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1.
Article in English | ID: biblio-1347973

ABSTRACT

The release of endometrial prostaglandin-F2α (PGF2α) in bovine females can be induced in vivo by estradiol (E2). However, its role in this mechanism has not been clarified. We hypothesized that E2 stimulates the activity and abundance of protein kinase C (PKC) and phospholipase A2 (PLA2). Our objective in this study was to analyze the effects of PKC and PLA2 inhibitors on PGF2α synthesis induced by E2 and calcium ionophore (CI) in bovine endometrial cells (BEND cells; Experiment 1). Additionally, we evaluated the abundance of PKC and PLA2 in endometrial explants of cows treated or not with E2 17 days after estrus (D17, D0 = estrus; Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, BEND cells were submitted to a PKC inhibitor (10 µM of C25H24N4O2; bisindolylmaleimide I, or BIS I), a PLA2 inhibitor (20 µM of arachydoniltrifluoromethane or AACOCF3), or none. The BEND cells were subsequently treated with E2 and CI, and PGF2α concentrations were measured in the culture medium through radioimmunoassay. For DIF-12 (PGF2α concentration 12 h after treatment subtracted from PGF2α concentration at hour 0), no PKC inhibitor effect was observed (P= 0.2709). However, DIF-12 was lower (P < 0.05) for groups treated with the PLA2 inhibitor and PLA2 inhibitor + CI + E2 groups than the control and CI + E2 groups. Thus, AACOCF3 was an efficient PLA2 inhibitor in the BEND cells culture system, and E2 did not stimulate the synthesis of PKC and PLA2. In Experiment 2, cyclic Nellore heifers received none (n = 5) or 3 mg (n = 6) of 17ß-E2 on D17 and were slaughtered 2 h after administration. The abundance of PKC and PLA2 in the endometrial tissue was evaluated using Western blotting analysis. No E2 effect was observed on PKC (P = 0.08) and PLA2 (P = 0.56). We concluded that E2 did not stimulate the activity and abundance of PKC and PLA2.(AU)


A liberação endometrial de prostaglandina-F2α (PGF2α) em fêmeas bovinas pode ser induzida in vivo pelo estradiol (E2). Entretanto o seu mecanismo de ação ainda não foi bem esclarecido. Nossa hipótese é que o E2 estimula a atividade e a abundância da proteína quinase C (PKC) e da fosfolipase A2 (PLA2). Nosso objetivo com este estudo foi analizar os efeitos de inibidores de PKC e PLA2 na síntese de PGF2α induzida por E2 e ionóforo de cálcio (CI) em células endometriais bovinas (células BEND; Experimento 1). Adicionalmente, nós avaliamos a abundância de PKC e PLA2 em explantes endometriais de vacas tratadas com ou sem E2 17 dias após o estro (D17, D0 = estro; Experimento 2). No Experimento 1, células BEND foram submetidas ao inibidor de PKC (10 µM de C25H24N4O2; bisindolylmaleimide I, ou BIS I), e ao inibidor de PLA2 (20 µM de arachydoniltrifluoromethane ou AACOCF3) ou a nenhum inibidor. As células BEND foram subsequentemente tratadas com E2 e CI e concentrações de PGF2α foram mensuradas no meio de cultura por radioimunoenssaio. Para DIF-12 (concentração de PGF2α 12 horas depois do tratamento, subtraída da concentração de PGF2α na hora 0), não foi observado efeito do inibidor de PKC (P = 0.2709). Entretanto DIF-12 foi menor (P < 0.05) nos grupos tratados com inibidor de PLA2 e inibidor de PLA2 + CI + E2 quando comparados com o grupo controle e o grupo CI + E2. O AACOCF3 foi um eficiente inibidor de PLA2 em sistema de cultura de células BEND e o E2 não estimulou a síntese de PKC e PLA2. No Experimento 2, novilhas Nelore cíclicas receberam 3 mg de 17ß-E2 (n = 6) ou nenhum tratamento (n = 5) no D17 e foram abatidas duas horas depois da administração dos tratamentos. A quantidade de PKC and PLA2 no tecido endometrial foi avaliada pela técnica de Western Blotting. Não foi observado efeito do E2 sobre a PKC (P= 0.08) e nem sobre a PLA2 (P= 0.56). Conclui-se que o E2 não estimulou a atividade e abundância de PKC e PLA2.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Protein Kinase C , Cattle/physiology , Phospholipase A2 Inhibitors , Uterine Diseases , Estradiol , Calcium Ionophores
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878884

ABSTRACT

Protein kinase C(PKC) is a type of protein kinase widely involved in cell proliferation and development, but the developmental mechanism in the gonads of androgynous animals is still unclear. In order to explore the role of protein kinase C in the development of Whitmania pigra germ cells, the Wh. pigra PKC(Wp-PKC) gene was cloned, bioinformatics analysis was conducted, and fluorescent quantitative PCR was used to analyze the expression of female and male gonads. The results showed that:(1)The cloned Wp-PKC had a full length of 2 580 bp, a relative molecular weight of 76 555.19, and contains an open reading frame encoding 670 amino acids, Wp-PKC was closely related to Danio rerio PKC-α and rat PKC-γ. The similarity of amino acid sequence was 55% and 58%.(2)The protein encoded by Wp-PKC had no signal peptide and was a hydrophilic protein. The secondary structure is mainly composed of random coils, α-helices, extended chains, folds and folds, with the largest proportion of random coils and α-helices. Wp-PKC protein does not contain a transmembrane domain. Multiple sequence alignment and domain prediction analysis show that Wp-PKC contains 4 conserved domains of classical protein kinase C.(3)Fluorescence quantitative results showed that the expression of Wp-PKC in Wh. pigra gonads was positively correlated with the development of germ cells, and the expression in male gonads was significantly higher than that in female gonads. In summary, Wp-PKC is a classic PKC, and Wp-PKC may promote the development of Wh. pigra, especially the development of male gonads, and provide references for further research on the developmental mechanisms of Wh. pigra.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cloning, Molecular , Female , Gonads , Leeches/genetics , Male , Ovary , Protein Kinase C/genetics , Rats
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880862

ABSTRACT

Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has a high incidence of metastasis. Tumour immunotherapy targeting PD-L1 or PD-1 has been revolutionary; however, only a few patients with OSCC respond to this treatment. Therefore, it is essential to gain insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the growth and metastasis of OSCC. In this study, we analysed the expression levels of protein kinase D3 (PKD3) and PD-L1 and their correlation with the expression of mesenchymal and epithelial markers. We found that the expression of PKD3 and PD-L1 in OSCC cells and tissues was significantly increased, which correlated positively with that of mesenchymal markers but negatively with that of epithelial markers. Silencing PKD3 significantly inhibited the growth, metastasis and invasion of OSCC cells, while its overexpression promoted these processes. Our further analyses revealed that there was positive feedback regulation between PKD3 and PD-L1, which could drive EMT of OSCC cells via the ERK/STAT1/3 pathway, thereby promoting tumour growth and metastasis. Furthermore, silencing PKD3 significantly inhibited the expression of PD-L1, and lymph node metastasis of OSCC was investigated with a mouse footpad xenograft model. Thus, our findings provide a theoretical basis for targeting PKD3 as an alternative method to block EMT for regulating PD-L1 expression and inhibiting OSCC growth and metastasis.


Subject(s)
Animals , B7-H1 Antigen/metabolism , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Cell Line, Tumor , Feedback , Head and Neck Neoplasms , Humans , Mice , Mouth Neoplasms , Protein Kinase C , STAT1 Transcription Factor , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786072

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Inflammation is crucial to limiting vascular disease. Previously we reported that acrolein, a known toxin in tobacco smoke, might play an important role in the progression of atherosclerosis via an inflammatory response involving cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and prostaglandin production in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Curcumin has been known to improve vascular function and have anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we investigated whether curcumin prevents the induction of inflammatory response caused by acrolein.METHODS: Anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin were examined in acrolein-stimulated HUVECs. Induction of proteins, mRNA, prostaglandin and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured using immunoblot analysis, real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and flow cytometry, respectively.RESULTS: Curcumin attenuates inflammatory response via inhibition of COX-2 expression and prostaglandin production in acrolein-induced human endothelial cells. This inhibition by curcumin results in the abolition of phosphorylation of protein kinase C, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and cAMP response element-binding protein. Furthermore, curcumin suppresses the production of ROS and endoplasmic reticulum stress via phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor-2α caused by acrolein.CONCLUSION: These results suggest that curcumin might be a useful agent against endothelial dysfunction caused by acrolein-induced inflammatory response.


Subject(s)
Acrolein , Atherosclerosis , Curcumin , Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein , Cyclooxygenase 2 , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Endothelial Cells , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Flow Cytometry , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Humans , Inflammation , Phosphorylation , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Protein Kinase C , Protein Kinases , Reactive Oxygen Species , RNA, Messenger , Smoke , Tobacco , Vascular Diseases
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761800

ABSTRACT

Gα(q)-coupled receptor stimulation was implied in the activation process of transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC)1/4 and TRPC1/5 heterotetrameric channels. The inactivation occurs due to phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate (PI(4,5)P₂) depletion. When PI(4,5)P₂ depletion was induced by muscarinic stimulation or inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase (Inp54p), however, the inactivation by muscarinic stimulation was greater compared to that by Inp54p. The aim of this study was to investigate the complete inactivation mechanism of the heteromeric channels upon Gα(q)-phospholipase C β (Gα(q)-PLCβ) activation. We evaluated the activity of heteromeric channels with electrophysiological recording in HEK293 cells expressing TRPC channels. TRPC1/4 and TRPC1/5 heteromers undergo further inhibition in PLCβ activation and calcium/protein kinase C (PKC) signaling. Nevertheless, the key factors differ. For TRPC1/4, the inactivation process was facilitated by Ca²⁺ release from the endoplasmic reticulum, and for TRPC1/5, activation of PKC was concerned mostly. We conclude that the subsequent increase in cytoplasmic Ca²⁺ due to Ca²⁺ release from the endoplasmic reticulum and activation of PKC resulted in a second phase of channel inhibition following PI(4,5)P₂ depletion.


Subject(s)
Calcium , Cytoplasm , Endoplasmic Reticulum , GTP-Binding Proteins , HEK293 Cells , Inositol , Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Diphosphate , Phospholipases , Phosphotransferases , Protein Kinase C , Transient Receptor Potential Channels , Type C Phospholipases
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761784

ABSTRACT

The transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) 5 channel, known as a nonselective cation channel, has a crucial role in calcium influx. TRPC5 has been reported to be activated by muscarinic receptor activation and extracellular pH change and inhibited by the protein kinase C pathway. Recent studies have also suggested that TRPC5 is extracellularly activated by englerin A (EA), but the mechanism remains unclear. The purpose of this study is to identify the EA-interaction sites in TRPC5 and thereby clarify the mechanism of TRPC5 activation. TRPC5 channels are over-expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells. TRPC5 mutants were generated by site-directed mutagenesis. The whole-cell patch-clamp configuration was used to record TRPC5 currents. Western analysis was also performed to observe the expression of TRPC5 mutants. To identify the EA-interaction site in TRPC5, we first generated pore mutants. When screening the mutants with EA, we observed the EA-induced current increases of TRPC5 abolished in K554N, H594N, and E598Q mutants. The current increases of other mutants were reduced in different levels. We also examined the functional intactness of the mutants that had no effect by EA with TRPC5 agonists, such as carbachol or GTPγS. Our results suggest that the three residues, Lys-554, His-594, and Glu-598, in TRPC5 might be responsible for direct interaction with EA, inducing the channel activation. We also suggest that although other pore residues are not critical, they could partly contribute to the EA-induced channel activation.


Subject(s)
Calcium , Carbachol , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Ion Channels , Kidney , Mass Screening , Mutagenesis, Site-Directed , Mutant Proteins , Protein Kinase C , Receptors, Muscarinic
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719635

ABSTRACT

Most diabetic patients experience diabetic mellitus (DM) urinary bladder dysfunction. A number of studies evaluate bladder smooth muscle contraction in DM. In this study, we evaluated the change of bladder smooth muscle contraction between normal rats and DM rats. Furthermore, we used pharmacological inhibitors to determine the differences in the signaling pathways between normal and DM rats. Rats in the DM group received an intraperitoneal injection of 65 mg/kg streptozotocin and measured blood glucose level after 14 days to confirm DM. Bladder smooth muscle contraction was induced using acetylcholine (ACh, 10⁻⁴ M). The materials such as, atropine (a muscarinic receptor antagonist), U73122 (a phospholipase C inhibitor), DPCPX (an adenosine A1 receptor antagonist), udenafil (a PDE5 inhibitor), prazosin (an α₁-receptor antagonist), papaverine (a smooth muscle relaxant), verapamil (a calcium channel blocker), and chelerythrine (a protein kinase C inhibitor) were pre-treated in bladder smooth muscle. We found that the DM rats had lower bladder smooth muscle contractility than normal rats. When prazosin, udenafil, verapamil, and U73122 were pre-treated, there were significant differences between normal and DM rats. Taken together, it was concluded that the change of intracellular Ca²⁺ release mediated by PLC/IP3 and PDE5 activity were responsible for decreased bladder smooth muscle contractility in DM rats.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholine , Animals , Atropine , Blood Glucose , Calcium Channels , Humans , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Muscle, Smooth , Papaverine , Prazosin , Protein Kinase C , Rats , Receptor, Adenosine A1 , Receptors, Muscarinic , Streptozocin , Type C Phospholipases , Urinary Bladder , Verapamil
8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785900

ABSTRACT

In order to investigate the antioxidant effect of alkylhydroxide peroxidase (ahpC) of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) 26695, an ahpC-deficient mutant (H. pylori 26695 ahpC::cat) was generated. ahpC-deficient mutant was grown slowly at lower pressure of oxygen (5% oxygen) compared to the H. pylori 26695. Whole cell proteins isolated form H. pylori 26695 and H. pylori 26695 ahpC::cat were analyzed by MALDI-TOF and tandem-MS. The expression of 15 proteins, including Ppa, HypB, GrpE, Elp, RecA, GroES, Mda66, RibE, NapA, GlnA, BioB, TrxB, Tsf, FumC and Icd, was more than doubled in H. pylori 26695 ahpC::cat. Production of 10 proteins such as UreG, FabE, Adk, Pnp, OorC, AtpA, AtpD, Nqq3, Pfr, and TagD decreased below 50% in H. pylori 26695 ahpC::cat compared to the H. pylori 26695. In microarray analysis, 9 genes including sul1, amiE, frxA, fecA, hyuA, and katA increased in transcription level in H. pylori 26695 ahpC::cat compared to H. pylori 26695. A total of 24 genes, including flaB, protein kinase C inhibitor, cag16, pabC, and sabA, reduced in transcription. 27 genes, including HP0889, showed common expression changes in ahpC, katA, and sodB-deficient mutations. As a result of this study, there were not many genes whose expression was commonly changed by the deletion of each of the three major antioxidant enzymes of H. pylori. These results showed the functions and regulation of the three antioxidant enzymes were different in H. pylori.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , Helicobacter pylori , Helicobacter , Microarray Analysis , Oxygen , Peroxidase , Protein Kinase C , Proteome , Ribes
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785299

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Dysregulation of hepatic glucose production (HGP) contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Telmisartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB), has various ancillary effects in addition to common blood pressure-lowering effects. The effects and mechanism of telmisartan on HGP have not been fully elucidated and, therefore, we investigated these phenomena in hyperglycemic HepG2 cells and high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice.METHODS: Glucose production and glucose uptake were measured in HepG2 cells. Expression levels of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase α (G6Pase-α), and phosphorylation levels of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and protein kinase C ζ (PKCζ) were assessed by western blot analysis. Animal studies were performed using HFD-fed mice.RESULTS: Telmisartan dose-dependently increased HGP, and PEPCK expression was minimally increased at a 40 μM concentration without a change in G6Pase-α expression. In contrast, telmisartan increased phosphorylation of IRS-1 at Ser302 (p-IRS-1-Ser302) and decreased p-IRS-1-Tyr632 dose-dependently. Telmisartan dose-dependently increased p-PKCζ-Thr410 which is known to reduce insulin action by inducing IRS-1 serine phosphorylation. Ectopic expression of dominant-negative PKCζ significantly attenuated telmisartan-induced HGP and p-IRS-1-Ser302 and -inhibited p-IRS-1-Tyr632. Among ARBs, including losartan and fimasartan, only telmisartan changed IRS-1 phosphorylation and pretreatment with GW9662, a specific and irreversible peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) antagonist, did not alter this effect. Finally, in the livers from HFD-fed mice, telmisartan increased p-IRS-1-Ser302 and decreased p-IRS-1-Tyr632, which was accompanied by an increase in p-PKCζ-Thr410.CONCLUSION: These results suggest that telmisartan increases HGP by inducing p-PKCζ-Thr410 that increases p-IRS-1-Ser302 and decreases p-IRS-1-Tyr632 in a PPARγ-independent manner.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blotting, Western , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diet, High-Fat , Ectopic Gene Expression , Glucose , Glucose-6-Phosphatase , Hep G2 Cells , Insulin Receptor Substrate Proteins , Insulin , Liver , Losartan , Mice , Peroxisomes , Phosphoenolpyruvate , Phosphorylation , Protein Kinase C , Protein Kinases , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1 , Receptor, Insulin , Serine
10.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(7): 556-564, July 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-949368

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To investigate the effects of baicalin on inflammatory reaction, oxidative stress and protein kinase D1 (PKD1) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) protein expressions in severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) rats. Methods: Sixty rats were divided into sham operation, model, and low-, medium- and high-dose baicalin group. SAP model was established in later 4 groups. The later 3 groups were injected with 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 ml/100 g 5% baicalin injection, respectively. At 12 h, the serum SAP related indexes and inflammatory factors, peripheral blood CD3 and γδT cell percentages, wet/dry ratio and pancreas ascites volume, oxidative stress indexes and PKD1 and NF-κB protein expressions in pancreatic tissue were determined. Results: Compared with model group, in high-dose baicalin group the wet/dry ratio and ascites volume, serum amylase level, phospholipase A2 activity, TNF-α, IL-1 and IL-6 levels, and pancreatic malondialdehyde level and PKD1 and NF-κB protein expression were significantly decreased (P < 0.05), and peripheral blood CD3 and γδT cell percentages and pancreatic superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase levels were significantly increased (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Baicalin can resist the inflammatory reaction and oxidative stress, and down-regulate protein kinase D1 and nuclear factor-kappa B protein expressions, thus exerting the protective effects on severe acute pancreatitis in rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Pancreatitis/drug therapy , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Protein Kinase C/metabolism , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Pancreatitis/metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase/drug effects , Protein Kinase C/drug effects , Random Allocation , Down-Regulation/drug effects , Reproducibility of Results , NF-kappa B/drug effects , Interleukin-6/blood , Interleukin-1/blood , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , CD3 Complex/drug effects , CD3 Complex/blood , Glutathione Peroxidase/drug effects , Glutathione Peroxidase/metabolism , Amylases/drug effects , Amylases/blood , Malondialdehyde/metabolism
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758802

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to elucidate the effect of tryptophan (Trp) on gut hormone secretion as well as the roles of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) and its downstream signaling pathway in gut hormone secretion by assessing swine duodenal perfusion in vitro. Swine duodenum was perfused with Krebs-Henseleit buffer as a basal solution. Various concentrations (0, 10, and 20 mM) of Trp were applied to investigate its effect on gut hormone secretion. A CaSR antagonist was used to detect the involvement of CaSR and its signal molecules. The 20 mM Trp concentration promoted the secretion of cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), elevated the mRNA level of CaSR, and upregulated the protein levels of CaSR, protein kinase C (PKC), and inositol trisphosphate receptor (IP3R). However, NPS 2143, an inhibitor of CaSR, attenuated the CCK and GIP release, reduced the mRNA level of CaSR, and decreased the protein levels of CaSR, PKC, and IP3R with 20 mM Trp perfusion. The results indicate that CCK and GIP secretion can be induced by Trp in swine duodenum in vitro, and the effect is mediated by CaSR and its downstream signal molecules PKC and IP3R.


Subject(s)
Cholecystokinin , Duodenum , Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide , In Vitro Techniques , Inositol , Perfusion , Protein Kinase C , Receptors, Calcium-Sensing , RNA, Messenger , Swine , Tryptophan
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728619

ABSTRACT

Adenosine is a naturally occurring breakdown product of adenosine triphosphate and plays an important role in different physiological and pathological conditions. Adenosine also serves as an important trigger in ischemic and remote preconditioning and its release may impart cardioprotection. Exogenous administration of adenosine in the form of adenosine preconditioning may also protect heart from ischemia-reperfusion injury. Endogenous release of adenosine during ischemic/remote preconditioning or exogenous adenosine during pharmacological preconditioning activates adenosine receptors to activate plethora of mechanisms, which either independently or in association with one another may confer cardioprotection during ischemia-reperfusion injury. These mechanisms include activation of K(ATP) channels, an increase in the levels of antioxidant enzymes, functional interaction with opioid receptors; increase in nitric oxide production; decrease in inflammation; activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) channels; activation of kinases such as protein kinase B (Akt), protein kinase C, tyrosine kinase, mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinases such as ERK 1/2, p38 MAP kinases and MAP kinase kinase (MEK 1) MMP. The present review discusses the role and mechanisms involved in adenosine preconditioning-induced cardioprotection.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphate , Adenosine , Heart , Inflammation , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases , Nitric Oxide , Phosphotransferases , Protein Kinase C , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Receptors, Opioid , Receptors, Purinergic P1 , Reperfusion Injury
13.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 907-913, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716833

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Previous studies reported the delayed recovery group after circadian rhythm disruption in mice showed higher quinpiroleinduced locomotor activity. This study aimed to compare not only Protein Kinase C (PKC) activities in frontal, striatal, hippocampus and cerebellum, but also relative PKC activity ratios among brain regions according to recovery of circadian rhythm. METHODS: The circadian rhythm disruption protocol was applied to eight-week-old twenty male Institute Cancer Research mice. The circadian rhythm recovery patterns were collected through motor activities measured by Mlog system. Depressive and manic proneness were examined by forced swim test and quinpirole-induced open field test respectively. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was employed to measure PKC activities. RESULTS: The delayed recovery group presented greater locomotor activities than the early recovery group (p=0.033). The delayed recovery group had significantly lower frontal PKC activity than the other (p=0.041). The former showed lower frontal/cerebellar PKC activity ratio (p=0.047) but higher striatal/frontal (p=0.038) and hippocampal/frontal (p=0.007) PKC activities ratios than the latter. CONCLUSION: These findings support potential mechanism of delayed recovery after circadian disruption in bipolar animal model could be an alteration of relative PKC activities among mood regulation related brain regions. It is required to investigate the PKC downstream signaling related to the delayed recovery pattern.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bipolar Disorder , Brain , Cerebellum , Circadian Rhythm , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Hippocampus , Humans , Male , Mice , Models, Animal , Motor Activity , Protein Kinase C , Protein Kinases , Quinpirole
14.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 366-375, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714674

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation induced by native low-density lipoprotein (nLDL) stimulation is dependent on superoxide production from activated NADPH oxidase. The present study aimed to investigate whether the novel arginase inhibitor limonin could suppress nLDL-induced VSMC proliferation and to examine related mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Isolated VSMCs from rat aortas were treated with nLDL, and cell proliferation was measured by WST-1 and BrdU assays. NADPH oxidase activation was evaluated by lucigenin-induced chemiluminescence, and phosphorylation of protein kinase C (PKC) βII and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 was determined by western blot analysis. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was assessed using MitoSOX-red, and intracellular L-arginine concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in the presence or absence of limonin. RESULTS: Limonin inhibited arginase I and II activity in the uncompetitive mode, and prevented nLDL-induced VSMC proliferation in a p21Waf1/Cip1-dependent manner without affecting arginase protein levels. Limonin blocked PKCβII phosphorylation, but not ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and translocation of p47phox to the membrane was decreased, as was superoxide production in nLDL-stimulated VSMCs. Moreover, mitochondrial ROS generation was increased by nLDL stimulation and blocked by preincubation with limonin. Mitochondrial ROS production was responsible for the phosphorylation of PKCβII. HPLC analysis showed that arginase inhibition with limonin increases intracellular L-arginine concentrations, but decreases polyamine concentrations. L-Arginine treatment prevented PKCβII phosphorylation without affecting ERK1/2 phosphorylation. CONCLUSION: Increased L-arginine levels following limonin-dependent arginase inhibition prohibited NADPH oxidase activation in a PKCβII-dependent manner, and blocked nLDL-stimulated VSMC proliferation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aorta , Arginase , Arginine , Blotting, Western , Bromodeoxyuridine , Cell Proliferation , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Liquid , Lipoproteins , Luminescence , Membranes , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , NADP , NADPH Oxidases , Phosphorylation , Phosphotransferases , Protein Kinase C , Rats , Reactive Oxygen Species , Superoxides
15.
Biol. Res ; 51: 41, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983943

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA) can be defined as degradation of articular cartilage of the joint, and is the most common degenerative disease. To regenerate the damaged cartilage, different experimental approaches including stem cell therapy have been tried. One of the major limitations of stem cell therapy is the poor post-transplantation survival of the stem cells. Anoikis, where insufficient matrix support and adhesion to extracellular matrix causes apoptotic cell death, is one of the main causes of the low post-transplantation survival rate of stem cells. Therefore, enhancing the initial interaction of the transplanted stem cells with chondrocytes could improve the therapeutic efficacy of stem cell therapy for OA. Previously, protein kinase C activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)- induced increase of mesenchymal stem cell adhesion via activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) has been reported. In the present study, we examine the effect PMA on the adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) adhesion and spreading to culture substrates, and further on the initial interaction between ADSC and chondrocytes. RESULTS: PMA treatment increased the initial adhesion of ADSC to culture substrate and cellular spreading with increased expression of adhesion molecules, such as FAK, vinculin, talin, and paxillin, at both RNA and protein level. Priming of ADSC with PMA increased the number of ADSCs attached to confluent layer of cultured chondrocytes compared to that of untreated ADSCs at early time point (4 h after seeding). CONCLUSION: Taken together, the results of this study suggest that priming ADSCs with PMA can increase the initial interaction with chondrocytes, and this proof of concept can be used to develop a non-invasive therapeutic approach for treating OA. It may also accelerate the regeneration process so that it can relieve the accompanied pain faster in OA patients. Further in vivo studies examining the therapeutic effect of PMA pretreatment of ADSCs for articular cartilage damage are required.


Subject(s)
Humans , Stem Cells/drug effects , Protein Kinase C/pharmacology , Cartilage, Articular/cytology , Chondrocytes/cytology , Cell Adhesion , Cell Communication , Cell Differentiation , Cell Survival , Blotting, Western , Cell Culture Techniques , Chondrocytes/drug effects , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
16.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 234-239, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-83457

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Metastatic cancers spread from the primary site of origin to other parts of the body. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is essential in metastatic cancers owing to its major role in cancer cell invasion. Crotonis fructus (CF), the mature fruits of Croton tiglium L., have been used for the treatment of gastrointestinal disturbance in Asia. In this study, the effect of the ethanol extract of CF (CFE) on MMP-9 activity and the invasion of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-treated MCF-7 cells was examined. METHODS: The cell viability was evaluated using the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The expression of MMP-9 was examined by Western blotting, zymography, and real-time polymerase chain reaction. An electrophoretic mobility gel shift assay was performed to detect activator protein-1 (AP-1) DNA binding activity and cell invasiveness was measured by an in vitro Matrigel invasion assay. RESULTS: CFE significantly suppressed MMP-9 expression and activation in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, CFE attenuated the TPA-induced activation of AP-1. CONCLUSION: The results indicated that the inhibitory effects of CFE against TPA-induced MMP-9 expression and MCF-7 cell invasion were dependent on the protein kinase C δ/p38/c-Jun N-terminal kinase/AP-1 pathway. Therefore, CFE could restrict breast cancer invasiveness owing to its ability to inhibit MMP-9 activity.


Subject(s)
Asia , Blotting, Western , Breast Neoplasms , Cell Survival , Croton , DNA , Ethanol , Fruit , In Vitro Techniques , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 , MCF-7 Cells , Neoplasm Invasiveness , Protein Kinase C , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Transcription Factor AP-1
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-32629

ABSTRACT

Methylglyoxal (MGO) is a highly reactive metabolite of glucose which is known to cause damage and induce apoptosis in endothelial cells. Endothelial cell damage is implicated in the progression of diabetes-associated complications and atherosclerosis. Hypericin, a naphthodianthrone isolated from Hypericum perforatum L. (St. John’s Wort), is a potent and selective inhibitor of protein kinase C and is reported to reduce neuropathic pain. In this work, we investigated the protective effect of hypericin on MGO-induced apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Hypericin showed significant anti-apoptotic activity in MGO-treated HUVECs. Pretreatment with hypericin significantly inhibited MGO-induced changes in cell morphology, cell death, and production of intracellular reactive oxygen species. Hypericin prevented MGO-induced apoptosis in HUVECs by increasing Bcl-2 expression and decreasing Bax expression. MGO was found to activate mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Pretreatment with hypericin strongly inhibited the activation of MAPKs, including P38, JNK, and ERK1/2. Interestingly, hypericin also inhibited the formation of AGEs. These findings suggest that hypericin may be an effective regulator of MGO-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, hypericin downregulated the formation of AGEs and ameliorated MGO-induced dysfunction in human endothelial cells.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Atherosclerosis , Cell Death , Endothelial Cells , Glucose , Glycation End Products, Advanced , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Humans , Hypericum , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Neuralgia , Protein Kinase C , Pyruvaldehyde , Reactive Oxygen Species
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-58345

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Gastric hypersensitivity contributes to abdominal pain in patients with functional dyspepsia. Recent studies showed that hormones induced by stress are correlated with visceral hypersensitivity. However, the precise mechanisms underlying gastric hypersensitivity remain largely unknown. The aim of the present study was designed to investigate the roles of corticosterone (CORT) on excitability of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons innervating the stomach. METHODS: DRG neurons innervating the stomach were labeled by DiI injection into the stomach wall. Patch clamp recordings were employed to examine neural excitability and voltage-gated sodium channel currents. Electromyograph technique was used to determine the responses of neck muscles to gastric distension. RESULTS: Incubation of acutely isolated DRG neurons with CORT significantly depolarized action potential threshold and enhanced the number of action potentials induced by current stimulation of the neuron. Under voltage-clamp mode, incubation of CORT enhanced voltage-gated sodium current density of the recorded neurons. Pre-incubation of GF109203X, an inhibitor of protein kinase C, blocked the CORT-induced hyperexcitability and potentiation of sodium currents. However, pre-incubation of H-89, an inhibitor of protein kinase A, did not alter the sodium current density. More importantly, intraperitoneal injection of CORT produced gastric hypersensitivity of healthy rats, which was blocked by pre-administration of GF109203X but not H-89. CONCLUSIONS: Our data strongly suggest that CORT rapidly enhanced neuronal excitability and sodium channel functions, which is most likely mediated by protein kinase C but not protein kinase A signaling pathway in DRG neurons innervating the stomach, thus underlying the gastric hypersensitivity induced by CORT injection.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain , Action Potentials , Animals , Corticosterone , Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases , Diagnosis-Related Groups , Dyspepsia , Ganglia , Ganglia, Spinal , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Neck Muscles , Neurons , Protein Kinase C , Protein Kinases , Rats , Sodium , Sodium Channels , Spinal Nerve Roots , Stomach , Visceral Pain
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727978

ABSTRACT

Activation of protein kinase C (PKC) is closely linked with endothelial dysfunction. However, the effect of PKCβII on endothelial dysfunction has not been characterized in cultured endothelial cells. Here, using adenoviral PKCβII gene transfer and pharmacological inhibitors, the role of PKCβII on endothelial dysfucntion was investigated in cultured endothelial cells. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), p66shc phosphorylation, intracellular adhesion molecule-1, and monocyte adhesion, which were inhibited by PKCβi (10 nM), a selective inhibitor of PKCβII. PMA increased the phosphorylation of CREB and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), which were also inhibited by PKCβi. Gene silencing of CREB inhibited PMA-induced MnSOD expression, suggesting that CREB plays a key role in MnSOD expression. Gene silencing of PKCβII inhibited PMA-induced mitochondrial ROS, MnSOD, and ICAM-1 expression. In contrast, overexpression of PKCβII using adenoviral PKCβII increased mitochondrial ROS, MnSOD, ICAM-1, and p66shc phosphorylation in cultured endothelial cells. Finally, PKCβII-induced ICAM-1 expression was inhibited by Mito-TEMPO, a mitochondrial ROS scavenger, suggesting the involvement of mitochondrial ROS in PKC-induced vascular inflammation. Taken together, the results suggest that PKCβII plays an important role in PMA-induced endothelial dysfunction, and that the inhibition of PKCβII-dependent p66shc signaling acts as a therapeutic target for vascular inflammatory diseases.


Subject(s)
Endothelial Cells , Gene Silencing , Inflammation , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 , Mitochondria , Monocytes , Phosphorylation , Protein Kinase C beta , Protein Kinase C , Protein Kinases , Reactive Oxygen Species , Superoxide Dismutase
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727947

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin II (Ang II) is metabolized from N-terminal by aminopeptidases and from C-terminal by Ang converting enzyme (ACE) to generate several truncated angiotensin peptides (Angs). The truncated Angs have different biological effects but it remains unknown whether Ang-(4-8) is an active peptide. The present study was to investigate the effects of Ang-(4-8) on hemodynamics and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) secretion using isolated beating rat atria. Atrial stretch caused increases in atrial contractility by 60% and in ANP secretion by 70%. Ang-(4-8) (0.01, 0.1, and 1 µM) suppressed high stretch-induced ANP secretion in a dose-dependent manner. Ang-(4-8) (0.1 µM)-induced suppression of ANP secretion was attenuated by the pretreatment with an antagonist of Ang type 1 receptor (AT₁R) but not by an antagonist of AT₂R or AT₄R. Ang-(4-8)-induced suppression of ANP secretion was attenuated by the pretreatment with inhibitor of phospholipase (PLC), inositol triphosphate (IP₃) receptor, or nonspecific protein kinase C (PKC). The potency of Ang-(4-8) to inhibit ANP secretion was similar to Ang II. However, Ang-(4-8) 10 µM caused an increased mean arterial pressure which was similar to that by 1 nM Ang II. Therefore, we suggest that Ang-(4-8) suppresses high stretch-induced ANP secretion through the AT₁R and PLC/IP₃/PKC pathway. Ang-(4-8) is a biologically active peptide which functions as an inhibition mechanism of ANP secretion and an increment of blood pressure.


Subject(s)
Aminopeptidases , Angiotensin II , Angiotensins , Animals , Arterial Pressure , Atrial Natriuretic Factor , Blood Pressure , Heart , Hemodynamics , Inositol , Peptides , Phospholipases , Protein Kinase C , Rats , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1 , Signal Transduction
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