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1.
Clinics ; 76: e2251, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153972

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. However, factors associated with the survival of patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who received only hospice care are largely unclear. In this study, we aimed to determine the prognostic factors correlated with survival in patients with advanced NSCLC who had undergone hospice care only. METHODS: A total of 102 patients with recurrent stage III/IV NSCLC after traditional treatment failure were investigated. Survival was measured from the date of enrollment to December 2019 or the time of death. Tumor tissues were collected, and DNA sequencing was performed to identify somatic mutations. Data on clinical factors of patients were collected and analyzed by univariate and multivariate analyses. Overall survival analysis was conducted using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: The 6-month, 1-year, and 2-year overall survival rates of the 102 patients with metastatic NSCLC were 17.65%, 3.92%, and 0.98%, respectively. The median overall survival of the 102 patients was 3.15 months. Tumor location in the peripheral lung, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor history, low tumor mutation load, adenocarcinoma, and poor performance status score were associated with prolonged survival compared with tumor location in the central lung, no EGFR inhibitor history, high tumor mutation load, squamous cell carcinoma, and good performance status score (p=0.045, p=0.003, p=0.045, p=0.021, and p=0.0003, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: EGFR inhibitor treatment history and tumor mutation load are risk factors for the overall survival of patients with stage III/IV NSCLC who have undergone only hospice care. These results provide a critical clinical basis for further study of nontraditional anti-tumor responses induced by EGFR inhibitors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , ErbB Receptors/genetics , Mutation , Neoplasm Staging
2.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 673-676, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922240

ABSTRACT

Lung cancer is a malignant tumor with high incidence rate and mortality rate in China and even the whole world, of which non-small cell lung cancer accounts for about 80%. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene mutation accounts for about 5%. Alectinib, ALK-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (ALK-TKI), has great performance in clinical. The early detection and treatment of adverse drug reactions can greatly improve clinical benefits. This paper reports a patient of ALK positive non-small cell lung cancer was admited to Baotou Central Hospital in April 2020. The diagnosis and treatment was retrospectively analyzed, and the literature was reviewed.
.


Subject(s)
Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase/genetics , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Carbazoles/therapeutic use , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/secondary , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Mutation , Piperidines/therapeutic use , Pleural Neoplasms/secondary , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
3.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 853-861, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922138

ABSTRACT

Rearranged during transfection (RET) fusions are found in 0.7% to 2% of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Fusions between RET gene and other domains represent the distinct biological and clinicopathological subtypes of NSCLC. Recent years have witnessed the remarkable advancement of RET fusion-positive advanced NSCLC therapy. Conventional chemotherapy produced moderate clinical benefits. Prior to the introduction of targeted therapy or in the context of unavailability, platinum-based systemic regimens are initial therapy options. Immunotherapy predicted minimal response in the presence of RET fusions while currently available data have been scarce, and the single-agent immunotherapy or in combination with chemotherapy regimens are not recommended as initial systemic therapy in this population. The repurpose of multi-target kinase inhibitors in patients with RET fusion-positive NSCLC showed encouraging therapeutic activity, with only cabozantinib and vandetanib being recommended as initial or subsequent options under certain circumstances. However, there are still unmet clinical needs. Pralsetinib and selpercatinib have been developed as tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) selectively targeting RET variation of fusions or mutations, and both agents significantly improved the prognosis of patients with RET fusion-positive NSCLC. Pralsetinib and selpercatinib have been established as preferred first-line therapy or subsequent therapy options. As observed with other TKIs treatment, resistance has also been associated with RET targeted inhibition, and the acquired resistance eventually affect the long-term therapeutic effectiveness, leading to limited subsequent treatment options. Therefore, it is essential to identify resistance mechanisms to TKI in RET fusion-positive advanced NSCLC to help reveal and establish new strategies to overcome resistance. Here, we review the advances in the treatment of RET fusion-positive advanced NSCLC.
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Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Mutation , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret/genetics
4.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 405-413, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877505

ABSTRACT

The introduction of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4/6 inhibitors has revolutionized the clinical management paradigm of hormone receptor (HR) positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) 2 negative breast cancer. As of today, CDK 4/6 inhibitors including Palbociclib, Ribociclib, and Abemaciclib have been widely approved by regulatory agencies. Randomized clinical trials demonstrated that CDK 4/6 inhibitors in combination with an aromatase inhibitor (AI) or fulvestrant in the first-, second- or later-line setting for HR positive/HER2 negative locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer led to substantial reduction in the risk of disease progression or death. Adverse effects of treatment were manageable and as or better than expected in terms of patient satisfaction. Considering CDK4/6 inhibitors in combination with endocrine therapy being a novel approach in China clinical practice, the panel developed the consensus comprehensively describing the pharmacology properties, monitoring strategy during treatment and adverse events management, to facilitate greater understanding in Chinese oncologists of a whole new therapeutic class of drug, promote accuracy of clinical decision and help reach the ultimate goal of improving survival and quality of life of the target patient population.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , China , Consensus , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4 , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 6 , Humans , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Quality of Life , Receptor, ErbB-2
5.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2232-2239, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887792

ABSTRACT

The development and progression of most cancers have been well recognized as the result of highly activated cell cycle. Cyclin dependent kinase 4/6 plays important roles not only in mitosis, but also in multiple biological processes that contribute to cancer development, such as aging, apoptosis and histone modification. Three FDA approved CDK4/6 inhibitors, Palbociclib, Ribociclib and Abemaciclib, have been used as targeted cancer therapeutic agents to benefit patients with endocrine therapy-resistant breast cancer and other types of cancer, prolonging their survival. However, the clinical application of these inhibitors also leads to acquired drug resistance and other problems. This paper reviews the regulatory roles of CDK4/6, the application of CDK4/6 inhibitors in cancer and the challenge of drug resistance.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4/therapeutic use , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 6/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Signal Transduction
6.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1908-1919, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887633

ABSTRACT

Immunotherapy has dramatically altered the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. Currently, the emergence of combination strategies in immunotherapy has brightened the prospects of improved clinical outcomes and manageable safety profiles in the first/second-line settings. However, sub-optimal response rates are still observed in several clinical trials. Hence, alternative combination models and candidate selection strategies need to be explored. Herein, we have critically reviewed and commented on the published data from several clinical trials, including combined immunotherapy and chemotherapy, anti-angiogenic agents, epidermal growth factor receptor/anaplastic lymphoma kinase tyrosine kinase inhibitors, radiotherapy, and other immune checkpoint inhibitors.


Subject(s)
Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Humans , Immunotherapy , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880693

ABSTRACT

Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) can effectively inhibit the growth of EGFR-dependent mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Unfortunately, NSCLC patients often develop severe drug resistance after long-term EGFR-TKI treatment. Studies have shown that the disorder of energy metabolism in tumor cells can induce EGFR-TKI resistance. Due to the drug action, gene mutation and other factors, tumor cells undergo metabolic reprogramming, which increases the metabolic rate and intensity of tumor cells, promotes the intake and synthesis of nutrients (such as sugar, fat and glutamine), forms a microenvironment conducive to tumor growth, enhances the bypass activation, phenotype transformation and abnormal proliferation of tumor cells, and inhibits the activity of immune cells and apoptosis of tumor cells, ultimately leading to drug resistance of tumor cells to EGFR-TKI. Therefore, targeting energy metabolism of NSCLC may be a potential way to alleviate TKI resistance.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Cell Line, Tumor , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/genetics , Epidermal Growth Factor , ErbB Receptors/genetics , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Mutation , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Tumor Microenvironment
8.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(7): 1039-1043, jul. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1139408

ABSTRACT

Biological therapy dramatically changed the management of Ulcerative Colitis (UC). However, a significant number of these patients fail to respond or have secondary loss of response to this strategy. In this clinical situation, the options include intensification of anti-TNF therapy, the use of a second anti-TNF or being switched to another drug class. Among the later, tofacitinib, an oral small molecule directed against the JAK/STAT pathway, is safe and effective in inducing and maintaining remission in patients with moderate-severe UC. We report two patients with UC refractory to conventional treatment and biological therapy, who responded successfully to the use of tofacitinib.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Piperidines/therapeutic use , Pyrimidines/therapeutic use , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Colitis, Ulcerative/diagnostic imaging , Colonoscopy , Treatment Outcome
9.
Clinics ; 75: e2011, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133363

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The occurrence of cryptic Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome translocation is rare in BCR-ABL1-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCR-ABL1+ ALL) and is of unknown significance in the tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) era. METHODS: We retrospectively studied a series of adult patients receiving TKI-based therapy to evaluate the prognostic impact of the normal karyotype (NK) (n=22) in BCR-ABL1+ ALL by comparison with the isolated Ph+ karyotype (n=54). RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences in clinical characteristics and complete remission rate between the two groups. Compared with the isolated Ph+ group, the NK/BCR-ABL1+ group had a higher relapse rate (55.0% versus 29.4%, p=0.044). Overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were significantly shorter in the NK/BCR-ABL1+ group than in the isolated Ph+ group [median OS: 24.5 versus 48.6 (months), p=0.013; median DFS: 11.0 (months) versus undefined, p=0.008]. The five-year OS and DFS for patients with NK/BCR-ABL1+ were 19.2% and 14.5%, respectively; those for patients with isolated Ph+ were 49.5% and 55.7%, respectively. Thirty-four (44.7%) patients underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) in this study. Among the patients who received allo-HSCT, the median OS and DFS in the NK/BCR-ABL+ group (n=9) were 35.5 and 27.5 months, respectively, while those in the isolated Ph+ group (n=25) were undefined. There was a trend of significant statistical difference in the OS between the two subgroups (p=0.066), but no significant difference in the DFS. Multivariate analysis revealed that NK was independently associated with worse OS and DFS in BCR-ABL1+ ALL patients [Hazard ratio (HR) 2.256 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.005-5.066), p=0.049; HR 2.711 (95% CI, 1.319-5.573), p=0.007]. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the sub-classification of an NK could be applied in the prognostic assessments of BCR-ABL1+ ALL. In addition, allo-HSCT should be actively performed to improve prognosis in these patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/genetics , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/drug therapy , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Fusion Proteins, bcr-abl/genetics , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Karyotype
10.
J. bras. pneumol ; 46(4): e20180255, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134876

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Lung cancer is an important health problem due to its high incidence and mortality. The treatment of metastatic disease improved after the molecular pathways of cancer came to be known. However, targeted therapy is unavailable to many patients treated within the Brazilian Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS, Unified Health Care System). Our objective was to assess the cost-effectiveness of erlotinib, gefitinib, and afatinib versus that of chemotherapy for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer in the context of the SUS. Methods: Different analytical models were developed based on data in the literature. The outcomes were presented in quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) per QALY gained. All costs related to treatment and supportive therapies were included in the models. Results: In one model, data from retrospective studies showed 2.01 life-years saved and a mean QALY gain of 1.169. The ICER per QALY gained ranged from R$48,451.29 (for gefitinib) to R$85,559.22 (for erlotinib). In another model, data from a meta-analysis showed −0.01 life-years saved and a mean QALY gain of 0.178. The ICER per QALY gained ranged from R$27,028.30 (for gefitinib) to R$75,203.26 (for erlotinib). Conclusions: There is no ideal analytical model for the SUS. However, targeted therapy with EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors has been shown to be cost-effective in various scenarios. The adoption of drug price discounts will improve the cost-effectiveness of treatment.


RESUMO Objetivo: O câncer de pulmão é um importante problema de saúde pela sua alta incidência e mortalidade. O tratamento da doença metastática melhorou após o conhecimento de vias moleculares tumorais. Contudo, a terapia-alvo está indisponível para muitos pacientes do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS). Nosso objetivo foi avaliar a relação custo-efetividade de erlotinibe, gefitinibe e afatinibe vs. quimioterapia no tratamento do câncer de pulmão não pequenas células no contexto do SUS. Métodos: Foram desenvolvidos modelos analíticos distintos baseados em dados da literatura. Os desfechos foram apresentados em quality-adjusted life years (QALY, anos de vida ajustados pela qualidade) e incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER, relação custo-efetividade incremental). Todos os custos relacionados ao tratamento e terapias de suporte foram incluídos nos modelos. Resultados: No primeiro modelo, dados de estudos retrospectivos apontaram 2,01 anos de vida salvos e uma média de ganho de QALY de 1,169. O ICER variou entre R$ 48.451,29 (gefitinibe) e R$ 85.559,22 (erlotinibe). No segundo modelo, dados de uma meta-análise evidenciaram −0,01 ano de vida salvos e uma média de ganho de QALY de 0,178. O ICER foi de R$ 27.028,30 (gefitinibe) a R$ 75.203,26 (erlotinibe). Conclusões: Não existe um modelo analítico ideal para o SUS. Contudo, diferentes cenários disponíveis na literatura mostram que a terapia-alvo com o uso dessas drogas é custo-efetiva. A adoção de descontos nos preços dos medicamentos melhorará a relação custo-efetividade do tratamento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/economics , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Brazil , Retrospective Studies , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Delivery of Health Care , ErbB Receptors
11.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 807-816, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877492

ABSTRACT

Anlotinib hydrochloride is the only anti-angiogenic, multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor, which has been approved for non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer in China. In order to provide guidance for clinical practitioners to use anlotinib hydrochloride safely and efficiently, the Chinese Association for Clinical Oncologists, the Expert Committee of Vascular Targeted Therapy of Chinese Society of Clincal Oncology and the Cancer Targeted Therapy Professional Committee of China Anti-Cancer Association co-organized experts and integrated multiple evidences of Anlotinib Hydrochloride, from both clinical trial, post-marketed clinical data and the associated experiences of experts accumulated in clinical practice, etc. The present consensus covers the clinical data of anlotinib hydrochloride applied in advanced non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer, and the safety management recommendations.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , China , Consensus , Humans , Indoles/therapeutic use , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Quinolines/therapeutic use
12.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 137(6): 505-511, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1094519

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is the fourth most common cancer in Brazil. In the 2000s, better understanding of molecular pathways led to development of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted treatments that have improved outcomes. However, these treatments are unavailable in most Brazilian public healthcare services (Sistema Único de Saúde, SUS). OBJECTIVE: To assess the potential number of years of life not saved, the budget impact of the treatment and strategies to improve access. DESIGN AND SETTING: Pharmacoeconomic study assessing the potential societal and economic impact of adopting EGFR-targeted therapy within SUS. METHODS: We estimated the number of cases eligible for treatment, using epidemiological data from the National Cancer Institute. We used data from a single meta-analysis and from the Lung Cancer Mutation Consortium (LCMC) study as the basis for assessing differences in patients' survival between use of targeted therapy and use of chemotherapy. The costs of targeted treatment were based on the national reference and were compared with the amount reimbursed for chemotherapy through SUS. RESULTS: There was no life-year gain with EGFR-targeted therapy in the single meta-analysis (hazard ratio, HR, 1.01). The LCMC showed that 1,556 potential life-years were not saved annually. We estimated that the annual budget impact was 125 million Brazilian reais (BRL) with erlotinib, 48 million BRL with gefitinib and 52 million BRL with afatinib. Their incremental costs over chemotherapy per life-year saved were 80,329 BRL, 31,011 BRL and 33,225 BRL, respectively. A drug acquisition discount may decrease the budget impact by 30% (with a 20% discount). A fixed cost of 1,000 BRL may decrease the budget impact by 95%. CONCLUSION: Reducing drug acquisition costs may improve access to EGFR-targeted therapy for lung cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Health Care Costs , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/economics , ErbB Receptors/economics , Lung Neoplasms/economics , Quinazolines/economics , Quinazolines/therapeutic use , Brazil , Budgets , Survival Analysis , Cost-Benefit Analysis/economics , Risk Sharing, Financial/methods , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Molecular Targeted Therapy/economics , ErbB Receptors/therapeutic use , Health Services Accessibility/economics , Lung Neoplasms/mortality , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy
13.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 55(2): 198-200, Apr.-June 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038706

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Janus kinases inhibitors have already been incorporated into the management of immune-mediated diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, and are being investigated for the treatment of psoriasis and inflammatory bowel diseases, both ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Tofacitinib is an oral small-molecule drug that inhibits Janus kinases 1, Janus kinases 3, and, to a lesser extent, Janus kinases 2. This inhibition ends up blocking signals for several inflammatory cytokines that are involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases and play a role in many immune signaling routes, including lymphocyte activation, function, and proliferation. We report a patient with active ulcerative colitis with primary non-response to three biologics (infliximab, adalimumab and vedolizumab), with different mechanisms of action, who refused surgical treatment and had a favorable response to tofacitinib with clinical and endoscopic remission. No adverse events were observed with the use of the agent. This case illustrates the difficulties we may face regarding the identification of the expression of proper mechanism of action involved in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis patients and the importance of having another treatment option with different mechanism of action, like tofacitinib.


RESUMO Os inibidores das Janus kinases (JAK) têm sido incorporados ao tratamento de doenças imunomediadas, como artrite reumatoide e, além disso, têm sido testados no tratamento da psoríase e doenças inflamatórias intestinais, tanto na retocolite ulcerativa quanto na doença de Crohn. Tofacitinibe é uma droga do grupo das pequenas moléculas de uso oral que inibe as Janus kinases 1 e 3 e, em menor grau, a Janus kinases 2. Esta inibição promove o bloqueio de uma série de citocinas pró-inflamatórias que estão envolvidas na patogênese das doenças inflamatórias intestinais e desempenham importante papel nos processos imunes, tais como ativação, função e proliferação linfocitária. Nesta presente comunicação, relatamos um caso de um paciente portador de retocolite ulcerativa refratária a três agentes biológicos (infliximabe, adalimumabe e vedolizumabe), com diferentes mecanismos de ação, que recusou o tratamento cirúrgico, porém, apresentou boa resposta com o uso de tofacitinibe, com remissão clínica e endoscópica. Não foram evidenciados efeitos colaterais com a droga. O presente caso ilustra as dificuldades que podemos enfrentar em relação à identificação da expressão do correto mecanismo de ação envolvido na patogênese dos pacientes com retocolite ulcerativa e a importância de um novo agente terapêutico com diferente mecanismo de ação, como o tofacitinibe.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Piperidines/therapeutic use , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Integrins/therapeutic use , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/therapeutic use , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pyrimidines/therapeutic use , Pyrroles/therapeutic use , Integrins/antagonists & inhibitors , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/antagonists & inhibitors , Infliximab/therapeutic use
14.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 211-218, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713101

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Molecular testing in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) aids in identifying oncogenic alterations. The aim of this study was to compare the rates of detection of oncogenic alterations and responsiveness to epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) according to EGFR mutation status as determined by peptide nucleic acid (PNA) clamping or direct sequencing (DS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register. Data from included studies were pooled to yield summary sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios, diagnostic odds ratio, and receiver operating characteristic curves. A meta-regression analysis was conducted to identify potential sources of heterogeneity between selected studies. RESULTS: We identified 10 studies comprising 924 patients. Oncogenic alterations were detected in 340 of 924 cases (36.8%) with PNA clamping and in 250 of 924 (27.1%) with DS. The pooled sensitivities of PNA clamping and DS were 0.93 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.90−0.95] and 0.69 (95% CI: 0.64−0.73), respectively. According to meta-regression analysis, none of the covariates were found to be significant sources of heterogeneity. With respect to treatment responses to EGFR-TKIs, there was no significant difference therein between EGFR mutations detected by PNA clamping and DS (53.4% vs. 50.8%; risk ratio, 0.99; 95% CI 0.83−1.19; p=0.874). CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that PNA clamping has a higher sensitivity than DS for detecting oncogenic alterations in NSCLC. Our findings suggest that PNA clamping is a more useful method for clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Constriction , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Mutation , Peptide Nucleic Acids/genetics , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/genetics , ErbB Receptors/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Sequence Analysis , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Translocation, Genetic
15.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 61(4): 398-402, July-Aug. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887574

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a rare neuroendocrine tumor originating from parafollicular C cells of the thyroid and associated with mutations in the proto-oncogene REarranged during Transfection (RET). The prognosis of MTC depends on clinical stage, with a 95.6% 10-year survival rate among patients with localized disease and 40% among patients with advanced disease. Standard chemotherapy and radiotherapy have no significant impact on the overall survival of these patients and two tyrosine kinase receptor inhibitors (TKIs), vandetanib and cabozantinib, have been recently approved for the systemic treatment of locally advanced or metastatic MTC. However, since patients with MTC and residual or recurrent disease may have an indolent course with no need for systemic treatment, and since these drugs are highly toxic, it is extremely important to select the patients who will receive these drugs in a correct manner. It is also essential to carefully monitor patients using TKI regarding possible adverse effects, which should be properly managed when occurring.


Subject(s)
Humans , Piperidines/therapeutic use , Pyridines/therapeutic use , Quinazolines/therapeutic use , Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine/drug therapy , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Anilides/therapeutic use , Piperidines/adverse effects , Pyridines/adverse effects , Quinazolines/adverse effects , Thyroid Neoplasms/metabolism , Thyroid Neoplasms/drug therapy , Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine/metabolism , Risk Assessment , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Anilides/adverse effects
16.
Ann. hepatol ; 16(2): 247-254, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887229

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background & Aim. Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) or sorafenib is recommended for hepatocellular carcinoma BCLC stages B and C respectively. We studied the role of combination of TACE and sorafenib in BCLC stages B/C. Material and methods. We undertook an observational study on a cohort of cirrhotics with HCC from August 2010 through October 2014. Patients in BCLC stages B/C who had received TACE and/or sorafenib were included. mRECIST criteria were used to assess tumor response. The primary end point was overall survival. Results. Out of 124 patients, 47.6% were in BCLC-B and 52.4% in BCLCC. Baseline characteristics were comparable. The predominant etiology was cryptogenic (37.2% and 38.5%, p = NS). 49.1% in BCLC-B and 56.9% in BCLC-C had received TACE+sorafenib. In BCLC-B, the overall survival improved from 9 months (95% CI 6.3-11.7) using TACE only to 16 months (95% CI 12.9-19.1) using TACE+sorafenib (p < 0.05). In BCLC-C, addition of TACE to sorafenib improved the overall survival from 4 months (95%CI 3-5) to 9 months (95%CI 6.8-11.2) (p < 0.0001). As per mRECIST criteria, patients on TACE+sorafenib had reduced progressive disease (37.8% vs. 83.3%), improved partial response (43.2% vs. 3.3%) and one had complete response compared to those on sorafenib alone (p < 0.0001) in BCLC-C but not in BCLC-B group. Hand foot syndrome was noted in 27.7% patients on sorafenib and post TACE syndrome in 80.2% patients, but both were reversible. No major adverse events were noted. Conclusion. TACE+sorafenib was more effective than TACE or sorafenib alone in HCC BCLC stages B or C with a significant survival benefit and improved tumour regression especially in BCLC-C patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Phenylurea Compounds/therapeutic use , Niacinamide/analogs & derivatives , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/therapy , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Liver Neoplasms/therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Phenylurea Compounds/adverse effects , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Chemoembolization, Therapeutic/adverse effects , Chemoembolization, Therapeutic/mortality , Niacinamide/adverse effects , Niacinamide/therapeutic use , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/etiology , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/mortality , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Tumor Burden , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Liver Neoplasms/etiology , Liver Neoplasms/mortality , Neoplasm Staging , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects
17.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 61(1): 81-89, Jan.-Feb. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838415

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Radioiodine (RAI)-refractory thyroid cancer is an uncommon entity, occurring with an estimated incidence of 4-5 cases/year/million people. RAI refractoriness is more frequent in older patients, in those with large metastases, in poorly differentiated thyroid cancer, and in those tumors with high 18-fluordeoxyglucose uptake on PET/CT. These patients have a 10-year survival rate of less than 10%. In recent years, new therapeutic agents with molecular targets have become available, with multikinase inhibitors (MKIs) being the most investigated drugs. Two of these compounds, sorafenib and lenvatinib, have shown significant objective response rates and have significantly improved the progression-free survival in the two largest published prospective trials on MKI use. However, no overall survival benefit has been achieved yet. This is probably related to the crossover that occurs in most patients who progress on placebo treatment to the open treatment of these studies. In consequence, the challenge is to correctly identify which patients will benefit from these treatments. It is also crucial to understand the appropriate timing to initiate MKI treatment and when to stop it. The purpose of this article is to define RAI refractoriness, to summarize which therapies are available for this condition, and to review how to select patients who are suitable for them.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thyroid Neoplasms/drug therapy , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Iodine Radioisotopes/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Radiation Tolerance , Thyroid Neoplasms/mortality , Thyroid Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Treatment Failure , Retreatment , Disease Management
18.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 77(1): 61-72, feb. 2017. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-841634

ABSTRACT

Actualmente las guías clínicas para el manejo de pacientes con leucemia mieloide crónica incluyen el monitoreo molecular de BCR-ABL1 por PCR cuantitativa en tiempo real; esta metodología permite definir la respuesta molecular. A pesar de la probada importancia pronóstica de la respuesta molecular, en muchos casos no se tiene en cuenta que la PCR cuantitativa puede producir datos muy variables, que pueden afectar la validez de los resultados, y hacer difícil la comparación entre diferentes laboratorios. Por lo tanto, para un manejo clínico óptimo, es absolutamente necesaria la estandarización de las metodologías de medición de BCR-ABL1. La estrategia para obtener valores de BCR-ABL1 comparables consiste en la adopción de la escala internacional. La conversión a la escala internacional se logra mediante la aplicación de un factor de conversión específico para cada laboratorio; este factor de conversión se puede obtener mediante el uso de calibradores secundarios validados, que hoy se producen en Argentina, en el marco del programa nacional de armonización. Por otra parte, con el objetivo de mitigar las diferencias entre laboratorios y facilitar criterios uniformes en la interpretación de los resultados y presentación de los informes, decidimos preparar estas guías de laboratorio. Esto permitirá además a los laboratorios poder evaluar su calidad de trabajo, tarea muy importante, en particular para aquellos centros más aislados, que no tienen fácil acceso a costosos kits comerciales o programas internacionales de intercambio de muestras.


Current clinical guidelines for managing chronic myeloid leukemia include molecular monitoring of BCR-ABL1 transcript quantitative reverse-transcription PCR. Despite the proven prognostic significance of molecular response, it is not widely appreciated that quantitative reverse-transcription PCR potentially produces highly variable data, which may affect the validity of results, making comparability between different laboratories difficult. Therefore, standardized reporting of BCR-ABL1 measurements is needed for optimal clinical management. An approach to achieve comparable BCR-ABL1 values is the use of an international reporting scale. Conversion to the international scale is achieved by the application of laboratory specific conversion factor that is obtained by using validated secondary reference calibrators. Moreover, with the aim to mitigate the interlaboratory imprecision of quantitative BCR-ABL1 measurements and to facilitate local laboratory results interpretation and reporting, we decide to prepare laboratory guidelines that will further facilitate interlaboratory comparative studies and independent quality-assessment programs, which are of paramount importance for worldwide standardization of BCR-ABL1 monitoring results, in particular for those most isolated laboratories, with not easy access to commercial kits or sample interchange programs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/blood , Biomarkers, Tumor/blood , Genes, abl/genetics , Fusion Proteins, bcr-abl/blood , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reference Standards , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/genetics , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/drug therapy , Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics , Guidelines as Topic , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use
19.
Santiago; Chile. Ministerio de Salud; 2017. ilus, tab.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, BRISA | ID: biblio-882197

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: El cáncer de mama es una enfermedad en su mayoría hormono dependiente (65%), debido al crecimiento anormal y desordenado de células del epitelio de los conductos o lobulillos mamarios y que tiene la capacidad de diseminarse. Cerca de 5-10% obedece a causas genéticas y sobre un 80 % son esporádicos. En relación a la incidencia y según lo reportado en el Primer Informe de los Registros Poblacionales de Cáncer de Chile, ubicados en las Regiones de los Rio, Antofagasta y BioBio, quinquenio 2003-2007, se han estimado tasas de incidencia de 32,3, 31,9 y 29,6 casos nuevos por 100.000 mujeres. TECNOLOGÍAS SANITARIAS ANALIZADAS: Ixabepilona, Pertuzumab, fulvestrant y palbociclib respectivamente. EFICACIA DE LOS TRATAMIENTOS: -Pertuzumab: La adición de pertuzumab al tratamiento con trastuzumab y taxano disminuye la mortalidad en el cáncer de mama HER2 positivo irresecable o metastásico. La adición de pertuzumab al tratamiento con trastuzumab y taxano aumenta los efectos adversos grado 3 y 4. -Fulvestrant: (primera línea) Fulvestrant podría disminuir la mortalidad en comparación con inhibidores de aromatasa, pero la certeza de la evidencia es baja. -Fulvestrant probablemente aumenta los efectos adversos severos en comparación con inhibidores de aromatasa. -Fulvestrant (segunda línea) Fulvestrant no disminuye la mortalidad. Fulvestrant probablemente no aumenta los efectos adversos. -Palbociclib podría disminuir la mortalidad, pero la certeza de la evidencia es baja. Palbociclib aumenta la sobrevida libre de progresión, pero también aumenta de manera importante los efectos adversos (principalmente leucopenia y neutropenia). ANÁLISIS ECONÓMICO: Existe poca evidencia económica de los tratamientos analizados. En cuanto a las decisiones de cobertura de estos medicamentos, de otros países, es variado. NICE no recomienda ninguna de las tecnologías para los subgrupos metastásicos, en cambio CADTH si recomienda pertuzumab para metastásico, pero no así como tratamiento neoadyuvante. Cabe destacar, que ambos países condicionan el ingreso a su sistema de cobertura, a una baja en el precio del tratamiento por parte del laboratorio. Se destaca Uruguay que cubre ambas tecnologías en estudio. El impacto presupuestario estimado para el primer año de pertuzumab fue de $4.719 millones de pesos, $921 millones de pesos para fulvestrant, y $10.035 para palbociclib. CONCLUSIÓN: Para dar cumplimiento al artículo 28° del Reglamento que establece el proceso destinado a determinar los diagnósticos y tratamientos de alto costo con Sistema de Protección Financiera, según lo establecido en los artículos 7°y 8° de la ley N°20.850, aprobado por el decreto N°13 del Ministerio de Salud, se concluye que el presente informe de evaluación se considera favorable, de acuerdo a lo establecido en el Título III. de las Evaluaciones Favorables de la Norma Técnica N° 0192 de este mismo ministerio.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Severity of Illness Index , Cost-Benefit Analysis/economics , Therapeutic Index
20.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 9-18, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-222311

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Rearrangement of the proto-oncogene rearranged during transfection (RET) has been newly identified potential driver mutation in lung adenocarcinoma. Clinically available tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) target RET kinase activity, which suggests that patients with RET fusion genes may be treatable with a kinase inhibitor. Nevertheless, the mechanisms of resistance to these agents remain largely unknown. Thus, the present study aimed to determine whether epidermal growth factor (EGF) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) trigger RET inhibitor resistance in LC-2/ad cells with CCDC6-RET fusion genes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effects of EGF and HGF on the susceptibility of a CCDC6-RET lung cancer cell line to RET inhibitors (sunitinib, E7080, vandetanib, and sorafenib) were examined. RESULTS: CCDC6-RET lung cancer cells were highly sensitive to RET inhibitors. EGF activated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and triggered resistance to sunitinib, E7080, vandetanib, and sorafenib by transducing bypass survival signaling through ERK and AKT. Reversible EGFR-TKI (gefitinib) resensitized cancer cells to RET inhibitors, even in the presence of EGF. Endothelial cells, which are known to produce EGF, decreased the sensitivity of CCDC6-RET lung cancer cells to RET inhibitors, an effect that was inhibited by EGFR small interfering RNA (siRNA), anti-EGFR antibody (cetuximab), and EGFR-TKI (Iressa). HGF had relatively little effect on the sensitivity to RET inhibitors. CONCLUSION: EGF could trigger resistance to RET inhibition in CCDC6-RET lung cancer cells, and endothelial cells may confer resistance to RET inhibitors by EGF. E7080 and other RET inhibitors may provide therapeutic benefits in the treatment of RET-positive lung cancer patients.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma/drug therapy , Cell Line, Tumor , Cetuximab/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/drug effects , Epidermal Growth Factor/metabolism , Gene Rearrangement , Hepatocyte Growth Factor/pharmacology , Humans , Indoles/pharmacology , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Mutation , Niacinamide/analogs & derivatives , Phenylurea Compounds/pharmacology , Piperidines/pharmacology , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret/antagonists & inhibitors , Pyrroles/pharmacology , Quinazolines/pharmacology , RNA, Small Interfering/pharmacology , ErbB Receptors/genetics , Signal Transduction/drug effects , fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3/metabolism
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