoplasm Grading
Int. braz. j. urol ; 46(6): 984-992, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134246


ABSTRACT Background Focal therapy (FT) for localized prostate cancer (PCa) treatment is raising interest. New technological mpMRI-US guided FT devices have never been compared with the previous generation of ultrasound-only guided devices. Materials and Methods We retrospectively analyzed prospectively recorded data of men undergoing FT for localized low- or intermediate-risk PCa with US- (Ablatherm®-2009 to 2014) or mpMRI-US (Focal One®-from 2014) guided HIFU. Follow-up visits and data were collected using internationally validated questionnaires at 1, 2, 3, 6 and 12 months. Results We included n=88 US-guided FT HIFU and n=52 mpMRI-US guided FT HIFU respectively. No major baseline differences were present except higher rates of Gleason 3+4 for the mpMRI-US group. No major differences were present in hospital stay (p=0.1), catheterization time (p=0.5) and complications (p=0.2) although these tended to be lower in the mpMRI-US group (6.8% versus 13.2% US FT group). At 3 months mpMRI-US guided HIFU had significantly lower urine leak (5.1% vs. 15.9%, p=0.04) and a lower drop in IIEF scores (2 vs. 4.2, p=0.07). Of those undergoing 12-months control biopsy in the mpMRI-US-guided HIFU group, 26% had residual cancer in the treated lobe. Conclusion HIFU FT guided by MRI-US fusion may allow improved functional outcomes and fewer complications compared to US- guided HIFU FT alone. Further analysis is needed to confirm benefits of mpMRI implementation at a longer follow-up and on a larger cohort of patients.

Humans , Male , Aged , Prostatic Neoplasms/surgery , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Retrospective Studies , Ultrasonography , Treatment Outcome , Prostate-Specific Antigen
Rev. argent. radiol ; 84(4): 115-122, ago. 2020. tab, graf, il.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1149663


Resumen Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio es demostrar la utilidad de una secuencia tardía post-contraste en la resonancia magnética multiparamétrica de próstata (RMMP) para caracterizar lesiones PI-RADS II. Materiales y métodos: Se analizaron en forma retrospectiva las RMMP realizadas entre enero de 2015 y diciembre de 2016. El protocolo de la RMMP fue basado en las recomendaciones del PI-RADS versión 2, y se agregó una adquisición tardía luego del dinámico post-contraste. Los reportes fueron revisados bajo la versión 2.1. Resultados: Se seleccionaron 31 pacientes que presentaron lesiones categorizadas como PI-RADS II en la zona periférica, los cuales se encontraban en seguimiento del antígeno prostático específico y presentaron confirmación histológica de prostatitis crónica. Se evidenció un realce tardío de la lesión en todos los pacientes. Según los resultados histopatológicos, 30 presentaban prostatitis crónica y el restante tejido benigno (tejido fibromuscular). Discusión: La prostatitis crónica no muestra realce temprano, y presenta realce tardío debido al tejido conectivo fibroso que la compone. En la RMMP, la prostatitis puede imitar el cáncer de próstata. Agregar una adquisición tardía solo adiciona 150 segundos al estudio y podría ayudar a resolver aquellos casos inciertos categorizados como PI-RADS III empleando las secuencias convencionales, debido a que el realce tardío de la lesión es altamente sugestivo de un proceso inflamatorio (PI-RADS II). Conclusión: La presencia de realce tardío es una herramienta útil para realizar un adecuado diagnóstico de una lesión PI-RADS II en la zona periférica, pudiendo evitar una biopsia innecesaria.

Abstract Objective: The aim of this study is to demonstrate the utility of a post-contrast late sequence in multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (RMMP) to characterize PI-RADS II lesions. Materials and methods: The RMMPs performed between January 2015 and December 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. The RMMP protocol was based on the recommendations of the PI-RADS version 2, and a late acquisition was added, after the dynamic post-contrast. The reports were reviewed under the version 2.1. Results: 31 patients with PI-RADS II lesions in the peripheral zone were selected, who were in prostate specific antigen follow-up and had histological confirmation of chronic prostatitis. A late enhancement of the lesion was evidenced in all patients. According to the histopathological results, 30 had chronic prostatitis and the remaining benign tissue (fibromuscular tissue). Discussion: Chronic prostatitis does not show early enhancement, and presents late enhancement due to its fibrous connective tissue. In RMMP, prostatitis may mimic prostate cancer. Adding a late sequence only adds 150 seconds to the study and could help to resolve those uncertain cases categorized as PI-RADS III using traditional sequences because the late enhancement of the lesion is highly suggestive of an inflammatory process (PI-RADS II). Conclusion: The presence of late enhancement is a useful tool to perform an adequate diagnosis of a PI-RADS II lesion in the peripheral zone, helping to avoid an unnecessary biopsy.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Prostatitis/diagnostic imaging , Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Prostate/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Biopsy , Retrospective Studies
Rev. argent. radiol ; 84(3): 85-92, ago. 2020. tab, graf, il.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1143920


Resumen Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar la relación de las cinéticas del antígeno prostático específico (PSA por su sigla en inglés) con la positividad de la tomografía por emisión de positrones/tomografía computada [PET/TC colina (PETC)]en pacientes con una recaída de cáncer de próstata (RCP). Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un trabajo retrospectivo de 48 pacientes con RCP post prostatectomía radical (PR) evaluados con PETC. Resultados: La PETC negativa tuvo una mediana de 16,3 meses y la PETC positiva de 5,5 meses (p = < 0,001) para el tiempo de doblaje de PSA (PSADT por su sigla en inglés); la PETC fue positiva en el 96% de los pacientes con un PSADT< 12 meses. La PETC negativa tuvo una mediana de 0,03 ng/ml/año y la PETC positiva de 4,1 ng/ml/año (p = < 0,001) para la velocidad del PSA (PSAVpor su sigla en inglés); la PETC fue positiva en el 92% de los pacientes con un PSAV > 0,75 ng/ml/año. Las áreas bajo la curva ROC para PSAV fue de 0,984 con un punto de corte de mayor discriminación de 0.785 ng/ml/año, mostrando razones de verosimilitud (LR por su sigla en inglés) LR + = 25 y LR- = 0,1. Para PSADT el ROC fue de 0,992 con un punto de corte de mayor discriminación de 11 meses, mostrando LR + = 11 y LR- = 0. Discusión: El PSA es un indicador inespecífico de PETC positiva. Un estudio inicial demostró que los pacientes con una RCP con una PETC positiva tenían un menor PSADT y una mayor PSAV que los pacientes con una PETC negativa. Conclusión: La positividad de la PETC se vio influenciada por las cinéticas del PSA, observándose que a menor PSADT y que a mayor PSAV mayor fue la probabilidad de la positividad de la PETC.

Abstract Purpose: The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) kinetics and the detection of Prostate Cancer Relapse (PCR) with Positron-Emission Tomography (PETC). Material and methods: A retrospective study of 48 patients with a PCR after a radical prostatectomy evaluated with PETC was performed. Results: PSA Doubling Time (PSADT), with negative PETC, had a median of 16.3 months and the positive PETC a median of 5.5 months (p = < 0.001); 96% of patients with a PSADT <12 months had positive PETC. PSA Velocity (PSAV), negative PETC, had a median of 0.03 ng/ml/year and positive PETC a median of 4.1 ng/ml/year (p = < 0.001); 92% of patients who had a PSAV > 0.75 ng/ml/year had positive PETC. The ROC for PSAV was 0.984 with a cut-off value of 0.785 ng/ml/year, Showing Likelihood Ratios (LR) LR + = 25 and LR- = 0.1. The ROC for PSADT was 0.992 with a cut off value of 11 months, showing LR + = 11 and LR- = 0. Discussion: PSA is a nonspecific indicator of positive PETC. An initial study demon-strated that patients with a PCR and positive PETC had lower PSADT and higher PSAV than patients with a negative PETC. Conclusion: The rate of detection of PCR with PETC was influenced by the kinetics of PSA, and it was observed that the lower the PSADT and the higher the PSAV, the greater the probability of the positivity of the PETC.

Humans , Male , Aged , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Prostate-Specific Antigen/pharmacokinetics , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/diagnostic imaging , Prostatic Neoplasms/physiopathology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Positron-Emission Tomography/methods
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eAO4662, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056076


ABSTRACT Objective To assess accuracy of multiparametric magnetic resonance of the prostate to estimate gland volume, comparing the results with transrectal ultrasound and surgical specimen. Methods A retrospective study of 85 patients who underwent multiparametric magnetic resonance and transrectal ultrasound (for fusion image-guided biopsy) before radical prostatectomy. Prostate measurements were obtained from magnetic resonance axial and sagittal T2-weighted images and ultrasound; the prostate volume was determined using the ellipsoid formula. The results were compared with the surgical specimen weight. Maximum interval between multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging, transrectal ultrasound, and prostatectomy was 6 months. Results The prostate volume measured by multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging was 18-157cm3 (mean of 49.9cm3) and by transrectal ultrasound, 22-165cm3 (mean of 54.9cm3); the surgical specimen weight was 20-154g (mean of 48.6g), with no statistical differences. Based on the values obtained from imaging examinations, the prostate volume obtained was very close to the real prostatic weight, and the measures by multiparametric magnetic resonance were slightly more precise. Conclusion Prostate volume measured by multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging and transrectal ultrasound showed similar values, and excellent agreement with real prostate weight of the surgical specimens. Prostate volume measured by magnetic resonance has been increasingly used in the clinical practice, and its value enables appropriate therapeutic planning and control of patients.

RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar a acurácia da ressonância magnética multiparamétrica da próstata para estimativa do volume da glândula, comparando seus resultados com a ultrassonografia transretal e correlacionando com o volume obtido da peça cirúrgica. Métodos Estudo retrospectivo incluindo 85 pacientes submetidos à ressonância magnética e, posteriormente, à ultrassonografia transretal (para orientação de biópsia com fusão de imagens) e, a seguir, à prostatectomia radical. As dimensões prostáticas foram obtidas na ressonância a partir das imagens nos planos axial e sagital em sequências ponderadas em T2 e, assim como na ultrassonografia, o volume foi calculado a partir do método da elipsoide. Os valores foram comparados com o peso prostático pós-cirúrgico. O intervalo máximo entre a ressonância e ultrassonografia e prostatectomia foi de 6 meses. Resultados O volume prostático obtido por ressonância magnética foi de 18 a 157cm3(média de 49,9cm3); pela ultrassonografia transretal, foi de 22 a 165cm3(média de 54,9cm3); e o peso da peça cirúrgica foi de 20 a 154g (média de 48,6g), sem diferenças estatísticas. A partir do valor obtido por esses métodos de imagem, provou-se que o volume prostático obtido aproximou-se bastante do peso real da próstata, com discreta maior precisão das medidas obtidas por ressonância magnética multiparamétrica. Conclusão As medidas do volume prostático adquiridas pela ressonância magnética e pela ultrassonografia transretal são semelhantes entre si, com excelente concordância com os pesos reais das próstatas obtidos das peças cirúrgicas. A avaliação desse dado, a partir da ressonância, método cada vez mais utilizado na prática clínica, permite o adequado planejamento terapêutico e o controle dos pacientes.

Humans , Male , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Prostate/anatomy & histology , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography/methods , Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Organ Size , Prostate/diagnostic imaging , Prostatectomy , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Image-Guided Biopsy/methods , Dimensional Measurement Accuracy , Middle Aged
Rev. chil. radiol ; 25(4): 119-127, dic. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058212


Resumen: Objetivo: Analizar las biopsias realizadas en paciente categorizados PIRADS 3 en nuestra institución desde el segundo semestre del año 2016 al primer semestre del año 2018 y describir la correlación de la densidad de PSA con la incidencia de cáncer de próstata. Evaluar el rol de la densidad de PSA en la indicación de estudio histológico en pacientes PIRADS 3. Método: Trabajo autorizado por el comité de ética de nuestra institución. Se realizó búsqueda en el PACs, de todos los informes de RM multiparamétricas de próstata que incluyeran la categoría ¨PIRADS 3¨ en el periodo señalado. De ellos se calculó la densidad de PSA, con el último valor de PSA registrado en la ficha clínica previo a RM y volumen prostático en RM. Se procedió a buscar los pacientes con estudio histológico. Se correlacionó los resultados de biopsias con el valor de densidad de PSA. Realizamos análisis uni y multivariados, análisis estadísticos con sensibilidad, especificidad y uso de curva ROC. Resultados: De las 2416 RMmp de próstata realizadas en nuestra institución en las fechas ya descritas, se encontraron 424 informes catalogados con score PIRADS 3, y 267 de esos pacientes tenían estudio y seguimiento institucional, de los cuales 134 contaban con biopsia. La muestra tenía un promedio de edad de 60 años, y una mediana de densidad de PSA de 0,10 (RIC 0,07-0,14). Se encontraron 36 biopsias con cáncer clínicamente significativo (Gleason > 6), lo que corresponde a 26,8% de la muestra, valor similar al encontrado en la literuatua. En estos pacientes se obtuvo un punto de corte óptimo de densidad de PSA de 0,11, con una sensibilidad y especificidad de 67% y un AUC de 0,68. Una densidad de PSA de 0,11 presenta un OR de 4,1, con una probabilidad de 4 veces más de encontrar un cáncer de próstata por sobre este valor (IC 95% 1,3-9,8), lo cuál es estadísticamente significativo con un p igual a 0,01. Conclusión: La DAPE sobre 0,11 ng/ml/cc puede considerarse como una herramienta adicional para indicar biopsia en pacientes con RMmp PI-RADS 3, aumentando la precisión para la detección de cáncer de próstata clínicamente significativos ayudando a disminuir estudios histológicos innecesarios.

Abstract: Objective: To analyze the biopsies performed in patients categorized PIRADS 3 in our institution from the second half of 2016 to the first half of 2018 and describe the correlation of PSA density with the incidence of prostate cancer. To evaluate the role of PSA density in the indication of histological study in PIRADS 3 patients. Method: Work authorized by the ethics committee of our institution. The PACs were searched for all multiparameter prostate MRI reports that included the category "PIRADS 3" in the period indicated. The PSA density was calculated, with the last PSA value recorded in the clinical record before MRI and prostate volume in MRI. We proceeded to look for patients with the histological study. The biopsy results were correlated with the PSA density value. We perform uni and multivariate analyzes, statistical analyzes with sensitivity, specificity and use of the ROC curve. Results: Of the 2416 RMmp of the prostate performed in our institution on the dates already described, 424 reports catalogued with PIRADS 3 score were found, and 267 of those patients had study and institutional follow-up, of which 134 had a biopsy. The sample had an average age of 60 years and a median PSA density of 0.10 (RIC 0.075-0.146). We found 36 biopsies with clinically significant cancer (Gleason> 6), which corresponds to 26.8% of the sample, a value similar to that found in the literature. In these patients, an optimal cut-off point of PSA density of 0.11 was obtained, with a sensitivity and specificity of 67% and an AUC of 0.68. A PSA density of 0.11 has an OR of 4.1, with a 4-fold probability of finding prostate cancer above this value (95% CI 1.3-9.8), which It is statistically significant with a p equal to 0.01. Conclusion: DAPE over 0.11 ng/ml/cc can be considered as an additional tool to indicate biopsy in patients with RMmp PI-RADS 3, increasing the accuracy for the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer helping to reduce unnecessary histological studies.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Prostate/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms/classification , Prostatic Neoplasms/blood , Biopsy , Multivariate Analysis , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Risk Assessment , Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Rev. chil. radiol ; 25(4): 128-140, dic. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058213


Resumen: La resonancia magnética multiparamétrica (RMmp) de próstata ha tenido un desarrollo importante en los últimos años dado la alta prevalencia del cáncer de próstata y la necesidad de tener información imagenológica concreta para el correcto manejo de los pacientes urológicos. Otras técnicas de imágenes aportan información parcial sobre la morfología de la próstata, pero es la RMmp de próstata la técnica imagenológica que nos entrega mayor información, a través de secuencias morfológicas y funcionales, para detectar lesiones clínicamente significativas y disminuir el número de biopsias, predecir riesgo de agresividad de los tumores, estadificación local y ayudar al urólogo a realizar biopsias dirigidas cognitivas o por fusión RM/US. En este artículo se pretende mostrar casos representativos de errores frecuentes al momento de informar una resonancia magnética de próstata. Damos algunas recomendaciones para evitar estos errores y mejorar los informes radiológicos. Es común al comenzar a realizar informes de RMmp de próstata tener dudas sobre la correcta interpretación de los hallazgos. Ofrecemos a través de este articulo imágenes representativas de los principales errores en la búsqueda de patología neoplásica y algunas sugerencias para evitarlos. Desde el punto de vista académico se pueden dividir en pitfalls de condiciones anatómicas y patologías benignas que pueden simular un tumor. En el caso de pitfalls anatómicos mostramos casos referentes al estroma fibromuscular anterior hipertrófico, cápsula quirúrgica engrosada, plexo venoso peri-prostático, complejo neurovascular y pseudolesión posterior en zona periférica. Dentro de las condiciones benignas se encuentra la hiperplasia prostática benigna, procesos inflamatorios/infecciosos y otras condiciones que pueden simular tumor. Respecto a pitfalls relacionados con la hiperplasia prostática benigna podemos señalar hiperplasia de la zona de transición / central ("moustache-sign"), proliferación estromal en la zona de transición y nódulos adenomatosos ectópicos u extruidos en la zona periférica (ZP). Pitfalls inflamatorios/infecciosos corresponden a casos de prostatitis focal, prostatitis aguda, prostatitis con abscesos y prostatitis granulomatosa. Otros errores frecuentes de dificultad en la interpretación corresponden a casos de calcificaciones y hemorragia.

Abstract: Multiparameter magnetic resonance imaging (RMmp) of the prostate has had an important development in recent years given the high prevalence of prostate cancer and the need to have specific imaging information for the correct management of urological patients. Other imaging techniques provide partial information about the morphology of the prostate, but it is the mp-MRI of the prostate that gives us more information, through morphological and functional sequences, to detect clinically significant lesions and reduce the number of biopsies, predict risk of aggressiveness of the tumors, local staging and help the urologist to perform cognitive biopsies or by MR / US fusion. This article aims to show representative cases of frequent errors when reporting an MRI of the prostate. We give some recommendations to avoid these errors and improve radiological reports. It is common to start making mp-MRI of the prostate reports having doubts about the correct interpretation of the findings. We offer through this article representative images of the main errors in the search for neoplastic pathology and some suggestions to avoid them. From the academic point of view they can be divided into pitfalls of anatomical conditions and benign pathologies that can simulate a tumor. In the case of anatomical pitfalls, we show cases related to the hypertrophic anterior fibromuscular stroma, thickened surgical capsule, peri-prostatic venous plexus, neurovascular complex and posterior pseudo-injury in the peripheral area. Among the benign conditions is benign prostatic hyperplasia, inflammatory / infectious processes and other conditions that can simulate tumor. Regarding pitfalls related to benign prostatic hyperplasia, we can indicate hyperplasia of the transition / central zone ("mustache-sign"), stromal proliferation in the transition zone and ectopic or extruded adenomatous nodules in the peripheral zone. Inflammatory / infectious pitfalls correspond to cases of focal prostatitis, acute prostatitis, prostatitis with abscesses and granulomatous prostatitis. Other frequent errors of difficulty in interpretation correspond to cases of calcifications and hemorrhage.

Humans , Prostate/diagnostic imaging , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Diagnostic Errors , Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Prostate/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(4): 724-731, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019880


ABSTRACT Objectives To evaluate the diagnostic performance and interobserver agreement of PI-RADS v2. Materials and Methods In this Institutional Review Board approved single-center retrospective study, 98 patients with clinically suspected PCa who underwent 3-T multiparametric MRI followed by MRI/TRUS fusion-guided prostate biopsy were included from June 2013 to February 2015. Two radiologists (R1 and R2) with 8 and 1 years of experience in abdominal radiology reviewed the MRI scans and assigned PI-RADS v2 scores in all prostate zones. PI-RADS v2 were compared to MRI/TRUS fusion-guided biopsy results, which were classified as negative, PCa, and significant PCa (sPCa). Results Sensitivity, specificity, NPV, PPV and accuracy for PCa was 85.7% (same for all metrics) for R1 and 81.6%, 79.6%, 81.2%, 80.0% and 80.6% for R2. For detecting sPCa, the corresponding values were 95.3%, 85.4%, 95.9%, 83.7% and 89.8% for R1 and 93.0%, 81.8%, 93.7%, 86.7% and 86.7% for R2. There was substantial interobserver agreement in assigning PI-RADS v2 score as negative (1, 2, 3) or positive (4, 5) (Kappa=0.78). On multivariate analysis, PI-RADS v2 (p <0.001) was the only independent predictor of sPCa compared with age, abnormal DRE, prostate volume, PSA and PSA density. Conclusions Our study population demonstrated that PI-RADS v2 had high diagnostic accuracy, substantial interobserver agreement, and it was the only independent predictor of sPCa.

Humans , Male , Aged , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Reference Values , Brazil , Logistic Models , Observer Variation , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sensitivity and Specificity , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Statistics, Nonparametric , Risk Assessment , Neoplasm Grading , Image-Guided Biopsy/methods , Middle Aged