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Int. braz. j. urol ; 48(2): 263-274, March-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364963


ABSTRACT Purpose: Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most common oncologic disease among men. Radical treatment with curative intent provides good oncological results for PCa survivors, although definitive therapy is associated with significant number of serious side-effects. In modern-era of medicine tissue-sparing techniques, such as focal HIFU, have been proposed for PCa patients in order to provide cancer control equivalent to the standard-of-care procedures while reducing morbidities and complications. The aim of this systematic review was to summarise the available evidence about focal HIFU therapy as a primary treatment for localized PCa. Material and methods: We conducted a comprehensive literature review of focal HIFU therapy in the MEDLINE database (PROSPERO: CRD42021235581). Articles published in the English language between 2010 and 2020 with more than 50 patients were included. Results: Clinically significant in-field recurrence and out-of-field progression were detected to 22% and 29% PCa patients, respectively. Higher ISUP grade group, more positive cores at biopsy and bilateral disease were identified as the main risk factors for disease recurrence. The most common strategy for recurrence management was definitive therapy. Six months after focal HIFU therapy 98% of patients were totally continent and 80% of patients retained sufficient erections for sexual intercourse. The majority of complications presented in the early postoperative period and were classified as low-grade. Conclusions: This review highlights that focal HIFU therapy appears to be a safe procedure, while short-term cancer control rate is encouraging. Though, second-line treatment or active surveillance seems to be necessary in a significant number of patients.

Humans , Male , Prostatic Neoplasms/surgery , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Ultrasound, High-Intensity Focused, Transrectal/methods , Treatment Outcome , Salvage Therapy/methods , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/surgery
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 504-508, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935627


Prostate biopsy is the gold standard for the diagnosis of prostate cancer. In order to successfully and effectively complete the biopsy, clinicians should not only select the correct puncture method, but also pay attention to the pain control of patients undergoing puncture. It is necessary to select a reasonable anesthetic method for biopsy. The pain during biopsy comes from the skin, muscle and other structures in the puncture approach, and also comes from the prostate capsule. Therefore, the anesthesia emphasis of transperineal and transrectal biopsy approaches will also be different. The use of appropriate anesthesia is of great significance to improve the patient's cooperation and ensure the success rate of biopsy. With the continuous maturity of the technology and concept of prostate biopsy, a single anesthesia method has been unable to meet the actual anesthetic needs of biopsy, and the use of multi-site and multi-phase combined anesthesia for different sources of pain has become the mainstream anesthetic option.

Humans , Male , Anesthesia , Anesthesia, Local , Biopsy , Image-Guided Biopsy/methods , Pain/pathology , Prostate/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e191058, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383991


Abstract Whole-body bone scintigraphy (WB-BS) is used for detecting and monitoring metastatic spread of prostate cancer (PCa) and to investigate bone pain episodes. To investigate the impact of a positive WB-BS on pain-relieving medicine prescription in PCa patients, a single-center, retrospective cohort study with PCa patients classified as positive for bone metastases (BM) by WB-BS was conducted. Demographic, clinical, and ambulatory pain-relieving medicine prescription data were evaluated. Pain-relieving medicines were categorized according to the WHO 'Analgesic Ladder'. Regimens adopted before and after WB-BS were compared. Differences were considered significant at p<0.05. A total of 180 PCa patients were diagnosed with BM, 64.4% of whom were ≥65 years of age. Thirty-three patients were prescribed analgesics only after WB-BS, mostly including NSAIDs and weak opioids. Pain-relieving prescription changed after WB-BS in patients with prescriptions before and after WB-BS, with a reduction in NSAIDs and adjuvants and an increase in weak and strong opioids. In addition, 40% of patients with WHO analgesic step 1 drugs and 21.7% of patients with WHO step 2 drugs before WB-BS changed to other WHO steps after WB-BS. Pain-relieving prescriptions changed after a positive WB-BS, providing evidence that it could contribute to clinical management of painful metastatic PCa patients.

Humans , Male , Adult , Patients/classification , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Radionuclide Imaging/instrumentation , Retrospective Studies , Neoplasm Metastasis/diagnosis , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/adverse effects , Diagnosis , Analgesics/administration & dosage , Analgesics, Opioid/adverse effects
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e20627, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420511


Abstract 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA)-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) were formulated for prostate cancer therapy and to determine the optimal therapeutic dose, we developed a rapid, specific, and accurate reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method to quantify the ACA content in NLCs. The method was validated according to International Council for Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) guidelines. Chromatographic separation of ACA from the lipid components was performed with an Agilent 1220 Infinity LC system and ultraviolet detector using an Agilent Poroshell C18 column (4.6 x 250.0 mm). The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile and water (80:20 [v/v]) with a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min in isocratic mode. Linearity of the standard curve was assessed at an ACA concentration range of 5-200 µg/mL, and a 1/x weighted linear regression was adopted for the calibration curve. The calculated limits of detection and quantification were 0.59 µg/mL and 1.79 µg/mL, respectively. The mean percent recovery of ACA was 100.02% (relative SD, 2%), and the coefficients of variation for intraday and interday assays were within the values required by the ICH. We also demonstrated robustness of the method by altering the mobile phase ratio and flow rate. Furthermore, we proved specificity of the method for ACA by comparing chromatograms of the blank NLC and ACA-NLC. Hence, we effectively used this validated method to determine the drug-loading capacity and entrapment efficiency of the NLCs.

Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Validation Study , Acetates/agonists , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Drug Therapy/classification , Chromatography, Reverse-Phase/methods
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 195-200, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928548


The goal of this study was to investigate the clinical application of free/total prostate-specific antigen (F/T PSA) ratio, considering the new broad serum total PSA (T-PSA) "gray zone" of 2.0-25.0 ng ml-1 in differential diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa) and benign prostate diseases (BPD) in men over 50 years in Western China. A total of 1655 patients were included, 528 with PCa and 1127 with BPD. Serum T-PSA, free PSA (F-PSA), and F/T PSA ratio were analyzed. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to assess the efficiency of PSA and F/T PSA ratio. There were 47.4% of cancer patients with T-PSA of 2.0-25.0 ng ml-1. When T-PSA was 2.0-4.0 ng ml-1, 4.0-10.0 ng ml-1, and 10.0-25.0 ng ml-1, the area under the curve (AUC) of F/T PSA ratio was 0.749, 0.769, and 0.761, respectively. The best AUC of F/T PSA ratio was 0.811 when T-PSA was 2.0-25.0 ng ml-1, with a specificity of 0.732, a sensitivity of 0.788, and an optimal cutoff value of 15.5%. The AUC of F/T PSA ratio in different age groups (50-59 years, 60-69 years, 70-79 years, and ≥80 years) was 0.767, 0.806, 0.815, and 0.833, respectively, and the best sensitivity (0.857) and specificity (0.802) were observed in patients over 80 years. The T-PSA trend was in accordance with the Gleason score, tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage, and American Joint Committee on Cancer prognosis group. Therefore, the F/T PSA ratio can facilitate the differential diagnosis of PCa and BPD in the broad T-PSA "gray zone". Serum T-PSA can be a Gleason score and prognostic indicator.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Area Under Curve , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927855


Radiomics can extract high-throughput and quantitative image features from medical images and mine the information related to the pathophysiology of tumors,which can help clinical decision-making and improve the diagnostic and predictive performance.Radiomics has been widely used in the study of prostate cancer (PCa),demonstrating application values in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis,pathology classification,invasion assessment,efficacy prediction,and prognosis analysis of PCa.Here we reviewed the recent research progress of magnetic resonance imaging-based radiomics in PCa.

Humans , Male , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Prognosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 19(1): 51-53, março 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361751


A metastização ganglionar cervical por neoplasia da próstata é rara, sendo ainda menos frequente como manifestação inicial da doença. O presente estudo é um relato de um caso clínico de uma pessoa do sexo masculino, com 72 anos, que apresentava massa cervical esquerda, indolor, com 2 meses de evolução e dores ósseas lombar e torácica. A citologia aspirativa por agulha fina com estudo imuno-histoquímico revelou positividade para o antígeno prostático específico, concluindo se tratar de metástase ganglionar de carcinoma da próstata. Analiticamente, constatou-se que o valor do antígeno prostático específico foi maior que 1.000ng/mL, além da elevação da fosfatase alcalina. A cintilografia óssea de corpo inteiro revelou envolvimento ósseo secundário. Após o diagnóstico, o paciente iniciou hormonoterapia e recusou radioterapia com intuito paliativo. Oito meses após o diagnóstico, constatou-se a recorrência da doença, com elevação do valor do antígeno prostático específico novamente. Dessa forma, relata-se um caso de neoplasia da próstata com metastização óssea e ganglionar cervical esquerda em um indivíduo assintomático do ponto de vista urológico. Salienta-se que, no diagnóstico diferencial de adenopatias cervicais, deve-se considerar a neoplasia da próstata em pessoas do sexo masculino. (AU)

Cervical lymph nodes involvement is rare in prostate cancer and uncommon as an initial manifestation. This study is a clinical case report of a 72-year-old man who presented with a left cervical painless mass of 2-month progression, and bone pain on the lumbar and thoracic regions. Fine-needle aspiration cytology with immunohistochemistry staining was performed and revealed positivity for prostate-specific antigen consistent with prostate adenocarcinoma metastasis. Blood tests revealed a prostate-specific antigen of more than 1,000ng/mL, as well as high alkaline phosphatase. Whole-body bone scan showed secondary bone involvement. Following diagnosis, the patient started hormonal therapy and refused palliative radiotherapy. Eight months after diagnosis, recurrence was observed, with prostate-specific antigen elevation again. Thus, a clinical case of prostate cancer with bone and cervical lymph node metastasis in a patient with no urologic symptoms is reported. It should be noted that prostate cancer shall always be considered in the differential diagnosis of cervical lymphadenopathies in male patients. (AU)

Humans , Male , Aged , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Bone Neoplasms/secondary , Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Superior Cervical Ganglion , Lymphadenopathy/etiology , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Bone Neoplasms/diagnosis , Adenocarcinoma/diagnosis , Fatal Outcome , Lymphadenopathy/diagnosis , Lymphatic Metastasis
Protein & Cell ; (12): 29-38, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880916


Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed non-cutaneous cancers in North American men. While androgen deprivation has remained as the cornerstone of prostate cancer treatment, resistance ensues leading to lethal disease. Forkhead box A1 (FOXA1) encodes a pioneer factor that induces open chromatin conformation to allow the binding of other transcription factors. Through direct interactions with the Androgen Receptor (AR), FOXA1 helps to shape AR signaling that drives the growth and survival of normal prostate and prostate cancer cells. FOXA1 also possesses an AR-independent role of regulating epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In prostate cancer, mutations converge onto the coding sequence and cis-regulatory elements (CREs) of FOXA1, leading to functional alterations. In addition, FOXA1 activity in prostate cancer can be modulated post-translationally through various mechanisms such as LSD1-mediated protein demethylation. In this review, we describe the latest discoveries related to the function and regulation of FOXA1 in prostate cancer, pointing to their relevance to guide future clinical interventions.

Humans , Male , Amino Acid Sequence , Epigenesis, Genetic , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 3-alpha/metabolism , Histone Demethylases/metabolism , Histones/metabolism , Mutation , Prostate/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Protein Binding , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Receptors, Androgen/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Transcription, Genetic
Int. braz. j. urol ; 46(5): 786-793, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134218


ABSTRACT Objective: This study aims to design a novel semirigid ureterorenoscope with irrigation and vacuum suction system and a modified ureteral access sheath (UAS) named Sotn ureterorenoscope® (Sotn=ShuoTong Medical Company) to overcome the deficiencies of the current procedure and to improve the efficiency and safety of using Sotn ureterorenoscope® for treatment of upper urinary calculi. Materials and Methods: Fifty-eight patients, comprising 31 males and 27 females, were evaluated. The medical records of 58 patients with upper urinary calculi treated with Sotn ureterorenoscope® from March 2015 to June 2017 were retrospectively reviewed at the Second Affiliate Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine in China. The primary outcome was stone-free rate (SFR) assessed by computed tomography on the 1st day and one month after treatment. The secondary outcome was postoperative complication rate. Results: The mean and SD of operative duration was 48.5 (10.4) min, and the mean and SD of stone size was 15.6 (5.6) mm. The primary overall SFR was 89.7% (52/58) and 100% at 1 month follow-up. Complication, which was Clavien I (minor fever managed by antipyretic therapy), was detected in 1.7% (1/58) of the patients. Conclusions: Sotn ureterorenoscope® is technically feasible, efficacious and safe for treatment of upper urinary calculi because of its advantages of high SFR and low complication rates.

Humans , Male , Prostatic Neoplasms/complications , Ureteral Calculi/surgery , Ureteral Calculi/diagnostic imaging , Ureteroscopy/methods , Postoperative Complications , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Kidney Calculi , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , China , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Ureteroscopes
Int. j. morphol ; 38(4): 882-887, Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124870


The different pathologies of the prostate, involve the presence of a new microenvironment where inflammatory cells are actively recruited. This research explores the presence of mast cells and eosinophils associated with age and the evaluation of prostate cancer progress (Gleason Index). Forty two biopsies of anonymized patients, with confirmed prostate cancer, were used for histological analysis for eosinophils and mast cells and subsequent determination of Gleason index according to age. The results of the histological analyzes show the presence of eosinophils and mast cells in prostate biopsies with confirmed cancer. In the multiple correlation studies, a high correlation was observed between the presence of lymphocytes and the age of the patient diagnosed with prostate cancer, same correlation was observed between the patient's age and higher Gleason Index (Pearson and Spearman p< 0.05). It is concluded that in prostate biopsies from Chilean patients with confirmed cancer, eosinophilia and tissue mastocytosis were observed. Correlation analyzes show a direct correlation between older patients, higher Gleason index and presence of mast cell. Regarding eosinophilia, only a correlation between age and Gleason index was observed Further studies are suggested to determine that the presence of eosinophils and mast cells can be used as early bioindicators of prostate cancer.

Las diferentes patologías de próstata, involucran la presencia de un nuevo microambiente donde las células inflamatorias son activamente reclutadas. La presente investigación explora la presencia de mastocitos y eosinófilos asociadas a la edad y la evaluación del progreso del cáncer de próstata según índice de Gleason. Cuarenta y dos biopsias de pacientes anonimizados, con cáncer prostático confirmados, fueron utilizadas para su análisis histológico para eosinófilos y mastocitos y posterior determinación del índice de Gleason según edad. Los resultados de los análisis histológicos, muestran la presencia de eosinófilos y mastocitos en biopsias de próstata con cáncer confirmado. En los estudios de correlación múltiple, se observó una alta correlación entre la presencia de linfocitos, mastocitos y la edad del paciente diagnosticado con cáncer prostático, igual correlación se observó entre la edad del paciente y mayor índice de Gleason (Pearson y Spearman p<0,05). Se concluyó que en las biopsias de próstata de pacientes chilenos con cáncer confirmado, se observó eosinofilia y mastocitosis tisular. Los análisis de correlación muestran una correlación directa entre pacientes de mayor edad, índice de Gleason más alto y la presencia de mastocitos. Con respecto a la eosinofilia, solo se observó una correlación entre la edad y el índice de Gleason. Se sugieren estudios adicionales para determinar que la presencia de eosinófilos y mastocitos puede usarse como bioindicadores tempranos del cáncer de próstata.

Humans , Male , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Prostate/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Biopsy , Mastocytosis/pathology , Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis , Chile , Age Factors , Eosinophilia/pathology , Early Detection of Cancer , Neoplasm Grading
Int. braz. j. urol ; 46(1): 34-41, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056354


ABSTRACT Purpose: Prostate cancer screening in the elderly is controversial. The Brazilian government and the National Cancer Institute (INCA) do not recommend systematic screening. Our purpose was to assess prevalence and aggressiveness of prostate cancer in men aged 70 years and above, on the first Latin American database to date. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study (n=17,571) from 231 municipalities, visited by Mobile Cancer Prevention Units of a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) based opportunistic screening program, between 2004 and 2007. The criteria for biopsy were: PSA>4.0ng/ml, or PSA 2.5-4.0ng/ml with free/total PSA ratio ≤15%, or suspicious digital rectal examination findings. The screened men were stratified in two age groups (45-69 years, and ≥70 years). These groups were compared regarding prostate cancer prevalence and aggressiveness criteria (PSA, Gleason score from biopsy and TNM staging). Results: The prevalence of prostate cancer found was 3.7%. When compared to men aged 45-69 years, individuals aged 70 years and above presented cancer prevalence about three times higher (prevalence ratio 2.9, p<0.01), and greater likelihood to present PSA level above 10.0ng/ml at diagnosis (odds ratio 2.63, p<0.01). The group of elderly men also presented prevalence of histologically aggressive disease (Gleason 8-10) 3.6 times higher (p<0.01), and 5-fold greater prevalence of metastases (PR 4.95, p<0.05). Conclusions: Prostate cancer screening in men aged over 70 may be relevant in Brazil, considering the absence of systematic screening, higher prevalence and higher probability of high-risk disease found in this age range of the population studied.

Humans , Male , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Mass Screening/methods , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Biopsy , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Risk Assessment , Digital Rectal Examination , Early Detection of Cancer , Neoplasm Grading , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Staging
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eAO4662, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056076


ABSTRACT Objective To assess accuracy of multiparametric magnetic resonance of the prostate to estimate gland volume, comparing the results with transrectal ultrasound and surgical specimen. Methods A retrospective study of 85 patients who underwent multiparametric magnetic resonance and transrectal ultrasound (for fusion image-guided biopsy) before radical prostatectomy. Prostate measurements were obtained from magnetic resonance axial and sagittal T2-weighted images and ultrasound; the prostate volume was determined using the ellipsoid formula. The results were compared with the surgical specimen weight. Maximum interval between multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging, transrectal ultrasound, and prostatectomy was 6 months. Results The prostate volume measured by multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging was 18-157cm3 (mean of 49.9cm3) and by transrectal ultrasound, 22-165cm3 (mean of 54.9cm3); the surgical specimen weight was 20-154g (mean of 48.6g), with no statistical differences. Based on the values obtained from imaging examinations, the prostate volume obtained was very close to the real prostatic weight, and the measures by multiparametric magnetic resonance were slightly more precise. Conclusion Prostate volume measured by multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging and transrectal ultrasound showed similar values, and excellent agreement with real prostate weight of the surgical specimens. Prostate volume measured by magnetic resonance has been increasingly used in the clinical practice, and its value enables appropriate therapeutic planning and control of patients.

RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar a acurácia da ressonância magnética multiparamétrica da próstata para estimativa do volume da glândula, comparando seus resultados com a ultrassonografia transretal e correlacionando com o volume obtido da peça cirúrgica. Métodos Estudo retrospectivo incluindo 85 pacientes submetidos à ressonância magnética e, posteriormente, à ultrassonografia transretal (para orientação de biópsia com fusão de imagens) e, a seguir, à prostatectomia radical. As dimensões prostáticas foram obtidas na ressonância a partir das imagens nos planos axial e sagital em sequências ponderadas em T2 e, assim como na ultrassonografia, o volume foi calculado a partir do método da elipsoide. Os valores foram comparados com o peso prostático pós-cirúrgico. O intervalo máximo entre a ressonância e ultrassonografia e prostatectomia foi de 6 meses. Resultados O volume prostático obtido por ressonância magnética foi de 18 a 157cm3(média de 49,9cm3); pela ultrassonografia transretal, foi de 22 a 165cm3(média de 54,9cm3); e o peso da peça cirúrgica foi de 20 a 154g (média de 48,6g), sem diferenças estatísticas. A partir do valor obtido por esses métodos de imagem, provou-se que o volume prostático obtido aproximou-se bastante do peso real da próstata, com discreta maior precisão das medidas obtidas por ressonância magnética multiparamétrica. Conclusão As medidas do volume prostático adquiridas pela ressonância magnética e pela ultrassonografia transretal são semelhantes entre si, com excelente concordância com os pesos reais das próstatas obtidos das peças cirúrgicas. A avaliação desse dado, a partir da ressonância, método cada vez mais utilizado na prática clínica, permite o adequado planejamento terapêutico e o controle dos pacientes.

Humans , Male , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Prostate/anatomy & histology , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography/methods , Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Organ Size , Prostate/diagnostic imaging , Prostatectomy , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Image-Guided Biopsy/methods , Dimensional Measurement Accuracy , Middle Aged
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 54: 87, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1127244


ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the magnitude and identify patterns of change in prostate cancer mortality in the state of São Paulo and in the 17 regional health care networks, according to age groups from 50 years onwards, in the period between 2000 to 2015. METHODS Age-adjusted mortality rates (per 100,000 men) were calculated by the direct method using the Segi world population as standard. Joinpoint regression was used to calculate the average annual percent change (AAPC), with a confidence interval of 95% (95%CI), by regional network and age group (50-59, 60-69, 70-79 and 80 years or more). RESULTS For the state of São Paulo, age-adjusted mortality rates were 15.2, 13.3 and 11.9 per 100,000 men, respectively, in the periods between 2000 to 2005, 2006 to 2010 and 2011 to 2015, with a significant decrease trend (AAPC = -2.10%; 95%CI -2.42 - -1.79) each year. Among the 17 networks, 11 presented significant mean annual reductions, ranging from -1.72% to -3.05%. From the age of 50 onwards, there was a sharper reduction in the groups from 50 to 59 (AAPC = -2.33%; 95%CI -3.04 - -1.62) and 60 to 69 years (AAPC = -2.84%; 95%CI - 3.25 - -2.43). CONCLUSION Although reductions in mortality are still slight, they indicate progress in prostate cancer control actions. Screening actions and changes in therapeutic behaviors in recent decades may be modifying incidence and survival, resulting in changes in the mortality profile. More detailed studies will be useful in understanding the factors that lead to the interregional variations found.

RESUMO OBJETIVO Estimar a magnitude e identificar padrões de mudança na mortalidade por câncer de próstata no estado de São Paulo e nas 17 redes regionais de atenção à saúde, segundo grupos etários a partir dos 50 anos, no período de 2000 a 2015. MÉTODOS As taxas de mortalidade ajustadas por idade (por 100 mil homens) foram calculadas pelo método direto usando a população mundial de Segi como padrão. A análise de regressão Joinpoint foi utilizada para calcular as variações percentuais anuais médias (AAPC), com intervalo de confiança de 95% (IC95%), por rede regional e grupo etário (50-59, 60-69, 70-79 e 80 anos ou mais). RESULTADOS Para o estado de São Paulo, as taxas ajustadas de mortalidade foram de 15,2, 13,3 e 11,9/100 mil homens, respectivamente, nos períodos de 2000 a 2005, 2006 a 2010 e 2011 a 2015, com tendência de decréscimo significativo (AAPC = -2,10%; IC95% -2,42 - -1,79) a cada ano. Das 17 redes, 11 apresentaram reduções médias anuais significativas, que variaram entre -1,72% e -3,05%. A partir dos 50 anos, verificou-se redução mais acentuada nos grupos de 50 a 59 (AAPC = -2,33%; IC95% -3,04 - -1,62) e 60 a 69 anos (AAPC = -2,84%; IC95% -3,25 - -2,43). CONCLUSÕES Embora as reduções na mortalidade ainda sejam discretas, indicam progresso nas ações de controle do câncer de próstata. Ações de rastreamento e mudanças nas condutas terapêuticas nas últimas décadas podem estar modificando a incidência e a sobrevida, resultando em mudanças no perfil de mortalidade. Estudos mais detalhados serão úteis na compreensão dos fatores que levam às variações inter-regionais encontradas.

Humans , Male , Aged , Prostatic Neoplasms/mortality , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence , Mortality , Environment , Middle Aged
National Journal of Andrology ; (12): 881-887, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880286


Objective@#To investigate the relationship between the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram parameters based on the whole tumor and the pathological grade and lymph node metastasis (LNM) of PCa.@*METHODS@#This retrospective study included 82 cases of PCa confirmed pathologically and subjected to MRI preoperatively. We obtained a series of ADC histogram parameters, such as ADCmean, ADCmedian, ADC25%, ADC75%, entropy, and histogram width, by processing the ADC images via the Firevoxel Post-Processing and the SPSS24 software. We compared the parameters between the high-risk and low- or moderate-risk groups as well as between the LNM-positive and LNM-negative groups of the patients, and analyzed the diagnostic performance of the parameters with statistically significant differences.@*RESULTS@#The high-risk group, compared with the low- or moderate-risk one, showed a significantly lower ADCmean ([590 ± 120] vs [837 ± 142] ×10-6 mm2/s, P < 0.01), ADCmedian ([560 ± 117] vs [804 ± 139] ×10-6 mm2/s, P < 0.01), ADC25% ([446.5 ± 98] vs [717 ± 118] ×10-6 mm2/, P < 0.01) and ADC75% ([667 ± 132] vs [931 ± 167] ×10-6 mm2/s, P < 0.01). The ADCmean manifested the highest diagnostic performance, with an AUC of 0.907, a sensitivity of 0.933 and a specificity of 0.796. No statistically significant difference was found between the high-risk and the low- or moderate-risk one in entropy (3.58 ± 0.39 vs 3.63 ± 0.42, P = 0.238) or the histogram width ([540 ± 73] vs [520 ± 65] ×10-6 mm2/s, P = 0.086). Both entropy and the histogram width were remarkably higher in the LNM-positive than in the LNM-negative group (3.95 ± 0.41 vs 3.12 ± 0.45, P < 0.01; [578 ± 59] vs [455 ± 68] ×10-6 mm2/s, P < 0.01), and the former had an even higher diagnostic performance, with an AUC of 0.836, a sensitivity of 0.887 and a specificity of 0.781. There were no statistically significant differences between the LNM-positive and LNM-negative groups in the ADCmean ([768 ± 135] vs [790±128] ×10-6 mm2/s, P = 0.402), ADCmedian ([759 ± 110] vs [775 ± 121] ×10-6 mm2/s, P = 0.225), ADC25% ([643 ± 91] vs [657 ± 89] ×10-6 mm2/s, P = 0.654) or ADC75% ([895 ± 127] vs [872 ± 129] ×10-6 mm2/s, P = 0.926).@*CONCLUSIONS@#ADC histogram parameters are related to pathological grade and LNM of PCa, and the analysis of the ADC histogram based on the whole tumor has an important value for preoperative evaluation and prognostic estimation of the malignancy.

Humans , Male , Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Lymphatic Metastasis , Prognosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Retrospective Studies
Rev. chil. radiol ; 25(4): 119-127, dic. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058212


Resumen: Objetivo: Analizar las biopsias realizadas en paciente categorizados PIRADS 3 en nuestra institución desde el segundo semestre del año 2016 al primer semestre del año 2018 y describir la correlación de la densidad de PSA con la incidencia de cáncer de próstata. Evaluar el rol de la densidad de PSA en la indicación de estudio histológico en pacientes PIRADS 3. Método: Trabajo autorizado por el comité de ética de nuestra institución. Se realizó búsqueda en el PACs, de todos los informes de RM multiparamétricas de próstata que incluyeran la categoría ¨PIRADS 3¨ en el periodo señalado. De ellos se calculó la densidad de PSA, con el último valor de PSA registrado en la ficha clínica previo a RM y volumen prostático en RM. Se procedió a buscar los pacientes con estudio histológico. Se correlacionó los resultados de biopsias con el valor de densidad de PSA. Realizamos análisis uni y multivariados, análisis estadísticos con sensibilidad, especificidad y uso de curva ROC. Resultados: De las 2416 RMmp de próstata realizadas en nuestra institución en las fechas ya descritas, se encontraron 424 informes catalogados con score PIRADS 3, y 267 de esos pacientes tenían estudio y seguimiento institucional, de los cuales 134 contaban con biopsia. La muestra tenía un promedio de edad de 60 años, y una mediana de densidad de PSA de 0,10 (RIC 0,07-0,14). Se encontraron 36 biopsias con cáncer clínicamente significativo (Gleason > 6), lo que corresponde a 26,8% de la muestra, valor similar al encontrado en la literuatua. En estos pacientes se obtuvo un punto de corte óptimo de densidad de PSA de 0,11, con una sensibilidad y especificidad de 67% y un AUC de 0,68. Una densidad de PSA de 0,11 presenta un OR de 4,1, con una probabilidad de 4 veces más de encontrar un cáncer de próstata por sobre este valor (IC 95% 1,3-9,8), lo cuál es estadísticamente significativo con un p igual a 0,01. Conclusión: La DAPE sobre 0,11 ng/ml/cc puede considerarse como una herramienta adicional para indicar biopsia en pacientes con RMmp PI-RADS 3, aumentando la precisión para la detección de cáncer de próstata clínicamente significativos ayudando a disminuir estudios histológicos innecesarios.

Abstract: Objective: To analyze the biopsies performed in patients categorized PIRADS 3 in our institution from the second half of 2016 to the first half of 2018 and describe the correlation of PSA density with the incidence of prostate cancer. To evaluate the role of PSA density in the indication of histological study in PIRADS 3 patients. Method: Work authorized by the ethics committee of our institution. The PACs were searched for all multiparameter prostate MRI reports that included the category "PIRADS 3" in the period indicated. The PSA density was calculated, with the last PSA value recorded in the clinical record before MRI and prostate volume in MRI. We proceeded to look for patients with the histological study. The biopsy results were correlated with the PSA density value. We perform uni and multivariate analyzes, statistical analyzes with sensitivity, specificity and use of the ROC curve. Results: Of the 2416 RMmp of the prostate performed in our institution on the dates already described, 424 reports catalogued with PIRADS 3 score were found, and 267 of those patients had study and institutional follow-up, of which 134 had a biopsy. The sample had an average age of 60 years and a median PSA density of 0.10 (RIC 0.075-0.146). We found 36 biopsies with clinically significant cancer (Gleason> 6), which corresponds to 26.8% of the sample, a value similar to that found in the literature. In these patients, an optimal cut-off point of PSA density of 0.11 was obtained, with a sensitivity and specificity of 67% and an AUC of 0.68. A PSA density of 0.11 has an OR of 4.1, with a 4-fold probability of finding prostate cancer above this value (95% CI 1.3-9.8), which It is statistically significant with a p equal to 0.01. Conclusion: DAPE over 0.11 ng/ml/cc can be considered as an additional tool to indicate biopsy in patients with RMmp PI-RADS 3, increasing the accuracy for the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer helping to reduce unnecessary histological studies.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Prostate/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms/classification , Prostatic Neoplasms/blood , Biopsy , Multivariate Analysis , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Risk Assessment , Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Rev. chil. radiol ; 25(4): 128-140, dic. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058213


Resumen: La resonancia magnética multiparamétrica (RMmp) de próstata ha tenido un desarrollo importante en los últimos años dado la alta prevalencia del cáncer de próstata y la necesidad de tener información imagenológica concreta para el correcto manejo de los pacientes urológicos. Otras técnicas de imágenes aportan información parcial sobre la morfología de la próstata, pero es la RMmp de próstata la técnica imagenológica que nos entrega mayor información, a través de secuencias morfológicas y funcionales, para detectar lesiones clínicamente significativas y disminuir el número de biopsias, predecir riesgo de agresividad de los tumores, estadificación local y ayudar al urólogo a realizar biopsias dirigidas cognitivas o por fusión RM/US. En este artículo se pretende mostrar casos representativos de errores frecuentes al momento de informar una resonancia magnética de próstata. Damos algunas recomendaciones para evitar estos errores y mejorar los informes radiológicos. Es común al comenzar a realizar informes de RMmp de próstata tener dudas sobre la correcta interpretación de los hallazgos. Ofrecemos a través de este articulo imágenes representativas de los principales errores en la búsqueda de patología neoplásica y algunas sugerencias para evitarlos. Desde el punto de vista académico se pueden dividir en pitfalls de condiciones anatómicas y patologías benignas que pueden simular un tumor. En el caso de pitfalls anatómicos mostramos casos referentes al estroma fibromuscular anterior hipertrófico, cápsula quirúrgica engrosada, plexo venoso peri-prostático, complejo neurovascular y pseudolesión posterior en zona periférica. Dentro de las condiciones benignas se encuentra la hiperplasia prostática benigna, procesos inflamatorios/infecciosos y otras condiciones que pueden simular tumor. Respecto a pitfalls relacionados con la hiperplasia prostática benigna podemos señalar hiperplasia de la zona de transición / central ("moustache-sign"), proliferación estromal en la zona de transición y nódulos adenomatosos ectópicos u extruidos en la zona periférica (ZP). Pitfalls inflamatorios/infecciosos corresponden a casos de prostatitis focal, prostatitis aguda, prostatitis con abscesos y prostatitis granulomatosa. Otros errores frecuentes de dificultad en la interpretación corresponden a casos de calcificaciones y hemorragia.

Abstract: Multiparameter magnetic resonance imaging (RMmp) of the prostate has had an important development in recent years given the high prevalence of prostate cancer and the need to have specific imaging information for the correct management of urological patients. Other imaging techniques provide partial information about the morphology of the prostate, but it is the mp-MRI of the prostate that gives us more information, through morphological and functional sequences, to detect clinically significant lesions and reduce the number of biopsies, predict risk of aggressiveness of the tumors, local staging and help the urologist to perform cognitive biopsies or by MR / US fusion. This article aims to show representative cases of frequent errors when reporting an MRI of the prostate. We give some recommendations to avoid these errors and improve radiological reports. It is common to start making mp-MRI of the prostate reports having doubts about the correct interpretation of the findings. We offer through this article representative images of the main errors in the search for neoplastic pathology and some suggestions to avoid them. From the academic point of view they can be divided into pitfalls of anatomical conditions and benign pathologies that can simulate a tumor. In the case of anatomical pitfalls, we show cases related to the hypertrophic anterior fibromuscular stroma, thickened surgical capsule, peri-prostatic venous plexus, neurovascular complex and posterior pseudo-injury in the peripheral area. Among the benign conditions is benign prostatic hyperplasia, inflammatory / infectious processes and other conditions that can simulate tumor. Regarding pitfalls related to benign prostatic hyperplasia, we can indicate hyperplasia of the transition / central zone ("mustache-sign"), stromal proliferation in the transition zone and ectopic or extruded adenomatous nodules in the peripheral zone. Inflammatory / infectious pitfalls correspond to cases of focal prostatitis, acute prostatitis, prostatitis with abscesses and granulomatous prostatitis. Other frequent errors of difficulty in interpretation correspond to cases of calcifications and hemorrhage.

Humans , Prostate/diagnostic imaging , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Diagnostic Errors , Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Prostate/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(6): 1113-1121, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056346


ABSTRACT Purpose: To establish whether the citrate concentration in the seminal fluid ([CITRATE]) measured by means of high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1HNMRS) is superior to the serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration in detecting of clinically significant prostate cancer (csPCa) in men with persistently elevated PSA. Materials and Methods: The group of patients consisted of 31 consecutively seen men with histological diagnosis of clinically localized csPCa. The control group consisted of 28 men under long-term follow-up (mean of 8.7 ± 3.0 years) for benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), with persistently elevated PSA (above 4 ng/mL) and several prostate biopsies negative for cancer (mean of 2.7 ± 1.3 biopsies per control). Samples of blood and seminal fluid (by masturbation) for measurement of PSA and citrate concentration, respectively, were collected from patients and controls. Citrate concentration in the seminal fluid ([CITRATE]) was determined by means of 1HNMRS. The capacities of PSA and [CITRATE] to predict csPCa were compared by means of univariate analysis and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results: Median [CITRATE] was significantly lower among patients with csPCa compared to controls (3.93 mM/l vs. 15.53 mM/l). There was no significant difference in mean PSA between patients and controls (9.42 ng/mL vs. 8.57 ng/mL). The accuracy of [CITRATE] for detecting csPCa was significantly superior compared to PSA (74.8% vs. 54.8%). Conclusion: Measurement of [CITRATE] by means of 1HNMRS is superior to PSA for early detection of csPCa in men with elevated PSA.

Humans , Male , Aged , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Semen/chemistry , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Citric Acid/analysis , Prostatic Hyperplasia/diagnosis , Prostatic Hyperplasia/blood , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms/blood , Biopsy , Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Statistics, Nonparametric , Risk Assessment , Middle Aged
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(6): 1196-1203, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056345


ABSTRACT Aims: Radical prostatectomy (RP) can result in urinary incontinence (UI) and erectile dysfunction (ED), which negatively impact quality of life (QoL). This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a perioperative pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) program versus usual care on early recovery of urinary continence and erectile function after RP. Materials and Methods: Of 59 eligible men, 31 were randomly allocated into 2 groups: Group 1 (Control, N=15) received usual post-RP care; and Group 2 (Physical therapy, N=16) received two pre-RP physical therapist-guided PFMT sessions, including exercises and electromyographic biofeedback, and verbal and written instructions to continue PFMT until RP, which was then resumed after urethral catheter removal. The International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire - Short Form (ICIQ-SF) and the 5-item version of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) questionnaire were used to evaluate UI and ED, respectively. Results: Demographic characteristics were similar in both groups. Three months after RP, the UI rate was 72.7% and 70.0% in Groups 1 and 2, respectively (P >0.05). The severity and frequency of UI and its impact on QoL were evaluated by the ICIQ-Short Form, with scores of 6.9±6.26 in Group 1 and 7.0±5.12 in Group 2 (P >0.05). The IIEF-5 scores were similar in Groups 1 and 2 (5.73±7.43 vs. 6.70±6.68, respectively) (P >0.05). Conclusion: Our pre-RP protocol of two physical therapist-assisted sessions of PFMT plus instructions did not significantly improve urinary continence or erectile function at 3 months after RP.

Humans , Male , Aged , Prostatectomy/rehabilitation , Urinary Incontinence/rehabilitation , Pelvic Floor/physiopathology , Perioperative Care/methods , Muscle Stretching Exercises/methods , Erectile Dysfunction/rehabilitation , Prostatectomy/adverse effects , Prostatectomy/methods , Prostatic Neoplasms/surgery , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Quality of Life , Urinary Incontinence/etiology , Urinary Incontinence/physiopathology , Adenocarcinoma/surgery , Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Prospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Treatment Outcome , Neurofeedback , Neoplasm Grading , Erectile Dysfunction/etiology , Erectile Dysfunction/physiopathology , Middle Aged , Muscle Contraction/physiology , Neoplasm Staging