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1.
Med. lab ; 26(2): 119-139, 2022. ilus, Grafs, tabs
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1371154

ABSTRACT

Las amiloidosis sistémicas constituyen un grupo de enfermedades con diversas etiologías, caracterizadas por la síntesis de proteínas con plegado defectuoso, capaces de agregarse y depositarse en el medio extracelular de diferentes órganos y tejidos, alterando su estructura y función. Se conocen más de 14 formas de amiloidosis sistémica, de las cuales la más frecuente es la amiloidosis AL, objeto de esta revisión, en la que las proteínas precursoras son cadenas ligeras de inmunoglobulina inestables, secretadas por un clon de células plasmáticas o, con menor frecuencia, por un linfoma linfoplasmocítico o de células del manto. La amiloidosis AL puede llevar a una amplia gama de manifestaciones clínicas y compromiso de órganos, como el corazón y el riñón. El reconocimiento temprano de la enfermedad y el diagnóstico oportuno son determinantes para mejorar la supervivencia de los pacientes. El tratamiento deberá ser individualizado de acuerdo con la condición de cada paciente, lo que hace necesaria una correcta clasificación de los individuos según su pronóstico. La terapia dirigida a la amiloidosis está enfocada esencialmente en disminuir el compromiso orgánico, y por ende, prolongar la supervivencia con mejoría en los síntomas. En esta revisión se discutirán aspectos importantes de la fisiopatología, epidemiología, manifestaciones clínicas, diagnóstico y tratamiento de la amiloidosis AL


Systemic amyloidosis constitutes a group of diseases with diverse etiologies characterized by the synthesis of proteins with defective folding, capable of aggregating and depositing in the extracellular matrix of different organs and tissues, altering their structure and function. More than 14 forms of systemic amyloidosis are known, of which the most frequent is AL amyloidosis, the subject of this review, in which the precursor proteins are unstable immunoglobulin light chains, secreted by a clone of plasma cells or, to a lesser extent, often due to lymphoplasmacytic or mantle cell lymphoma. AL amyloidosis can lead to a wide range of clinical manifestations and organ involvement, such as the heart and kidney. Early recognition of the disease and timely diagnosis are crucial to improve patient survival. Treatment should be individualized according to the condition of each patient, which requires a properly classification of individuals according to their prognosis. Amyloidosis-targeted therapy is essentially focused on reducing organ involvement, and therefore prolonging survival with improvement in symptoms. In this review, important aspects of the pathophysiology, epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of AL amyloidosis are discussed


Subject(s)
Immunoglobulin Light-chain Amyloidosis , Proteins , Immunoglobulin Light Chains , Protein Folding , Proteolysis , Mutation
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878545

ABSTRACT

The formation of most proteins consists of two steps: the synthesis of precursor proteins and the synthesis of functional proteins. In these processes, propeptides play important roles in assisting protein folding or inhibiting its activity. As an important polypeptide chain coded by a gene sequence in lipase gene, propeptide usually functions as an intramolecular chaperone, assisting enzyme molecule folding. Meanwhile, some specific sites on propeptide such as glycosylated sites, have important effect on the activity, stability in extreme environment, methanol resistance and the substrate specificity of the lipase. Studying the mechanism of propeptide-mediated protein folding, as well as the influence of propeptide on lipases, will allow to regulate lipase by alternating the propeptide folding behavior and in turn pave new ways for protein engineering research.


Subject(s)
Lipase/metabolism , Molecular Chaperones/metabolism , Protein Folding , Protein Precursors , Substrate Specificity
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785797

ABSTRACT

Artificial intelligence (AI), big data, and ubiquitous robotic companions —the three most notable technologies of the 4th Industrial Revolution—are receiving renewed attention each day. Technologies that can be experienced in daily life, such as autonomous navigation, real-time translators, and voice recognition services, are already being commercialized in the field of information technology. In the biosciences field in Korea, such technologies have become known to the local public with the introduction of the AI doctor Watson in large number of hospitals. Additionally, AlphaFold, a technology resembling the AI AlphaGo for the game Go, has surpassed the limit on protein folding predictions—the most challenging problems in the field of protein biology. This report discusses the significance of AI technology and big data on the bioscience field. The introduction of automated robots in this field is not just only for the purpose of convenience but a prerequisite for the real sense of AI and the consequent accumulation of basic scientific knowledge.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , Biology , Biotechnology , Friends , Humans , Korea , Protein Folding , Voice
5.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(3): 662-667, July-Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951808

ABSTRACT

Abstract The effect of the intracellular microenvironment in the presence of an oxygen vector during expression of a fusion protein in Escherichia coli was studied. Three organic solutions at different concentration were chosen as oxygen vectors for fumarase expression. The addition of n-dodecane did not induce a significant change in the expression of fumarase, while the activity of fumarase increased significantly to 124% at 2.5% n-dodecane added after 9 h induction. The concentration of ATP increased sharply during the first 6 h of induction, to a value 7600% higher than that in the absence of an oxygen-vector. NAD/NADH and NADP/NADPH ratios were positively correlated with fumarase activity. n-Dodecane can be used to increase the concentration of ATP and change the energy metabolic pathway, providing sufficient energy for fumarase folding.


Subject(s)
Oxygen/metabolism , Gene Expression , Alkanes/metabolism , Escherichia coli/genetics , Fumarate Hydratase/metabolism , Oxygen/chemistry , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Protein Folding , Alkanes/chemistry , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Fumarate Hydratase/genetics , Fumarate Hydratase/chemistry , NADP/metabolism , NADP/chemistry
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758781

ABSTRACT

Rotavirus (RV)-infected piglets are presumed to be latent sources of heterologous RV infection in humans and other animals. In RVs, non-structural protein 4 (NSP4) is the major virulence factor with pleiotropic properties. In this study, we analyzed the nsp4 gene from porcine RVs isolated from diarrheic and non-diarrheic cases at different levels of protein folding to explore correlations to diarrhea-inducing capabilities and evolution of nsp4 in the porcine population. Full-length nsp4 genes were amplified, cloned, sequenced, and then analyzed for antigenic epitopes, RotaC classification, homology, genetic relationship, modeling of NSP4 protein, and prediction of post-translational modification. RV presence was observed in both diarrheic and non-diarrheic piglets. All nsp4 genes possessed the E1 genotype. Comparison of primary, secondary, and tertiary structure and the prediction of post-translational modifications of NSP4 from diarrheic and non-diarrheic piglets revealed no apparent differences. Sequence analysis indicated that nsp4 genes have a multi-phyletic evolutionary origin and exhibit species independent genetic diversity. The results emphasize the evolution of the E9 nsp4 genotype from the E1 genotype and suggest that the diarrhea-inducing capability of porcine RVs may not be exclusively linked to its enterotoxin gene.


Subject(s)
Animals , Classification , Clone Cells , Enterotoxins , Epitopes , Genetic Variation , Genotype , Humans , Protein Folding , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Rotavirus , Sequence Analysis , Viral Nonstructural Proteins , Virulence
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-158421

ABSTRACT

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an important subcellular organelle that is involved in numerous activities required to achieve and maintain functional proteins in addition to its role in the biosynthesis of lipids and as a repository of intracellular Ca²⁺. The inability of the ER to cope with protein folding beyond its capacity causes disturbances that evoke ER stress. Cells possess molecular mechanisms aimed at clearing unwanted cargo from the ER lumen as an adaptive response, but failing to do so navigates the system towards cell death. This systemic approach is called the unfolded protein response. Aging insults cells through various perturbations in homeostasis that involve curtailing ER function by mitigating the expression of its resident chaperones and enzymes. Here the unfolded protein response (UPR) cannot protect the cell due to the weakening of its protective arm, which exacerbates imbalanced homeostasis. Aging predisposed breast malignancy activates the UPR, but tumor cells maneuver the mechanistic details of the UPR, favoring tumorigenesis and thereby eliciting a treacherous condition. Tumor cells exploit UPR pathways via crosstalk involving various signaling cascades that usher tumor cells to immortality. This review aims to present a collection of data that can delineate the missing links of molecular signatures between aging and breast cancer.


Subject(s)
Aging , Arm , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Carcinogenesis , Cell Death , Endoplasmic Reticulum , Homeostasis , Organelles , Protein Folding , Unfolded Protein Response
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-224465

ABSTRACT

Excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated responses are critical to embryonic development in the challenging in vitro environment. ROS production increases during early embryonic development with the increase in protein requirements for cell survival and growth. The ER is a multifunctional cellular organelle responsible for protein folding, modification, and cellular homeostasis. ER stress is activated by a variety of factors including ROS. Such stress leads to activation of the adaptive unfolded protein response (UPR), which restores homeostasis. However, chronic stress can exceed the toleration level of the ER, resulting in cellular apoptosis. In this review, we briefly describe the generation and impact of ROS in preimplantation embryo development, the ROS-mediated activation mechanism of the UPR via the ER, and the subsequent activation of signaling pathways following ER stress in preimplantation embryos.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Blastocyst , Cell Survival , Embryonic Development , Endoplasmic Reticulum , Female , Homeostasis , In Vitro Techniques , Organelles , Oxygen , Pregnancy , Protein Folding , Reactive Oxygen Species , Unfolded Protein Response
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-30370

ABSTRACT

Free fatty acids (FFAs) are important substrates for mitochondrial oxidative metabolism and ATP synthesis but also cause serious stress to various tissues, contributing to the development of metabolic diseases. CD36 is a major mediator of cellular FFA uptake. Inside the cell, saturated FFAs are able to induce the production of cytosolic and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can be prevented by co-exposure to unsaturated FFAs. There are close connections between oxidative stress and organellar Ca²⁺ homeostasis. Highly oxidative conditions induced by palmitate trigger aberrant endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca²⁺ release and thereby deplete ER Ca²⁺ stores. The resulting ER Ca²⁺ deficiency impairs chaperones of the protein folding machinery, leading to the accumulation of misfolded proteins. This ER stress may further aggravate oxidative stress by augmenting ER ROS production. Secondary to ER Ca²⁺ release, cytosolic and mitochondrial matrix Ca²⁺ concentrations can also be altered. In addition, plasmalemmal ion channels operated by ER Ca²⁺ depletion mediate persistent Ca²⁺ influx, further impairing cytosolic and mitochondrial Ca²⁺ homeostasis. Mitochondrial Ca²⁺ overload causes superoxide production and functional impairment, culminating in apoptosis. This vicious cycle of lipotoxicity occurs in multiple tissues, resulting in β-cell failure and insulin resistance in target tissues, and further aggravates diabetic complications.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphate , Apoptosis , Calcium , Cytosol , Diabetes Complications , Endoplasmic Reticulum , Fatty Acids, Nonesterified , Homeostasis , Insulin Resistance , Ion Channels , Metabolic Diseases , Metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Protein Folding , Reactive Oxygen Species , Superoxides
10.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 48(1): 5-14, mar. 2016. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-843153

ABSTRACT

Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA) is a well known and relevant immunogenic protein that is the basis for both anthrax vaccines and diagnostic methods. Properly folded antigenic PA is necessary for these applications. In this study a high level of PA was obtained in recombinant Escherichia coli. The protein was initially accumulated in inclusion bodies, which facilitated its efficient purification by simple washing steps; however, it could not be recognized by specific antibodies. Refolding conditions were subsequently analyzed in a high-throughput manner that enabled nearly a hundred different conditions to be tested simultaneously. The recovery of the ability of PA to be recognized by antibodies was screened by dot blot using a coefficient that provided a measure of properly refolded protein levels with a high degree of discrimination. The best refolding conditions resulted in a tenfold increase in the intensity of the dot blot compared to the control. The only refolding additive that consistently yielded good results was L-arginine. The statistical analysis identified both cooperative and negative interactions between the different refolding additives. The high-throughput approach described in this study that enabled overproduction, purification and refolding of PA in a simple and straightforward manner, can be potentially useful for the rapid screening of adequate refolding conditions for other overexpressed antigenic proteins.


El antígeno protector de Bacillus anthracis (protective antigen, PA) es una importante proteína inmunogénica, en la que se basan tanto las vacunas contra el ántrax/carbunclo como varios métodos diagnósticos. Para estas aplicaciones es esencial que el PA mantenga sus propiedades antigénicas, para lo cual debe estar correctamente plegado. En este estudio se obtuvieron altos niveles del PA en Escherichia coli recombinante. Inicialmente, la proteína se acumuló desnaturalizada en cuerpos de inclusión, lo que facilitó su eficiente purificación en simples pasos de lavado, pero no fue reconocida por anticuerpos específicos. Se analizaron las condiciones de replegado con un sistema de alto rendimiento, evaluando simultáneamente casi un centenar de condiciones diferentes. La recuperación de la capacidad del PA de ser reconocido por los anticuerpos se evaluó por dot blot utilizando un coeficiente que proporcionó una medida de los niveles de proteína correctamente plegada, con un alto grado de discriminación. Las mejores condiciones de renaturalización permitieron un aumento de diez veces en la intensidad de los dot blots con respecto del control. El único aditivo que produjo buenos resultados de forma constante fue la L-arginina. El análisis estadístico de las interacciones entre los diferentes aditivos de replegado permitió identificar tanto interacciones cooperativas como negativas. El enfoque de alto rendimiento descripto en este trabajo, que permitió la sobreproducción, purificación y plegado del PA de una manera sencilla y directa, puede ser potencialmente útil para el rápido screening de las condiciones adecuadas de replegado cuando se sobreexpresan otras proteínas antigénicas.


Subject(s)
Protein Refolding/drug effects , Antibodies/analysis , Antigens/analysis , Bacillus anthracis/drug effects , Bacillus anthracis/immunology , Protein Folding/drug effects
11.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 584-598, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-337439

ABSTRACT

Effective expression of pIFN-α in recombinant Pichia pastoris was conducted in a 5 L fermentor. Ethanol accumulation during the late glycerol feeding period inhibited heterologous protein expression. Comparative transcriptome analysis was thus performed to compare the gene transcription profiles of Pichia pastoris KM71H in high and low ethanol concentration environments. The results showed that during the glycerol cultivation stage, 545 genes (265 up-regulated and 280 down-regulated) were differentially expressed with ethanol stress. These genes were mainly involved in protein synthesis, energy metabolism, cell cycle and peroxisome metabolism. During the methanol induction stage, 294 genes (171 up-regulated and 123 down-regulated) were differentially expressed, which were mainly related to methanol metabolism, amino acid metabolism and protein synthesis. Ethanol stress increased protein misfolding and reduced structural integrity of ribosome and mitochondria during cultivation stage, and led to the failure of endoplasmic reticulum stress removal and damaged amino acid metabolism during induction stage in Pichia pastoris.


Subject(s)
Amino Acids , Metabolism , Bioreactors , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Energy Metabolism , Ethanol , Chemistry , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal , Glycerol , Methanol , Pichia , Metabolism , Protein Biosynthesis , Protein Folding , Recombinant Proteins , Transcriptome
12.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-954790

ABSTRACT

Background The cysteine-rich neurotoxins from elapid venoms are primarily responsible for human and animal envenomation; however, their low concentration in the venom may hamper the production of efficient elapid antivenoms. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to produce fully active elapid neurotoxic immunogens for elapid antivenom production. Method Cysteine-rich neurotoxins showed recombinant expression in two strains of E. coli, and were purified using affinity chromatography and reverse-phase HPLC (rpHPLC). Results The cDNA of the four disulfide-bridged peptide neurotoxin Mlat1 was cloned into a modified expression vector, pQE30, which was transfected into two different E. coli strains. The recombinant toxin (HisrMlat1) was found only in inclusion bodies in M15 strain cells, and in both inclusion bodies and cytoplasm in Origami strain cells. The HisrMlat1 from inclusion bodies from M15 cells was solubilized using guanidine hydrochloride, and then purified by rpHPLC. It showed various contiguous fractions having the same molecular mass, indicating that HisrMlat1 was oxidized after cell extraction forming different misfolded disulfide bridge arrangements without biological activity. In vitro folding conditions of the misfolded HisrMlat1 generated a biologically active HisrMlat1. On the other hand, the HisrMlat1 from the cytoplasm from Origami cells was already soluble, and then purified by HPLC. It showed a single fraction with neurotoxic activity; so, no folding steps were needed. The in vitro folded HisrMlat1 from M15 cells and the cytoplasmic soluble HisrMlat1from Origami cells were indistinguishable in their structure and neurotoxicity. Rabbit polyclonal antibodies raised up against biologically active HisrMlat1 recognized the native Mlat1 (nMlat1) from the whole venom of M. laticorallis. In addition, HisrMlat1 was recognized by horse polyclonal antibodies obtained from the immunization of elapid species from sub-Saharan Africa. Conclusion HisrMlat1 shows increased biological activities compared to the native peptide, and may be used as an immunizing agent in combination with other toxic components such phospholipases type A2 for elapid antivenom production.(AU)


Subject(s)
Protein Folding , Elapidae , Elapid Venoms , Antibodies , Neurotoxins
13.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 28-45, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-757199

ABSTRACT

Influenza C virus, a member of the Orthomyxoviridae family, causes flu-like disease but typically only with mild symptoms. Humans are the main reservoir of the virus, but it also infects pigs and dogs. Very recently, influenza C-like viruses were isolated from pigs and cattle that differ from classical influenza C virus and might constitute a new influenza virus genus. Influenza C virus is unique since it contains only one spike protein, the hemagglutinin-esterase-fusion glycoprotein HEF that possesses receptor binding, receptor destroying and membrane fusion activities, thus combining the functions of Hemagglutinin (HA) and Neuraminidase (NA) of influenza A and B viruses. Here we briefly review the epidemiology and pathology of the virus and the morphology of virus particles and their genome. The main focus is on the structure of the HEF protein as well as on its co- and post-translational modification, such as N-glycosylation, disulfide bond formation, S-acylation and proteolytic cleavage into HEF1 and HEF2 subunits. Finally, we describe the functions of HEF: receptor binding, esterase activity and membrane fusion.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Dogs , Hemagglutinins, Viral , Chemistry , Metabolism , Influenzavirus C , Physiology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections , Metabolism , Virology , Protein Conformation , Protein Folding , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Viral Fusion Proteins , Chemistry , Metabolism
14.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 38(6): 442-449, nov.-dic. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-788101

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE:To describe the volume and patterns of alcohol consumption up to and including 2012, and to estimate the burden of disease attributable to alcohol consumption as measured in deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost in the Americas in 2012. METHODS: Measures of alcohol consumption were obtained from the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Information System on Alcohol and Health (GISAH). The burden of alcohol consumption was estimated in both deaths and DALYs lost based on mortality data obtained from WHO, using alcohol-attributable fractions. Regional groupings for the Americas were based on the WHO classifications for 2004 (according to child and adult mortality). RESULTS: Regional variations were observed in the overall volume of alcohol consumed, the proportion of the alcohol market attributable to unrecorded alcohol consumption, drinking patterns, prevalence of drinking, and prevalence of heavy episodic drinking, with inhabitants of the Americas consuming more alcohol (8.4 L of pure alcohol per adult in 2012) compared to the world average. The Americas also experienced a high burden of disease attributable to alcohol consumption (4.7% of all deaths and 6.7% of all DALYs lost), especially in terms of injuries attributable to alcohol consumption. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol is consumed in a harmful manner in the Americas, leading to a high burden of disease, especially in terms of injuries. New cost-effective alcohol policies, such as increasing alcohol taxation, increasing the minimum legal age to purchase alcohol, and decreasing the maximum legal blood alcohol content while driving, should be implemented to decrease the harmful consumption of alcohol and the resulting burden of disease.


OBJETIVO:Describir el volumen y los modelos de consumo de alcohol hasta el año 2012 incluido, y calcular la carga de morbilidad atribuible al consumo de alcohol medida según el número de defunciones y los años de vida ajustados en función de la discapacidad (AVAD) perdidos en la Región de las Américas en el 2012. MÉTODOS: Los datos sobre el consumo de alcohol se obtuvieron a partir del Sistema Mundial de Información sobre el Alcohol y la Salud (GISAH, por sus siglas en inglés) de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS). La carga del consumo de alcohol se calculó según la mortalidad y según los AVAD perdidos con base en los datos de mortalidad obtenidos de la OMS, tomando en consideración las fracciones atribuibles al alcohol. La división en subregiones se basó en las clasificaciones de la OMS del año 2004 (según la mortalidad en niños y adultos). RESULTADOS: Se observaron variaciones regionales en el volumen total de alcohol consumido, la proporción del mercado del alcohol atribuible al consumo de alcohol no registrado, los hábitos de consumo, la prevalencia del consumo y la prevalencia de los episodios de consumo excesivo de alcohol. Los habitantes de la Región de las Américas consumieron más alcohol (8,4 litros de alcohol puro por adulto en el 2012) en comparación con el promedio mundial. La Región también experimentó una alta carga de morbilidad atribuible al consumo de alcohol (4,7% de las defunciones y 6,7% de los AVAD perdidos), especialmente en forma de lesiones atribuibles al consumo de alcohol. CONCLUSIONES: El alcohol se consume de una manera perjudicial en la Región de las Américas y ello comporta una alta carga de morbilidad, especialmente en forma de lesiones. Con objeto de disminuir el consumo perjudicial de bebidas alcohólicas y la carga de morbilidad resultante, es preciso introducir nuevas políticas en materia de consumo de alcohol que sean eficaces en función de los costos, tales como el incremento de los impuestos sobre el alcohol, el aumento de la edad mínima legal para adquirir alcohol, y la disminución de la concentración máxima legal de alcohol en sangre mientras se conduce.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Proteins/chemistry , Neuraminidase/chemistry , Streptococcus pneumoniae/enzymology , Virulence Factors/chemistry , Binding Sites , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Lactose/analogs & derivatives , Lactose/metabolism , Models, Molecular , Neuraminidase/metabolism , Protein Binding , Protein Folding , Protein Structure, Tertiary , Sialic Acids/metabolism , Streptococcus pneumoniae/chemistry , Virulence Factors/metabolism
15.
Clinics ; 70(5): 373-379, 05/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748273

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury occurs in several clinical conditions and after intestinal transplantation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the phenomena of apoptosis and cell proliferation in a previously described intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury autograft model using immunohistochemical markers. The molecular mechanisms involved in ischemia-reperfusion injury repair were also investigated by measuring the expression of the early activation genes c-fos and c-jun, which induce apoptosis and cell proliferation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty adult male Wistar rats were subjected to surgery for a previously described ischemia-reperfusion model that preserved the small intestine, the cecum and the ascending colon. Following reperfusion, the cecum was harvested at different time points as a representative segment of the intestine. The rats were allocated to the following four subgroups according to the reperfusion time: subgroup 1: 5 min; subgroup 2: 15 min; subgroup 3: 30 min; and subgroup 4: 60 min. A control group of cecum samples was also collected. The expression of c-fos, c-jun and immunohistochemical markers of cell proliferation and apoptosis (Ki67 and TUNEL, respectively) was studied. RESULTS: The expression of both c-fos and c-jun in the cecum was increased beginning at 5 min after ischemia-reperfusion compared with the control. The expression of c-fos began to increase at 5 min, peaked at 30 min, and exhibited a declining tendency at 60 min after reperfusion. A progressive increase in c-jun expression was observed. Immunohistochemical analyses confirmed these observations. CONCLUSION: The early activation of the c-fos and c-jun genes occurred after intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury, and these genes can act together to trigger cell proliferation and apoptosis. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Rats , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Fatty Acids/metabolism , Hepatocytes/physiology , Unfolded Protein Response , Acetylcysteine/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Cells, Cultured , Glutathione/metabolism , Hepatocytes/metabolism , Oxidation-Reduction , Protein Folding
16.
Salud colect ; 11(1): 115-128, ene.-mar. 2015.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-746688

ABSTRACT

Los antipsicóticos no parecen revertir las causas de la esquizofrenia y, aunque son fármacos que pueden aliviar los síntomas a corto y mediano plazo, a largo plazo pueden no ser beneficiosos e incluso ser contraproducentes. Su empleo debería limitarse a situaciones agudas con agitación y tensión incapacitante. Presentan considerables efectos adversos y, ante la negativa de una persona a seguir tomándolos, adoptar una estrategia de reducción de daños apoyando y supervisando la retirada puede ser preferible a la coerción. Existen alternativas a los neurolépticos. Los prescriptores deberían estar más atentos y considerar las valoraciones que los usuarios hacen de sus efectos. El apego a las guías de tratamiento es escaso, seguramente por basarse en ensayos clinicos de calidad deficente, que deben mejorar y prolongarse en el tiempo. La raíz del problema probablemente se encuentra en la tautología sobre la etiología y naturaleza biológica de lo que llaman esquizofrenia, que realmente no parece ser más que un constructo ideológico-comercial.


Antipsychotic drugs do not appear to reverse the causes of schizophrenia, and although they can relieve symptoms in the short to medium term, in the long term they may not be beneficial and could even be counterproductive. Their use should be limited to acute situations in which agitation and tension is disabling. The drugs have significant adverse effects, and given the refusal of a person to continue taking them, a harm reduction strategy to support and monitor the withdrawal may be preferable to coercion. There are alternatives to neuroleptics. Prescribers should be more vigilant and consider the assessments of users regarding the drugs' effects. Adherence to treatment guidelines is low, probably because the guidelines are based on clinical trials of deficient quality which consequently should be improved and extended over a greater period of time. The root of the problem is likely the tautology on the etiology and biological nature of what is known as schizophrenia, which in fact does not seem to be more than a commercial and ideological construct.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Proteins/chemistry , Biophysics/methods , DNA-Binding Proteins/chemistry , Microscopy, Atomic Force/methods , Hydrogen Bonding , Kinetics , Models, Molecular , Models, Statistical , Monte Carlo Method , Protein Conformation , Protein Denaturation , Protein Folding , Protein Structure, Secondary , Protein Structure, Tertiary , Peptostreptococcus/metabolism , Proteins/chemistry , Stress, Mechanical , Temperature , Time Factors , Ubiquitin/chemistry
17.
Ciênc. saúde coletiva ; 20(2): 449-460, 02/2015. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-742218

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar os motivos das faltas às consultas odontológicas em Unidades de Saúde da Família (USF) e implementar estratégias para sua redução por meio da pesquisa-ação. O estudo foi realizado em 12 USF de Piracicaba/SP, de 01 de janeiro a 31 de dezembro de 2010. A amostra se consistiu de 385 usuários, entrevistados por telefone, sobre os motivos das faltas, além de 12 cirurgiões-dentistas e 12 enfermeiras. Realizaram-se duas oficinas com os profissionais: uma para problematização dos dados coletados nas entrevistas e elaboração de estratégias; e outra após 4 meses, para avaliação. O maior motivo de faltas foi a coincidência do horário de funcionamento das unidades com o de trabalho dos usuários. Dentre as estratégias ressaltou-se a realização de palestras sobre saúde bucal, educação permanente nas reuniões de equipe, capacitação dos Agentes Comunitários de Saúde, participação em grupos terapêuticos e parcerias entre Equipe de Saúde Bucal e equipamentos sociais da comunidade. A adoção de prontuário único foi a estratégia desafiadora encontrada pelos profissionais. Concluiu-se que as estratégias implementadas levaram à diminuição das faltas em 66,6% e o caráter motivador das oficinas possibilitou a reflexão crítica para o redirecionamento da prática em saúde.


The aim of this study was to analyze the reasons for missed appointments in dental Family Health Units (FHU) and implement strategies to reduce same through action research. This is a study conducted in 12 FHUs in Piracicaba in the State of São Paulo from January, 1 to December, 31 2010. The sample was composed of 385 users of these health units who were interviewed over the phone and asked about the reasons for missing dental appointments, as well as 12 dentists and 12 nurses. Two workshops were staged with professionals: the first to assess the data collected in interviews and develop strategy, and the second for evaluation after 4 months. The primary cause for missed appointments was the opening hours of the units coinciding with the work schedule of the users. Among the strategies suggested were lectures on oral health, ongoing education in team meetings, training of Community Health Agents, participation in therapeutic groups and partnerships between Oral Health Teams and the social infrastructure of the community. The adoption of the single medical record was the strategy proposed by professionals. The strategies implemented led to a 66.6% reduction in missed appointments by the units and the motivating nature of the workshops elicited critical reflection to redirect health practices.


Subject(s)
Cysteine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Enzyme Precursors/metabolism , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence , Biocatalysis , Computer Simulation , Cysteine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Cysteine Endopeptidases/genetics , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/chemistry , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/metabolism , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Enzyme Activation , Enzyme Precursors/antagonists & inhibitors , Enzyme Precursors/chemistry , Enzyme Precursors/genetics , Hot Temperature , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Hydrolysis , Isoenzymes/antagonists & inhibitors , Isoenzymes/chemistry , Isoenzymes/genetics , Isoenzymes/metabolism , Kinetics , Leucine/analogs & derivatives , Leucine/chemistry , Leucine/metabolism , Leucine/pharmacology , Models, Molecular , Molecular Sequence Data , Protein Conformation , Protein Folding , Protein Stability , Plant Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Plant Proteins/chemistry , Plant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-291624

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the drug sensitivity and analyze the replication kinetics of HIV-1 B and CRF07_BC subtypes with I132L or T139K/R mutations.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The amino acids in position 132 and 139 of reverse transcriptase (RT) region of the infectious clone PNL4-3 (HIV-1 B subtype) were changed to L and T/R through site mutagenesis. Combined with the previously constructed infectious clone of HIV-1 CRF07_BC subtype with I132L and T139K/R mutations in RT region, mutated PNL4-3 infectious clones were transfected into 293T cells. The infection ability of mutated clones was detected. The drug sensitivity to NNRTIs (TMC-125, DLV, NVP, EFV) and the properties of replication kinetics were also evaluated.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The mutated infectious clones were constructed including PNL4-3-RT-I132L, PNL4-3-RT-T139K and PNL4-3-RT-T139R. The I132L and T139K/R mutations in HIV-1 B and CRF07_BC infectious clones reduced their drug sensitivity to NNRTIs, which accompanied with the increase of EC50 (concentration for 50% of maximal effect). In subtype CRF07_BC, I132L mutation increased EC50 by 2.55, 19.35, 28.05, 6.13 fold, T139K mutation increased EC50 by 4.67, 3.66, 7.35, 3.30 fold, and T139R mutation increased EC50 by 1.82, 4.69, 25.12, 1.89 fold, respectively. In subtype B, I132L increased EC50 by 3.91, 4.61, 6.38, 3.56 fold, T139K increased EC50 by 3.13, 1.78, 2.26, 2.10 fold, T139R increased EC50 by 5.79, 3.99, 5.78, 2.75 fold, respectively. Similar as wild type PNL4-3, the replication ability of 132L/139K/139R mutated infectious clones reached the peak in day 11. However, compared to wild type BC-WT, I132L/T139R mutations delayed the peak time to day 14 and 21.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The novel drug resistance associated mutations I132L and T139K/R can reduce the drug sensitivity to NNRTIs in subtype B and CRF07_BC, and the replication ability of CRF_07BC declined by I132L mutation.</p>


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents , Drug Resistance , Genotype , HIV-1 , Kinetics , Mutation , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Protein Folding , Pyridazines , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors , Virus Replication
19.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1682-1689, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-337467

ABSTRACT

The 1,095 bp gene encoding peroxidase from Coprinus cinereus was synthesized and integrated into the genome of Pichia pastoris with a highly inducible alcohol oxidase. The recombinant CiP (rCiP) fused with the a-mating factor per-pro leader sequence derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae was secreted into the culture medium and identified as the target protein by mass spectrometry, confirming that a C. cinereus peroxidase (CiP) was successfully expressed in P. pastoris. The endoplasmic reticulum oxidoreductase 1 (Ero1) and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) were co-expressed with rCiP separately and simultaneously. Compared with the wild type, overexpression of PDI and Erol-PDI increaseed Cip activity in 2.43 and 2.6 fold and their activity reached 316 U/mL and 340 U/mL respectively. The strains co-expressed with Erol-PDI was used to high density fermentation, and their activity reached 3,379 U/mL, which was higher than previously reported of 1,200 U/mL.


Subject(s)
Coprinus , Culture Media , Cytoplasm , Fermentation , Glycoproteins , Metabolism , Mass Spectrometry , Mating Factor , Oxidoreductases Acting on Sulfur Group Donors , Metabolism , Peptides , Peroxidases , Pichia , Metabolism , Protein Disulfide-Isomerases , Metabolism , Protein Folding , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins , Metabolism
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-83887

ABSTRACT

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a specialized organelle that plays a central role in biosynthesis, correct protein folding, and posttranslational modifications of secretory and membrane proteins. Loss of homeostasis in ER functions triggers the ER stress response, resulting in activation of unfolded protein response (UPR), a hallmark of many inflammatory diseases. These pathways have been reported as critical players in the pathogenesis of various pulmonary disorders, including pulmonary fibrosis, lung injury, and chronic airway disorders. More interestingly, ER stress and the related signaling networks are emerging as important modulators of inflammatory and immune responses in the development of allergen-induced bronchial asthma, especially severe asthma.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Endoplasmic Reticulum , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Homeostasis , Lung Injury , Membrane Proteins , Organelles , Protein Folding , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Pulmonary Fibrosis , Unfolded Protein Response
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