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Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(6): 1120-1130, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340017


ABSTRACT Background: Periodontal disease is reportedly associated with the risk of various systemic diseases, including pancreatic and lung cancers. However, its association with prostate cancer remains inconclusive. Herein, we explored the association of periodontal disease with the risk of prostate cancer through a meta-analysis. Materials and Methods: MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Sciences and Cochrane Library databases were searched for eligible publications up to April 2020. Multivariate adjusted risk estimates with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were extracted and calculated using random- or fixed-effect models. Results: Nine cohort studies involving 3.353 prostate cancer cases with 440.911 participants were identified and included in the meta-analysis. We found that periodontal disease significantly increased the risk of prostate cancer by 1.40-fold (hazard ratio [HR]=1.40, 95% CI: 1.16-1.70; P=0.001; I2=76.1%) compared with normal condition. Interestingly, the risk of developing prostate cancer was not significant in patients treated with periodontal therapy (HR=1.22, 95% CI: 0.86-1.73; P=0.272; I2=65.2%). The results of subgroup analyses were also consistent and significant when stratified by study design and follow-up period, whereas conflicting results were observed in periodontal disease ascertainment stratification. These findings were robust as indicated by sensitivity analyses. Conclusions: Periodontal disease was associated with the increased risk of prostate cancer, whereas no significant association was observed in patients treated with periodontal therapy. Hence, the awareness and importance for maintaining oral health should be improved, and the underlying mechanisms linking periodontal disease and prostate cancer should be fully explored in future research.

Humans , Male , Periodontal Diseases/complications , Periodontal Diseases/epidemiology , Prostatic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Lung Neoplasms , Proportional Hazards Models , Cohort Studies
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(3): 558-565, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154500


ABSTRACT Purpose: Incidence and mortality of prostate cancer (PCa) are still increasing in developing countries. Limited access to the health system or more aggressive disease are potential reasons for this. Ethnic and social differences in developed countries seem to make inappropriate to extrapolate data from other centers. We aim to report the epidemiological profile of a PSA-screened population from a cancer center in Brazil. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively selected 9.692 men enrolled in a PCa prevention program, comprising total PSA level and digital rectal examination at the first appointment, associated with complementary tests when necessary. Men aged over 40 years-old were included after shared decision-making process. Prostate biopsy (TRUS) was performed when clinically suspected for PCa. After the diagnosis, patients underwent appropriate treatment. Results: TRUS was performed in 5.5% of men and PCa incidence was 2.6%. Overall ratio between number of patients who needed to be screened in order to diagnose one cancer was 38.9 patients, with 2.1 biopsies performed to diagnose a cancer. Positive predictive value (PPV) of TRUS biopsy in this strategy was 47.2%, varying from 38.5% (<50 years-old) to 60% (>80 years-old). We evidenced 70 patients (27.9%) classified as low risk tumors, 74 (29.5%) as intermediate risk, and 107 (42.6%) as high-risk disease. Conclusions: PSA-screening remains controversial in literature. In front of a huge miscegenated people and considering the big proportion of high-risk PCa, even in young men diagnosed with the disease, it is imperative to inform patients and health providers about these data particularities in Brazil.

Humans , Male , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Prostate-Specific Antigen/analysis , Biopsy , Brazil/epidemiology , Public Health , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Early Detection of Cancer , Middle Aged
Rev. cuba. enferm ; 37(1): e3603, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF, CUMED | ID: biblio-1341391


Introducción: El proceso de envejecimiento trae consigo cambios fisiológicos en las esferas orgánica y mental, que predisponen eventos fisiopatológicos, entre ellos el cáncer, entidad con repercusión significativa en el estado de salud del adulto mayor. Objetivo: Destacar la necesidad de los cuidados continuos para potenciar el estado de salud en el adulto mayor con cáncer de próstata. Métodos: Se confeccionó una comunicación breve a partir de un estudio preliminar con enfoque descriptivo de corte transversal, desde junio 2019 hasta febrero 2020, en el Hospital de Oncología María Curie, Camagüey, Cuba, donde se aplicó una encuesta sobre el nivel información de los cuidados continuos en oncología y los componentes de las teorías de Sor Callista Roy y Kristen M. Swanson en 16 enfermeros(as) participantes en el proyecto. Se ejecutó valoración del estado de salud, utilizando los instrumentos (Índice de Katz y escala de Lawton) en 34 adultos mayores con cáncer de próstata. Resultados: Fueron descritos niveles de información, mínimo aceptable e inaceptable en el personal encuestado. La valoración integral al adulto mayor con cáncer de próstata permitió conocer expresiones de dependencia a las actividades de la vida diaria e instrumentada. Conclusión: El estudio favoreció la preparación integral del personal de enfermería en la atención continuada del paciente oncológico. Además facilitó pautas que fortalecen la utilidad de la valoración integral para el proceso de los cuidados continuos del adulto mayor con cáncer de próstata, que permitan preservar conductas generadoras de salud biopsicosocial y potenciar su estado de salud(AU)

Introduction: The aging process brings about physiological changes, both organically and mentally, that may be the cause for pathophysiological events, including cancer, an entity with significant repercussions on the health status of the elderlies. Objective: To highlight the need for continuous care to enhance the health status of the elderlies with prostate cancer. Methods: A brief communication was made from a preliminary study with a descriptive cross-sectional approach, from June 2019 to February 2020, at María Curie Oncology Hospital, in Camagüey, Cuba, where a survey about the information level of continuous care in oncology and the components of the theories of Sister Callista Roy and Kristen M. Swanson was applied in sixteen nurses who participated in the project. Health status assessment was carried out, using the Katz index and Lawton scale in 34 older adults with prostate cancer. Results: Minimum ally acceptable and unacceptable levels of information were described in the surveyed personnel. The comprehensive assessment of the elderlies with prostate cancer allowed us to know expressions of dependence on the activities of daily and instrumented life. Conclusion: The study favored the comprehensive training of the nursing staff regarding ongoing care of cancer patients. In addition, it provided guidelines that strengthen the usefulness of comprehensive assessment for the process of continuous care of the elderlies with prostate cancer, so that these guidelines allow preserving behaviors that generate biopsychosocial health and enhance their health status(AU)

Humans , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Oncology Nursing/methods , Prostatic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Aging , Health Status , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 19: eAO6325, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350695


ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate awareness of prostate cancer in the population of the city of São Paulo. Methods: A total of 392 adults were randomly interviewed on public spaces in the city of São Paulo, and answered a questionnaire that addressed demographic questions and specific knowledge about the prostate cancer. A score was used to assess awareness of cancer in general, and of prostate cancer, considering satisfactory knowledge a score of 6 points. Results: The mean age was 36.9 years (standard deviation of ±12.6) and 58.2% of participants were male. No previous contact with information related to prostate cancer was reported by 45.5% of participants. For these cases, a greater proportion was observed among men aged over 50 years. As to the score, the mean was 3.7 (standard deviation of ±1.3), with a positive correlation among higher scores, higher income and education level. Less than 5% of participants believed they should only search for prostate cancer screening when symptomatic. Finally, among the less frequent responses to risk factors for prostate cancer, is "ethnic origin" (2.8%). Conclusion: Even though most participants did not have a satisfactory score, the level of awareness demonstrated in this study seems superior to that of other populational series. Hence it suggested the assessed population understood some essential concepts in prostate cancer, such as the importance of screening and the follow-up. The efforts made by the Sociedade Brasileira de Urologia on educational campaigns partially explain this. However, working in some concepts, like identifying risk factors for prostate cancer, might optimize screening outcomes.

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar o conhecimento da população da cidade de São Paulo em relação ao câncer de próstata. Métodos: Foram entrevistados randomicamente 392 adultos em espaços públicos da cidade de São Paulo, os quais responderam a um questionário que abordava questões demográficas e de conhecimentos específicos sobre o câncer de próstata. Um escore foi utilizado para avaliar o conhecimento de câncer em geral e do câncer de próstata, considerando um conhecimento satisfatório com escore de 6 pontos. Resultados: A média de idade foi de 36,9 anos (desvio-padrão de ±12,6), e 58,2% dos participantes eram do sexo masculino. Ausência de contato anterior com informações relacionadas ao câncer de próstata foi relatada por 45,5% dos participantes. Nesses casos, maior proporção foi observada entre os homens com mais de 50 anos. Quanto ao escore, a média foi 3,7 (desvio-padrão de ±1,3), com correlação positiva entre maiores escores e maiores renda e escolaridade. Menos de 5% dos participantes acreditavam que só deveriam procurar o rastreamento do câncer de próstata quando sintomáticos. Por fim, entre as respostas menos frequentes aos fatores de risco para câncer de próstata, encontrou-se "etnia" (2,8%). Conclusão: Embora a maioria dos participantes não tenha apresentado escore satisfatório, o nível de conhecimento revelado neste estudo parece superior ao de outros estudos populacionais. Assim, sugere-se que a população avaliada tenha compreendido alguns conceitos essenciais do câncer de próstata, como a importância do rastreamento e do acompanhamento. Os esforços da Sociedade Brasileira de Urologia nas campanhas educacionais explicam parcialmente isso. No entanto, trabalhar em alguns conceitos, como identificar fatores de risco para câncer de próstata, pode otimizar os resultados do rastreamento.

Humans , Male , Female , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Early Detection of Cancer , Brazil/epidemiology , Cities , Prostate-Specific Antigen
Int. braz. j. urol ; 46(1): 34-41, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056354


ABSTRACT Purpose: Prostate cancer screening in the elderly is controversial. The Brazilian government and the National Cancer Institute (INCA) do not recommend systematic screening. Our purpose was to assess prevalence and aggressiveness of prostate cancer in men aged 70 years and above, on the first Latin American database to date. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study (n=17,571) from 231 municipalities, visited by Mobile Cancer Prevention Units of a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) based opportunistic screening program, between 2004 and 2007. The criteria for biopsy were: PSA>4.0ng/ml, or PSA 2.5-4.0ng/ml with free/total PSA ratio ≤15%, or suspicious digital rectal examination findings. The screened men were stratified in two age groups (45-69 years, and ≥70 years). These groups were compared regarding prostate cancer prevalence and aggressiveness criteria (PSA, Gleason score from biopsy and TNM staging). Results: The prevalence of prostate cancer found was 3.7%. When compared to men aged 45-69 years, individuals aged 70 years and above presented cancer prevalence about three times higher (prevalence ratio 2.9, p<0.01), and greater likelihood to present PSA level above 10.0ng/ml at diagnosis (odds ratio 2.63, p<0.01). The group of elderly men also presented prevalence of histologically aggressive disease (Gleason 8-10) 3.6 times higher (p<0.01), and 5-fold greater prevalence of metastases (PR 4.95, p<0.05). Conclusions: Prostate cancer screening in men aged over 70 may be relevant in Brazil, considering the absence of systematic screening, higher prevalence and higher probability of high-risk disease found in this age range of the population studied.

Humans , Male , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Mass Screening/methods , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Biopsy , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Risk Assessment , Digital Rectal Examination , Early Detection of Cancer , Neoplasm Grading , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Staging
Rev. salud pública ; 21(3): e470678, mayo-jun. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115862


RESUMO Objetivo Caracterizar aspectos socioeconómicos, demográficos, de saúde e clínicos de homens com câncer de próstata no Maranhão. Metodologia Estudo prospectivo, descritivo de base primária. Resultados: Do total de 226 homens com câncer de próstata,44,2% tinham entre 71-80 anos, 82,3% autoreferiram a raça parda, 62,8% não eram aposentados, 90,3% tinham renda mensal de até dois salários mínimos, 63,7% tinham menos de oito anos de estudo, 80,5% eram casados, 61,9% eram do interior do estado, 76,1% não praticavam atividade física, 53,1% procuravam assistência em saúde apenas quando apresentavam algum problema, 51,3% realizaram a cirurgia de retirada de próstata. Conclusão Ferramentas e estratégias devem ser desenvolvidas voltadas para o público masculino, focadas na promoção e prevenção do câncer de próstata, observando características inerentes dos homens por região possibilitando um diagnóstico precoce e consequente possibilidade de cura.(AU)

ABSTRACT Objective To characterize socioeconomic, demographic, health and clinical aspects of men with prostate cancer in the state of Maranhão, Brazil. Methodology Prospective, descriptive primary study. Results Of 226 men with prostate cancer, 44.2% were aged 71-80 years, 82.3% self-reported as mestizo, and 62.8% were not retired. Moreover, 90.3% had a monthly income of up to two minimum wages, 63.7% had less than eight years of schooling, 80.5% were married, 61.9% were from the interior of the state, and 76.1% did not practice physical activity. Regarding their health, 53.1% sought health care only when they presented a problem and 51.3% underwent prostatectomy. Conclusion Tools and strategies developed for the male public should focus on the promotion and prevention of prostate cancer, taking into account the inherent characteristics of men by region, thus enabling early diagnosis and consequent possibility of cure.(AU)

RESUMEN Objetivo Caracterizar aspectos socioeconómicos, demográficos, de salud y clínicos de hombres con cáncer de próstata en el estado de Maranhão, Brasil. Metodología Estudio prospectivo, descriptivo de fuente primaria. Resultados Del total de 226 hombres con cáncer de próstata, 44,2% tenían entre 71-80 años, 82,3% se auto-describían como mestizos, 62,8% no eran jubilados, el 90,3% tenían ingresos mensuales de hasta dos salarios mínimos, el 63,7% tenían menos de ocho años de estudio, el 80,5% estaban casados, el 61,9% eran del interior del estado, el 76,1% no practicaba actividad física, el 53,1% buscaban asistencia en salud solo cuando se presentaba algún problema, y el 51,3% se realizó prostatectomía. Conclusión Las herramientas y estrategias desarrolladas y dirigidas al público masculino deben enfocarse en la promoción y prevención del cáncer de próstata, teniendo en cuenta las características inherentes de los hombres por región, posibilitando así el tratamiento oportuno de la enfermedad y aumentando la posibilidad de curación.(AU)

Humans , Male , Prostatic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Health Profile , Men's Health , Brazil/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prospective Studies
Rev. pesqui. cuid. fundam. (Online) ; 11(3): 648-654, abr.-maio 2019. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-994508


Objective: The study's purpose has been to evaluate the association of socio-demographic and clinical variables with the general and specific mortality from prostate cancer. Methods: This is a retrospective study that was carried out through the analyses of medical records from 1,290 men diagnosed with prostate cancer over the period from 2000 to 2006. Results: Considering the 1,290 men, 758 were alive, 308 had died from prostate cancer, and 224 had died from other causes. Those that were associated with death from prostate cancer include: Gleason score > 9, Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) > 20 and the presence of metastasis. Furthermore, there were those associated with death due to other causes, as follows: widowers, admission to the hospital without diagnosis and without treatment, and also PSA > 50. Conclusion: Clinical variables predominated with regards to prostate cancer-specific mortality. On the other hand, socio-demographic variables prevailed towards deaths originated from other causes

Objetivo: Avaliar a associação de variáveis sociodemográficas e clínicas com a mortalidade geral e específica por câncer de próstata. Método: Estudo retrospectivo de 1290 homens diagnosticados com câncer de próstata entre 2000 e 2006. Consultou-se prontuários, Sistema de Registro Hospitalar e Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade. Resultados: Dos 1290 homens, 758 estavam vivos, 308 morreram por câncer de próstata e 224 por outras causas. Associaram-se ao óbito por câncer de próstata: escore de Gleason > 9, PSA > 20 (entre 2,82 e 5,55 vezes) e presença de metástase. Associaram-se ao óbito por outras causas: estado civil viúvo, ingresso no hospital sem diagnóstico e sem tratamento e PSA > 50. Conclusão: Variáveis clínicas predominaram sobre a mortalidade específica por câncer de próstata, já variáveis sociodemográficas em óbitos por outras causas

Objetivo: Evaluar la asociación de las variables sociodemográficas y clínicas con la mortalidad general y específica por cáncer de próstata. Métodos:Estudio retrospectivo de 1.290 hombres con cáncer de próstata en el período del 1 de enero de 2000 al 31 de diciembre de 2006. Resultados: De los 1.290 hombres, 758 estaban vivos, 308 murieron por cáncer de próstata y 224 por otras causas. Se asociaron con la muerte por cáncer de próstata: Gleason puntuación >9, PSA>20 (entre 2,82 y 5,55 veces) y metástasis. Ellos se asociaron con muerte por otras causas: el estado civil viuda, la admisión al hospital diagnosticar y sin tratar y el PSA>50. Conclusión: Las variables clínicas predominaron sobre la mortalidad específica por cáncer de próstata, ya variables sociodemográficas en muertes por otras causas

Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Prostatic Neoplasms/classification , Prostatic Neoplasms/mortality , Prostatic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Survey , Men's Health/statistics & numerical data
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1264212


But : Explorer les aspects paracliniques du cancer de la prostate à Cotonou et plus spécifiquement les aspects épidémiologiques, biologiques, radiologiques et anatomo-pathologiques. Patients et méthodes : Il s'agissait d'une étude rétrospective à visée descriptive sur une durée de huit ans, colligeant tous les cas de cancer de la prostate diagnostiqués au service d'Urologie-Andrologie du CNHU HKM de Cotonou.Résultats : 109 cas ont été colligés au total. L'incidence du cancer de la prostate sur les 8 ans était de 4,7%. Le taux moyen de PSA était de 830,2 ng/ml. Le seul type histologique retrouvé après examen histologique des pièces de biopsie était l'adénocarcinome. Dans 28% des cas le score de Gleason était 6. L'imagerie d'extension la plus réalisée était la radiographie conventionnelle (62,4%). L'atteinte à distance la plus fréquente était celle osseuse (52,9%). La classification TNM de la majorité des patients étaient T2cNxMx (25,6%) Conclusion : Le cancer de la prostate est une pathologie du sujet âgé de plus de 50 ans souvent vu tardivement dans notre milieu. Son diagnostic paraclinique onéreux sous nos cieux rend difficile la réalisation du bilan d'extension et limite les indications de chirurgie radicale

Aged , Benin , Prostatic Neoplasms , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1264236


But : Explorer les aspects paracliniques du cancer de la prostate à Cotonou et plus spécifiquement les aspects épidémiologiques, biologiques, radiologiques et anatomo-pathologiques. Patients et méthodes : Il s'agissait d'une étude rétrospective à visée descriptive sur une durée de huit ans, colligeant tous les cas de cancer de la prostate diagnostiqués au service d'UrologieAndrologie du CNHU HKM de Cotonou. Résultats : 109 cas ont été colligés au total. L'incidence du cancer de la prostate sur les 8 ans était de 4,7%. Le taux moyen de PSA était de 830,2 ng/ml. Le seul type histologique retrouvé après examen histologique des pièces de biopsie était l'adénocarcinome. Dans 28% des cas le score de Gleason était 6. L'imagerie d'extension la plus réalisée était la radiographie conventionnelle (62,4%).L'atteinte à distance la plus fréquente était celle osseuse (52,9%). La classification TNM de la majorité des patients étaient T2cNxMx (25,6%) Conclusion : Le cancer de la prostate est une pathologie du sujet âgé de plus de 50 ans souvent vu tardivement dans notre milieu. Son diagnostic paraclinique onéreux sous nos cieux rend difficile la réalisation du bilan d'extension et limite les indications de chirurgie radicale

Adenocarcinoma , Benin , Case Reports , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms/radiotherapy
Int. braz. j. urol ; 43(6): 1021-1032, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-892920


ABSTRACT As patients with end-stage renal disease are receiving renal allografts at older ages, the number of male renal transplant recipients (RTRs) being diagnosed with prostate cancer (CaP) is increasing. Historically, the literature regarding the management of CaP in RTR's is limited to case reports and small case series. To date, there are no standardized guidelines for screening or management of CaP in these complex patients. To better understand the unique characteristics of CaP in the renal transplant population, we performed a literature review of PubMed, without date limitations, using a combination of search terms including prostate cancer, end stage renal disease, renal transplantation, prostate cancer screening, prostate specific antigen kinetics, immuno-suppression, prostatectomy, and radiation therapy. Of special note, teams facilitating the care of these complex patients must carefully and meticulously consider the altered anatomy for surgical and radiotherapeutic planning. Active surveillance, though gaining popularity in the general low risk prostate cancer population, needs further study in this group, as does the management of advance disease. This review provides a comprehensive and contemporary understanding of the incidence, screening measures, risk stratification, and treatment options for CaP in RTRs.

Humans , Male , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/etiology , Prostatic Neoplasms/therapy , Prostatic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Incidence , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Risk Assessment
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 15(3): 178-182, 20170000. Tab, Ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-875530


OBJETIVO: Realizar análise clínica e epidemiológica de pacientes com câncer de próstata. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo, descritivo de 607 prontuários de pacientes com câncer de próstata, atendidos entre 2012 a 2014. As variáveis analisadas foram: procedência, faixa etária, antígeno prostático específico (PSA) total, escore de Gleason da biópsia e da peça cirúrgica. A análise estatística foi realizada com software SPSS, versão 19.0. RESULTADOS: A maioria dos pacientes (57%) era de Ipatinga (MG) e arredores. A faixa etária mais frequente foi de 61 a 80 anos (76,6%). Valores de PSA entre 4,1 a 10ng/mL foram mais frequentes. O escore de Gleason da biópsia revelou ue 321 pacientes apresentavam tumor intermediário. Apenas 203 pacientes realizaram a prostectomina, e 61,5% das peças cirúrgicas também apresentaram tumor intermediário. Houve correlação significativa entre as faixas etárias e os níveis de PSA (R2=0,9319), e também entre o nível de PSA e os valores de escore Gleason da biópsia (p<0,05). Houve concordância entre os valores de escore de Gleason da biópsia com os da peça cirúrgica em 72,9% dos casos. CONCLUSÃO: Em nosso conhecimento, este foi o primeiro estudo epidemiológico de câncer de próstata na região do Vale do Aço. As informações fornecidas neste trabalho podem contribuir com programas para desenvolver ações de controle do câncer de próstata nesta região.(AU)

OBJECTIVE: To conduct a clinical and epidemiological analysis of patients with Prostate Cancer. METHODS: This is aretrospective and descriptive study of 605 medical records of patients diagnosed with prostate cancer, seen from 2012 to 2014. The variables analyzed were: origin, age, total prostate specific antigen, Gleason score of the biopsy and surgical sample. Data were analyzed using SPSS software, version 19.0. RESULTS: Most patients (57%) were from the city of Ipatinga (state of Minas Gerais) and surrounding areas. The most frequent age group was 61 to 80 years (76.6%). PSA values between 4.1 and 10ng/mL were more frequent. Biopsy Gleason score revealed that 321 patients had an intermediate tumor. Only 203 patients underwent prostatectomy and 61.5% of the surgical specimens presented an intermediate tumor. There was a significant correlation (R2=0.9319) between the age groups and patients' PSA levels, and an association between PSA level and Gleason biopsy values (p<0.05). There was concordance between the values of Gleason biopsy with those of the surgical specimen in 72.9% of the patients. CONCLUSION: To the best of our knowledge, this was the first epidemiological study of prostate cancer in the region of Vale do Aço. The associations found here may contribute with programs to develop actions to control prostate cancer in this region.(AU)

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Prostatic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology
Buenos Aires; GCBA. Gerencia Operativa de Epidemiología; 30 jun. 2017. a) f: 15 l:26 p. graf, tab.(Boletín Epidemiológico Semanal: Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, 2, 45).
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, InstitutionalDB, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1104185


En la actualidad, las enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles (ECNT) constituyen la principal causa de mortalidad mundial. Las enfermedades crónicas se caracterizan por su larga duración, progresividad y curación no previsible, pudiendo requerir tratamiento y control durante una extensa e indeterminada cantidad de años. El cáncer forma parte del grupo de las enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles (ECNT), junto con las enfermedades cardiovasculares, respiratorias crónicas y diabetes. Estas enfermedades, se encuentran entre los problemas más comunes y más costosos para la salud pública de la población. El presente documento describe el comportamiento de la mortalidad global por cáncer y por los principales sitios tumorales, en residentes de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, según sexo y comunas, en dos quinquenios: 2006-2010 y 2011-2015. En primer lugar se describe la variación de la mortalidad entre los periodos mencionados para las principales causas, en el total de la CABA, según sexo. En segundo lugar, se calcula y se compara la variación de la mortalidad entre los periodos mencionados, en el total y tres principales causas, según sexo y comunas de la Ciudad. Para el análisis de la mortalidad en la CABA se utilizaron las bases provistas por la Dirección de Estadísticas e información en Salud (DEIS) y del Sistema de Vigilancia Epidemiológica y reporte del Cáncer (SIVER/INC). Además, se utilizó como fuente de datos, el "Atlas de mortalidad por cáncer en Argentina 2011-2015", en el capítulo correspondiente a la Ciudad de Buenos Aires

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Prostatic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Catchment Area, Health/statistics & numerical data , Mortality , Colonic Neoplasms/mortality , Colonic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Epidemiological Monitoring , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Neoplasms/mortality , Neoplasms/prevention & control , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplastic Processes
Buenos Aires; GCBA. Gerencia Operativa de Epidemiología; 9 jun. 2017. a) f: 16 l:28 p. graf, tab, mapas.(Boletín Epidemiológico Semanal: Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, 2, 42).
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, InstitutionalDB, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1104193


El cáncer forma parte del grupo de las enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles (ECNT), junto con las enfermedades cardiovasculares, respiratorias crónicas y diabetes. Estas enfermedades, se encuentran entre los problemas más comunes y más costosos para la salud pública. Esta patología comprende un conjunto de entidades nosológicas caracterizadas por crecimiento descontrolado de células anormales que presentan morfología, manifestaciones clínicas, pronóstico y determinantes diferentes.El siguiente documento se estructura en tres segmentos; en el primero se describe la situación internacional y regional de la morbilidad y mortalidad por cáncer, en comparación con la Argentina y la incidencia de morbilidad por localización tumoral estimada para el país, por fuentes internacionales. En el segundo, se calcula la mortalidad nacional y provincial según sexo con fuentes locales y; finalmente la descripción de la evolución de la mortalidad por cáncer según sexo para la ciudad de Buenos Aires, en la cual se comparan dos quinquenios 2007-2011 y 2011-2015, a través de fuentes locales. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Prostatic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Health Surveillance , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Epidemiologic Studies , Mortality/trends , Disease Notification , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Neoplasms/mortality , Neoplasms/prevention & control , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplastic Processes
Rev. cuba. med. gen. integr ; 33(2)abr.-jun. 2017.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-901172


Muy interesante me resultó la lectura del artículo Realización del antígeno prostático específico desde el primer nivel de atención médica y la carta al editor que motivara. Coincido con los autores en que el cáncer es un problema mundial y de Cuba, por lo que debemos enfrentarlo desde todos los niveles del sistema de salud, incluida la atención primaria. La OMS reconoce la pesquisa y el diagnóstico temprano entre los componentes del control del cáncer. Considerando que proporciona mayor probabilidad de éxito del tratamiento, a menor costo y con intervenciones menos complejas.1 El Programa para el Control del Cáncer en Cuba asume esta recomendación.2 La determinación del antígeno prostático específico con este fin, continúa en controversia.3 Un análisis de las recomendaciones en contra del cribado publicado en el 2016 defiende su uso razonable, ajustado a cada paciente basado en edad, raza, esperanza de vida y calidad de vida, haciéndolo participe de la evidencia científica que justifica su uso.4(AU)

Humans , Male , Primary Health Care , Prostatic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Delivery of Health Care
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2017. 63 f p. tab, graf, il.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-995881


De acordo com os dados do Instituto Nacional de Câncer José Alencar Gomes da Silva (INCA), foram esperados, no Brasil, 61.200 novos casos de câncer de próstata para o ano de 2016. Estabelecido o diagnóstico, as opções terapêuticas são consideradas e se baseiam no estadiamento, dosagem do antígeno prostático específico (PSA) e escore histológico de Gleason. Segundo as diretrizes diagnósticas e terapêuticas do adenocarcinoma de próstata publicadas (2015), a técnica de radioterapia de intensidade modulada (IMRT) apresenta benefício no controle da doença e a menor probabilidade de toxicidade. Este trabalho teve como objetivo analisar a custo-efetividade da técnica de IMRT, na perspectiva do SUS, para o tratamento do câncer de próstata localizado, comparada com a técnica conformacional (3DRT). Foi construído um modelo de Markov e, uma coorte hipotética de homens de 65 a 70 anos foi acompanhada por 10 anos. A medida de desfecho clínico foram os anos de vida ajustados para qualidade (QALY). Os custos levantados se basearam nos valores da tabela APAC para um tratamento na dose de 74 a 76 Gy. Análise de sensibilidade probabilística baseada em simulação de Monte Carlo a fim de construir um limiar de aceitabilidade para incorporação da tecnologia em questão foi desenvolvida. O uso da tecnologia IMRT proporcionou um incremento de 0,79 QALY, mas não se mostrou custo-efetiva em relação aos pacientes que receberam radioterapia pela 3DRT. A IMRT apresentou uma razão de custoefetividade incremental de R$10.580,98/QALY. Ao considerar um limiar de aceitabilidade de três vezes o produto interno bruto (PIB) per capita, segundo recomendação da Organização Mundial de Saúde (2011), estimado em R$ 86.628,00/QALY, para 2016, o cenario para a incorporaçao dessa tecnologia se apresenta favoravel. A probabilidade do IMRT ser custo-efetiva foi de 72,5% para limiares de aceitabilidade de R$15.000,00

According to data from the Coordination of Prevention and Surveillance of the National Cancer Institute José Alencar Gomes da Silva (NCI) 61,200 new cases of prostate cancer were expected in Brazil in 2016. Once the diagnosis is established, the therapeutic options are considered according to risk groups described by D'Amico (1998), which are based on staging, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and Gleason score. For localized prostate tumors, and for all risk groups, radiotherapy is indicated. According to the diagnostic and therapeutic guideline of prostate adenocarcinoma published in October 2015, the intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) technique has a benefit in controlling the disease and the lower probability of toxicity. According to this premise, this study aimed to analyze the costeffectiveness of the IMRT technique, from the perspective of SUS, for the treatment of localized prostate cancer, compared with three-dimensional technique (3DRT). A mathematical model based on Markov models was constructed and a hypothetical cohort of men aged 65 to 70 years was followed up for 10 years. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed based on Monte Carlo simulation to construct a threshold of acceptability for incorporation of the technology in question. As a result of the study, the use of IMRT technology provided a 0.79-year increase in quality-adjusted life years (QALY), but was not cost-effective compared to patients who received radiotherapy using the 3DRT. The IMRT presented an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of R $ 10,580.98 / QALY. Based on a threshold of three times the per capita GDP, according to the WHO recommendation (2011), calculated at R $ 86,628.00 / QALY for 2016, the scenario for the incorporation of this technology is favorable. If a threshold of acceptability of R $ 28,876 is considered equivalent to a GDP per capita, the probability of IMRT being cost-effective is 72%

Humans , Male , Aged , Prostatic Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Prostatic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Unified Health System , Brazil , Case-Control Studies , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Radiotherapy, Conformal/statistics & numerical data , Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated/economics
Int. braz. j. urol ; 42(6): 1081-1090, Nov.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828932


ABSTRACT Introduction: Prostate cancer is one of the tumors with higher incidence and mortality among men in the World. Epidemiological data are influenced by life expectancy of population, available diagnostic methods, correct collection of data and quality of health services. Screening of the disease is not standardized around the World. Up till now there is no consensus about the risks versus benefits of early detection. There are still missing data about this pathology in Latin America. Objective: to revise current epidemiologic situation and early diagnosis policies of prostate cancer in Brazil and Latin America. Materials and Methods: Medline, Cochrane Library and SciELO databases were reviewed on the subject of epidemiology and screening of prostate cancer. Screening research was performed in websites on national public health organizations and Latin America. Screening recommendations were obtained from those governmental organizations and from Latin American urological societies and compared to the most prominent regulatory agencies and societies of specialists and generalists from around the World. Results: Brazil and Latin America have a special position in relation to incidence and mortality of prostate cancer. In Brazil, it occupies the first position regarding incidence of cancer in men and the second cause of mortality. Central America has the highest rate of mortality of the continent with lower incidence/mortality ratios. Screening recommendations are very distinct, mainly among regulatory organs and urological societies. Conclusion: prostate cancer epidemiology is an important health public topic. Data collection related to incidence and mortality is still precarious, especially in less developed countries. It is necessary to follow-up long term screening studies results in order to conclude its benefits.

Humans , Male , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Mass Screening , Prostatic Neoplasms/mortality , Societies, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Brazil/epidemiology , Global Health , Incidence , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Early Diagnosis , Developing Countries/statistics & numerical data , Government Agencies , Health Policy , Latin America/epidemiology
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 14(3): 330-337, July-Sept. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-796982


ABSTRACT Objective: To assess aspects related to cancer in indigenous population. Methods: This is a retrospective study developed in a public university hospital. We included patients with 18 or more years of age, diagnosed with solid tumors, and followed between 2005 and 2015. Clinical features were assessed by descriptive statistics, and survival was evaluated by Kaplan-Meier curves and multivariate Cox regression. Results: Fifty patients were included. The cancer incidence was 15.73 per 100,000. The mean age at diagnosis was 54 years and most patients were female (58%). Cancer of the cervix (28%) and prostate (16%) were the most common. The mean time between the onset of symptoms and the diagnosis was 9 months and from diagnosis to the treatment was 3.4 months. Disease diagnosed at stage IV (17%) had worse overall survival (HR: 11.4; p<0.05). The 5-year survival rate ranged from 88% for prostate cancer to 0% for lung cancer. All 5-year survival rates were lower as compared to other populations. Conclusion: The most prevalent cancer sites were cervix and prostate. Disease stage and primary site were prognostic factors.

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar os aspectos relacionados a câncer em populações indígenas. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo conduzido em um hospital universitário público. Foram incluídos pacientes com 18 anos ou mais, diagnosticados com tumores sólidos e acompanhados entre 2005 e 2015. Os aspectos clínicos foram avaliados por meio de estatística descritiva, e a sobrevida foi avaliada por meio de curvas de Kaplan-Meier e regressão multivariada de Cox. Resultados: Foram incluídos 50 pacientes. A incidência de câncer foi 15,73 por 100 mil. A média de idade ao diagnóstico foi 54 anos, e a maioria era do sexo feminino (58%). O câncer de colo uterino (28%) e o de próstata (16%) foram os mais frequentes. O tempo médio entre o início dos sintomas e o diagnóstico foi 9 meses, e entre o diagnóstico e o tratamento, de 3,4 meses. Doença diagnosticada no estágio IV (17%) resultou em pior sobrevida global (HR: 11,4; p<0,05). A sobrevida em 5 anos variou de 88% para o câncer de próstata a 0% para pulmão. Todas as taxas de sobrevida em 5 anos foram menores em comparação a outras populações. Conclusão: Os locais mais frequentes de neoplasia foram colo de útero e próstata. O estágio da doença e o sítio primário foram fatores prognósticos.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Indians, South American/statistics & numerical data , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Prostatic Neoplasms/etiology , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/ethnology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/pathology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Incidence , Survival Rate , Retrospective Studies , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Health Services, Indigenous/statistics & numerical data , Neoplasm Staging , Neoplasms/ethnology , Neoplasms/therapy
Salud pública Méx ; 58(2): 279-284, Mar.-Apr. 2016.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-793017


Abstract Prostate cancer is the most frequent tumor found in men worldwide and in Mexico in particular. Age and family history are the main risk factors. The diagnosis is made by prostate biopsy in patients with abnormalities detected in their prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels or digital rectal exam (DRE). This article reviews screening and diagnostic methods as well as treatment options for patients diagnosed with prostate cancer.

Resumen El cáncer de próstata es el tumor más frecuente en hombres a nivel mundial, y de manera específica en México. Los principales factores de riesgo son la edad y la historia familiar. El diagnóstico se obtiene por medio de biopsia prostática en pacientes detectados por anormalidades en el antígeno prostático o tacto rectal. En este artículo se hace una discusión de los métodos de tamizaje, diagnóstico y opciones de tratamiento en pacientes con diagnóstico de cáncer de próstata.

Humans , Male , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/prevention & control , Prostatic Neoplasms/therapy , Prostatic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Prostatectomy , Risk Factors , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal/therapeutic use , Radiotherapy, Conformal , Early Detection of Cancer , Neoplasm Metastasis
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-143629


How the news media cover cancer may have profound significance for cancer prevention and control; however, little is known about the actual content of cancer news coverage in Korea. This research thus aimed to examine news portrayal of specific cancer types with respect to threat and efficacy, and to investigate whether news portrayal corresponds to actual cancer statistics. A content analysis of 1,138 cancer news stories was conducted, using a representative sample from 23 news outlets (television, newspapers, and other news media) in Korea over a 5-year period from 2008 to 2012. Cancer incidence and mortality rates were obtained from the Korean Statistical Information Service. Results suggest that threat was most prominent in news stories on pancreatic cancer (with 87% of the articles containing threat information with specific details), followed by liver (80%) and lung cancers (70%), and least in stomach cancer (41%). Efficacy information with details was conveyed most often in articles on colorectal (54%), skin (54%), and liver (50%) cancers, and least in thyroid cancer (17%). In terms of discrepancies between news portrayal and actual statistics, the threat of pancreatic and liver cancers was overreported, whereas the threat of stomach and prostate cancers was underreported. Efficacy information regarding cervical and colorectal cancers was overrepresented in the news relative to cancer statistics; efficacy of lung and thyroid cancers was underreported. Findings provide important implications for medical professionals to understand news information about particular cancers as a basis for public (mis)perception, and to communicate effectively about cancer risk with the public and patients.

Communication , Humans , Incidence , Internet/statistics & numerical data , Liver Neoplasms/epidemiology , Male , Mass Media/statistics & numerical data , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pancreatic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Prostatic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Stomach Neoplasms/epidemiology