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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888783

ABSTRACT

A large number of protease inhibitors have been found from leeches, which are essential in various physiological and biological processes. In the curret study, a novel elastase inhibitor was purified and characterized from the leech of Hirudinaria manillensis, which was named HMEI-A. Primary structure analysis showed that HMEI-A belonged to a new family of proteins. HMEI-A exerted inhibitory effects on elastase and showed potent abilities to inhibit elastase with an inhibition constant (K


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Leeches/chemistry , Pancreatic Elastase/antagonists & inhibitors , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Proteins
2.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(4): 475-489, ago. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042665

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La farmacocinética de los anti-retrovirales (ARVs) puede ser modificada por otros medicamentos de uso concomitante. Es oportuno actualizar las interacciones entre nuevos ARVs y fármacos de uso crónico para mantener un éxito terapéutico. Objetivo: Actualizar información sobre interacciones medicamentosas en pacientes con infección por VIH/SIDA en terapia antiretroviral. Método: Revisión estructurada en MEDLINE/ PubMed utilizando los términos Mesh: Anti-retroviral agents and drug interactions or herb-drug interactions or food-drug interactions, entre enero de 2015 y junio de 2017. Fueron seleccionadas publicaciones sobre interacciones medicamentosas en humanos, en inglés o español y con acceso a texto completo. Además, se incluyeron referencias de artículos considerados relevantes. La inclusión de los artículos fue evaluada por tres investigadores independientes y, en caso de requerirlo, por consenso entre ellos. La relevancia clínica se estableció, acorde con la gravedad y probabilidad de ocurrencia de la interacción. Resultados: Se identificaron 466 artículos, se accedió a texto completo a 444. De éstos, 164 aportaron interacciones, lo que permitió identificar un total de 534 parejas de interacciones medicamentosas. Las interacciones que presentaron un mayor riesgo de generar problemas de seguridad y efectividad fueron 308 (57,7%) de nivel 2 y 35 (6,6%) de nivel 1. Conclusiones: Se identifican 534 parejas nuevas de interacciones medicamentosas, de ellas 308 (64,2%) de mayor relevancia clínica.


Background: The pharmacokinetics of anti-retrovirals (ARVs) can be modified by other concomitant medicinal products. It is timely to update the interactions between new ARVs and drugs of chronic use to maintain therapeutic success. Aim: To update information about drug interactions in patients with HIV/AIDS on antiretroviral therapy. Methods: Comprehensive literature review in MEDLINE/PubMed database from January of 2015 to June of 2017, using the Mesh terms: Anti-retroviral agents and drug interactions or herb-drug interactions or food-drug interactions. Publications with drug interactions in humans, in English or Spanish, and with full text were retrieved. Additionally, citation lists from identified articles were reviewed. The study inclusion was assessed by three independent researchers and by consensus among them when was necessary. Clinical relevance of drug interaction was grouped into levels according to seriously and probability of occurrence. Results: 466 articles were identified; full text was accessed in 444. Of these, 164 provided interactions, which allowed the identification of a total of 534 pairs of drug interactions. The interactions that presented a higher risk of generating safety and effectiveness problems were 308 (57.7%) of level 2 and 35 (6.6%) of level 1. Conclusions: We identify 534 new pairs of drug interactions, of which 308 (64.2%) are the most clinically relevant.


Subject(s)
Humans , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Anti-HIV Agents/pharmacology , Drug Interactions , Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Risk Factors , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 35(1): 148-156, Mar. 2017. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840946

ABSTRACT

The combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), a multidrug combination regimen, usually consisting Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors, non- Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors and Protease Inhibitors has altered the morbidity pattern affecting HIV-infected individuals to include non-AIDS-defining malignancies (nADMs). The speculation is rife; does cART induce or promote the progression of nADMs such as breast cancer? This study was therefore designed to investigate of the effects of some antiretroviral drugs (at clinically relevant concentrations) on the expression of anti-angiogenic gene; VEGF165b in two human breast cell lines; MCF-7 and MCF-10A by Real Time qPCR and immuno-fluorescence. All of the antiretroviral drugs and combinations tested produced patterns of slight up or downregulation of VEGF165b mRNA expression but the alterations did not attain statistical significance. They also did not alter VEGF165bprotein localisation in both cell lines. The findings reported here suggest that antiretroviral drugs probably do not influence the angiogenic pathway in the development of breast cancer in patients under the combined antiretroviral regimen.


El tratamiento antirretroviral combinado (TARc), un régimen de combinación de múltiples fármacos, consistiendo generalmente en inhibidores nucleósidos de la transcriptasa reversa, inhibidores no-nucleósidos de la transcriptasa reversa e inhibodres de proteasa que alteran el patrón de mortalidad que afecta a infectados por el VIH incluyendo neoplasias definidas como no HIV (nADMs). La especulación es moneda corriente; TARc induce o promueve la progresión de nADMs como cáncer de mama? Por lo tanto, este estudio se diseñó para investigar los efectos de algunos de los fármacos antirretrovirales (en concentraciones clínicamente relevantes) sobre la expresión del gen anti-angiogénico; VEGF165b en dos líneas celulares de mama humana; MCF-7 y MCF-10A por PCR tiempo real e inmunofluorescencia. Todos los fármacos antirretrovirales y las combinaciones probadas pueden regular en forma ligera hacia arriba o hacia abajo la expresión de ARNm producidos por VEGF165b pero las alteraciones no fueron estadísticamente significativos. Además, no se alteran los niveles de proteína VEGF165b, para la localización en ambas líneas celulares. Los resultados aquí presentados sugieren que los medicamentos antirretrovirales probablemente no influyen en la vía angiogénica en el desarrollo del cáncer de mama en pacientes bajo el régimen antirretroviral combinado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adenocarcinoma/metabolism , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/pharmacology , Breast Neoplasms/metabolism , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Epithelial Cells , Immunohistochemistry , MCF-7 Cells , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
4.
Braz. dent. j ; 27(4): 442-445, July-Aug. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-794610

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study evaluated the effect of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitors - 2% (CHX) and sodium fluoride (NaF) (5000 ppm) - on microtensile bond strength (μTBS) of composite resin to Er:YAG laser-irradiated dentin after chemical degradation of the bond interface. The occlusal surface of forty sound human molars was removed exposing the dentin surface (n=10), which was polished, irradiated with Er:YAG laser, acid etched and dried. Twenty specimens were rewetted with 2% CHX (control group) and 20 were rewetted with NaF (5000 ppm). The adhesive system was applied and a 4-mm-high plateau of light-cured composite resin was built up. Resin-dentin sticks were obtained with a rectangular cross-sectional area (0.8-1 mm2) and were either stored in water at 37 ?#61616;C for 24 h or submitted to chemical degradation. For chemical degradation, they were immersed in 10% NaOCl aqueous solution for 5 h and rinsed in water for 1 h. The sticks were submitted to microtensile test in a mechanical testing machine at 0.5 mm/min until failure. Fracture pattern was analyzed using SEM. μTBS values were calculated in MPa and submitted to analysis of variance ANOVA (α=0.05). The variance analysis showed that the 'MMP inhibitor' and 'degradation' factors (p=0.214 and p=0.093, respectively) and interaction between the factors were not statistically significant (p=0.143). Mixed failure predominated in all groups. In conclusion, the 2% CHX and NaF 5000 ppm presented similar μTBS of composite resin to laser-irradiated dentin before and after chemical degradation.


Resumo Este estudo avaliou o efeito dos inibidores de metaloproteinase, clorexidina 2% e fluoreto de sódio (5000 ppm), na resistência de união entre a dentina irradiada por laser Er:YAG e a resina composta após a degradação química da interface de união. A superfície oclusal de quarenta molares humanos hígidos (n=10) foi removida expondo uma superfície de dentina, que foi polida, irradiada com laser Er:YAG, condicionada com ácido e seca. Vinte espécimes foram re-umedecidos com clorexidina 2% (Grupo controle) e 20 com fluoreto de sódio (5000 ppm). O sistema adesivo foi aplicado e um platô de resina composta fotopolimerizável de 4 mm de altura foi construído. Palitos de resina-dentina foram obtidos com secção transversal retangular (0,8-1 mm2). Eles foram armazenados em água (24 h a 37 ?#61616;C) ou submetidos a degradação química. Para a degradação química, foram imersos em solução aquosa de hipoclorito de sódio a 10% durante 5 horas e lavados em água durante 1 h. Os palitos foram submetidos ao teste de microtração em uma máquina de ensaios mecânicos a 0,5 mm/min até a fratura. O padrão de fratura foi analisado em MEV. Os valores de resistência de união foram calculados em MPa e submetidos à análise de variância ANOVA (α=0,05). A análise de variância mostrou que os fatores inibidor de metaloproteinases e degradação (p=0,214 e p=0,093, respectivamente), e a interação entre os fatores não foram estatisticamente significantes (p=0,143). A predominância de falha mista foi detectada para todos os grupos. Em conclusão, a clorexidina a 2% e fluoreto de sódio (ppm 5000) apresentaram resistência de união entre dentina irradiada e resina composta semelhante antes e após a degradação química.


Subject(s)
Composite Resins , Lasers, Solid-State , Metalloproteases/drug effects , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Tensile Strength , Metalloproteases/metabolism
5.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(1): 151-153, 03/02/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741612

ABSTRACT

The Brazilian Amazon Region is a highly endemic area for hepatitis B virus (HBV). However, little is known regarding the genetic variability of the strains circulating in this geographical region. Here, we describe the first full-length genomes of HBV isolated in the Brazilian Amazon Region; these genomes are also the first complete HBV subgenotype D3 genomes reported for Brazil. The genomes of the five Brazilian isolates were all 3,182 base pairs in length and the isolates were classified as belonging to subgenotype D3, subtypes ayw2 (n = 3) and ayw3 (n = 2). Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the Brazilian sequences are not likely to be closely related to European D3 sequences. Such results will contribute to further epidemiological and evolutionary studies of HBV.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Cell Movement/physiology , Liver Neoplasms , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/genetics , Signal Transduction/physiology , Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1/genetics , Cell Line, Tumor/cytology , Cell Line, Tumor/physiology , Collagenases/genetics , Dipeptides/pharmacology , Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors , Matrix Metalloproteinase 1/genetics , /genetics , /genetics , /genetics , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Transfection
6.
Braz. dent. j ; 25(6): 502-507, Nov-Dec/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-732258

ABSTRACT

This aim of this study was to assess the ability of manual or rotary instrumentation associated with photodynamic therapy (PDT) to reduce Enterococcus faecalis using three combinations of light/photosensitizers: toluidine blue O/laser, fuchsin/halogen light and fuchsin/LED. Twenty deciduous molars were selected and contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis (McFarland 0.5 scale). Working length determination was performed by visual method. The teeth were randomly divided into two groups: G1 (n=10): manual instrumentation (Kerr-type files) and G2 (n=10): rotary instrumentation (ProTaper system). The bacteria were collected three times using sterile paper cones compatible with the anatomic diameter of the root canal for 30 s before and after instrumentation and after PDT. The samples were diluted in peptone water, seeded on blood agar plates and incubated in an oven at 37 °C for colony-forming units counting. The decrease of E. faecalis counts after instrumentation and after PDT was compared using the Wilcoxon test, t-test and Kruskal Wallis test. A significant reduction of E. faecalis occurred after manual and rotary instrumentation and after PDT using the three combinations of light/photosensitizer (p<0.05). It may be concluded that both rotary and manual instrumentation reduced E. faecalis. Fuchsin with halogen light or LED irradiation and toluidine blue O with laser irradiation can be used to reduce E. faecalis in root canals of primary molars. PDT can be used as an adjuvant to conventional endodontic treatment.


O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a redução de Enterococcus faecalis após instrumentação manual ou rotatória associada à terapia fotodinâmica (PDT) utilizando 3 combinações luz/fotossensibilizante: azul de toluidina O/laser, fucsina/luz halógena e fucsina/LED. Foram selecionados 20 molares decíduos que foram contaminados com Enterococcus faecalis (escala 0,5 de McFarland). A odontometria foi feita através do método visual. Os dentes foram divididos aleatoriamente em dois grupos: G1 (n=10): instrumentação manual (limas tipo Kerr) e G2 (n=10): instrumentação rotatória (sistema ProTaper). Foram realizadas coletas com cone de papel estéril compatível com o diâmetro anatômico do canal durante 30 s antes e após a instrumentação e a PDT. As amostras foram diluídas em água peptonada, semeadas em placas de agar-sangue e incubadas em estufa a 37 °C para contagem das unidades formadoras de colônias. As comparações antes da redução de E. faecalis após a instrumentação e após a realização da PDT foram realizadas pelo teste de Wilcoxon, teste t e Kruskal Wallis. Houve redução significante de E. faecalis após a instrumentação manual ou rotatória e após realização da PDT com as três combinações de luz/fotossensibilizante (p<0,05). Pode-se concluir que a instrumentação rotatória e manual acarretou a redução de E. faecalis. A fucsina irradiada com luz halógena ou led e o azul de toluidina irradiado com laser podem ser utilizados para redução de E. faecalis do sistema de canais radiculares de molares decíduos. A terapia fotodinâmica pode ser utilizada como coadjuvante ao tratamento endodôntico convencional.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Acid Phosphatase/biosynthesis , Cathepsin B/biosynthesis , Leucine/analogs & derivatives , Leupeptins/pharmacology , Melanoma, Experimental/enzymology , Oligopeptides/pharmacology , Pepstatins/pharmacology , Peptide Hydrolases/biosynthesis , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Enzyme Induction , Leucine/pharmacology , Subcellular Fractions/drug effects , Subcellular Fractions/enzymology , Tumor Cells, Cultured
7.
Braz. j. phys. ther. (Impr.) ; 18(6): 513-520, 09/01/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-732354

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Knowing the potential for and limitations of information generated using different evaluation instruments favors the development of more accurate functional diagnoses and therapeutic decision-making. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between the number of compensatory movements when climbing up and going down stairs, age, functional classification and time taken to perform a tested activity (TA) of going up and down stairs in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). METHOD: A bank of movies featuring 30 boys with DMD performing functional activities was evaluated. Compensatory movements were assessed using the climbing up and going down stairs domain of the Functional Evaluation Scale for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (FES-DMD); age in years; functional classification using the Vignos Scale (VS), and TA using a timer. Statistical analyses were performed using the Spearman correlation test. RESULTS: There is a moderate relationship between the climbing up stairs domain of the FES-DMD and age (r=0.53, p=0.004) and strong relationships with VS (r=0.72, p=0.001) and TA for this task (r=0.83, p<0.001). There were weak relationships between the going down stairs domain of the FES-DMD-going down stairs with age (r=0.40, p=0.032), VS (r=0.65, p=0.002) and TA for this task (r=0.40, p=0.034). CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that the evaluation of compensatory movements used when climbing up stairs can provide more relevant information about the evolution of the disease, although the activity of going down stairs should be investigated, with the aim of enriching guidance and strengthening accident prevention. Data from the FES-DMD, age, VS and TA can be used in a complementary way to formulate functional diagnoses. Longitudinal studies and with broader age groups may supplement this information. .


CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: Conhecer as potencialidades e limitações das informações geradas por diferentes instrumentos de avaliação favorece o desenvolvimento mais preciso do diagnóstico funcional e da tomada de decisão terapêutica. OBJETIVO : Investigar a relação entre o número de movimentos compensatórios ao subir e descer escadas, idade, classificação funcional e tempo de realização de atividade (TA) em meninos com Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne (DMD). MÉTODO : Foi utilizado banco de filmes de 30 meninos com DMD realizando atividades funcionais. Os movimentos compensatórios foram avaliados pela Escala de Avaliação Funcional para Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne (FES-DMD), domínio subir e descer escada; a idade, mensurada em anos; a classificação funcional foi pesquisada pela Escala de Vignos (EV), e o TA foi cronometrado. Foi utilizado o teste de correlação de Spearman. RESULTADOS : Existe moderada relação entre a FES-DMD-subir escada e a idade (r=0,53, p=0,004) e forte relação com a EV (r=0,72, p=0,001) e TA dessa tarefa (r=0,83, p<0,001). Houve fraca relação entre a FES-DMD-descer escada e a idade (r=0,40, p=0,032), EV (r=0,65, p=0,002) e o TA dessa tarefa (r=0,40, p=0,034). CONCLUSÃO : Esses achados indicam que a avaliação da tarefa de subir escada pode trazer informações mais relevantes sobre a evolução da doença, embora a atividade de descer escada deva ser pesquisada visando à orientação e prevenção de acidentes. A utilização conjunta de dados provenientes da FES-DMD, da idade e do TA pode se complementar para formulação do diagnóstico funcional. Estudos longitudinais e com outras faixas etárias mais amplas podem complementar tal informação. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Prostatic Hyperplasia/metabolism , Receptors, Androgen/metabolism , Binding, Competitive , Buffers , Charcoal , Cytosol/metabolism , Dextrans , Dihydrotestosterone/metabolism , Electrophoresis, Agar Gel , Enzyme Activation/drug effects , Estrenes/metabolism , Metribolone , Molybdenum/pharmacology , Progesterone/metabolism , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Temperature , Tartrates/pharmacology , Testosterone Congeners/metabolism
8.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 67(6): 920-927, Nov-Dec/2014.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-732823

ABSTRACT

Este estudo objetivou compreender as práticas de cuidado dos profissionais de saúde que assistem os idosos Kaingang. Estudo qualitativo, apoiado na etnografia, realizado com dez profissionais à que atuam na atenção primária saúde da Terra Indígena Faxinal, Paraná, Brasil. Os dados foram coletados no período de novembro de 2010 a fevereiro de 2012 por meio da observação participante e entrevistas, e, analisados à luz da Teoria Transcultural do Cuidado. Identificaram-se como práticas de cuidado a medicação e imunização, bem como, cuidados da medicina tradicional. Para realização destes cuidados, os profissionais dispunham de estratégias que proporcionavam manutenção dos idosos na assistência. Conclui-se que valores culturais e científicos necessitam integrar a assistência para melhoria da saúde dos idosos indígenas.


This research aims to understand the care practices of health professionals who assist the elderly Kaingang. It is a qualitative study, supported in ethnography, conducted by ten professionals working in primary health care in the indigenous land of Faxinal, Paraná, Brazil. The data was collected from November 2010 to February 2012 by participant observation and interviews, and analyzed based on the Transcultural Care Theory. Was identified the preoccupation of the carers practices with the medication and immunization, as well as traditional medical care. To achieve these, care professionals had strategies that implemented maintenance of older people in care. We conclude that cultural values and integrate scientific need assistance to improve the health of elderly indigenous.


Este estudio tuvo como objetivo entender las prácticas de cuidado de los profesionales de la salud que asisten a los ancianos Kaingang. Estudio cualitativo, apoyado en la etnografía, llevado a cabo con diez profesionales que trabajan en la atención primaria de la salud de la tierra indígena de Faxinal, Paraná, Brasil. Los datos fueron recogidos a partir de noviembre 2010 a febrero 2012 a través de la observación participante y las entrevistas, y analizado con base en la Teoría del Cuidado Transcultural. Se identificaron las prácticas de atención médica y imunizacion,el cuidado de la medicina, así tradicional. Para lograrlo, los profesionales tenían estrategias que proporcionaban el mantenimiento de las personas mayores en su atención. Se concluye que los valores culturales y científicos necesitan ayuda para mejorar la salud de los ancianos indígenas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Liver/enzymology , Lysosomes/enzymology , Phospholipases A/metabolism , Phospholipases/metabolism , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Cells, Cultured , Chymotrypsin/antagonists & inhibitors , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Leucine/analogs & derivatives , Leucine/pharmacology , Leupeptins/pharmacology , Oligopeptides/pharmacology , Pepstatins/pharmacology , Phospholipases A1 , Time Factors
9.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 23(2): 136-143, 06/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-714779

ABSTRACT

Bioactive molecules of plant species are promising alternatives for the chemical control of gastrointestinal nematodes in ruminants. Extracts of native and exotic seed species from Brazil's semi-arid region were tested in vitro in an egg hatch assay and the bioactivity of their proteins was investigated. Each seed species was subjected to three extractions with three types of solvents. All the seeds showed ovicidal activity, which varied according to the solvents. Higher ovicidal activity was found in the molecule fractions of low molecular weight (<12 kDa) for Albizia lebbeck, Ipomoea asarifolia, Jatropha curcas, Libidibia ferrea, Moringa oleifera and Ricinus communis (P<0.05, Bonferroni test). The two fractions of Crotalaria spectabilis showed the same ovicidal activity (P>0.05, Bonferroni test). Hemagglutinating activity was detected in the fractions of C. spectabilis and M. oleifera fractions, hemolysin activity in the A. lebbeck and M. oleifera fractions, serine protease inhibitory activity in the A. lebbeck, I. asarifolia, J. curcas, M. oleifera and R. communis fractions, cysteine protease inhibitor activity in the M. oleifera fraction, and no protein activity in the L. ferrea fraction. The results of this work reveal new plant species with a potential for use in controlling nematode parasites in goats, thus opening a new field of research involving plant protein molecules with ovicidal properties.


Moléculas bioativas de espécies vegetais são alternativas promissoras ao controle químico dos nematoides gastrintestinais em ruminantes. Extratos de sementes de espécies nativas e exóticas do Semiárido Brasileiro foram testados in vitro em ensaio de eclosão de ovos e investigada a natureza proteica da bioatividade. Três extrações com três solventes foram feitas para cada semente estudada. Todas as sementes apresentaram atividade ovicida, variando com o solvente utilizado. Maior taxa de inibição da eclosão concentrou-se nas frações de moléculas de baixa massa molecular (<12 kDa) para Albizia lebbeck, Ipomoea asarifolia, Jatropha curcas, Libidibia ferrea, Moringa oleifera e Ricinus communis (P<0,05, teste de Bonferroni). Crotalaria spectabilis mostrou atividade nas duas frações, sem diferença entre elas (P>0,05, teste de Bonferroni). Observou-se atividade hemaglutinante nas frações de C. spectabilis e M. oleifera, de hemolisina em A. lebbeck e M. oleifera, de atividade inibidora de protease da serina em A. lebbeck, I. asarifolia, J. curcas, M. oleifera e R. communis, de atividade inibidora de protease da cisteína em M. oleifera e nenhuma atividade proteica na fração de L. ferrea. Os resultados revelaram novas espécies botânicas com potencial de controle de nematoides em caprinos e um novo campo de pesquisa, o estudo de moléculas de origem proteica com atividade ovicida.


Subject(s)
Animals , Haemonchus/drug effects , Hemolysin Proteins/pharmacology , Lectins/pharmacology , Ovum/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Seeds
10.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2013 Oct; 50(5): 363-376
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-150246

ABSTRACT

Leishmaniasis is a deadly protozoan parasitic disease affecting millions of people worldwide. The treatment strategy of Leishmania infection depends exclusively on chemotherapy till date. But the treatment of the disease is greatly hampered due to high cost, toxicity of the available drugs and more importantly emergence of drug resistance. Hence the potential new drugs are highly needed to combat this disease. The first and foremost step of the drug discovery process is to search and select the putative target in a specific biological pathway in the parasite that should be either unambiguously absent in the host or considerably different from the host homolog. Importantly, Leishmania genome sequences enrich our knowledge about Leishmania and simultaneously reinforce us to identify the ideal drug targets that distinctly exist in the parasite as well as to develop the effective drugs for leishmaniasis. Though the leishmanial research has significantly progressed during the past two decades, the identification of suitable drug targets or development of effective drugs to combat leishmaniasis is far from satisfactory. Enzymatic systems of Leishmania metabolic and biochemical pathways are essential for their survival and infection. Concurrently, it is noteworthy that Leishmania proteases, especially the cysteine proteases, metalloproteases and serine proteases have been extensively investigated and found to be indispensable for the survival of the parasites and disease pathogenesis. Herein, we have discussed the importance of few enzymes, particularly the Leishmania proteases and their inhibitors as promising candidates for potential development of anti-leishmanial drugs.


Subject(s)
Antiprotozoal Agents/pharmacology , Antiprotozoal Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Discovery/methods , Leishmania/drug effects , Leishmania/physiology , Leishmaniasis/drug therapy , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use
11.
Invest. clín ; 54(3): 270-283, sep. 2013. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-740325

ABSTRACT

Mediante dos métodos de ensayo de peptidasas, uno en fase líquida y otro en fase gel (zimografía en geles), se detectó una peptidasa, en extractos proteicos crudos de epimastigotes de Trypanosoma cruzi, provenientes de un área rural de Venezuela endémica para el mal de Chagas. La peptidasa mostró actividad en el intervalo de pH comprendido entre 2,0 y 2,9. Bajo las condiciones experimentales descritas, la peptidasa resultó insensible a concentraciones usuales de inhibidores clásicos de peptidasas de tipo: serina, cisteína, metalo-peptidasas y aspártico. No obstante, a semejanza de la pepsina porcina a pH 2,9, la peptidasa es inhibida en presencia de 5mM DTT.


Through two peptidase assay methods, one in liquid-phase and another, in gel-phase (gel zymography), an acid peptidase was detected in protein crude extracts of epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi, from a rural area of Venezuela where Chagas disease is endemic. The peptidase shows activity at a pH range between 2.0 and 2.9. Under the experimental conditions described, the acid peptidase was insensitive to usual concentrations of peptidase inhibitors of the types: serine, cysteine, aspartic and metallo-peptidases. Nevertheless, like porcine pepsin at pH 2.9, the peptidase was inhibited in the presence of 5mM DTT.


Subject(s)
Humans , Peptide Hydrolases/isolation & purification , Protozoan Proteins/isolation & purification , Trypanosoma cruzi/enzymology , Chagas Disease/parasitology , Endemic Diseases , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Hydrolysis , Hemoglobins/metabolism , Pepstatins/pharmacology , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protozoan Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Protozoan Proteins/metabolism , Substrate Specificity , Trypanosoma cruzi/growth & development , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolation & purification , Venezuela
12.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2013 Aug; 50(4): 305-311
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-148612

ABSTRACT

An alkaline protease was purified from a halophilic and thermotolerant potent alkaline protease-producing strain Streptomyces pseudogrisiolus NRC-15 using ammonium sulphate precipitation and Sephadex G-100 column chromatography. The enzyme was purified to 77.24-folds with a yield of 91.8% and the specific activity was 112 U/mg of protein. The protease showed a single band on SDS-PAGE with its molecular mass at 20 kDa and exhibited a maximum relative activity of 100% using casein as a substrate and. The enzyme had an optimum pH of 9.5 and displayed optimum activity at 50°C. The enzyme activity was completely inhibited by the serine protease inhibitor PMSF, suggesting the presence of serine residue in the active site. The enzyme activity was increased by the metal ions Ca2+, Co2+, K+ and Mg2+. The enzyme significantly enhanced the removal of stains when used with wheel detergent, indicating the potential of the enzyme for using as a laundry detergent additive to improve the performance of heavy-duty laundry detergent.


Subject(s)
Enzyme Stability , Extracellular Space/enzymology , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Peptide Hydrolases/chemistry , Peptide Hydrolases/isolation & purification , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Species Specificity , Streptomyces/cytology , Streptomyces/enzymology , Temperature
14.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2011 Apr; 48(2): 95-100
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135306

ABSTRACT

A halotolerant bacterium Bacillus acquimaris VITP4 was used for the production of extracellular protease. Fractional precipitation using ammonium chloride was used to obtain the enzyme. The protease exhibited optimum activity at pH 8.0 and 40°C and retained 50% of its optimal proteolytic activity even in the presence of 4 M NaCl, suggesting that it is halotolerant. The molecular mass of protease, as revealed by SDS-PAGE was found to be 34 kDa and the homogeneity of the enzyme was confirmed by gelatin zymography and reverse-phase HPLC. Upon purification, the specific activity of th enzyme increased from 533 U/mg to 1719 U/mg. Protease inhibitors like phenyl methane sulphonyl fluoride and 2-mercaptoethanol did not affect the activity of the enzyme, but EDTA inhibited the activity, indicating the requirement of metal ions for activity. Cu­­­2+, Ni2+ and Mn2+ enhanced the enzyme activity, but Zn2+, Hg2+ and Fe2+ decreased the activity, while Mg2+, Ca2+ and K+ had no effect on the enzyme activity. The protease was quite stable in the presence of cationic (CTAB), anionic (SDS) and neutral detergents (Triton X-100 and Tween-20) and exhibited antimicrobial activity against selected bacterial and fungal strains. The stability characteristics and broad spectrum antimicrobial activity indicated the potential use of this protease in industrial applications.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/isolation & purification , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Bacillus/classification , Bacillus/cytology , Bacillus/drug effects , Bacillus/enzymology , Bacterial Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Bacterial Proteins/chemistry , Bacterial Proteins/isolation & purification , Bacterial Proteins/pharmacology , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Detergents/pharmacology , Electrophoresis , Endopeptidases/chemistry , Endopeptidases/isolation & purification , Endopeptidases/pharmacology , Enzyme Stability/drug effects , Extracellular Space/enzymology , Fungi/drug effects , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Metals/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Sodium Chloride/pharmacology , Temperature
15.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 81(3): 615-621, Sept. 2009. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-523985

ABSTRACT

Obtained from leguminous seeds, various plant proteins inhibit animal proteinases, including human, and can be considered for the development of compounds with biological activity. Inhibitors from the Bowman-Birk and plant Kunitz-type family have been characterized by proteinase specificity, primary structure and reactive site. Our group mostly studies the genus Bauhinia, mainly the species bauhinioides, rufa, ungulata and variegata. In some species, more than one inhibitor was characterized, exhibiting different properties. Although proteins from this group share high structural similarity, they present differences in proteinase inhibition, explored in studies using diverse biological models.


Obtidas de sementes leguminosas, várias proteínas inibem proteinases de origem animal, incluindo humanas, e podem ser consideradas para o desenvolvimento de compostos com atividade biológica. Inibidores da família Bowman-Birk e da família Kunitz vegetal tem sido caracterizados em relação a especificidade para proteinase, estrutura primária e sitio reativo. O nosso grupo majoritariamente vem estudando o gênero Bauhinia, principalmente as espécies bauhinioides, rufa, ungulatae variegata. Em algumas espécies, mais de um inibidor com propriedades diferentes foi caracterizado. Embora tais proteínas apresentem alta similaridade estrutural, diferem quanto à inibição de proteinases, e foram exploradas em estudos utilizando diversos modelos biológicos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Fabaceae/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Chymotrypsin/antagonists & inhibitors , Fabaceae/classification , Peptides/isolation & purification , Peptides/pharmacology , Plant Proteins/isolation & purification , Plant Proteins/pharmacology , Plasma Kallikrein/antagonists & inhibitors , Protease Inhibitors/isolation & purification , Seeds/chemistry , Seeds/classification , Trypsin Inhibitor, Bowman-Birk Soybean/isolation & purification , Trypsin Inhibitor, Bowman-Birk Soybean/pharmacology
16.
Rev. colomb. biotecnol ; 11(1): 107-113, jul. 2009. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-590636

ABSTRACT

El objetivo de este trabajo fue la selección de cepas nativas del género Bacillus con actividad quitinolíticay proteolítica, en suelo tropical en la costa de Oaxaca, México. Se aislaron 150 cepas, de las cuales 22fueron seleccionadas por presentar actividad quitinolítica y proteolítica. Dicha actividad se evaluó porla formación de halo de hidrólisis alrededor de la colonia en medios de cultivo suplementados con quitinacoloidal al 5% y leche descremada al 1% respectivamente. Las cepas LUM B001, B003, B013, B015y B065 presentaron mayor actividad quitinolítica y proteolítica, por lo que tienen el potencial para serevaluadas en control biológico de hongos fitopatógenos. Se encontró al género Bacillus distribuido ensuelos cultivados y no cultivados, no se encontraron diferencias estadísticas según el cultivo establecido(P<0,05), sin embargo se encontraron diferencias significativas (P<0,05) entre las zonas estudiadas, correspondiendolas menores recuperaciones de cepas a los terrenos del municipio de Tututepec, Oaxaca.


This work was aimed at selecting native strains from the Bacillus genus having chitinolytic and proteolytic activityfrom soil from the tropical coast of Oaxaca, Mexico. 150 strains were isolated, 22 of which were selectedas they presented chitinolytic and proteolytic activity. Such activity was assessed by the formation of a hydrolysishalo around the colony in culture media supplemented with 5% colloidal chitin and 1% skimmed milk.The LUM B001, B003, B013, B015 and B065-chitin strains presented higher quitinolytic and proteolytic activity,thereby having the potential for being evaluated in the biological control of phytopathogenic fungi. TheBacillus genus was found in cultivated and uncultivated soils; no statistical differences were found accordingto established crop (p <0.05); however, significant differences (p <0.05) were found between the areas beingstudied regarding the smaller amount of strains collected from land in the municipality of Tututepec, Oaxaca.


Subject(s)
Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Mannose-Binding Protein-Associated Serine Proteases , ATP-Dependent Proteases/pharmacology , ATP-Dependent Proteases/chemistry
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-221452

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of proteases on the degradation of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in blood samples. METHODS: Protease inhibitors with specificity against serine proteases (aprotinin), cysteine proteases (E-64), serine and cysteine proteases (leupeptin), metalloproteases (EDTA), or a protease inhibitor cocktail with a broad spectrum of inhibitory activity were added to blood samples. After storage at room temperature (0-48 hr), PTH levels were measured. RESULTS: PTH levels in samples with the protease inhibitor cocktail did not change significantly after 48 hr of storage at room temperature, but the average PTH levels decreased by 40.7% and 20.1%, in samples stored at room temperature and stored at 4degrees C without protease inhibitors, respectively. PTH levels in samples with leupeptin were stable for up to 24 hr. After 48 hr, the mean PTH levels decreased by 17.1%, 16.0%, 26.2%, and 32.1%, with 500 KIU/mL aprotinin, 100 micro mol/L leupeptin, 10 micro mol/L E-64, and 10 micro mol/L EDTA, respectively, in the samples stored at room temperature. CONCLUSIONS: The decrease in PTH levels in blood samples seemed to be due to the degradation of PTH by proteases. Various proteases, including especially serine proteases, would act together to degrade PTH in blood specimen. The PTH degradation may be inhibited in blood specimen with protease inhibitor cocktail.


Subject(s)
Aprotinin/pharmacology , Blood Specimen Collection , Edetic Acid/pharmacology , Female , Humans , Leucine/analogs & derivatives , Leupeptins/pharmacology , Male , Parathyroid Hormone/blood , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Time Factors
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-151426

ABSTRACT

Treatment of AIDS (HIV) and hepatitis C virus needs protease inhibitors (PI) to prevent viral replication. Uses of PI in therapy are usually associated with a decrease in body weight and dyslipidemia. Acylation stimulating protein (ASP) is a protein synthesized in adipocytes to increase triglycerides biosynthesis, for that the relation of PI and ASP to adipogenesis is tested in this work. ASP expression was increased during 3T3-L1 differentiation and reached a peak at day 8 with cell maturation. Addition of PI during adipocytes differentiation dose dependently and significantly (p < 0.5) inhibited the degree of triglycerides (TG) accumulation. Moreover, presence of ASP (450 ng/mL) in media significantly (p < 0.5) stimulated the degree of TG accumulation and there was additive stimulation for ASP when added with insulin (10 microgram/mL). Finally, when ASP in different doses (Low, 16.7; Medium, 45 and High, 450 ng/mL) incubated with a dose of x150 PI, ASP partially inhibited the PI-inhibited adipogenesis and TG accumulation. The results in this study show that PI inhibit lipids accumulation and confirm role of ASP in TG biosynthesis and adipogenesis.


Subject(s)
3T3 Cells , Adipogenesis/drug effects , Animals , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Insulin/pharmacology , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/pharmacology , Lipid Metabolism/drug effects , Mice , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Time Factors
19.
Braz. j. biol ; 68(1): 149-154, Feb. 2008. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-482196

ABSTRACT

Guanylin and uroguanylin are small cysteine-rich peptides involved in the regulation of fluid and electrolyte homeostasis through binding and activation of guanylyl cyclases signaling molecules expressed in intestine and kidney. Guanylin is less potent than uroguanylin as a natriuretic agent and is degraded in vitro by chymotrypsin due to unique structural features in the bioactive moiety of the peptide. Thus, the aim of this study was to verify whether or not guanylin is degraded by chymotrypsin-like proteases present in the kidney brush-border membranes. The isolated perfused rat kidney assay was used in this regard. Guanylin (0.2 µM) induced no changes in kidney function. However, when pretreated by the black-eyed pea trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitor (BTCI - 1.0 µM; guanylin - 0.2 µM) it promoted increases in urine flow (deltaUF of 0.25 ± 0.09 mL.g-1/min, P < 0.05) and Na+ excretion ( percent delta ENa+ of 18.20 ± 2.17, P < 0.05). BTCI (1.0 µM) also increased percentENa+ (from 22.8 ± 1.30 to 34.4 ± 3.48, P < 0.05, 90 minutes). Furthermore, BTCI (3.0 µM) induced increases in glomerular filtration rate (GFR; from 0.96 ± 0.02 to 1.28 0.02 mL.g-1/min, P < 0.05, 60 minutes). The present paper strongly suggests that chymotrypsin-like proteases play a role in renal metabolism of guanylin and describes for the first time renal effects induced by a member of the Bowman-Birk family of protease inhibitors.


Guanilina e uroguanilina são peptídeos pequenos, ricos em cisteína, envolvidos na regulação da homeostase de fluidos e eletrólitos através da ligação e ativação da guanilato ciclase expressa no intestino e nos rins. A guanilina é menos potente do que a uroguanilina como agente natriurético e é degradada in vitro pela quimiotripsina devido a características estruturais únicas no domínio bioativo do peptídeo. Portanto o objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar se a guanilina é degradada por proteases tipo quimiotripsina, presentes na membrana da borda em escova dos rins. Para esta investigação, foi usado o modelo do rim isolado de rato perfundido. A Guanilina (0,2 µM) não induziu mudanças na função renal. Entretanto, quando pré-tratada com inibidor de tripsina e de quimiotripsina de black-eyed pea (BTCI - 1,0 µM; guanilina - 0,2 µM) promoveu um aumento no fluxo urinário (deltaUF de 0,25 ± 0,09 mL.g-1/min, P < 0,05) e na excreção de Na+ ( por centoDENa+ de 18,20 ± 2,17, P < 0,05). BTCI (1,0 µM) também aumenta por centoENa+ (de 22,8 ± 1,30 a 34,4 ± 3,48, P < 0,0590 minutos). Além disto, BTCI (3,0 µM) induziu um aumento da taxa de filtração glomerular (GFR; de 0,96 ± 0,02 para 1,28 ± 0,02 mL.g-1/min, P < 0,05, 60 minutos). O presente trabalho sugere fortemente que proteases semelhantes à quimiotripsina desempenham um papel no metabolismo renal de guanilinas e descreve, pela primeira vez, os efeitos renais induzidos por um membro da família de inibidores de proteases do tipo Bowman-Birk.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Rats , Gastrointestinal Hormones/pharmacology , Kidney Glomerulus/drug effects , Kidney Tubules/drug effects , Natriuresis/drug effects , Natriuretic Peptides/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Kidney Glomerulus/physiology , Kidney Tubules/physiology , Natriuresis/physiology , Plant Proteins/pharmacology , Rats, Inbred WKY
20.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2006 Oct; 43(5): 289-94
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-27074

ABSTRACT

Mutant A11, a mutant of Saccharomycopsis fibuligera Sdu with low acid and neutral trehalase was found to accumulate over 18% (w/w) trehalose from starch in its cells. In this study, trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (Tps1) was purified to homogeneity from this mutant, with a 30-fold increase in the specific enzyme activity, as compared to the concentrated cell-free extract, from initial cells. The molecular mass of the purified enzyme as determined by SDS-PAGE was 66 kDa. The optimum pH and temperature of the purified enzyme were 6.6 and 37 degrees C, respectively. The enzyme was activated by Ca2+, K+ and Mg2+, with K+ showing the highest activation at 35 mM. On the other hand, Mn2+, Cu2+, Fe3+, Hg2+ and Co2+ inhibited the enzyme. The enzyme was also strongly inhibited by protease inhibitors such as iodoacetic acid, EDTA and PMSF.


Subject(s)
Cell-Free System , Chromatography, Gel , Chromatography, Ion Exchange , Edetic Acid/chemistry , Glucosyltransferases/chemistry , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Iodoacetic Acid/chemistry , Ions , Mutation , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Saccharomycopsis/enzymology , Temperature , Trehalose/chemistry
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