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1.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1271-1288, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922636

ABSTRACT

Whether direct manipulation of Parkinson's disease (PD) risk genes in the adult monkey brain can elicit a Parkinsonian phenotype remains an unsolved issue. Here, we used an adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9)-delivered CRISPR/Cas9 system to directly co-edit PINK1 and DJ-1 genes in the substantia nigras (SNs) of two monkey groups: an old group and a middle-aged group. After the operation, the old group exhibited all the classic PD symptoms, including bradykinesia, tremor, and postural instability, accompanied by key pathological hallmarks of PD, such as severe nigral dopaminergic neuron loss (>64%) and evident α-synuclein pathology in the gene-edited SN. In contrast, the phenotype of their middle-aged counterparts, which also showed clear PD symptoms and pathological hallmarks, were less severe. In addition to the higher final total PD scores and more severe pathological changes, the old group were also more susceptible to gene editing by showing a faster process of PD progression. These results suggested that both genetic and aging factors played important roles in the development of PD in the monkeys. Taken together, this system can effectively develop a large number of genetically-edited PD monkeys in a short time (6-10 months), and thus provides a practical transgenic monkey model for future PD studies.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain , CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , Dependovirus/genetics , Haplorhini , Phenotype , Protein Kinases/genetics
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879520

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To detect the mutation site in a pedigree affected with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and verify its impact on the protein function.@*METHODS@#Peripheral blood samples were collected from the proband and his pedigree members for the extraction of genomic DNA. Mutational analysis was performed on the proband through whole-exome sequencing. Suspected variant was verified by Sanger sequencing. A series of molecular methods including PCR amplification, restriction enzyme digestion, ligation and transformation were also used to construct wild-type and mutant eukaryotic expression vectors of the PKD2 gene, which were transfected into HEK293T and HeLa cells for the observation of protein expression and cell localization.@*RESULTS@#The proband was found to harbor a c.2051dupA (p. Tyr684Ter) frame shift mutation of the PKD2 gene, which caused repeat of the 2051st nucleotide of its cDNA sequence and a truncated protein. Immunofluorescence experiment showed that the localization of the mutant protein within the cell was altered compared with the wild-type, which may be due to deletion of the C-terminus of the PKD2 gene.@*CONCLUSION@#The c.2051dupA (p. Tyr684Ter) mutation of the PKD2 gene probably underlay the pathogenesis of ADPKD in this pedigree.


Subject(s)
DNA Mutational Analysis , Female , Frameshift Mutation , HEK293 Cells , HeLa Cells , Humans , Male , Pedigree , Polycystic Kidney, Autosomal Dominant/physiopathology , Protein Kinases/genetics , Protein Transport/genetics , Whole Exome Sequencing
3.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 36: 34-46, nov. 2018. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048187

ABSTRACT

Background: Somatic embryogenesis receptor-like kinase 1 (SERK1) is a cell membrane receptor active in different plant tissues and involved in cell differentiation activities including somatic embryogenesis. The identification of promoter elements responsible for SERK1 expression during the onset of somatic embryogenesis can be useful to understand the molecular regulation of the cell-to embryo transition, and these promoter elements represent biotechnological tools in plant organ tissue culture. Results: A −1,620 bp DNA sequence located upstream of the Coffea canephora SERK1 gene homologue (CcSERK1) was isolated, and then, different segments containing key response elements (REs) for somatic embryogenesis onset and development were fused to the uidA (encoding a ß-glucuronidase, GUS) reporter gene to evaluate its expression in transgenic leaf explants. DNA segments of −1,620 and −1048 bp in length directed uidA expression with patterns in leaf explants similar to those occurring during somatic embryogenesis. When a −792-bp fragment was used, uidA expression disappeared only in leaf explants and pro-embryogenic mass but persisted in developing embryos. No uidA expression was detected in any embryogenic stage when a −618-bp fragment was used. Conclusion: DNA deletions showed that a −1048-bp sequence located upstream of the CcSERK1 gene is sufficient to direct gene expression during the onset and the development of C. canephora somatic embryogenesis. The DNA segment located between −1048 and −792 bp (containing BBM and WUS REs) is needed for gene expression before embryogenesis onset but not during embryo development. The promoter segment between −792 and −618 bp (including GATA, ARR1AT, and ANT REs) regulates gene expression in developing embryos.


Subject(s)
Plant Proteins/genetics , Protein Kinases/genetics , Coffea/genetics , Biotechnology , Gene Expression , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Plants, Genetically Modified , Cloning, Molecular , Genes, Reporter , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Embryonic Development
4.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 19(6): 636-642, Nov.-Dec. 2015.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769619

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the etiologic agent of tuberculosis, one of the world's greatest cause of morbidity and mortality due to infectious disease. Many evolutionary mechanisms have contributed to its high level of adaptation as a host pathogen. Prior to become dormant, a group of about 50 genes related to metabolic changes are transcribed by the DosR regulon, one of the most complex and important systems of host-pathogen interaction. This genetic mechanism allows the mycobacteria to persist during long time periods, establishing the so-called latent infection. Even in the presence of a competent immune response, the host cannot eliminate the pathogen, only managing to keep it surrounded by an unfavorable microenvironment for its growth. However, conditions such as immunosuppression may reestablish optimal conditions for bacterial growth, culminating in the onset of active disease. The interactions between the pathogen and its host are still not completely elucidated. Nonetheless, many studies are being carried out in order to clarify this complex relationship, thus creating new possibilities for patient approach and laboratory screening.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antigens, Bacterial/immunology , Bacterial Proteins/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Latent Tuberculosis/microbiology , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/physiology , Protein Kinases/immunology , Antigens, Bacterial/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Immune Evasion , Immunologic Tests , Latent Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/immunology , Protein Kinases/genetics
5.
Cad. saúde pública ; 31(4): 722-732, 04/2015.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-744848

ABSTRACT

We aimed to verify doctor's perception of the qualitative research method, via a qualitative study of interviews with questions on the academic profile of doctors and on the methodology. We interviewed 42 professionals, of which 18 had experience with the qualitative method and 24 with the quantitative method. The results showed that knowledge on the qualitative method was virtually nil among "quantitative researchers", who did not value qualitative research, although some of those realized that it would be important to be more accepting in clinical practice. Others only considered the method as subsidiary to quantitative. The majority considered qualitative methods as lacking academic structure, taking too long to conduct empirical studies, and being difficult to publish. All of them criticized the misuse of the method, and the "quantitatives" pointed out the problem of being unable to reproduce. We concluded that widening the use of the qualitative method by doctors requires investment from the beginning of the academic career and participation in qualitative research projects.


El objetivo es verificar la percepción de médicos sobre el método de investigación cualitativa. Se trata de un estudio cualitativo por medio de entrevistas con preguntas sobre el perfil de los médicos y sobre el método. Entrevistamos a 42 profesionales, 18 con experiencia en el método cualitativo y 24 con el cuantitativo. Los resultados mostraron que el conocimiento sobre lo cualitativo es casi nulo entre los "cuantitativistas", que no valoran la investigación cualitativa, aunque algunos se dan cuenta de que sería importante tener un enfoque más amplio en la práctica clínica. Otros la ven como subsidiaria a lo cuantitativo. Sus dificultades para utilizar ese abordaje son: falta de formación, cantidad de tiempo que exigen y problemas de publicación. Todos han criticado el mal uso del método. Los "cuantitativistas" han destacado como fragilidad, la no reproductibilidad. Llegamos a la conclusión de que para ampliar el uso de los abordajes cualitativos entre los médicos es importante invertir en su formación desde el inicio del curso y la participación en proyectos de investigación cualitativa.


Objetivamos verificar a percepção de médicos sobre o método qualitativo de pesquisa. Estudo qualitativo por meio de entrevistas com questões sobre o perfil acadêmico do médico e perguntas abertas a respeito do método. Entrevistamos 42 profissionais, sendo 18 com experiência no método qualitativo e 24 com o quantitativo. Os resultados evidenciaram que o conhecimento sobre o qualitativo é quase nulo entre os pesquisadores "quantitativistas", os quais não valorizam a pesquisa qualitativa, embora alguns percebam que seria importante ter uma postura mais compreensiva na prática clínica. Outros só a veem como subsidiária ao quantitativo. As principais dificuldades da maioria são: falta de formação, tempo longo despendido nos estudos empíricos e dificuldade de publicação. Todos os entrevistados criticaram o mau uso do método, e os "quantitativistas" ressaltaram, como problema, sua não reprodutibilidade. Concluímos que ampliar o uso do método qualitativo por médicos exige investimento na formação desde o início da graduação e participação em projetos de pesquisa qualitativa.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Anilides/pharmacology , Benzodiazepinones/pharmacology , /pharmacology , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Pyrimidines/pharmacology , Repressor Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Cells, Cultured , Cell Movement/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Enzyme Activation/drug effects , Neoplasms/pathology , Protein Kinases/genetics , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/genetics , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/physiology , Repressor Proteins/agonists , Repressor Proteins/genetics , Substrate Specificity , Tumor Suppressor Proteins/physiology
6.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2013. 145 p. ilus, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-716900

ABSTRACT

A doença de Parkinson (DP) é uma das desordens neurodegenerativas mais comuns associada ao envelhecimento, alcançando 2% aos 70 anos. É uma doença caracterizada pela degeneração progressiva de neurônios dopaminérgicos nigrais nos gânglios basais e pela presença de inclusões protéicas citoplasmáticas denominadas corpúsculos e neuritos de Lewy nos neurônios sobreviventes. A etiologia da DP é pouco conhecida, sendo considerada, na maioria dos casos, idiopática. Conhecimentos alcançados nos últimos 15 anos sobre a base genética da DP demonstram, claramente, que os fatores genéticos desempenham um importante papel na etiologia desta desordem. Neste trabalho, rastreamos mutações nos genes que codificam proteínas participantes de vias metabólicas mitocondriais (Parkin, PINK1 e DJ-1) em 136 pacientes brasileiros com manifestação precoce da DP, através do sequenciamento automático e da técnica de MLPA. Avaliamos a presença de variantes de sequência por meio do sequenciamento dos exons 1 a 12 do gene Parkin e dos exons 1 a 8 do gene PINK1. Em Parkin foram identificadas três mutações patogênicas ou potencialmente patogênicas, ambas em heterozigose: p.T240M, p.437L e p.S145N. Em PINK1 não encontramos variantes de ponto patogênicas. Através da técnica de MLPA investigamos alterações de dosagem nos genes Parkin, PINK1 e DJ-1. Identificamos cinco alterações no gene Parkin em quatro pacientes: uma duplicação heterozigota do exon 4 no paciente PAR2256, uma deleção heterozigota do exon 4 no probando PAR2099, uma deleção homozigota do exon 4 na paciente PAR3380 e um probando heterozigoto composto (PAR2396) com duas alterações, uma duplicação do exon 3 e uma deleção dos exons 5 e 6. No gene PINK1 identificamos uma deleção heterozigota do exon 1, que nunca foi descrita na literatura, em um paciente (PAR2083). Não encontramos alteração quantitativa no gene DJ-1. Neste estudo obtivemos uma frequência total de mutações patogênicas (pontuais e de dosagem) nos genes estudados ...


Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders associated with aging, reaching 2% at age 70. It is a disease characterized by progressive degeneration of nigra dopaminergic neurons in the basal ganglia and the presence of cytoplasmic protein inclusions known as Lewy bodies and neurites in surviving neurons. The etiology of PD is poorly understood, being considered, in most cases, idiopathic. Knowledge achieved in the last 15 years about the genetic basis of PD clearly shows that genetic factors play an important role in the etiology of this disorder. In this study, we screened mutations in genes that encode proteins participating in mitochondrial metabolic pathways (Parkin, PINK1 and DJ-1) in 136 Brazilian patients with early onset PD, through automatic sequencing and MLPA technique. We evaluated the presence of sequence variants by means of sequencing of exons 1 to 12 of Parkin gene and exons 1 to 8 of PINK1 gene. In Parkin gene were identified three pathogenic or potentially pathogenic mutations, both in heterozygous state: p.T240M, p.437L e p.S145N. In PINK1 gene we did not find pathogenic point mutations. Through the MLPA technique we investigated dosage changes in Parkin, PINK1 and DJ-1 genes. We identified five exon rearrangements in Parkin gene in four patients: a heterozygous duplication of exon 4 in patient PAR2256, a heterozygous deletion of exon 4 in proband PAR2099, a homozygous deletion of exon 4 in patient PAR3380 and a compound heterozygote (PAR2396) with two changes, a duplication of exon 3 and a deletion of exons 5 and 6. In PINK1 gene we identified a heterozygous deletion of exon 1, which has never been described in literature, in one patient (PAR2083). We found no quantitative change in DJ-1 gene. In this study, we obtained an overall frequency of pathogenic mutations (sequence and dosage) in the genes studied of 7.3%, being 6.6% in Parkin gene and 0.7% in PINK1 gene


Subject(s)
Humans , Parkinson Disease/genetics , Mutation/genetics , DNA Mutational Analysis , Exons/genetics , Gene Duplication , Mitochondria/genetics , Point Mutation , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/genetics , Oncogene Proteins/genetics , Protein Kinases/genetics , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/genetics
7.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2011 June; 48(3): 148-153
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135312

ABSTRACT

LeCPK2 (GenBank GQ205414), a versatile calcium-dependent protein kinase (CDPK or CPK) gene was isolated from tomato in our previous study. In this study, the biochemical properties of LeCPK2 were further investigated. To examine the role of the C-terminal calmodulin-like domain (CLD) of LeCPK2 with respect to Ca2+ activation, the kinase activities of recombinant full-length and truncated LeCPK2 were measured by Kinase-Glo® Luminescent kinase assay (Promega). The results showed that LeCPK2 activity was Ca2+-dependent and the C-terminal CLD of 161 residues was essential for the activation of LeCPK2. The activity of LeCPK2 was sharply stimulated by Ca2+ with K0.5 (concentration of Ca2+ for half-maximal activity) of 48.8 and 45.5 nM with substrate histone IIIs and syntide 2, respectively. The optimal concentration of Mg2+ for LeCPK2 activity was 20 and 10 mM for substrate histone IIIs and syntide 2, respectively. The Km value of LeCPK2 towards histone IIIs and syntide 2 was 44.9 μg/ml and 89.52 μM, respectively. The determination of biochemical properties of LeCPK2 would provide some clues on how its activity was regulated in vivo.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Calcium Chloride/chemistry , Lycopersicon esculentum/enzymology , Lycopersicon esculentum/genetics , Magnesium Chloride/chemistry , Molecular Sequence Data , Protein Kinases/analysis , Protein Kinases/chemistry , Protein Kinases/genetics , Protein Kinases/metabolism , Recombinant Proteins/analysis , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , Substrate Specificity
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-161046

ABSTRACT

Integrative genetic changes were examined in relation to tumor growth and progression of sporadic colorectal cancers. Ninety-two sporadic colorectal cancer patients and 12 human colorectal cancer cell lines were evaluated. Genetic changes in representative steps of colorectal tumorigenesis were determined. Biological characteristics, i.e., clinicopathologic parameters, expression of invasion-associated molecules, and in vitro invasion and migration, in association with these changes were further analyzed. Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) and/or Wnt-activated alterations occurred in 66% patients, whereas mismatch repair (MMR) defects and/or RAF-mediated alterations were identified in 47% patients. The crossover rate between these two alterations was 26%. Differential mRNA expression of ARK5 was closely associated with that of MMP2, MMP9, and S100A4 (P< or =0.044-0.001). Additionally, enhanced ARK5 mRNA expression was more frequent in tumors displaying RAF-mediated alterations and crossover pathways (P=0.01 and 0.03, respectively). Upregulation of CEA mRNA was more common in the advanced stages (P=0.034), while VEGF expression was greater in poorly differentiated or mucinous tumors (P=0.042). The high expressions of MMP2 and MMP9 were closely associated with invasion and migration of colorectal tumors and cell lines. Our results conclusively show that specific pathways of colorectal tumorigenesis are closely associated with characteristic tumor growth and invasion.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma/genetics , Animals , Carcinoembryonic Antigen/genetics , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Movement , Colorectal Neoplasms/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Humans , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2/genetics , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/genetics , Neoplasm Invasiveness , Protein Kinases/genetics , Repressor Proteins/genetics , S100 Proteins/genetics , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/genetics
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-34742

ABSTRACT

During fasting periods, hepatic glucose production is enhanced by glucagon to provide fuels for other organs. This process is mediated via cAMP-dependent induction of the CREB regulated transcriptional coactivator (CRTC) 2, a critical transcriptional activator for hepatic gluconeogenesis. We have previously shown that CRTC2 activity is regulated by AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) family members. Here we show that adiponectin and thiazolidinedione directly regulate AMPK to modulate CRTC2 activity in hepatocytes. Adiponectin or thiazolidinedione lowered glucose production from primary hepatocytes. Treatment of both reagents reduced gluconeogenic gene expression as well as cAMP-mediated induction of CRE reporter, suggesting that these reagents directly affect CREB/CRTC2- dependent transcription. Furthermore, adiponectin or thiazolidinedione mediated repression of CRE activity is largely blunted by co-expression of phosphorylation defective mutant CRTC2, underscoring the importance of serine 171 residue of this factor. Taken together, we propose that adiponectin and thiazolidinedione promote the modulation of AMPK-dependent CRTC2 activity to influence hepatic gluconeogenesis.


Subject(s)
Adiponectin/pharmacology , Animals , Cells, Cultured , Gene Expression Regulation , Gluconeogenesis/drug effects , Glucose/metabolism , Hepatocytes/drug effects , Humans , Liver/cytology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Protein Kinases/genetics , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Thiazolidinediones/pharmacology , Transcription Factors/genetics
10.
J Genet ; 2008 Dec; 87(5): 513-9
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-114418

ABSTRACT

Circadian rhythms and sleep are two separate but intimately related processes. Circadian rhythms are generated through the precisely controlled, cyclic expression of a number of genes designated clock genes. Genetic variability in these genes has been associated with a number of phenotypic differences in circadian as well as sleep parameters, both in mouse models and in humans. Diurnal preferences as determined by the selfreported Horne-Ostberg (HO) questionnaire, has been associated with polymorphisms in the human genes CLOCK, PER1, PER2 and PER3. Circadian rhythm-related sleep disorders have also been associated with mutations and polymorphisms in clock genes, with the advanced type cosegrating in an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern with mutations in the genes PER2 and CSNK1D, and the delayed type associating without discernible Mendelian inheritance with polymorphisms in CLOCK and PER3. Several mouse models of clock gene null alleles have been demonstrated to have affected sleep homeostasis. Recent findings have shown that the variable number tandem polymorphism in PER3, previously linked to diurnal preference, has profound effects on sleep homeostasis and cognitive performance following sleep loss, confirming the close association between the processes of circadian rhythms and sleep at the genetic level.


Subject(s)
Biological Clocks/genetics , Circadian Rhythm/genetics , Conserved Sequence , Genetic Variation/physiology , Humans , Phenotype , Protein Kinases/genetics , Sleep/genetics , Sleep Disorders, Circadian Rhythm/genetics , Trans-Activators/genetics , Transcription Factors/genetics
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-90613

ABSTRACT

The BubR1 mitotic-checkpoint protein monitors proper attachment of microtubules to kinetochores, and links regulation of chromosome-spindle attachment to mitotic-checkpoint signaling. Thus, disruption of BubR1 activity results in a loss of checkpoint control, chromosomal instability caused by a premature anaphase, and/or the early onset of tumorigenesis. The mechanisms by which deregulation and/or abnormalities of BubR1 expression operate, however, remain to be elucidated. In this study, we demonstrate that levels of BubR1 expression are significantly increased by demethylation. Bisulfite sequencing analysis revealed that the methylation status of two CpG sites in the essential BubR1 promoter appear to be associated with BubR1 expression levels. Associations of MBD2 and HDAC1 with the BubR1 promoter were significantly relieved by addition of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, an irreversible DNA methyltransferase inhibitor. However, genomic DNA isolated from 31 patients with colorectal carcinomas exhibited a +84A/G polymorphic change in approximately 60% of patients, but this polymorphism had no effect on promoter activity. Our findings indicate that differential regulation of BubR1 expression is associated with changes in BubR1 promoter hypermethylation patterns, but not with promoter polymorphisms, thus providing a novel insight into the molecular regulation of BubR1 expression in human cancer cells.


Subject(s)
Azacitidine/pharmacology , Base Sequence , Cell Line, Tumor , DNA Methylation/drug effects , DNA Mutational Analysis , DNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/drug effects , HeLa Cells , Histone Deacetylases/metabolism , Humans , Jurkat Cells , Molecular Sequence Data , Neoplasms/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic/drug effects , Promoter Regions, Genetic/drug effects , Protein Binding/drug effects , Protein Kinases/genetics , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases , Transcription, Genetic/drug effects
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-634815

ABSTRACT

The HL-60 cells were transfected with chk1 antisense and sense chain, and 24 h later subjected to irradiation. Twenty-four h after irradiation, the changes in the chk1 protein expression was assayed by Western blot, and the cell cycles and apoptosis rate detected by FCM. The irradiated apoptosis sensitivity was increased by antisense blocking of chk1 gene in HL-60 cell line with the apoptosis rate being 26.31%, significantly higher than that by the sense blocking (10.34%, 0.025 < P < 0.05). In HL-60 cells transfected with chk1 antisense chain, the G2/M phase arrest was attenuated and the cells in G2/M phase were accounted for 38.42%, significantly lower than those of the cells transfected with chkl sense chain (54.64%, 0.005 < P < 0.01). It was concluded that antisense blocking of chk1 gene could increase the apoptosis sensitivity to irradiation.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis/radiation effects , Cell Cycle/radiation effects , HL-60 Cells , Oligonucleotides, Antisense/genetics , Protein Kinases/genetics , Protein Kinases/metabolism , Radiation Tolerance/genetics , Transfection
13.
Biol. Res ; 38(2/3): 163-178, 2005. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-424720

ABSTRACT

The specific signaling connections between the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) such as c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK-1) and phosphatases PP4 and M3/6, affecting the family of early nuclear factors, is complex and remains poorly understood. JNK-1 regulates cellular differentiation, apoptosis and stress responsiveness by up-regulating early nuclear factors such as c-Jun, a member of the activating protein (AP-1) family, and the Early Growth Factor (EGR-1). C-Jun, when phosphorylated by c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK-1) associates with c-Fos to form the AP-1 transcription factor that activates gene expression. We have investigated the regulation of the JNK-1 kinase by co-transfecting phosphatases PP4 and M3/6 in prostate cancer cell lines PC-3 and LNCaP, which have been previously stimulated with human EGF or cisplatin. Co-transfections of plasmids expressing the JNK-1 and the serine/threonine phosphatases PP4 resulted in a significant increase in JNK-1 activity in both PC3 and LNCaP cells. In contrast, co-transfection of JNK-1 with the dual specific phosphatase serine/threonine M3/6 showed only a marginal effect in JNK-1 activity. The phosphatase M3/6 also failed in blocking the induction of JNK-1 activity observed in presence of PP4. The higher activity of JNK-1 was associated with increased activities of the factors c-Jun/AP-1 and EGR-1. This suggests that JNK-1 activity in PC-3 and LNCaP cells requires not only active PP4 for stable maintenance but also suggests that the relative degree of phosphorylation of multiple cellular components is the determinant of JNK-1 stability.


Subject(s)
Humans , Phosphoprotein Phosphatases/analysis , Phosphoprotein Phosphatases/biosynthesis , Phosphoprotein Phosphatases/genetics , Phosphoprotein Phosphatases/chemical synthesis , Prostatic Neoplasms/genetics , Prostatic Neoplasms/immunology , Prostatic Neoplasms/chemistry , Protein Kinases/biosynthesis , Protein Kinases/genetics , Protein Kinases/chemistry , Apoptosis/physiology , Apoptosis/genetics , Phosphorylation
14.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-37983

ABSTRACT

Cancer of the breast is the second most common cancer seen among Indian women. This study describes the use of DHPLC for mutation analysis for BRCA1, BRCA2 and CHEK2 (1100delC) in 22 patients with a family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer and early onset breast cancer (<35 years of age). Three of the 22 patients were found to have a non-sense mutation or a deletion, resulting in a premature stop codon, potentially leading to a truncated protein. Two of these were in BRCA1 (one was a novel 5 base deletion) and one in the BRCA2 gene. No patient was found in our series to have the CHEK2 (1100delC) mutation. DNA from a healthy blood donor and all but one of the 22 patients, demonstrated polymorphisms in BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 genes. This is the first study from South India, on BRCA1, BRCA2 & CHEK2 (1100 del C) mutations in patients with a family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer and early onset breast/ovarian cancer, using the sensitive DHPLC approach.


Subject(s)
Adult , Breast Neoplasms/genetics , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Female , Genes, BRCA1 , Genes, BRCA2 , Germ-Line Mutation , Humans , India , Ovarian Neoplasms/genetics , Pedigree , Protein Kinases/genetics , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases
15.
J Biosci ; 2001 Jun; 26(2): 193-203
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-111080

ABSTRACT

The beta-glucoside utilization (bgl) genes of Escherichia coli are positively regulated by the product of the bglG gene, which functions as an antiterminator by binding to specific sequences present within the bgl mRNA. BglG is inactivated by phosphorylation in the absence of beta-glucosides by BglF, the bgl-specific component of the phosphotransferase system (PTS). Here, we present evidence for an additional function for BglG, namely the stabilization of the 5' end of the bgl mRNA. Half-life measurements of the promoter-proximal region of the bgl mRNA indicate a five fold enhancement of stability in the presence of active (unphosphorylated) BglG. This enhancement is lost when the binding of BglG to mRNA is prevented by deletion of the binding site. Interestingly, stabilization by BglG does not extend to downstream sequences. The enhanced stability of the upstream sequences suggest that BglG remains bound to its target on the mRNA even after the downstream sequences have been degraded. Implications of these observations for the mechanism of positive regulation of the operon by BglG are discussed.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Escherichia coli/genetics , Escherichia coli Proteins , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Models, Biological , Plasmids , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Protein Kinases/genetics , RNA Stability , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , Terminator Regions, Genetic
16.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-26034

ABSTRACT

The molecular genetic analyses (PCR and Southern hybridization) of Indian patients with myotonic dystrophy (DM) were carried out to determine the degree of repeat expansion and an attempt was made to correlate the repeat number with disease severity. A scoring system based on the salient clinical features was devised to objectively assess the disease severity. The repeat expansion was seen in 11 of 12 patients examined and showed an inverse correlation with the age of onset confirming the phenomenon of anticipation. This was further established in the two pedigrees studied, clearly demonstrating both clinical and genetic anticipation. The clinical severity score, however, did not correlate well with the repeat number. Nonetheless, such molecular genetic analyses may have immense value as a screening procedure to identify premutations as well as in prenatal diagnoses.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myotonic Dystrophy/genetics , Pedigree , Protein Kinases/genetics , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases , Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid
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