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1.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 73-80, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010112

ABSTRACT

V-Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (BRAF) alteration is one of the most essential driver genes of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). BRAF encodes serine/threonine protein kinases, and its mutations typically lead to protein compositional activation, thereby activating the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) signaling pathway. A promising new approach for the treatment of mutated BRAF and/or downstream MEK may provide customized treatment opportunities for BRAF driven NSCLC patients. However, combination therapy is necessary to overcome the difficulties such as short duration of benefit, poor therapeutic effect of non-V600 BRAF mutations and susceptibility to drug resistance. This article reviewed the progress in structural characteristics, related signaling pathways, mutation types of BRAF gene, and the clinical pathological relationship between BRAF mutations and NSCLC, as well as the therapy, in order to provide more evidences for clinical doctors to make treatment decisions.
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Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf/genetics , Mutation , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases/therapeutic use , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use
2.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 874-880, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010095

ABSTRACT

Epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) targeting EGFR are effective in EGFR mutation-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, but drug resistance is inevitable. With the application and expansion of individualized and combined therapy, more and more studies have shown that combined administration of Metformin effectively solves the problem of acquired drug resistance to EGFR-TKIs in clinical treatment and prolongs the survival of patients with NSCLC. EGFR-TKIs combined with Metformin is expected to be the treatment method of choice for NSCLC patients with EGFR-TKIs resistance. This paper intends to summarize the research progress of EGFR-TKIs combined with Metformin in the treatment of EGFR-TKIs acquired resistance in NSCLC, in order to provide a new idea for the treatment of NSCLC patients with acquired resistance to EGFR-TKIs.
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Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Metformin/therapeutic use , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , ErbB Receptors/metabolism , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm , Mutation
3.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 795-800, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010088

ABSTRACT

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations are the most common driver genes in the development of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), of which mutations in exons 18-21 are frequent, especially the loss of exon 19 and exon 21 L858R mutation are the most frequent. Other rare gene mutations are rare. Simultaneous occurrence of two or more rare EGFR mutations are extremely rare in lung cancer, and the incidence of EGFR L833V/H835L rare gene compound mutations is very low, and there is little clinical data and evidence of relevant treatment methods. Some EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) are effective in treating lung cancer patients with rare gene mutations. In this article, we reported a case of NSCLC patient with a rare gene compound mutation EGFR L833V/H835L, who responded to Afatinib in combination with Anilotinib treatment well after 5 months of treatment, and computed tomography (CT) showed shrinkage of lung lesions. Meanwhile, we also compiled previously reported NSCLC patients with EGFR L833V/H835L rare gene compound mutation and summarized the characteristics of this group of patients and the effect of applying different kinds of EGFR-TKIs treatment.
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Subject(s)
Humans , Adenocarcinoma of Lung/genetics , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , ErbB Receptors/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Mutation , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use
4.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 684-691, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010075

ABSTRACT

Mesenchymal to epithelial transition factor (MET) gene alterations involve in the proliferation, invasion, and metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer. MET-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have been approved to treat non-small cell lung cancer with MET alterations, and resistance to these TKIs is inevitable. Molecular mechanisms of resistance to MET-TKIs are completely unclear. The review focused on potential mechanisms of MET-TKIs resistance and therapeutics strategies to delay and prevent resistance.
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Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , ErbB Receptors/genetics , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/genetics , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition , Mutation
5.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 649-653, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982111

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the efficacy of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) combined with decitabine, homoharringtonine, and interferon regimen as maintenance therapy for blast phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CML-BP).@*METHODS@#The clinical data of CML-BP patients who received the first major hematological response after induction therapy at The Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Zhengzhou University from June 2015 to December 2021 were analyzed retrospectively. The event-free survival, duration of remission, and overall survival of patients in TKI combined with decitabine, homoharringtonine, interferon group(n=18) and TKI combined with conventional chemotherapy group(n=10) were compared by log-rank test.@*RESULTS@#A total of 28 patients were included, with a median age of 46 (24-58) years old. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that patients in TKI combined with decitabine, homoharringtonine, interferon group had longer event-free survival (7.4 vs 4.3 months, P=0.043, HR=0.44, 95% CI: 0.17-1.14), duration of overall remission (16.1 vs 6.6 months, P=0.005, HR=0.32, 95% CI: 0.11-0.89), overall survival (34.3 vs 13.5 months, P=0.006, HR=0.29, 95% CI: 0.10-0.82) compared with patients in TKI combined with conventional chemotherapy group.@*CONCLUSION@#The TKI combined with decitabine, homoharringtonine and interferon regimen can significantly prolong the survival of CML-BP patients who obtained the major hematological response compared with TKI combined with conventional chemotherapy regimen.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Blast Crisis/drug therapy , Homoharringtonine/therapeutic use , Decitabine/therapeutic use , Interferons/therapeutic use , Inhibitors, Tyrosine Kinase , Retrospective Studies , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
6.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 585-588, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982099

ABSTRACT

The treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) was revolutionized with the advent of the first-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), but drug resistance developed during treatment, leading to the development of the second-generation (dasatinib, nilotinib, and bosutinib) and third-generation (ponatinib) TKI. Compared with previous treatment regimens, specific TKI can significantly improve the response rate, overall survival rate and prognosis of CML. Only a few patients with BCR-ABL mutation are insensitive to the second-generation TKIs, so it is suggested to select the second-generation TKIs for patients with specific mutations. For patients with other mutations and without mutations, the second-generation TKI should be selected according to the patient's medical history, while the third-generation TKIs should be selected for mutations that are insensitive to the second-generation TKIs, such as T315I mutation that is sensitive to ponatinib. Due to different BCR-ABL mutations in patients with different sensitivity to the second and third-generation TKIs, this paper will review the latest research progress of the efficacy of the second and third-generation TKIs in CML patients with BCR-ABL mutations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Dasatinib/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/genetics , Fusion Proteins, bcr-abl/genetics , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/drug therapy , Mutation , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use
7.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 31-38, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969802

ABSTRACT

Clinical studies have established the clinical application of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) adjuvant targeted therapy. Compared with chemotherapy, the high efficiency and low toxicity of targeted therapy increases the survival benefit of patients. Icotinib was the first EGFR-TKI with independent intellectual property rights in China and the third EGFR-TKI to be marketed in the world. In order to summarize the experience of icotinib and other EGFR-TKIs in the adjuvant treatment of non-small cell lung cancer and further standardize and guide the clinical application of icotinib, experts from the China International Exchange and Promotive Association for Medical and Health Care and the Guangdong Association of Thoracic Diseases have organized an expert consensus on the adjuvant treatment of non-small cell lung cancer with icotinib, which is expected to provide clinicians with evidence-based medical evidences for postoperative targeted drug using.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Lung Neoplasms/surgery , Consensus , Mutation , ErbB Receptors/genetics , Crown Ethers/therapeutic use , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use
8.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 106-111, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969684

ABSTRACT

Objective: To develop a scoring system to predict molecular responses in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in the chronic phase (CML-CP) receiving initial imatinib therapy. Methods: Data from consecutive adults with newly diagnosed CML-CP treated by initial imatinib was interrogated and subjects were distributed randomly into training and validation cohort, in a ratio of 2∶1. Fine-gray models were applied in the training cohort to identify co-variates of predictive value for major molecular response (MMR) and MR4. A predictive system was built using significant co-variates. The predictive system was then tested in the validation cohort and the area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve (AUROC) was used to estimate accuracy of the predictive system. Results: 1 364 CML-CP subjects receiving initial imatinib were included in this study. Subjects were distributed randomly into training cohort (n=909) and validation cohort (n=455) . In the training cohort, the male gender, European Treatment and Outcome Study for CML (EUTOS) Long-Term Survival (ELTS) intermediate-risk, ELTS high-risk, high WBC (≥130×10(9)/L or 120×10(9)/L, MMR or MR4) and low HGB (<110 g/L) at diagnosis were significantly related with poor molecular responses and were given points based on their regression coefficients. For MMR, male gender, ELTS intermediate-risk and low HGB (<110 g/L) were given 1 point; ELTS high-risk and high WBC (≥130×10(9)/L) , 2 points. For MR4, male gender was given 1 point; ELTS intermediate-risk and low HGB (<110 g/L) were given 2 points; high WBC (≥120×10(9)/L) , 3 points; ELTS high-risk, 4 points. We divided all subjects into 3 risk subgroups according to the predictive system above. Cumulative incidence of achieving MMR and MR4 in 3 risk subgroups was significantly different in both training and validation cohort (all P values <0.001) . In the training and validation cohorts, the time-dependent AUROC ranges of MMR and MR4 predictive systems were 0.70-0.84 and 0.64-0.81, respectively. Conclusions: A scoring system combining gender, WBC, HGB level and ELTS risk was built to predict MMR and MR4 in CML-CP patients receiving initial imatinib therapy. This system had good discrimination and accuracy, which could help phsicians optimize the selsction of initial TKI-therapy.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Imatinib Mesylate/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/drug therapy , Chronic Disease
9.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2551-2561, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007566

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The brain is a common metastatic site in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), resulting in a relatively poor prognosis. Systemic therapy with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) is recommended as the first-line treatment for EGFR -mutated, advanced NSCLC patients. However, intracranial activity varies in different drugs. Thus, brain metastasis (BM) should be considered when choosing the treatment regimens. We conducted this network meta-analysis to explore the optimal first-line therapeutic schedule for advanced EGFR -mutated NSCLC patients with different BM statuses.@*METHODS@#Randomized controlled trials focusing on EGFR-TKIs (alone or in combination) in advanced and EGFR -mutant NSCLC patients, who have not received systematic treatment, were systematically searched up to December 2021. We extracted and analyzed progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). A network meta-analysis was performed with the Bayesian statistical model to determine the survival outcomes of all included therapy regimens using the R software. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to compare intervention measures, and overall rankings of therapies were estimated under the Bayesian framework.@*RESULTS@#This analysis included 17 RCTs with 5077 patients and 12 therapies, including osimertinib + bevacizumab, aumolertinib, osimertinib, afatinib, dacomitinib, standards of care (SoC, including gefitinib, erlotinib, or icotinib), SoC + apatinib, SoC + bevacizumab, SoC + ramucirumab, SoC + pemetrexed based chemotherapy (PbCT), PbCT, and pemetrexed free chemotherapy (PfCT). For patients with BM, SoC + PbCT improved PFS compared with SoC (HR = 0.40, 95% CI: 0.17-0.95), and osimertinib + bevacizumab was most likely to rank first in PFS, with a cumulative probability of 34.5%, followed by aumolertinib, with a cumulative probability of 28.3%. For patients without BM, osimertinib + bevacizumab, osimertinib, aumolertinib, SoC + PbCT, dacomitinib, SoC + ramucirumab, SoC + bevacizumab, and afatinib showed superior efficacy compared with SoC (HR = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.20-0.90; HR = 0.46, 95% CI: 0.31-0.68; HR = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.34-0.77; HR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.38-0.66; HR = 0.62, 95% CI: 0.43-0.89; HR = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.44-0.94; HR = 0.61, 95% CI: 0.48-0.76; HR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.50-1.00), PbCT (HR = 0.29, 95% CI: 0.11-0.74; HR = 0.31, 95% CI: 0.15-0.62; HR = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.17-0.69; HR = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.18-0.64; HR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.21-0.82; HR = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.22-0.87; HR = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.22-0.74; HR = 0.48, 95% CI: 0.31-0.75), and PfCT (HR = 0.14, 95% CI: 0.06-0.32; HR = 0.15, 95% CI: 0.09-0.26; HR = 0.17, 95% CI: 0.09-0.29; HR = 0.16, 95% CI: 0.10-0.26; HR = 0.20, 95% CI: 0.12-0.35; HR = 0.21, 95% CI: 0.12-0.39; HR = 0.20, 95% CI: 0.12-0.31; HR = 0.23, 95% CI: 0.16-0.34) in terms of PFS. And, SoC + apatinib showed relatively superior PFS when compared with PbCT (HR = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.22-0.92) and PfCT (HR = 0.21, 95% CI: 0.12-0.39), but similar PFS to SoC (HR = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.42-1.03). No statistical differences were observed for PFS in patients without BM between PbCT and SoC (HR = 1.49, 95% CI: 0.84-2.64), but both showed favorable PFS when compared with PfCT (PfCT vs. SoC, HR = 3.09, 95% CI: 2.06-4.55; PbCT vs. PfCT, HR = 0.14, 95% CI: 0.06-0.32). For patients without BM, osimertinib + bevacizumab was most likely to rank the first, with cumulative probabilities of 47.1%. For OS, SoC + PbCT was most likely to rank first in patients with and without BM, with cumulative probabilities of 46.8%, and 37.3%, respectively.@*CONCLUSION@#Osimertinib + bevacizumab is most likely to rank first in PFS in advanced EGFR -mutated NSCLC patients with or without BM, and SoC + PbCT is most likely to rank first in OS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/metabolism , Afatinib/therapeutic use , Lung Neoplasms/metabolism , Bevacizumab/therapeutic use , Bayes Theorem , Network Meta-Analysis , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pemetrexed/therapeutic use , ErbB Receptors/genetics , Brain Neoplasms/genetics , Mutation/genetics
10.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 991-1002, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007382

ABSTRACT

Lung cancer is the most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer death in China. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common histological type of lung cancer. Mutations of driver genes have major impacts on incidence and progression of lung cancer. Advances in molecular biology research and clinical research have promoted the discovery of rare tumor driver genes, as well as the development and application of new targeted drugs. Nearly 1% to 2% of NSCLCs harbor RET fusions, and this patient population may not respond well to traditional treatments like chemotherapy or radiation therapy. After the new highly selective RET inhibitors pralsetinib (BLU-667) and selpercatinib (LOXO-292) entered clinical application, the diagnosis and treatment of RET fusion positive NSCLC has made breakthrough progress. At present, there is a lack of guiding consensus on the standardized diagnosis and treatment of RET fusion-positive NSCLC in China. The Society of Cancer Precision of Chinese Anti-Cancer Association and Lung Cancer Expert Group of Chinese Medical Journal, invited 38 experts form respiratory medicine, medical oncology, oncology radiotherapy and pathology to form a consensus development group. Based on the existing research evidence, combined with China's clinical practice experience, a standardized process for the diagnosis and treatment of advanced RET fusion-positive NSCLC is proposed, including suitable populations and methods for RET gene fusion, treatment drug selection, treatment of resistance to highly selective RET inhibitors, and management of adverse reactions to treatment, with a view to providing guidance for clinicians.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , China , Consensus , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret/genetics
11.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 728-736, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1012221

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze and compare therapy responses, outcomes, and incidence of severe hematologic adverse events of flumatinib and imatinib in patients newly diagnosed with chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) . Methods: Data of patients with chronic phase CML diagnosed between January 2006 and November 2022 from 76 centers, aged ≥18 years, and received initial flumatinib or imatinib therapy within 6 months after diagnosis in China were retrospectively interrogated. Propensity score matching (PSM) analysis was performed to reduce the bias of the initial TKI selection, and the therapy responses and outcomes of patients receiving initial flumatinib or imatinib therapy were compared. Results: A total of 4 833 adult patients with CML receiving initial imatinib (n=4 380) or flumatinib (n=453) therapy were included in the study. In the imatinib cohort, the median follow-up time was 54 [interquartile range (IQR), 31-85] months, and the 7-year cumulative incidences of CCyR, MMR, MR(4), and MR(4.5) were 95.2%, 88.4%, 78.3%, and 63.0%, respectively. The 7-year FFS, PFS, and OS rates were 71.8%, 93.0%, and 96.9%, respectively. With the median follow-up of 18 (IQR, 13-25) months in the flumatinib cohort, the 2-year cumulative incidences of CCyR, MMR, MR(4), and MR(4.5) were 95.4%, 86.5%, 58.4%, and 46.6%, respectively. The 2-year FFS, PFS, and OS rates were 80.1%, 95.0%, and 99.5%, respectively. The PSM analysis indicated that patients receiving initial flumatinib therapy had significantly higher cumulative incidences of CCyR, MMR, MR(4), and MR(4.5) and higher probabilities of FFS than those receiving the initial imatinib therapy (all P<0.001), whereas the PFS (P=0.230) and OS (P=0.268) were comparable between the two cohorts. The incidence of severe hematologic adverse events (grade≥Ⅲ) was comparable in the two cohorts. Conclusion: Patients receiving initial flumatinib therapy had higher cumulative incidences of therapy responses and higher probability of FFS than those receiving initial imatinib therapy, whereas the incidence of severe hematologic adverse events was comparable between the two cohorts.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Adolescent , Imatinib Mesylate/adverse effects , Incidence , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Pyrimidines/adverse effects , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome , Benzamides/adverse effects , Leukemia, Myeloid, Chronic-Phase/drug therapy , Aminopyridines/therapeutic use , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use
12.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 295-301, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984618

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the influencing covariates of severe neutrophils and/or thrombocytopenia and their effect on treatment response and outcome in patients with chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CP-CML) receiving initial second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (2G-TKI) . Methods: Data from consecutive patients aged ≥18 years with newly diagnosed CP-CML who received initial 2G-TKI at Peking University People's Hospital from September 2008 to November 2021 were interrogated. Binary logistic regression models and Fine-Gray and Cox regression models were applied. Results: Data from 267 patients who received initial 2G-TKI, including nilotinib (n=239, 89.5% ) and dasatinib (n=28, 10.5% ) , were interrogated. The median age was 36 (range, 18-73) years, and 156 (58.4% ) patients were male. At a median treatment period of 1.0 (0.1-3.0) month, 43 (16.1% ) patients developed grade ≥3 neutrophils and/or thrombocytopenia and recovered within 1.0 (0.1-24.6) month. Male (OR=2.9, 95% CI 1.2-6.8; P=0.018) , age of ≥36 years (OR=3.2, 95% CI 1.4-7.2, P=0.005) , a spleen below a costal margin of ≥7 cm (OR=2.8, 95% CI 1.2-6.6, P=0.020) , and a hemoglobin (HGB) level of <100 g/L (OR=2.9, 95% CI 1.3-6.8, P=0.012) at diagnosis were significantly associated with grade ≥ 3 neutrophils and/or thrombocytopenia. Based on their regression coefficients, male, age of ≥36 years, a spleen below a costal margin of ≥7 cm, and an HGB level of <100 g/L were given 1 point to form a predictive system. All patients were divided into three risk subgroups, and the incidence of severe cytopenia significantly differed among the three groups (P < 0.001) . Grade ≥3 neutrophils and/or thrombocytopenia for >2 weeks was significantly associated with lower cumulative incidences of complete cytogenetic response (CCyR, HR=0.5, 95% CI 0.3-0.7, P<0.001) and major molecular response (MMR, HR=0.4, 95% CI 0.3-0.8, P=0.004) and was not significantly associated with failure, progression, and survival. Conclusion: Male, advanced age, a large spleen, and a low HGB level were significantly associated with severe cytopenia. The four covariates were used to establish a prediction model, in which the incidence of severe cytopenia among different risk groups was significantly different. Severe cytopenia for >2 weeks was a negative factor for responses but not for outcomes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Inhibitors, Tyrosine Kinase , Treatment Outcome , Retrospective Studies , Dasatinib/therapeutic use , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/drug therapy , Leukemia, Myeloid, Chronic-Phase/drug therapy , Thrombocytopenia
13.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1579-1583, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010009

ABSTRACT

BCR-ABLT315I mutation is the main mechanism of resistance to the first and second generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) for patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Ponatinib as the third generation TKI has been found that can significantly improve the prognosis of CML patients with T315I mutation. However, the latest report has discovered that the T315I compound mutant is even resistant to ponatinib, which aroused the enthusiasm of research on the mechanism of CML resistance and targeted therapy once again. Previous studies have shown that TKI combined with other targeted drugs is effective to CML patients with drug resistance or relapse due to T315I mutation. The latest research has found that the allosteric inhibitor asciminib combined with TKI therapy is equally effective to CML patients with T315I compound mutant, but the specific mechanism is not yet clarified. This review will focus on the latest research progress of therapy for CML with BCR-ABLT315I mutation, hoping to provide reference for researching new drugs and improve therapy for treating CML with T315I mutation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/genetics , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/genetics , Fusion Proteins, bcr-abl/genetics , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Mutation , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology
14.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1014-1018, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009957

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the efficacy and safety of flumatinib in the treatment of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML).@*METHODS@#The clinical data of 56 CML patients treated with flumatinib from January 2020 to December 2021 in the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were divided into three groups: 35 new diagnosed CML patients treated with flumatinib (group A), 10 patients with imatinib/dasatinib intolerance (group B) and 11 patients with imatinib/dasatinib resistance (group C) switched to flumatinib treatment, respectively. The molecular response and adverse effects of flumatinib treatment were evaluated.@*RESULTS@#In group A, the early molecular response (EMR) at 3 months was 40.0%, and the major molecular response (MMR) at 6 and 12 months was 43.7% and 46.2%, respectively. In group B, the EMR was 50.0% at 3 months, and the MMR was 70.0% and 66.2% at 6 and 12 months, respectively. Among evaluable patients, 6 cases in group B achieved molecular response of 4.5 (MR4.5) at 12 months after switching to flumatinib treatment. In group C, 3 cases who switched from imatinib resistance to flumatinib achieved MR4.5 at 12 months, but 2 cases who switched from dasatinib resistance to flumatinib failed. Subgroup analysis showed significant differences in EUTOS long-term survival (ELTS) scores for patients in the medium-risk/high-risk group compared with those in the low-risk group for 3-month EMR (18.8% vs 57.9%), 6-month MMR (15.4% vs 63.2%) and 12-month MR4.5 (15.4% vs 69.2%) (P =0.036, P =0.012,P =0.015). The most common adverse effect in group A was thrombocytopenia, accounting for 54.5%, and 22.8% (8/35) patients discontinued the drug due to haematological adverse effects. Compared with patients who did not discontinue the drug or whose recovery time from discontinuation due to haematological toxicity was <1 month, patients whose recovery time from discontinuation was ≥1 month had a significantly worse 3-month EMR, 6-month MMR and 12-month MR4.5 (P =0.028, P =0.021, P =0.002).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Flumatinib has better molecular response and tolerance in patients with primary, imatinib/dasatinib-intolerant or resistant CML. Medium-risk/high-risk in ELTS score and time to recovery from discontinuation due to haematological toxicity ≥1 month are important factors influencing achievement of better molecular response in flumatinib treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Imatinib Mesylate/therapeutic use , Dasatinib/therapeutic use , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/drug therapy , Benzamides/therapeutic use , Chronic Disease , Treatment Outcome , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use
15.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 207-219, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982585

ABSTRACT

The rearranged during transfection (RET) is a receptor protein tyrosine kinase. Oncogenic RET fusions or mutations are found most often in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and in thyroid cancer, but also increasingly in various types of cancers at low rates. In the last few years, two potent and selective RET protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), pralsetinib (BLU-667) and selpercatinib (LOXO-292, LY3527723) were developed and received regulatory approval. Although pralsetinib and selpercatinib gave high overall response rates (ORRs), < 10% of patients achieved a complete response (CR). The RET TKI-tolerated residual tumors inevitably develop resistance by secondary target mutations, acquired alternative oncogenes, or MET amplification. RET G810 mutations located at the kinase solvent front site were identified as the major on-target mechanism of acquired resistance to both selpercatinib and pralsetinib. Several next-generation of RET TKIs capable of inhibiting the selpercatinib/pralsetinib-resistant RET mutants have progressed to clinical trials. However, it is likely that new TKI-adapted RET mutations will emerge to cause resistance to these next-generation of RET TKIs. Solving the problem requires a better understanding of the multiple mechanisms that support the RET TKI-tolerated persisters to identify a converging point of vulnerability to devise an effective co-treatment to eliminate the residual tumors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Neoplasm, Residual , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Mutation , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret/genetics
16.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 416-428, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982174

ABSTRACT

The mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor (MET) exon 14 skipping mutation is mainly caused by the loss of c-Cbl tyrosine binding site. This mutation could result in a decrease in the degradation rate of proteasome-mediated MET proteins, trigger continuous activation of downstream pathways, and ultimately lead to tumorigenesis. The incidence of MET exon 14 skipping mutation in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is 0.9% to 4.0%. Patients with advanced NSCLC are recommended to test MET exon 14 skipping mutations who may benefit from MET inhibitors-targeted therapy. MET inhibitors have a high objective response rate and good safety profiles, which could prolong the survival of NSCLC patients with MET exon 14 skipping mutations. The Lung Cancer Specialty Committee of Chinese Elderly Health Care Association organized multidisciplinary experts to give suggestions on the important issues of clinical aspects for targeted therapy of MET exon 14 skipping mutation in NSCLC according to the clinical practice experiences and evidences based medicine. "Expert Consensus on Targeted Therapy of NSCLC with MET Exon 14 Skipping Mutation" is proposed, aiming to provide standardized guidances for the clinical practice of Chinese physicians.
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Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Consensus , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-met/genetics , Mutation , Exons , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use
17.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 291-302, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982159

ABSTRACT

Lung cancer is the most common malignancy in the world and the leading cause of cancer death. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) refers to the NSCLC caused by mutation, amplification or overexpression of the HER2 gene, resulting in its dysfunction. HER2 is the most active receptor in the HER family and can combine with other members to form dimers, which can activate multiple signaling pathways and regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, migration and apoptosis. In NSCLC, HER2 positivity is usually considered a poor prognostic marker. At present, the diagnosis and treatment of HER2-positive NSCLC are not mature. Immunohistochemistry (IHC), next generation sequencing (NGS) and other technologies are often used to detect the positive status of HER2 mutation, amplification or overexpression. In previous studies, antitumor drugs did not show ideal therapeutic effects in HER2-positive NSCLC. However, in recent years, related researches have shown that antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) and new tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in targeted therapy show good antitumor activity against HER2 positive NSCLC. This article summarized the progress in diagnosis and treatment of HER2-positive NSCLC, so as to provide reference for subsequent researches.
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Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Receptor, ErbB-2/genetics , Mutation , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Signal Transduction , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use
18.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 922-926, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982152

ABSTRACT

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous hematopoietic tumor originated from hematopoietic stem cells. FLT3 is an important receptor tyrosine kinase in cell signal transduction pathway and one of the common mutated genes in AML. AML patients with FLT3-ITD mutation have a poor prognosis and tendency to relapse. Therefore, early identification of FLT3 gene mutation and selection of appropriate treatment are particularly important. Currently, the small moleculetargeted drugs have been new treatment methods for AML patients with FLT3-ITD mutation, but accompanied drug resistance need to be solved. This paper reviews the mechanism of FLT3 mutation, the clinical significance of FLT3 mutation in AML, FLT3 inhibitors and drug resistance mechanism.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mutation , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Signal Transduction , Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/therapeutic use , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/drug therapy , fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3/genetics
19.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 143-156, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971476

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to identify subtypes of genomic variants associated with the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) by conducting systematic literature search in electronic databases up to May 31, 2021. The main outcomes including overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), objective response rate (ORR), and durable clinical benefit (DCB) were correlated with tumor genomic features. A total of 1546 lung cancer patients with available genomic variation data were included from 14 studies. The Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog G12C (KRASG12C) mutation combined with tumor protein P53 (TP53) mutation revealed the promising efficacy of ICI therapy in these patients. Furthermore, patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) classical activating mutations (including EGFRL858R and EGFRΔ19) exhibited worse outcomes to ICIs in OS (adjusted hazard ratio (HR), 1.40; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01‍‒‍1.95; P=0.0411) and PFS (adjusted HR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.49‍‒‍2.63; P<0.0001), while classical activating mutations with EGFRT790M showed no difference compared to classical activating mutations without EGFRT790M in OS (adjusted HR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.48‍‒‍1.94; P=0.9157) or PFS (adjusted HR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.39‍‒‍1.35; P=0.3050). Of note, for patients harboring the Usher syndrome type-2A(USH2A) missense mutation, correspondingly better outcomes were observed in OS (adjusted HR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.32‍‒‍0.82; P=0.0077), PFS (adjusted HR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.38‍‒‍0.69; P<0.0001), DCB (adjusted odds ratio (OR), 4.74; 95% CI, 2.75‍‒‍8.17; P<0.0001), and ORR (adjusted OR, 3.45; 95% CI, 1.88‍‒‍6.33; P<0.0001). Our findings indicated that, USH2A missense mutations and the KRASG12Cmutation combined with TP53 mutation were associated with better efficacy and survival outcomes, but EGFR classical mutations irrespective of combination with EGFRT790M showed the opposite role in the ICI therapy among lung cancer patients. Our findings might guide the selection of precise targets for effective immunotherapy in the clinic.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , ErbB Receptors/genetics , Extracellular Matrix Proteins/genetics , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Mutation , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras)/genetics , Treatment Outcome
20.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 78-82, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971182

ABSTRACT

Lung squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) accounts for approximately 30% of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases and is the second most common histological type of lung cancer. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive NSCLC accounts for only 2%-5% of all NSCLC cases, and is almost exclusively detected in patients with lung adenocarcinoma. Thus, ALK testing is not routinely performed in the LSCC population, and the efficacy of such treatment for ALK-rearranged LSCC remains unknown. Echinoderm microtubule associated protein like 4 (EML4)-ALK (V1) and TP53 co-mutations were identified by next generation sequencing (NGS) in this patient with advanced LSCC. On December 3, 2020, Ensatinib was taken orally and the efficacy was evaluated as partial response (PR). The progression-free survival (PFS) was 19 months. When the disease progressed, the medication was changed to Loratinib. To our knowledge, Enshatinib created the longest PFS of ALK-mutant LSCC patients treated with targeted therapy since literature review. Herein, we described one case treated by Enshatinib involving a patient with both EML4-ALK and TP53 positive LSCC, and the relevant literatures were reviewed for discussing the treatment of this rare disease.
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Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase/metabolism , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/genetics , Mutation , Cytoskeletal Proteins/genetics , Lung/pathology , Oncogene Proteins, Fusion/genetics , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/genetics
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