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1.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1271-1288, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922636

ABSTRACT

Whether direct manipulation of Parkinson's disease (PD) risk genes in the adult monkey brain can elicit a Parkinsonian phenotype remains an unsolved issue. Here, we used an adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9)-delivered CRISPR/Cas9 system to directly co-edit PINK1 and DJ-1 genes in the substantia nigras (SNs) of two monkey groups: an old group and a middle-aged group. After the operation, the old group exhibited all the classic PD symptoms, including bradykinesia, tremor, and postural instability, accompanied by key pathological hallmarks of PD, such as severe nigral dopaminergic neuron loss (>64%) and evident α-synuclein pathology in the gene-edited SN. In contrast, the phenotype of their middle-aged counterparts, which also showed clear PD symptoms and pathological hallmarks, were less severe. In addition to the higher final total PD scores and more severe pathological changes, the old group were also more susceptible to gene editing by showing a faster process of PD progression. These results suggested that both genetic and aging factors played important roles in the development of PD in the monkeys. Taken together, this system can effectively develop a large number of genetically-edited PD monkeys in a short time (6-10 months), and thus provides a practical transgenic monkey model for future PD studies.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain , CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , Dependovirus/genetics , Haplorhini , Phenotype , Protein Kinases/genetics
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922030

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the genetic variants of a child with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) combined with epilepsy, and explore its possible pathogenic mechanism.@*METHODS@#Clinical data of the child were collected and evaluated, whole-exome sequencing (WES) technology was used to explore the genetic variants sites of the child and his parents and candidate genes were filtered out. Sanger sequencing were performed to verify the variants identified by WES and PolyPhen2 was utilized to predict the function of these variants. qPCR was carry out to determine the expression of the variant gene.@*RESULTS@#The proband carried a compound heterozygous mutation in the SIK3 gene (Chr11 q23.3, NM_025164.6), which contains a missense mutation c.1295A>G (p.N432S) inherited from the father and a deletion [c.2389_2391del(p.797del)] inherited from the mother. Both mutation sites are highly conservative, and PolyPhen2 predicted (c.1295A>G [p.N432S]) to be harmful. Compared to the mother, expression of SIK3in mRNA level in the peripheral blood of the proband and his father were both significantly decreased; compared to normal child, SIK3 expression in the peripheral blood of the proband and two other children with ASD were all decreased significantly too. In addition, studies on mice found that Sik3 gene has a marked higher level of expression in the brain.@*CONCLUSION@#The SIK3 gene variants may probably be associated with ASD. The detailed mechanism needs to be studied further, which may involve lipid metabolism dysfunction in the brain.


Subject(s)
Animals , Autism Spectrum Disorder/genetics , Epilepsy/genetics , Male , Mice , Mutation , Mutation, Missense , Protein Kinases , /genetics , Whole Exome Sequencing
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888340

ABSTRACT

As a new type of cell death, necroptosis is initiated by tumor necrosis factor receptor 1(TNFR1), and then activated receptor-interacting protein kinase 1(RIP1) and receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIP3), following by the activation of mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein(MLKL) to deliver cell death signal. When necroptosis happens, damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) enter into extracellular area through the ruptured cytomembrane, followed by the disordered tissue hemeostasis. In recent years, many researches showed that necroptosis playimportant roles in a few bone related diseases, such as osteoporosis, osteonecrosis, osteosarcoma, etc. Thus, we try to briefly review the researches in this field.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Necroptosis , Protein Kinases
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879520

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To detect the mutation site in a pedigree affected with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and verify its impact on the protein function.@*METHODS@#Peripheral blood samples were collected from the proband and his pedigree members for the extraction of genomic DNA. Mutational analysis was performed on the proband through whole-exome sequencing. Suspected variant was verified by Sanger sequencing. A series of molecular methods including PCR amplification, restriction enzyme digestion, ligation and transformation were also used to construct wild-type and mutant eukaryotic expression vectors of the PKD2 gene, which were transfected into HEK293T and HeLa cells for the observation of protein expression and cell localization.@*RESULTS@#The proband was found to harbor a c.2051dupA (p. Tyr684Ter) frame shift mutation of the PKD2 gene, which caused repeat of the 2051st nucleotide of its cDNA sequence and a truncated protein. Immunofluorescence experiment showed that the localization of the mutant protein within the cell was altered compared with the wild-type, which may be due to deletion of the C-terminus of the PKD2 gene.@*CONCLUSION@#The c.2051dupA (p. Tyr684Ter) mutation of the PKD2 gene probably underlay the pathogenesis of ADPKD in this pedigree.


Subject(s)
DNA Mutational Analysis , Female , Frameshift Mutation , HEK293 Cells , HeLa Cells , Humans , Male , Pedigree , Polycystic Kidney, Autosomal Dominant/physiopathology , Protein Kinases/genetics , Protein Transport/genetics , Whole Exome Sequencing
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811184

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rosae Multiflorae fructus (RMF), known to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, has been used as a traditional remedy for inflammatory diseases such as arthritis in Eastern Asia. However, its effect on osteoclasts, which play a crucial role in resorptive inflammatory bone diseases, is yet to be elucidated.METHODS: The effect of extract of RMF (RMF-E) on receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-mediated osteoclastogenesis was examined by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining, real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. In addition, RANKL-induced Ca2⁺-oscillation was also investigated.RESULTS: RMF-E remarkably inhibited TRAP+-osteoclast and resorptive pit formation in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the expression of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T-cells cytoplasmic, known as pivotal transcription factors for osteoclast formation in vitro and in vivo, and that of the osteoclast differentiation markers such as Acp5, Oscar, CtsK, Atp6v0d2, Tm7sf4, and Nfatc1 were significantly decreased by RMF-E treatment during osteoclastogenesis. The inhibitory effect of RMF-E on RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis was caused by the suppression of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, and RANKL-induced Ca2⁺-oscillation removal via inactivation of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), and subsequently phospholipase C-γ2.CONCLUSIONS: RMF-E negatively regulates osteoclast differentiation and formation. These findings suggest the possibility of RMF-E as a traditional therapeutic agent against osteoclast-related bone disorders such as osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and periodontitis.


Subject(s)
Acid Phosphatase , Antigens, Differentiation , Arthritis , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Blotting, Western , Bone Diseases , Calcium Signaling , Cytoplasm , Far East , In Vitro Techniques , Osteoclasts , Osteogenesis , Osteoporosis , Periodontitis , Phospholipases , Protein Kinases , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rosa , T-Lymphocytes , Transcription Factors
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786072

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Inflammation is crucial to limiting vascular disease. Previously we reported that acrolein, a known toxin in tobacco smoke, might play an important role in the progression of atherosclerosis via an inflammatory response involving cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and prostaglandin production in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Curcumin has been known to improve vascular function and have anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we investigated whether curcumin prevents the induction of inflammatory response caused by acrolein.METHODS: Anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin were examined in acrolein-stimulated HUVECs. Induction of proteins, mRNA, prostaglandin and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured using immunoblot analysis, real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and flow cytometry, respectively.RESULTS: Curcumin attenuates inflammatory response via inhibition of COX-2 expression and prostaglandin production in acrolein-induced human endothelial cells. This inhibition by curcumin results in the abolition of phosphorylation of protein kinase C, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and cAMP response element-binding protein. Furthermore, curcumin suppresses the production of ROS and endoplasmic reticulum stress via phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor-2α caused by acrolein.CONCLUSION: These results suggest that curcumin might be a useful agent against endothelial dysfunction caused by acrolein-induced inflammatory response.


Subject(s)
Acrolein , Atherosclerosis , Curcumin , Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein , Cyclooxygenase 2 , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Endothelial Cells , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Flow Cytometry , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Humans , Inflammation , Phosphorylation , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Protein Kinase C , Protein Kinases , Reactive Oxygen Species , RNA, Messenger , Smoke , Tobacco , Vascular Diseases
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880798

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the effect of rosmarinic acid (RA) on mitophagy and hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes exposed to high glucose (HG).@*METHODS@#Rat cardiomyocytes (H9c2) exposed to HG (25 mmol/L) were treated with 50 μmol/L RA or with both RA treatment and Parkin siRNA transfection, with the cells cultured in normal glucose (5.5 mmol/L) and HG as the controls. The expressions of PINK1, Parkin and LC3II/LC3I in the cells were detected by Western blotting. The formation of mitochondrial autophagosomes was observed by transmission electron microscope. Flow cytometry was employed to detect the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptotic rate of the cells. The activities of respiratory chain complex enzymes were measured by spectrophotometry. Fluorescence enzyme labeling and @*RESULTS@#RA treatment significantly increased the expression levels of PINK1, Parkin and LC3-II/I (@*CONCLUSIONS@#RA can protect rat cardiomyocytes against oxidative stress injury and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by HG by activating Parkin-mediated mitophagy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cinnamates , Depsides , Glucose , Hypertrophy , Mitophagy , Myocytes, Cardiac , Protein Kinases , Rats , Reactive Oxygen Species , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/genetics
9.
Clinics ; 74: e688, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989635

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES This study aims to compare the differential gene expression resulting from tocotrienol-rich fraction and α-tocopherol supplementation in healthy older adults. METHODS A total of 71 eligible subjects aged 50 to 55 years from Gombak and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, were divided into three groups and supplemented with placebo (n=23), α-tocopherol (n=24) or tocotrienol-rich fraction (n=24). Blood samples were collected at baseline and at 3 and 6 months of supplementation for microarray analysis. RESULTS The number of genes altered by α-tocopherol was higher after 6 months (1,410) than after 3 months (273) of supplementation. α-Tocopherol altered the expression of more genes in males (952) than in females (731). Similarly, tocotrienol-rich fraction modulated the expression of more genes after 6 months (1,084) than after 3 months (596) and affected more genes in males (899) than in females (781). α-Tocopherol supplementation modulated pathways involving the response to stress and stimuli, the immune response, the response to hypoxia and bacteria, the metabolism of toxins and xenobiotics, mitosis, and synaptic transmission as well as activated the mitogen-activated protein kinase and complement pathways after 6 months. However, tocotrienol-rich fraction supplementation affected pathways such as the signal transduction, apoptosis, nuclear factor kappa B kinase, cascade extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase-2, immune response, response to drug, cell adhesion, multicellular organismal development and G protein signaling pathways. CONCLUSION Supplementation with either α-tocopherol or tocotrienol-rich fraction affected the immune and drug response and the cell adhesion and signal transduction pathways but modulated other pathways differently after 6 months of supplementation, with sex-specific responses.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Gene Expression/drug effects , Dietary Supplements , alpha-Tocopherol/pharmacology , Tocotrienols/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Protein Kinases/drug effects , Time Factors , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Cell Adhesion/drug effects , Single-Blind Method , Sex Factors , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Immune System/drug effects
10.
Araçatuba; s.n; 2019. 83 p. graf, tab, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1051406

ABSTRACT

Atualmente, está bem estabelecido que o ambiente fetal está ligado à saúde materna, e estímulos ou agressões anormais durante a vida intra-uterina podem resultar em mudanças na fisiologia e metabolismo da prole, aumentando o risco de doenças na vida adulta. Tal fenômeno é conhecido como programação fetal. Alterações na metilação do DNA e expressão gênica são consideradas mecanismos moleculares responsáveis por esta programação. Estudos anteriores demonstraram que a doença periodontal (DP) materna promove resistência insulínica, aumento nas concentrações plasmáticas de citocinas, redução do conteúdo de GLUT4 e do seu índice de translocação para membrana plasmática em sua prole adulta. E citocinas, como por exemplo, o TNF-α, têm sido relacionadas com a redução da expressão de GLUT4 por meio da ativação do fator de transcrição nuclear κappa B (NF-κB). Além disso, esta citocina pode estimular algumas serinas quinases, incluindo IκB quinase (IKK), c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) e quinases reguladas por sinais extracelulares (ERKs) que estão envolvidas na resistência insulínica. Tais achados evidenciam a necessidade de realizar mais estudos para verificar os mecanismos envolvidos nestas alterações. Portanto, os objetivos do presente estudo foram avaliar em ratos adultos, proles de ratas com DP: 1) massa corpórea ao longo de 75 dias de idade; 2) glicemia e insulinemia; 3) expressão do RNAm da proteína transportadora de glicose GLUT4 e do IRS1 em muscular esquelético gastrocnêmio (MG); 4) o grau de metilação do DNA na região promotora do gene do GLUT4 em MG; 5) fosforilação das proteínas JNK, IKKα/ß, ERK 1/2, NF-κBp65 e NF-κBp50 e seus conteúdos totais em MG; 6) conteúdo total de TNF-α em MG. As ratas foram divididas em dois grupos: 1) com doença periodontal (DP), no qual esta doença foi induzida por meio de ligadura com fio de seda ao redor do 1º molar inferior; 2) ratas controle (CN). Após 7 dias da colocação da ligadura, as ratas de ambos os grupos foram colocadas para acasalamento, verificou-se diariamente, por esfregaço vaginal, o dia da copulação. As ratas prenhas foram separadas em caixas individuais. Quando os filhotes machos destas ratas completaram 75 dias, realizaram-se os experimentos: 1) glicemia e insulinemia; 2) expressão do RNAm do GLUT4 e do IRS1 em MG; 3) o grau de metilação do DNA na região promotora do gene do GLUT4 em MG; 4) fosforilação das proteínas JNK, IKKα/ß, ERK 1/2, NF-κBp65 e NF-κBp50 e seus conteúdos totais em MG; 5) conteúdo total de TNF-α em MG. Os resultados demonstraram que a doença periodontal materna promove na sua prole adulta baixo peso ao nascimento (BPN), resistência insulínica, aumento do conteúdo total de TNF-α em MG, aumento do grau de fosforilação de IKKα/ß, ERK 1/2, NF-κBp65 (grau de fosforilação e conteúdo) e NF-κBp50 em MG, diminuição na expressão gênica da proteína transportadora de glicose GLUT4 e aumento na expressão gênica do IRS1; porém não promove nessa prole alteração no grau de metilação do DNA na região promotora do gene do GLUT4, e no grau de fosforilação da proteína JNK em MG. Portanto, este estudo é de fundamental importância para o entendimento de alguns dos mecanismos envolvidos na relação entre a doença periodontal materna e resistência à insulina na prole adulta. Além disso, mostra que a saúde bucal materna ideal pode ajudar a prevenir doenças futuras na prole adulta(AU)


It is well established that the fetal environment is linked to maternal health, and abnormal stimuli or aggressions during intrauterine life can result in changes in the physiology and metabolism of offspring, increasing the risk of disease in adult life, this phenomenon is known as fetal programming. Changes in DNA methylation and gene expression are considered molecular mechanisms responsible for this programming. Previous studies have demonstrated that maternal periodontal disease (PD) promotes insulin resistance, increased plasma concentrations of cytokines, reduced GLUT4 content and its plasma membrane translocation index in its adult offspring. And cytokines, such as TNF-α, have been linked to reduced GLUT4 expression through the activation of nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NF-κB). In addition, this cytokine can stimulate some serine kinases including IκB kinase (IKK), c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal­regulated kinases (ERKs) that are involved in insulin resistance. These findings evidenced the need for further studies to verify the mechanisms involved in these changes. Therefore, the objectives of the present study were to evaluate in adult rats, offspring of rats with PD: 1) birth weight and during the 75 days of age; 2) glycemia and insulinemia; 3) GLUT4 and IRS1 mRNA expression in skeletal muscle gastrocnemius (MG); 4) the degree of DNA methylation in the promoter region of the GLUT4 gene in MG; 5) phosphorylation of JNK, IKKα/ß, ERK 1/2, NF-κBp65 and NF-κBp50 proteins and their total contents in MG; 6) TNF-α content in MG. Female Wistar rats were distributed into a control group and an experimental periodontal disease group, in which the disease is induced by ligation with silk thread around the 1st molar. Seven days after ligature placement, animals from both groups mated and daily vaginal smears were taken to verify the presence of sperm. Pregnant rats were kept in individual cages. The body weights of the offspring were measured once weekly from birth until 75 days of age. When male offspring of these rats completed 75 days, the experiments were performed: 1) glycemia and insulinemia; 2) GLUT4 and IRS1 mRNA expression in skeletal muscle gastrocnemius (MG); 3) the degree of DNA methylation in the promoter region of the GLUT4 gene in MG; 4) phosphorylation of JNK, IKKα/ß, ERK 1/2, NF-κBp65 and NF-κBp50 proteins and their total contents in MG; 5) TNF-α content in MG. The results demonstrated that maternal periodontal disease promotes in its adult offspring low birth weight (LBW), insulin resistance, increased TNF-α content in MG, increased IKKα/ß, ERK 1/2, NF-κBp65 (phosphorylation status and content) and NF-κBp50 phosphorylation status in the MG, decrease in gene expression of GLUT4 and increase in IRS1 gene expression; but does not promote in this progeny change in the degree of DNA methylation in the promoter region of the GLUT4 gene, and JNK phosphorylation status in MG. Therefore, this study is of fundamental importance for the understanding of some of the mechanisms involved in the relationship between maternal periodontal disease and insulin resistance in adult offspring. In addition, it shows that ideal maternal oral health can help prevent future illnesses in adult offspring(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Periodontal Diseases , Protein Kinases , Insulin Resistance , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Glucose Transporter Type 4 , Oral Health , Rats, Wistar , Epigenomics , Inflammation
11.
Natural Product Sciences ; : 304-310, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786430

ABSTRACT

The stems of Oplopanax elatus (OE) have long been used to treat inflammatory disorders in herbal medicine, and in the previous investigation, OE was found to possess anti-inflammatory activity in lipopolysaccharide-treated macrophages, RAW 264.7 cell. OE reduces inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase-induced NO production, and interferes with mitogen-activated protein kinase activation pathways. In the present study, the pharmacological action of the water extract of OE was examined to establish anti-arthritic action, using a rat model of adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA). The water extract of OE administered orally inhibited AIA-induced arthritis at (100 – 300) mg/kg/day. The paw edema was significantly decreased, in combination with reduced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The action mechanism includes an inhibition of MAPKs/nuclear transcription factor-κB activation. These new findings strongly suggest that OE possesses anti-arthritic action, and may be used as a therapeutic agent in inflammation-related disorders, particularly in arthritic condition.


Subject(s)
Animals , Arthritis , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Cytokines , Edema , Herbal Medicine , Macrophages , Models, Animal , Nitric Oxide , Oplopanax , Protein Kinases , Rats , Water
12.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 612-627, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763785

ABSTRACT

Aldose reductase (AR) protein, a member of the NADPH-dependent aldo-keto reductase family, reduces a wide range of aldehydes and enhances cell survival by inhibition of oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is known as one of the major pathological factor in ischemia. Since the precise function of AR protein in ischemic injury is fully unclear, we examined the function of AR protein in hippocampal neuronal (HT-22) cells and in an animal model of ischemia in this study. Cell permeable Tat-AR protein was produced by fusion of protein transduction domain in Tat for delivery into the cells. Tat-AR protein transduced into HT-22 cells and significantly inhibited cell death and regulated the mitogen-activate protein kinases (MAPKs), Bcl-2, Bax, and Caspase-3 under oxidative stress condition. In an ischemic animal model, Tat-AR protein transduced into the brain tissues through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and drastically decreased neuronal cell death in hippocampal CA1 region. These results indicate that transduced Tat-AR protein has protective effects against oxidative stress-induced neuronal cell death in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that Tat-AR protein could be used as potential therapeutic agent in ischemic injury.


Subject(s)
Aldehyde Reductase , Aldehydes , Blood-Brain Barrier , Brain , CA1 Region, Hippocampal , Caspase 3 , Cell Death , Cell Survival , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Ischemia , Models, Animal , Neurons , Oxidative Stress , Oxidoreductases , Protein Kinases
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763720

ABSTRACT

The retained functionality of the sodium iodide symporter (NIS) expressed in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) cells allows the further utilization of post-surgical radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy, which is an effective treatment for reducing the risk of recurrence, and even the mortality, of DTC. Whereas, the dedifferentiation of DTC could influence the expression of functional NIS, thereby reducing the efficacy of RAI therapy in advanced DTC. Genetic alternations (such as BRAF and the rearranged during transfection [RET]/papillary thyroid cancer [PTC] rearrangement) have been widely reported to be prominently responsible for the onset, progression, and dedifferentiation of PTC, mainly through activating the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling cascades. These genetic alternations have been suggested to associate with the reduced expression of iodide-handling genes in thyroid cancer, especially the NIS gene, disabling iodine uptake and causing resistance to RAI therapy. Recently, novel and promising approaches aiming at various targets have been attempted to restore the expression of these iodine-metabolizing genes and enhance iodine uptake through in vitro studies and studies of RAI-refractory (RAIR)-DTC patients. In this review, we discuss the regulation of NIS, known mechanisms of dedifferentiation including the MAPK and PI3K pathways, and the current status of redifferentiation therapy for RAIR-DTC patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Iodine , Ion Transport , Isotopes , Mortality , Protein Kinases , Recurrence , Sodium Iodide , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Transfection
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763710

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Oxytocin (OXT) has been reported to act as a growth regulator in various tumor cells. However, there is a paucity of data on the influence of OXT on cell proliferation of corticotroph adenomas. This study aimed to examine whether OXT affects cell growth in pituitary tumor cell lines (AtT20 and GH3 cells) with a focus on corticotroph adenoma cells. METHODS: Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were conducted with AtT20 cells to confirm the effects of OXT on hormonal activity; flow cytometry was used to assess changes in the cell cycle after OXT treatment. Moreover, the impact of OXT on proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), nuclear factor κB, and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway was analyzed by Western blot. RESULTS: OXT treatment of 50 nM changed the gene expression of OXT receptor and pro-opiomelanocortin within a short time. In addition, OXT significantly reduced adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion within 1 hour. S and G2/M populations of AtT20 cells treated with OXT for 24 hours were significantly decreased compared to the control. Furthermore, OXT treatment decreased the protein levels of PCNA and phosphorylated extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (P-ERK) in AtT20 cells. CONCLUSION: Although the cytotoxic effect of OXT in AtT20 cells was not definite, OXT may blunt cell proliferation of corticotroph adenomas by altering the cell cycle or reducing PCNA and P-ERK levels. Further research is required to investigate the role of OXT as a potential therapeutic target in corticotroph adenomas.


Subject(s)
ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone , Blotting, Western , Cell Cycle , Cell Line , Cell Proliferation , Corticotrophs , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Flow Cytometry , Gene Expression , Oxytocin , Phosphotransferases , Pituitary Neoplasms , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Pro-Opiomelanocortin , Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen , Protein Kinases , Reverse Transcription
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765658

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 2 anti-malarial drugs, chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), on inhibition of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation both in vivo and in vitro via Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation. METHODS: Protein and mRNA levels were determined by western blot analysis and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in primary rat VSMCs treated with CQ and HCQ, respectively. Cell proliferation was measured by flow cytometry and cell counting. Mice carotid arteries were ligated and treated with CQ or HCQ every other day for 3 weeks. Pathological changes of carotid arteries were visualized by both microscopy and fluorescence microscopy. RESULTS: CQ and HCQ increase AMPK phosphorylation in VSMCs. Both CQ and HCQ decrease platelet-derived growth factor-induced VSMC proliferation and cell cycle progression in an AMPK-dependent manner. In addition, CQ and HCQ inhibit Smad3 phosphorylation and VSMC proliferation induced by transforming growth factor-β1. Moreover, CQ and HCQ diminished neointimal proliferation in a mouse model of carotid artery ligation-induced neointima formation. CONCLUSION: The results demonstrated that CQ and HCQ inhibit cell proliferation and cell cycle progression in VSMCs via the AMPK-dependent signaling pathway. Carotid artery ligation-induced intima thickness was reduced in mouse arteries treated with CQ or HCQ, suggesting a role for antimalarial drugs in treating atherosclerosis and restenosis.


Subject(s)
Adenosine , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases , Animals , Antimalarials , Arteries , Atherosclerosis , Blotting, Western , Carotid Arteries , Cell Count , Cell Cycle , Cell Proliferation , Chloroquine , Flow Cytometry , Hydroxychloroquine , In Vitro Techniques , Mice , Microscopy , Microscopy, Fluorescence , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , Neointima , Phosphorylation , Protein Kinases , Rats , RNA, Messenger
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-781374

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of protein kinase D1 (PKD1) on the growth and metabolism of oral squamous cell carcinoma HSC-4 cells and related molecular mechanisms in the tumor microenvironment.@*METHODS@#HSC-4 cell lines were transfected with shRNA plasmids. Three groups (Wild, control-shRNA, and PKD1-shRNA) were cultured under acidic or hypoxic environment for a certain time. Western blot was used to detect the expression of autophagy-related and glycolytic-related proteins. The proliferation changes were detected by CCK-8 kits.@*RESULTS@#The PKD1-knockdown HSC-4 cell line was established. PKD1 silencing increased autophagy activity. Under hypoxic and acidic conditions, the PKD1-knockdown HSC-4 cells showed lower proliferation than the parental cells. PKD1-knockdown also decreased the expression of hypoxia induciblefactor 1α (HIF-1α) and pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Under hypoxic and acidic conditions, PKD1 gene silencing can increase apoptotic autophagy activity. Downregulated PKD1 gene expression can reduce the glycolysis of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells and inhibit tumor cell proliferation. This study revealed the important role of PKD1 in the metabolism and growth of oral squamous cell carcinoma, making it a possible target for the treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Humans , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit , Mouth Neoplasms , Protein Kinases , Tumor Microenvironment
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763032

ABSTRACT

Nitrogen-containing heterocycles such as quinoline, quinazolinones and indole are scaffolds of natural products and have broad biological effects. During the last years those structures have been intensively synthesized and modified to yield new synthetic molecules that can specifically inhibit the activity of dysregulated protein kinases in cancer cells. Herein, a series of newly synthesized isoquinolinamine (FX-1 to 8) and isoindoloquinazolinone (FX-9, FX-42, FX-43) compounds were evaluated in regards to their anti-leukemic potential on human B- and T-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells. Several biological effects were observed. B-ALL cells (SEM, RS4;11) were more sensitive against isoquinolinamine compounds than T-ALL cells (Jurkat, CEM). In SEM cells, metabolic activity decreased with 10 μM up to 26.7% (FX-3), 25.2% (FX-7) and 14.5% (FX-8). The 3-(p-Tolyl) isoquinolin-1-amine FX-9 was the most effective agent against B- and T-ALL cells with IC50 values ranging from 0.54 to 1.94 μM. None of the tested compounds displayed hemolysis on erythrocytes or cytotoxicity against healthy leukocytes. Anti-proliferative effect of FX-9 was associated with changes in cell morphology and apoptosis induction. Further, influence of FX-9 on PI3K/AKT, MAPK and JAK/STAT signaling was detected but was heterogeneous. Functional inhibition testing of 58 kinases revealed no specific inhibitory activity among cancer-related kinases. In conclusion, FX-9 displays significant antileukemic activity in B- and T-ALL cells and should be further evaluated in regards to the mechanisms of action. Further compounds of the current series might serve as templates for the design of new compounds and as basic structures for modification approaches.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Biological Products , Erythrocytes , Hemolysis , Humans , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Leukocytes , Phosphotransferases , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Protein Kinases , Quinazolinones
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763027

ABSTRACT

Daidzein isolated from soybean (Glycine max) has been widely studied for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the protective effects of 7,8,4′-trihydroxyisoflavone (THIF), a major metabolite of daidzein, on 6-hydroxydopamine (OHDA)-induced neurotoxicity are not well understood. In the current study, 7,8,4′-THIF significantly inhibited neuronal cell death and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release induced by 6-OHDA in SH-SY5Y cells, which were used as an in vitro model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Moreover, pretreatment with 7,8,4′-THIF significantly increased the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione (GSH) and decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) activity in 6-OHDA-induced SH-SY5Y cells. In addition, 7,8,4′-THIF significantly recovered 6-OHDA-induced cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9, cleaved poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP), increased Bax, and decreased Bcl-2 levels. Additionally, 7,8,4′-THIF significantly restored the expression levels of phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3K)/Akt, and glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK-3β) in 6-OHDA-induced SH-SY5Y cells. Further, 7,8,4′-THIF significantly increased the reduced tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) level induced by 6-OHDA in SH-SY5Y cells. Collectively, these results suggest that 7,8,4′-THIF protects against 6-OHDA-induced neuronal cell death in cellular PD models. Also, these effects are mediated partly by inhibiting activation of the MAPK and PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β pathways.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Caspase 3 , Caspase 9 , Catalase , Cell Death , Glutathione , Glycogen Synthase , In Vitro Techniques , JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Malondialdehyde , Neurons , Oxidopamine , Parkinson Disease , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Phosphotransferases , Protein Kinases , Soybeans , Superoxide Dismutase , Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763021

ABSTRACT

There is accumulating evidence that microRNAs are emerging as pivotal regulators in the development and progression of neuropathic pain. MicroRNA-15a/16 (miR-15a/16) have been reported to play an important role in various diseases and inflammation response processes. However, whether miR-15a/16 participates in the regulation of neuroinflammation and neuropathic pain development remains unknown. In this study, we established a mouse model of neuropathic pain by chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerves. Our results showed that both miR-15a and miR-16 expression was significantly upregulated in the spinal cord of CCI rats. Downregulation of the expression of miR-15a and miR-16 by intrathecal injection of a specific inhibitor significantly attenuated the mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia of CCI rats. Furthermore, inhibition of miR-15a and miR-16 downregulated the expression of interleukin-1β and tumor-necrosis factor-α in the spinal cord of CCI rats. Bioinformatic analysis predicted that G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2), an important regulator in neuropathic pain and inflammation, was a potential target gene of miR-15a and miR-16. Inhibition of miR-15a and miR-16 markedly increased the expression of GRK2 while downregulating the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and NF-κB in CCI rats. Notably, the silencing of GRK2 significantly reversed the inhibitory effects of miR-15a/16 inhibition in neuropathic pain. In conclusion, our results suggest that inhibition of miR-15a/16 expression alleviates neuropathic pain development by targeting GRK2. These findings provide novel insights into the molecular pathogenesis of neuropathic pain and suggest potential therapeutic targets for preventing neuropathic pain development.


Subject(s)
Animals , Computational Biology , Constriction , Down-Regulation , Hyperalgesia , Inflammation , Injections, Spinal , Mice , MicroRNAs , Neuralgia , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Phosphotransferases , Protein Kinases , Rats , Sciatic Nerve , Spinal Cord , Up-Regulation
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761814

ABSTRACT

Macrophage-associated inflammation is crucial for the pathogenesis of diverse diseases including metabolic disorders. Rhodanthpyrone (Rho) is an active component of Gentiana rhodantha, which has been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat inflammation. Although synthesis procedures of RhoA and RhoB were reported, the biological effects of the specific compounds have never been explored. In this study, the anti-inflammatory activity and mechanisms of action of RhoA and RhoB were studied in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages. Pretreatment with RhoA and RhoB decreased inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expressions in RAW 264.7 cells and in thioglycollate-elicited mouse peritoneal macrophages. In addition, it downregulated transcript levels of several inflammatory genes in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, including inflammatory cytokines/chemokines (Tnfa, Il6, and Ccl2) and inflammatory mediators (Nos2 and Ptgs2). Macrophage chemotaxis was also inhibited by treatment with the compounds. Mechanistic studies revealed that RhoA and RhoB suppressed the nuclear factor (NF)-κB pathway, but not the canonical mitogen activated protein kinase pathway, in LPS-stimulated condition. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of RhoA and RhoB on inflammatory gene expressions was attenuated by treatment with an NF-κB inhibitor. Our findings suggest that RhoA and RhoB play an anti-inflammatory role at least in part by suppressing the NF-κB pathway during macrophage-mediated inflammation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chemotaxis , Cyclooxygenase 2 , Gene Expression , Gentiana , Inflammation , Interleukin-6 , Macrophages , Macrophages, Peritoneal , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Mice , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II , Protein Kinases
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