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Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928490


Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is the most difficult complication following total joint arthroplasty. Most of the etiological strains, accounting for over 98% of PJI, are bacterial species, with Staphylococcusaureus and Coagulase-negative staphylococci present in between 50% and 60% of all PJIs. Fungi, though rare, can also cause PJI in 1%-2% of cases and can be challenging to manage. The management of this uncommon but complex condition is challenging due to the absence of a consistent algorithm. Diagnosis of fungal PJI is difficult as isolation of the organisms by traditional culture may take a long time, and some of the culture-negative PJI can be caused by fungal organisms. In recent years, the introduction of next-generation sequencing has provided opportunity for isolation of the infective organisms in culture-negative PJI cases. The suggested treatment is based on consensus and includes operative and non-operative measures. Two-stage revision surgery is the most reliable surgical option for chronic PJI caused by fungi. Pharmacological therapy with antifungal agents is required for a long period of time with antibiotics and included to cover superinfections with bacterial species. The aim of this review article is to report the most up-to-date information on the diagnosis and treatment of fungal PJI with the intention of providing clear guidance to clinicians, researchers and surgeons.

Arthritis, Infectious/etiology , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee/adverse effects , Fungi , Humans , Prosthesis-Related Infections/therapy , Retrospective Studies
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928476


Prosthetic infection is one of the severe postoperative complications of arthroplasty. Mixed bacterial-fungal prosthetic infection is rare but can be disastrous. This case was a 76-year-old female suffered from prosthetic infection following total hip replacement due to femoral neck fracture and underwent multiple debridements. The culture of periprosthetic tissue was bacteriologically sterile following the first debridement, while the Staphylococcus hominis was identified in the second debridement in the previous hospitalization where fungal infection had not been considered. Thus the pathogen spectrum of anti-infection therapy failed to contain fungus. Ultimately, the culture result of our sampled periprosthetic tissue during the third debridement was Candida albicans without bacterium in our hospital. The fungal prosthetic infection was successfully treated by a two-stage revision with antifungal drugs. Accurate diagnosis and standardized treatment is the key to the therapy of infection after hip arthroplasty, especially for mixed bacterial-fungal prosthetic infection.

Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip/adverse effects , Debridement , Female , Fungi , Hip Prosthesis/adverse effects , Humans , Mycoses/drug therapy , Prosthesis-Related Infections/therapy , Reoperation , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 36(5): 614-622, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351650


Abstract Introduction: Destructive aortic root endocarditis is associated with high mortality rates. The objective of this article was to characterize the clinical and microbiological profiles of these patients, especially concerning an already implanted aortic valve prosthesis. We also focused on prognostic factors. Methods: Eighty patients underwent aortic root replacement due to destructive endocarditis from 1999 to 2018 in our institution. We analyzed their pre, intra, and postoperative data, outcomes, and predictors of mortality. Results: Thirty-one patients had native valve endocarditis (NVE), eight patients had early-onset prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE), and 41 patients had late-onset PVE. Streptococcus was found in 19.4% of NVE cases and no PVE case. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus was responsible for 62.5% of the cases of early-onset PVE. Thirty-four (42.5%) patients had received inappropriate antibiotics before admission. No microorganism was associated with higher risk of mortality. Aortoventricular dehiscence was identified as an independent risk factor of mortality along with PVE, concomitant bypass surgery, and delayed diagnosis. The incidence of postoperative complications was similar in all three groups. Rates of long-term survival (P=0.044) and freedom from the composite endpoint (P=0.024) defined as death, stroke, aortic valve reinfection, and aortic valve reoperation were the lowest within the NVE group and the highest among the PVE patients. Conclusion: In endocarditis, prolonged diagnostics, inadequate antimicrobial treatment, and late surgery led to destructive local complications and worsened the prognosis. PVE is associated with higher mortality than NVE.

Humans , Heart Valve Prosthesis/adverse effects , Prosthesis-Related Infections/surgery , Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation/adverse effects , Endocarditis, Bacterial/surgery , Aortic Valve
Rev. Asoc. Argent. Ortop. Traumatol ; 86(4) (Nro Esp - ACARO Asociación Argentina para el Estudio de la Cadera y Rodilla): 529-536, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1353954


Los defectos de cobertura asociados a una infección de la prótesis son un desafío al cual nos enfrentamos los cirujanos ortopédicos en el posoperatorio de un reemplazo articular. El objetivo de este artículo es comunicar un caso de defecto de cobertura tratado con un colgajo neurocutáneo safeno por una artroplastia de rodilla infectada. Se recambió el espaciador y se cubrió el defecto tegumentario con colgajo neurocutáneo safeno en un mismo tiempo. Conclusiones:El colgajo neurocutáneo safeno proporciona una adecuada cobertura en la cara anterior de la rodilla y permite tratar defectos tegumentarios asociados a una infección de la prótesis. Nivel de Evidencia: IV

Soft tissue defects in the setting of periprosthetic joint infection represent serious problems for orthopaedic surgeons following total joint replacement. This report aims is to show our experience using the proximal-based saphenous neurocutaneous flap for the reconstruction of a wound defect in the treatment of a periprosthetic knee infection. A new cement spacer was placed and a neurocutaneous saphenous flap was performed in the same stage. Conclusions: Soft tissue defects around the knee can be effectively solved with the neurocutaneous saphenous flap, which provides an adequate coverage to this joint within the context of infected arthroplasty. Level of Evidence: IV

Middle Aged , Reoperation , Surgical Flaps , Prosthesis-Related Infections , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures
Rev. Asoc. Argent. Ortop. Traumatol ; 86(4) (Nro Esp - ACARO Asociación Argentina para el Estudio de la Cadera y Rodilla): 493-500, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1353950


Introducción: Los espaciadores de cemento con antibiótico pueden ser fijos o articulados y se logra un resultado similar con ambos para erradicar una infección. Nuestro objetivo fue comparar el rango de movilidad articular y los resultados funcionales después del reimplante. Materiales y Métodos: Estudio de cohorte retrospectiva de pacientes sometidos a una revisión de la prótesis de rodilla por infección, en dos tiempos quirúrgicos. Se analizó la funcionalidad según el Knee Society Score (KSS) al año de la cirugía y se registró el rango de movilidad a los 45 días. Se registraron el grado de defecto óseo, dolor, satisfacción, las complicaciones y la recidiva de la infección. Resultados:Se incluyeron 103 pacientes (40 con espaciador articulado, 63 con espaciador fijo). El grupo con espaciador articulado tuvo una mediana 2,5° mayor en la movilidad final (102,5; RIC 95-110 vs. 100; RIC 90-105, p 0,01). Según el KSS funcional y el KSS de rodilla, no hubo diferencias entre ambos grupos. No hubo diferencias en el grado de satisfacción, dolor y el tiempo hasta el reimplante. Las complicaciones fueron similares en ambos grupos, con una tasa de reinfección sin diferencias estadísticamente significativas. Conclusión: Los espaciadores articulados proporcionaron un beneficio en el rango de movilidad después del reimplante de la prótesis. Nivel de Evidencia: III

Introduction: Cement spacers with antibiotics can be fixed or articulating, with similar results in eradicating infection. Our objective was to compare joint range of motion (ROM) and functional outcomes after reimplantation. Materials and Methods: A retrospective cohort study of patients who had undergone a knee prosthetic revision due to infection in two surgical stages. Functionality was analyzed according to the Knee Society Score (KSS) one year after surgery and ROM was recorded 45 days after surgery. Bone defect, pain, satisfaction, complications, and recurrence of infection were recorded. Results:A total of 103 patients were included. 40 with articulating spacers and 63 with fixed spacers. The articulating spacer group presents a median of 2.5 degrees greater in final mobility (102.5 IQR 95-110 vs 100 IQR 90-105, p 0.01). The KSS functional scale and KSS of the knee did not show differences between two groups. There were no differences concerning satisfaction, pain, and time until reimplantation. Complications were similar in both groups, with a reinfection rate without statistically significant differences. Conclusion: Articulating spacers have shown a benefit in ROM after prosthetic reimplantation. Level of Evidence: III

Middle Aged , Aged , Reoperation , Treatment Outcome , Prosthesis-Related Infections , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee
Rev. Asoc. Argent. Ortop. Traumatol ; 86(4) (Nro Esp - ACARO Asociación Argentina para el Estudio de la Cadera y Rodilla): 501-511, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1353951


Introducción: El objetivo del estudio fue analizar la supervivencia sin recurrencia de infección en pacientes con reemplazo total de cadera tratados con revisión en dos tiempos, valorando el impacto del cultivo intraoperatorio y la congelación positiva en el reimplante. materiales y métodos: Estudio retrospectivo de 96 casos con infección periprotésica crónica, según los criterios de la MusculoSkeletal Infection Society, sometidos a los dos tiempos quirúrgicos en nuestra institución, entre 2008 y 2013. El seguimiento promedio fue 90 meses. La falla séptica se definió sobre la base de un consenso tipo Delphi modificado. La supervivencia sin falla séptica se definió sobre la base del estimador de Kaplan-Meier. Se compararon los resultados de supervivencia en función del cultivo intraoperatorio y de los estudios de anatomía patológica por congelación mediante la prueba del orden logarítmico. Resultados: La supervivencia sin falla séptica fue del 82,65% a los 2 años (IC95% 73,25-88,99%), 80,40% a los 5 años (IC95% 70,70-87,17%) y 77,32% a 6-10 años (IC95% 66,90-84,33%). Hubo significativamente más fallas en los pacientes con un cultivo positivo en el reimplante que en aquellos con un cultivo negativo (prueba del orden logarítmico, p = 0,0208), y en quienes tuvieron un estudio anatomopatológico por congelación positivo en el reimplante que en aquellos con un resultado negativo (prueba del or-den logarítmico, p = 0,0154). Conclusiones: Los reimplantes sin recurrencias infecciosas por, al menos, 6 años tuvieron un riesgo de falla séptica muy bajo. Cuando se detectó un cultivo o una congelación positivos, la falla séptica fue significativamente mayor. Nivel de Evidencia: IV

Background: We analyzed the survivorship free-from-septic failure in a series of THA cases treated with a two-stage protocol at long-term follow-up, with a special focus on the relevance of positive frozen section and positive intraoperative culture taken during the reimplantation. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed data from 96 cases who met the Musculoskeletal Infec-tion Society criteria for periprosthetic joint infection and who had undergone both stages of a two-stage protocol at our institution between 2008-2013. Mean follow-up was 90 months. Treatment failure was determined with a modified Delphi-based consensus definition. Kaplan-Meier estimate was used to determine survivorship free-from-septic failure. Log-Rank test was used to compare variables associated with septic failure. Results: Survival free-from-septic failure was 82.65% at 2 years (95%CI 73.25%-88.99%), 80.40% at 5 years (95%CI 70.70%-87.17%) and 77.32% at 6-10 years (95%CI 66.90%-84.33%). Patients with a positive culture at reimplantation had significantly more septic failures than those without it (Log-Rank test, p=0.0208), while patients with a positive frozen section at reimplantation had significantly more septic failures than those without it (Log-Rank test, p=0.0154). Conclusions: Reimplantations that remained at least 6 years without septic recurrences had a very low risk of further septic failure. Both positive frozen section and intraoperative culture at reimplantation were risk factors for septic failure. Level of Evidence: IV

Middle Aged , Reoperation , Prosthesis Failure , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Prosthesis-Related Infections , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 430-442, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878281


Prosthetic joint infection is one of the most serious complications after artificial joint replacement.Accurate diagnosis and proper standardized treatment are the keys to improve the cure rate of prosthetic joint infection,reduce the rate of recurrence and disability,and restore limb function.Regarding the diagnosis and treatment of prosthetic joint infection,although relevant research has progressed rapidly in recent years,there are still many problems that have not been well understood and explained,and there are still big differences and controversies in many aspects.This has brought a lot of confusion to clinicians during their daily practice.In order to make the diagnosis and treatment of prosthetic joint infection in China more standardized,a group of domestic experts in related fields was organized by the Joint Surgery Committee of the Chinese Orthopaedic Association to search the literature and integrate expert opinions,and compiled the "Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of prosthetic joint infection".Those most important and clinically concerned issues are elaborated,including the diagnostic criteria, standardized diagnostic algorithm,proper application of important tests,treatment principles,and the correct selection of various treatment options.Targeted and actionable recommendations are proposed.This guideline is expected to provide references for domestic colleagues in the diagnosis and treatment of prosthetic joint infection.

Arthroplasty, Replacement/adverse effects , China , Humans , Prosthesis-Related Infections/therapy
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(1): 17-22, feb. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1125033


La endocarditis infecciosa (EI) es una enfermedad grave y potencialmente letal. La capacidad diagnóstica de los criterios de Duke modificados es alta para válvulas nativas, pero decae en el caso de EI de válvulas protésicas o EI asociadas a dispositivos. El ecocardiograma y los hallazgos microbiológicos son fundamentales para el diagnóstico, pero pueden resultar insuficientes en este grupo de pacientes. Nuestro objetivo fue evaluar la utilidad de la tomografía por emisión de positrones y fusión con tomografía computarizada (PET/TC) en pacientes con sospecha de EI, portadores de válvulas protésicas o dispositivos intracardiacos. Se estudiaron 32 pacientes, a los cuales se les realizó un PET/CT con 18F-Flúor desoxiglucosa (18F-FDG). Se consideraron sugestivos de infección aquellos con captación intensa de tipo focal y/o heterogénea con un punto de corte de Standard Uptake Value (SUV) mayor o igual a 3.7. Los diagnósticos iniciales según los criterios de Duke modificados, se compararon con el diagnóstico final establecido por la Unidad de Endocarditis institucional. El agregado del PET/CT a esos criterios, proporcionó un diagnóstico concluyente en 22 de los 32 casos iniciales, reclasificando a 11 casos en EI definitivas y a otros 5 casos como negativos para ese diagnóstico. La EI continúa siendo un grave problema clínico. En aquellos casos donde los criterios de Duke no son suficientes para establecer el diagnóstico y la sospecha clínica persiste, el PET/CT puede ser una herramienta complementaria útil para aumentar la sensibilidad diagnóstica.

Infective endocarditis (IE) is a serious and potentially lethal condition. The diagnostic capacity of the modified Duke criteria is high for native valves, but it declines in the case of EI of prosthetic valves or EI associated with devices. Echocardiography and microbiological findings are essential for diagnosis but may be insufficient in this group of patients. Our objective was to evaluate the usefulness of positron emission tomography and fusion with computed tomography (PET / CT) in patients with suspected IE, carriers of prosthetic valves or intracardiac devices; 32 patients were studied, who underwent PET / CT with 18F-Fluorine deoxyglucose (18F-FDG). Those with intense focal and/or heterogeneous uptake with a Standard Uptake Value (SUV) cut-off point greater than or equal to 3.7 were considered suggestive of infection. The initial diagnoses according to the modified Duke criteria were compared with the final diagnosis established by the Institutional Endocarditis Unit. The addition of PET / CT to these criteria, provided a conclusive diagnosis in 22 of the 32 initial cases reclassifying 11 cases in definitive EI; another 5 cases were negative for that diagnosis. EI continues to be a serious clinical problem. In those cases where the Duke criteria are not sufficient to establish the diagnosis and clinical suspicion persists, PET / CT can be a useful complementary tool to increase the diagnostic sensitivity.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Pacemaker, Artificial/adverse effects , Heart Valve Prosthesis/adverse effects , Defibrillators, Implantable/adverse effects , Endocarditis/microbiology , Endocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography/methods , Pacemaker, Artificial/microbiology , Reference Values , Heart Valve Prosthesis/microbiology , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Prosthesis-Related Infections/diagnostic imaging , Defibrillators, Implantable/microbiology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
Rev. chil. ortop. traumatol ; 61(3): 101-107, 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177772


INTRODUCCIÓN Y OBJETIVOS La artroplastia de resección de hombro (ARH) se presenta como una técnica obsoleta y una opción no válida en la actualidad, debido a la evolución de las técnicas quirúrgicas y de los implantes. Pero, como consecuencia del aumento exponencial del uso de artroplastias de hombro, están aumentando en paralelo el número de fracasos e infecciones, con necesidad de revisión y rescate. Es por ello que, en determinadas situaciones y pacientes, esa técnica vuelve a ser una opción necesaria como salvataje, aunque tiene un alto coste funcional. El objetivo de nuestro trabajo, es presentar dos casos de artroplastia de resección de hombro como una opción válida de tratamiento en la actualidad y la revisión de la literatura. CASOS Se presentan dos casos de ARH como tratamiento de rescate, en un caso de osteomielitis crónica de cabeza humeral y un caso de infección de hemiartroplastia de hombro. Ambos pacientes se encontraban sin dolor y libres de infección con un seguimiento de más de 30 meses. En un caso la funcionalidad fue limitada con un Constant de 45 pero el otro caso la funcionalidad fue aceptable con un Constant de 67. CONCLUSIONES La ARH sigue siendo una técnica útil tras el fracaso de procedimientos de revisión, para resolver infecciones protésicas recalcitrantes u osteomielitis. Los resultados funcionales son pobres, por lo que debe reservarse para pacientes con baja demanda funcional y como salvataje, tras agotar otras opciones.

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES shoulder resection arthroplasty (SRA) is currently considered as an outdated technique, due to the advances in surgical techniques and new prosthesis designs. However, with the exponential increase in the use of shoulder arthroplasties, the number of failures and infections is equally increasing, as well as the revisions and salvage procedures. In certain situations, SRA is therefore a necessary solution, although it grossly compromise shoulder function. The aim of our study is to present two cases who underwent SRA as a valid treatment option nowadays and a literature review. CASES We present two cases of SRA as salvatage treatment. First case in a chronic humeral head osteomyelitis and second in a partial shoulder prosthesis recalcitrant infection. Both patients had complete pain relief and infection was solved with a follow-up over 30 months. In the first case, postoperative shoulder function was limited with a Constant­Murley score of 45. In the second case, function was fairly good with a Constant of 67. CONCLUSIONS SRA remains a valuable technique after the failure of revision procedures, as a salvage for recalcitrant prosthetic infections or osteomyelitis. The functional results are poor, so it should be reserved for patients with low functional demand and as salvatage procedure, after assess other options.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Arthroplasty/methods , Shoulder/surgery , Prosthesis-Related Infections/surgery , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Shoulder/adverse effects , Osteomyelitis , Reoperation , Salvage Therapy , Prosthesis-Related Infections/etiology , Shoulder Prosthesis
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828249


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the therapeutic effects of vacuum sealing drainage (VSD) combined with antibiotics in treating acute periprosthetic joint infection (PJI).@*METHODS@#From March 2012 to December 2018, there were 11 patients with acute PJI underwent debridement, VSD, antibiotics and retention of implant, including 7 males and 4 females, with an average age of 72.5 years old (ranged, 58 to 88 years old). There were 8 hips and 3 knees. Three patients had sinus tract.@*RESULTS@#There were 2 patients with negative culture result and 9 patients with positive culture result, including 5 cases of methicillin sensitive staphylococcus aureus, 2 cases of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), 2 cases of staphylococcus epidermidis. The mean follow up duration was 28 months (ranged from 8 to 52 months). One case of infection around hip prosthesis failed to be debrided. The time of debridement and replacement of the calcar joint was 84 days. Debridement was successful in 10 cases. At the latest follow up, Harris score of patients with successful debridement of hip periprosthetic infection ranged from 74 to 93, with an average score of 84.1;Knee Society scores of patients with periprosthetic infection were 84, 84, 89.@*CONCLUSION@#For acute infection around the prosthesis within 1 month after knee replacement and 6 weeks after hip replacement, and for bleeding around the prosthesis with acute infection caused by anticoagulant drugs, satisfactory results can be obtained by debridement, VSD and sensitive antibiotics.

Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip , Debridement , Drainage , Female , Hip Prosthesis , Humans , Male , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Middle Aged , Negative-Pressure Wound Therapy , Prosthesis-Related Infections , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811124


BACKGROUND: Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is one of the commonly found catastrophic complications after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis, proper skin cleansing, shortened operative time, and sterility of surgical field and equipment are essential to minimize the risk of PJI. Although bacterial contamination of electrocautery tips has been reported, contamination of residual product of electrocoagulation, burnt necrotic tissue (BNT), is not well known. Therefore, we aimed to assess the contamination rate of BNT and association between contaminated BNT and PJI, and risk factors.METHODS: BNTs from 183 patients who had undergone unilateral primary TKA at our institution were retrospectively analyzed. In each patient, three to five specimens of BNT were routinely collected in the operative field of primary TKA. Collecting time was defined as the duration from start of using the electrocautery device to the first collection of BNT.RESULTS: Culture was positive in eight of 183 patients (4.4%; contaminated BNT group), and the most commonly isolated organism was coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (62.5%). The average operative time was 103.1 ± 44.2 minutes in the contaminated BNT group and 79.0 ± 16.7 minutes in the non-contaminated BNT group (p = 0.17), and collecting time was 48.0 ± 44.3 minutes and 29.7 ± 17.0 minutes (p = 0.28), respectively. None of the patients with contaminated BNT developed PJI, whereas four patients with culture-negative BNT developed PJI within 2 postoperative years.CONCLUSIONS: BNT in surgical field can become a reservoir of contaminating bacteria. However, contamination of BNT was not associated with PJI. Therefore, routine removal of all BNTs may be unnecessary.

Antibiotic Prophylaxis , Arthroplasty , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , Bacteria , Electrocoagulation , Humans , Infertility , Joints , Knee , Operative Time , Prosthesis-Related Infections , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Skin , Staphylococcus , Surgical Instruments
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879345


Periprosthetic infection after hip replacement is a clinical catastrophic disease, which often leads to the failure of the prosthesis. It needs the combination of systemic antibiotics to cure the infection, which brings huge burden to doctors and patients. There are strict indications for debridement and one-stage revision of the prosthesis, and few cases meet the requirements. The second revision is still the gold standard for the treatment of periprosthetic infection. It is suitable for all infection conditions and has a high success rate. On the second phase of renovation, the antibiotic sustained release system plays a key role, and the carrier of antibiotic sustained-release system is the focus of current research, including classic bone cement and absorbable biomaterials. Bone cement has strong mechanical strength, but the antibiotic release shows a sharp decline trend; the absorbable biomaterials can continuously release antibiotics with high concentration, but the mechanical strength is poor, so it could not use alone. The combination of bone cement and absorbable biomaterials will be an ideal antibiotic carrier. PMMA is the most commonly used antibiotic carrier, but the antibiotic release concentration is decreased sharply after 24 hours. It will be difficult to control the infection and increase the risk of bacterial resistance if it is lower than the minimum inhibitory concentration. The biodegradable materials can release antibiotics completely, with long release time and high concentration, but low mechanical strength. Antibiotic spacer plays an important role in the control of infection. In the future, how to further extend the antibiotic release time of antibiotic sustained-release system, increase the amount of antibiotic release and maintain the mechanical strength of the material will be studied.

Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip/adverse effects , Bone Cements , Hip Prosthesis , Humans , Prosthesis-Related Infections/surgery , Reoperation
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2486-2494, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877851


Bone cement, consisting of polymethyl methacrylate, is a bioinert material used for prothesis fixation in joint arthroplasty. To treat orthopedic infections, such as periprosthetic joint infection, antibiotic-loaded bone cement (ALBC) was introduced into clinical practice. Recent studies have revealed the limitations of the antibacterial effect of ALBC. Moreover, with the increase in high infection risk patients and highly resistant microbes, more researches and modification of ALBC are required. This paper reviewed latest findings about ALBC for most popular and destructive pathogens, summarized the influence of antibiotic kind, drug dosage, application method, and environment towards characteristic of ALBC. Subsequently, new cement additives and clinical applications of ALBC in joint arthroplasty were also discussed.

Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , Bone Cements , Humans , Polymethyl Methacrylate , Prosthesis-Related Infections/drug therapy
Acta ortop. mex ; 33(5): 297-302, sep.-oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284960


Resumen: Introducción: La estrategia quirúrgica al enfrentarnos a las infecciones periprotésicas de rodilla sigue siendo controvertida. Los objetivos del tratamiento son la erradicación de la infección, la mejoría del dolor y de la función articular. El manejo quirúrgico incluye el desbridamiento y retención del implante, el recambio protésico en un tiempo o el recambio en dos tiempos. Esta última estrategia quirúrgica se considera el «gold standard¼, alcanzando unas tasas de curación hasta de 80%-100%, aunque poco se ha publicado acerca de los resultados funcionales. Material y métodos: Estudio retrospectivo de 65 pacientes, con infección periprotésica de rodilla. En 20 pacientes se realizó un recambio en un tiempo y en 45 pacientes fueron recambios en dos tiempos. Evaluación pre- y postoperatoriamente con la escala modificada HSS. Todos los pacientes fueron tratados con antibioterapia intravenosa, evaluamos la respuesta analítica y clínica para confirmar la erradicación o no de la infección. Resultados: La infección se resolvió en 39 de 65 pacientes, 12 en el grupo de recambio en un tiempo y 27 para el grupo de dos tiempos. Sin diferencia significativa entre los grupos en relación con curación ni resultado funcional. Sin embargo, hay una diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre aquellos pacientes que recibieron tratamiento antibiótico vía oral antes del diagnóstico y aquéllos que no lo recibieron. Conclusión: La tasa de curación es similar en los tratados con recambio en un tiempo y recambio en dos tiempos. No pudimos demostrar superioridad en los resultados funcionales entre los dos grupos.

Abstract: Introduction: Surgical strategy in dealing with periprosthetic knee infections remains controversial. The goals of treatment are to eradicate infection, improve pain and joint function. Surgical management includes implant debridement and retention, prosthetic replacement in one-time, or two-stage replacement. This latest surgical strategy is considered the «gold standard¼, reaching healing rates up to 80%-100%, although little has been published about functional results. Material and methods: Retrospective study of 65 patients with periprosthetic knee infection. In 20 patients a replacement was made in a time and in 45 patients were in two stages. Pre- and post-operative evaluation with the modified HSS scale. All patients were treated with intravenous antibiotherapy, we evaluated the analytical and clinical response to confirm the eradication or not of the infection. Results: The infection was resolved in 39 out of 65 patients, 12 in the replacement group in a time and 27 for the two-stages group. No significant difference between the groups in relation to healing or functional result. However, there is a statistically significant difference between those patients who received oral antibiotic treatment prior to diagnosis and those who did not. Conclusions: The healing rate is similarly treated with replacement in a time and replacement in two times. We were unable to demonstrate superiority in the functional results between the two groups.

Humans , Prosthesis-Related Infections , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , Knee Prosthesis , Reoperation , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Debridement , Anti-Bacterial Agents
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 117(5): 489-492, oct. 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1054968


Desde su aparición, las técnicas percutáneas han ido sustituyendo la cirugía convencional como tratamiento de primera línea en los defectos septales interauriculares. Los dispositivos Amplatzer fueron los primeros aprobados por la Food and Drug Administration, y su colocación se ha convertido en un procedimiento habitual en cardiología pediátrica. La aparición de endocarditis bacteriana sobre este tipo de dispositivos es muy infrecuente. Se presenta el caso de una endocarditis bacteriana en un paciente pediátrico portador de un dispositivo Amplatzer, que se manejó de forma conservadora con antibioterapia intravenosa, con evolución satisfactoria.

Since their introduction, percutaneous techniques have been replacing conventional surgery as a first-line treatment for septal defects. Amplatzer devices were the first to be approved by the Food and Drug Administration, and their placement has become a standard procedure in pediatric cardiology. Bacterial endocarditis of intracardiac devices such as the Amplatzer septal occluder is very infrequent. We report a case of bacterial endocarditis in a pediatric patient with an Amplatzer device, who developed an infectious endocarditis six years after its placement and received conservative management with intravenous antibiotics, with satisfactory evolution.

Humans , Male , Child , Endocarditis, Bacterial/diagnosis , Septal Occluder Device/adverse effects , Prosthesis-Related Infections , Endocarditis, Bacterial/epidemiology , Conservative Treatment , Heart Septal Defects, Atrial , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(3): 191-196, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019553


ABSTRACT Backgroud: Daptomycin has been used in bone and joint infections (BJI) and prosthesis joint infections (PJI) considering spectrum of activity and biofilm penetration. However, the current experience is based on case reports, case series, cohorts, and international surveys. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate studies about daptomycin treatment efficacy in BJI/PJI compared to other antibiotic regimens. Methods: PubMed, LILACS, Scielo and Web of Science databases were searched for articles about daptomycin and treatment of BJI and PJI from inception to March 2018. Inclusion criteria were any published researches that included patients with BJI treated with daptomycin. Diagnosis of BJI was based on clinical, laboratory and radiological findings according to IDSA guidelines. Results: From 5107 articles, 12 articles were included. Only three studies described the outcomes of patients with BJI treated with daptomycin with comparator regimen (vancomycin, teicoplanin and oxacillin). Studies presented large heterogeneity regarding device related infections, surgical procedures, and daptomycin regimens (varied from 4 mg/kg to 10 mg/kg). A total of 299 patients have been included in all studies (184 infections associated with orthopedic disposal and 115 osteomyelitis/septic arthritis). Two hundred and thirty-three patients were treated with daptomycin. The clinical cure rates on device related and non-device related infections (i.e. osteomyelitis) were 70% and 78%, respectively. Compared to all regimens evaluated, daptomycin group outcomes were non-inferior. Conclusion: Although a randomized clinical trial is needed, this systematic review tends to support daptomycin usage for bone and joint infections.

Humans , Bone Diseases/drug therapy , Prosthesis-Related Infections/drug therapy , Daptomycin/therapeutic use , Joint Diseases/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Osteomyelitis/drug therapy , Arthritis, Infectious/drug therapy , Joint Prosthesis/adverse effects
Acta ortop. mex ; 33(2): 127-135, mar.-abr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248647


Resumen: Actualmente contamos con diversos métodos de laboratorio para el diagnóstico de las infecciones periprotésicas, algunos ampliamente probados y otros en estudio. Han aparecido nuevos biomarcadores después del Consenso de Filadelfia, por tal motivo, nos planteamos hacer una revisión acerca de qué hay de nuevo para su diagnóstico después del Consenso y cuáles podrían ser los más útiles para el trabajo clínico diario. Material y métodos: Se revisaron artículos publicados entre 2013-2017 en cinco revistas de alto impacto. Las variables fueron: tipo de biomarcador, cifras de corte, sensibilidad, especificidad, valor predictivo positivo, valor predictivo negativo, área bajo la curva, razón de momios diagnósticos y cocientes de probabilidad positivos y negativos. Se calificó nivel de evidencia. Resultados: Los resultados se agruparon en Tablas. Se encontraron 54 artículos, de los cuales 31 no se ajustaban a los criterios de inclusión y fueron excluidos; sólo se incluyeron 23. Se encontraron 19 biomarcadores, cinco de los cuales no habían sido reportados hasta antes de 2013: La α defensina sinovial 1, la β defensina humana 3, el lactato sinovial y los receptores tipo Toll 1 y Toll 6. Conclusión: Los biomarcadores que ofrecen mayor utilidad clínica para el diagnóstico de IAP son: la proteína C reactiva, la esterasa leucocitaria, la interleucina-6, la interleucina-1β, la α-defensina y la interleucina-17. Detectamos cinco nuevos marcadores. Los estudios analizados muestran heterogeneidad en sensibilidad, especificidad y en sus cifras de corte. En la mayoría no usan aplicaciones estadísticas avanzadas que los harían más confiables.

Abstract: We now have a great variety of laboratory diagnostic tools, for the detection of PJI, some of them widely used and others under study. After the Philadelphia Consensus, they have emerged some new biomarkers. Because of that, we consider useful to review which new biomarkers we have for the diagnosis of PJI after the Consensus and which of them could be more useful in daily clinic work. Material and methods: We searched for articles published from 2013 to 2017 in 5 high impact journals. The analized variables were: biomarker type, cutoff value, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, area under the curve, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, diagnostic odds ratio. We value their evidence level. Results: Results were grouped in Tables. They were found 54 articles, 31 of them didn't meet the inclusion criteria so they were excluded; 23 studies were included in the revision. We found a total of 19 biomarkers studies, 5 of them weren't reported before 2013: Sinovial α defensin 1, human β defensin-3, sinovial lactate and Toll-like receptors 1 and 6. Conclusion: Of all the markers reviewed for the diagnosis of PJI, C reactive protein, esterase test strip, interleukin-6, interleukin-1 β, α defensin and interleukin-17 show the highest diagnostic utility. We found 5 new markers. The articles studies show high heterogeneity in their reported sensitivity, specificity and cutoff values. In most of them were not used advanced statistical tools which could make them more reliable.

Humans , Biomarkers/analysis , Prosthesis-Related Infections/diagnosis , Synovial Fluid , alpha-Defensins/analysis , Consensus
Rev. méd. panacea ; 8(1): 46-54, ene.-abr. 2019. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1016575


Objetivo: realizar una revisión bibliográfica y actualización sobre infección de prótesis total de rodilla. Materiales y métodos: : Es un Estudio bibliométrico, descriptivo transversal realizado mediante búsquedas bibliográficas en pubmed, NCBI, UP TO DATE, y revistas virtuales de Ortopedia y Traumatología del Perú e internacionales. Se seleccionó y consultó el material bibliográfico que tuviera información sobre infección de prótesis total de rodilla. Se excluyó la bibliografía sin relación con el tema y muy antigua. No hubo límites en el idioma. Los artículos seleccionados se clasificaron por relevancia, actualidad y localización. Desarrollo y discusión: La infección de prótesis de rodilla tiene una incidencia entre el 1 a 3% en prótesis primaria y 3.5 a 5% en prótesis de revisión, siendo los principales factores de riesgo principales, artritis reumatoide, cirugía previa, edad avanzada, sexo femenino, obesidad, desnutrición, diabetes e inmunodeficiencias, el diagnóstico es un reto para el médico, los cocos Gram positivos son los gérmenes más frecuentes, llegando a ser el 75% del total, el objetivo principal del tratamiento es erradicar la infección, el tratamiento quirúrgico debe ser agresivo y oportuno, es necesario recibir largos periodos de antibióticos sistémicos a fin de evitar cirugías radicales como la artrodesis y amputación. Conclusiones: la infección de prótesis de rodilla es la complicación más temida, tiene un diagnostico difícil y cuyo manejo demanda largos periodos de incapacidad, estancia hospitalaria, antibióticos de amplio espectro y cuantiosas perdida económicas la entidad prestadora de servicios de salud. (AU)

Objective: to perform a literature review and update on total knee prosthesis infection. Materials and methods: This is a bibliometric, cross-sectional descriptive study conducted through bibliographic searches in pubmed, NCBI, UP TO DATE, and virtual journals of Orthopedics and Traumatology of Peru and international. The bibliographic material that had information on total knee prosthesis infection was selected and consulted. The bibliography unrelated to the subject and very old was excluded. There were no limits in the language. The selected articles were classified by relevance, actuality and location. Development and discussion: Infection of knee prosthesis has an incidence between 1 to 3% in primary prostheses and 3.5 to 5% in revision prostheses, being the main risk factors, rheumatoid arthritis, previous surgery, advanced age, sex female, obesity, malnutrition, diabetes and immunodeficiencies, the diagnosis is a challenge for the doctor, Gram positive cocci are the most frequent germs, reaching 75% of the total, the main objective of the treatment is to eradicate the infection, the treatment surgical should be aggressive and timely, it is necessary to receive long periods of systemic antibiotics in order to avoid radical surgeries such as arthrodesis and amputation. Conclusions: knee prosthesis infection is the most feared complication, it has a difficult diagnosis and its management demands long periods of disability, hospital stay, broad spectrum antibiotics and large economic losses the health service provider entity. (AU)

Humans , Female , Prosthesis-Related Infections , Knee Prosthesis , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
Rev. odontol. UNESP (Online) ; 48: e20190094, 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1099192


Abstract Introduction Candida albicans is the yeast most commonly affecting the oral cavity, sometimes causing infection. However, several factors may be associated with the onset of candidiasis, which may be related not only to the hygiene and health of individuals, but also to the pathogenicity of these microorganisms. Objective To evaluate the virulence factors of Candida yeasts isolated from the oral mucosa of elderly people living in the "Comunidade Lago do Limão", municipality of Iranduba, Amazonas state, Brazil. Material and method Testes were performed to assess the production of urease, proteinase, phospholipase and hemolysin. Statistical analysis used the Fisher's exact test and the Chi-squared test. Result Prevalence of non-albicans species was observed. As for virulence factors, all isolates were negative ureases, and there was prevalence of very strong proteinase production, whereas most isolates did not produce this enzyme in the phospholipase test. All yeasts analyzed presented hemolysin production, with grade IV hemolysis as the most prevalent. There was no statistically significant difference between the virulence of isolates from the oral cavity and the prostheses of the elderly analyzed. Conclusion Several virulence factors may present with high intensity in the presence of oral microbiota changes. In addition, non-albicans species present number of virulence factors similar to that of C. albicans, with high pathogenicity. This study allows a better analysis of candidiasis prevention strategies aiming to promote improvement in the health and quality of life for the elderly.

Resumo Introdução A Candida albicans é a levedura que mais acomete a cavidade oral, podendo causar infecção. Porém diversos fatores podem estar associados ao aparecimento da candidíase, que podem estar relacionados com a higiene e saúde dos indivíduos, mas também com a patogenicidade destes microrganismos. Objetivo Avaliar os fatores de virulência de leveduras do gênero Candida isoladas da mucosa oral dos idosos residentes na Comunidade Lago do Limão - Iranduba - Amazonas - Brasil. Material e método Foram realizados os testes de urease, proteinase, fosfolipase, e avaliação da produção de hemólise. Na análise estatística utilizou-se teste Exato de Fisher e Quiquadrado. Resultado Obteve-se a prevalência de espécies não-albicans, quanto aos fatores de virulência, todos os isolados foram ureases negativos, houve prevalência de produção muito forte de proteinase, enquanto que no teste da fosfolipase, a maioria dos isolados não apresentou produção desta enzima; todas as leveduras analisadas apresentaram produção de hemolisina, sendo mais prevalente a hemólise grau IV. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre a virulência dos isolados oriundos da cavidade oral e da prótese dos idosos analisados. Conclusão Diversos fatores de virulência podem apresentar-se com alta intensidade na presença de alterações da microbiota oral. Além disso, as espécies não-albicans apresentam fatores de virulência tanto quanto a C. albicans, com graus de patogenicidade elevados. Este estudo permite a análise de estratégias de prevenção da candidíase, com intuito de promover melhor saúde e qualidade de vida para os idosos.

Humans , Aged , Candida , Prosthesis-Related Infections , Virulence Factors , Mouth Mucosa/physiopathology , Peptide Hydrolases/analysis , Brazil , Candida albicans , Population Groups