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Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928994


OBJECTIVES@#There is less clinical data on multiple myeloma (MM) in China, and the aim of this study was to collect and analyze the clinical data of newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM) patients in Hunan Province during 1 year, to understand the real clinical features and treatment outcome for Hunan Province patients with MM, and to strengthen the understanding of the standardized diagnosis process and treatment plan of MM.@*METHODS@#The clinical data of 529 patients with NDMM in 12 large-scale general hospitals in Hunan Province from January 1 to December 31, 2019 were collected and analyzed, including baseline data, treatment regimens, duration of treatment, and adverse reactions. The clinical characteristics, treatment, and safety of patients were analyzed by SPSS 21.0.@*RESULTS@#Among the 529 NDMM patients, the age was 33-90 (median 64) years and the male-female ratio was 1.38꞉1. The clinical features ranged from high to low were as follows: Bone pain (77.7%), anemia (66.8%), renal insufficiency (40.6%), hypercalcemia (15.1%). Typing: IgG 46.5%, IgA 24.6%, IgD 2.6%, IgM 0.8%, light chain 15.7%, double clone 3.0%, no secretion 0.6%, absence 6.2%. Staging: Durie-Salmon stage I, II, and III were 4.5%, 10.6%, 77.3%, respectively, and 40 cases (7.6%) missed this data. International Staging System (ISS) stage I, II, and III were 10.4%, 24.4%, and 47.6%, respectively, and 93 cases (17.6%) were missing. Revised International Staging System (R-ISS) stage I, II, and III were 5.5%, 27.0%, 23.1%, respectively, and 235 cases (44.4%) missed this data. Among the 98 NDMM patients in the Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Durie-Salmon (DS) stage missing 2.0%, ISS stage missing 12.3%, and R-ISS stage missing 12.3%.Treatment: Among the 529 patients,475 received treatment, the rate of treatment was 89.8%; 67.4% of the patients were able to complete four courses of chemotherapy at induction phase, 90.3% of the patients received proteasome inhibitor based combination chemotherapy regimen more than once, 67.2% received immunomodulator based regimen more than once, and 59.8% of the patients received proteasome inhibitor and immunomodulator based combination chemotherapy regimen more than once. Curative: Overall response rate (ORR) and high quality response rate (HQR) of the 4-course group were better than those of the 2-course group (ORR: 85% vs 65%, P=0.006; HQR: 68.3% vs 24.0%, P<0.001). The HQR of the standard chemotherapy group was better than that of the non-standard chemotherapy group (65.1% vs 48.2%, P=0.035). Adverse reactions during treatment included hematologic toxicity (17.5%), peripheral neuropathy (24.8%), gastrointestinal adverse events (23.8%), pulmonary infection (25.9%), herpes zoster (4.6%), and venous thrombotic events (1.7%).@*CONCLUSIONS@#In 2019, the missed diagnosis rate of MM patients was high, the medium age of diagnosis was older, and the accuracy of patient diagnosis was not high. There is a great difference among medical centers, especially in the stage and risk stratified, nearly half of NDMM patients are not diagnosed with R-ISS stage; the lack of cytogenetic data needs to be supplemented by follow-up studies. A high proportion of patients with NDMM present with bone pain and anemia.Patients received treatment have higher use of chemotherapy regimens containing proteasome inhibitors and/or immunomodulators, but there is a significant gap among different medical centers, and standardized treatment needs to be strengthened. The safety during chemotherapy is controllable.

Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Multiple Myeloma/therapy , Neoplasm Staging , Pain , Prognosis , Proteasome Inhibitors/therapeutic use
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 49: Pub. 1826, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1363758


Bortezomib, an inhibitor of 26S proteasome, is an anti-cancer therapeutic agent used in different cancer types. It leads to the arrest of the cancerous cell cycle by inhibiting angiogenesis and inducing apoptosis. Liver is the vital organ for detoxification and excretion of toxic products. The treatment with chemotherapy is a challenge, drugs are used to destroy cancer cells, but healthy cells can be affected during cancer treatment as well. The main objective of this study was to analyze the histopathological and biochemical effects of bortezomib on liver. Twenty-four female C57BL/6 mice were distributed into 4 groups, bortezomib injected treatment groups (Btz1, Btz2) and saline injected control groups (C1, C2). Bortezomib and saline were treated twice per week for 6 weeks and sacrificed at the end of one day (Btz1, C1) and 4 weeks (Btz2, C2) after the last injection. Liver samples were examined for histopathological analysis and the serum samples processed for biochemical analysis. Tissue samples were fixed, routinely processed, sectioned, and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E). Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS), Sudan Black staining and Masson's trichrome histochemical staining methods were performed to characterize the lesions. Histopathological analysis of the Btz1 and Btz2 groups revealed acute hepatic morphological changes such as hepatocellular swelling (cloudy swelling), necro-inflammatory reaction, and increased mononuclear polyploidy. Based on the negative staining with PAS and Sudan Black staining, hepatocellular swelling was diagnosed as hydropic degeneration. Necro-inflammatory reaction observed in the form of acute hepatitis was composed of mainly mononuclear cell infiltration accompanied by multifocal necrotic foci. Kupffer cell proliferation was observed in parallel with degenerative and necrotic changes. An Increase in hepatocellular mononuclear polyploidy visualized as hepatocytes with a single enlarged nucleus was detected in all liver sections of Btz1 and Btz2 groups. Individual cases of cholestasis (n = 1) and mild hepatic fibrosis (n = 1) were also reported. Significant elevated levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) were detected in bortezomib treated groups. Few clinical cases reported liver injury related to bortezomib used for cancer treatment. However, the liver was not considered as a target for bortezomib treatment. Our data suggesting that bortezomib caused liver damage and induces elevations in serum levels. The reported hepatic lesions including hepatocellular swelling, acute hepatitis and mononuclear polyploidy were mainly mild and moderate in severity. The increase of polyploidy in liver tissue of mice treated with bortezomib in this study was explained as a reaction of the liver facing the drug-induced hepatic damage. The mechanism leading to the hepatotoxicity of bortezomib treatment is not known but the production of a toxic metabolite through its metabolism in the liver can be suggested. Moreover, no recovery was also observed in histopathological and biochemical analyses suggesting that the bortezomib effect is non-reversible four weeks after the drug was withdrawn. Patients should be informed about the possibility of acute drug-induced hepatitis and hepatotoxicity of this chemotherapeutic agent after the treatment.(AU)

Animals , Female , Mice , Biochemical Phenomena/drug effects , Proteasome Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Bortezomib , Liver/drug effects , Mice