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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879520

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To detect the mutation site in a pedigree affected with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and verify its impact on the protein function.@*METHODS@#Peripheral blood samples were collected from the proband and his pedigree members for the extraction of genomic DNA. Mutational analysis was performed on the proband through whole-exome sequencing. Suspected variant was verified by Sanger sequencing. A series of molecular methods including PCR amplification, restriction enzyme digestion, ligation and transformation were also used to construct wild-type and mutant eukaryotic expression vectors of the PKD2 gene, which were transfected into HEK293T and HeLa cells for the observation of protein expression and cell localization.@*RESULTS@#The proband was found to harbor a c.2051dupA (p. Tyr684Ter) frame shift mutation of the PKD2 gene, which caused repeat of the 2051st nucleotide of its cDNA sequence and a truncated protein. Immunofluorescence experiment showed that the localization of the mutant protein within the cell was altered compared with the wild-type, which may be due to deletion of the C-terminus of the PKD2 gene.@*CONCLUSION@#The c.2051dupA (p. Tyr684Ter) mutation of the PKD2 gene probably underlay the pathogenesis of ADPKD in this pedigree.


Subject(s)
DNA Mutational Analysis , Female , Frameshift Mutation , HEK293 Cells , HeLa Cells , Humans , Male , Pedigree , Polycystic Kidney, Autosomal Dominant/physiopathology , Protein Kinases/genetics , Protein Transport/genetics , Whole Exome Sequencing
2.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 315-328, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878260

ABSTRACT

As a member of the Ras superfamily, Rab proteins are small GTP-binding proteins. In the process of endocytosis of macromolecules and substances delivery between organelles, Rab proteins act on vesicle formation, transport, tethering and fusion by recruiting their effectors, therefore being key regulatory factors in vesicle trafficking. Disturbance of localizations and functions of Rab proteins and their effectors are involved in the pathogenesis of several diseases. This review focuses on the main functions of Rab proteins and their possible roles in the onset and progression of neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and Huntington's disease.


Subject(s)
Cell Movement , Endocytosis , Humans , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Protein Transport , rab GTP-Binding Proteins/metabolism
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775252

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the expression, localization and regulatory effect on mitochondrial calcium signaling of Rictor in embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (ESC-CMs).@*METHODS@#Classical embryonic stem cell cardiomyogenesis model was used for differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells into cardiomyocytes. The location of Rictor in ESC-CMs was investigated by immunofluorescence and Western blot. The expression of Rictor in mouse embryonic stem cells was interfered with lentiviral technology, then the superposition of mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in ESC-CMs was detected with immunofluorescence method; the cellular ultrastructure of ESC-CMs was observed by transmission electron microscope; the mitochondrial calcium transients of ESC-CMs was detected by living cell workstation;immunoprecipitation was used to detect the interaction between 1,5,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3 receptor, IP3R), glucose-regulated protein 75 (Grp75) and voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) in mitochondrial outer membrane; the expression of mitochondrial fusion protein (mitonusin-2, Mfn2) was detected by Western blot.@*RESULTS@#Rictor was mainly localized in the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial-endoplasmic reticulum membrane (MAM) in ESC-CMs. Immunofluorescence results showed that Rictor was highly overlapped with ER and mitochondria in ESC-CMs. After mitochondrial and ER were labeled with Mito-Tracker Red and ER-Tracker Green, it was demonstrated that the mitochondria of the myocardial cells in the Rictor group were scattered, and the superimposition rate of mitochondria and ER was lower than that of the negative control group (<0.01). The MAM structures were decreased in ESC-CMs after knockdown of Rictor. The results of the living cell workstation showed that the amplitude of mitochondrial calcium transients by ATP stimulation in ESC-CMs was decreased after knockdown of Rictor (<0.01). The results of co-immunoprecipitation showed that the interaction between IP3R, Grp75 and VDAC1 in the MAM structure of the cardiomyocytes in the Rictor group was significantly attenuated (<0.01); the results of Western blot showed that the expression of Mfn2 protein was significantly decreased (<0.01).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Using lentiviral technology to interfere Rictor expression in mouse embryonic stem cells, the release of calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum to mitochondria in ESC-CMs decreases, which may be affected by reducing the interaction of IP3R, Grp75, VDAC1 and decreasing the expression of Mfn2, leading to the damage of MAM structure.


Subject(s)
Animals , Calcium Signaling , Genetics , Gene Expression Regulation , Genetics , Gene Knockdown Techniques , Mice , Mitochondria , Physiology , Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells , Myocytes, Cardiac , Physiology , Protein Transport , Rapamycin-Insensitive Companion of mTOR Protein , Genetics , Metabolism
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775217

ABSTRACT

Proteins are the physical basis of life and perform all kinds of life activities. Proteins have different orientations and function in different tissues. The same protein, located in different subcellular regions, can perform different and even opposite functions. Both functional and structural proteins are capable of undergoing re-localization which can directly or indirectly participate in signal transduction. Due to abnormal transduction of signals during carcinogenesis, the proteins originally expressed in the cytoplasm are translocated into the nucleus and lead to functional changes in the tumor tissue. The changes of protein localization are affected by many factors, including the interaction between proteins, expression level of proteins and the cleaved intracellular domain of transmembrane protein.


Subject(s)
Carcinogenesis , Pathology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Nucleus , Metabolism , Cytoplasm , Metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Humans , Membrane Proteins , Metabolism , Protein Domains , Protein Transport , Physiology , Signal Transduction
5.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1537-1545, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771775

ABSTRACT

Exosomes have many advantages as natural drug delivery carriers, but their application is limited by the inefficient loading of intracellular drugs (such as proteins and nucleic acids). In this study, mCherry, a red fluorescent protein, was used as the endogenous cargo target. Through gene modification of donor cells and fusion expression of membrane localization elements (PB, CAAX, Palm and CD63), mCherry was specifically sorted into exosomes through biogenesis. Results show that CD63 had the highest sorting efficiency, followed by Palm. PB and CAAX led enrichment of mCherry on the plasma membrane, but not in exosomes. The approach provides an alternative to facilitate packaging of cargo by exosomes and thus to increase the efficient delivery of endogenous protein drugs.


Subject(s)
Drug Carriers , Drug Delivery Systems , Exosomes , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Protein Transport
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776012

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the differences in biological functions between bone marrow(BM)-derived CD106 mesenchymal stem cells(MSCs)and the CD106 subgroup. Methods The MSCs from normal BM were isolated and expanded.The subgroups of CD106 and CD106 MSCs were sorted.The cell proliferation and adhesion functions,chemotactic activities,adipogenic and osteogenic potentials,senescence,and senescence protein 21(p21)were detected.The capacity of translocation into nucleus of nuclear factor-kappa B(NF-κB)when stimulated by tumor necrosis factor(TNF-α)was measured. Results The proliferative ability was higher in CD106 MSCs than that in CD106 MSCs.In 48 hours,the value of optical density(OD)was significantly higher in CD106 MSCs than that in CD106 subgroup(1.004±0.028 0.659±0.023,=3.946,=0.0225).In 72 hours,this phenomenon was even more pronounced(2.574±0.089 1.590±0.074,=11.240,=0.0000).The adhesive capacity of CD106 MSCs was significantly stronger than that of CD106 subgroup(0.648±0.018 0.418±0.023,=7.869,=0.0002).Besides,the metastasis ability of CD106 MSCs were significantly stronger than that of CD106 subgroup(114.500±4.481 71.000±4.435,=6.900,=0.0005).The CD106 MSCs had signifcnatly lower proportions of senescent cells.The expression of aging protein p21 in CD106 MSCs was significantly lower than that in CD106 MSCs [(17.560±1.421)% (45.800±2.569)%,=9.618,=0.0000].Furthermore,there were no visible pigmenting cells after β-galactosidase staining in CD106 MSCs subgroup.However,in CD106 MSCs,some colored green cells were detected.The rate of NF-κB translocation into nucleus after stimulated by TNF-α was significantly higher in CD106 MSCs than CD106 MSCs [(37.780±3.268)% (7.30±1.25)%,=8.713,=0.0001]. Conclusion Bone marrow-derived CD106 MSCs possess more powerful biological functions than CD106 MSCs.


Subject(s)
Bone Marrow Cells , Cell Biology , Cell Adhesion , Cell Differentiation , Cell Proliferation , Cells, Cultured , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Cell Biology , NF-kappa B , Metabolism , Protein Transport , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Pharmacology , Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 , Metabolism
7.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 133-141, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771393

ABSTRACT

Cilia and flagella on eukaryotic cells are polarized organelles extending from the surfaces of cells, which participate not only in cell motility, but also in signal transduction and other processes. Structural or functional abnormalities of cilia can cause various human diseases, termed ciliopathies. Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is a ciliopathic human genetic disorder, and the pathogenesis is that mutated BBS genes result in abnormal cilia function. In order to study the pathogenic genes BBS8, we screened bbs8 mutant in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and did a lot of physiology and biochemistry experiments. We affirmed that BBS8 protein was a cilia protein and had specific localization in the basal body by immunofluorescence (IF). The bbs8 mutant lost photokinesis, and it was defective in flagella shortening with drug induction. The results of silver staining and mass spectrometric analysis showed aberrant accumulation of flagellar proteins in the mutant flagella. We concluded that the BBS8 protein plays a significant role in flagellar membrane proteins transport, and the BBS8 protein might mediate retrograde transport to exert physiological function in the process.


Subject(s)
Bardet-Biedl Syndrome , Chlamydomonas reinhardtii , Cilia , Flagella , Humans , Protein Transport
8.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 425-434, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771364

ABSTRACT

We constructed bicistronic expression system containing AH6 promoter, 5' UTR and its fore 38 bp sequence from Corynebacterium glutamicum, followed by a conserved Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequence for xylanase expression. The two major secretory pathways signal peptide in C. glutamicum, Tat (CgR0949) and Sec (CspB) dependent signal peptide were added before xylanase for its secretion. Fed-batch cultivation was done in a 5 L jar for high-level xylanase secretion. The enzyme properties of the purified xylanase were then studied, including the effect of temperature and pH on its activity. The xylanase could be secreted into the culture supernatant when the Sec-dependent signal peptide CspB was used, but none was detected when CgR0949 was used. The secretory production level of xylanase in a flask was 486.2 U/mL and become 1 648.7 U/mL when in a 5 L jar, which was 3.4 fold as in the flask. The optimal pH and temperature of xylanase were pH 4.5 and 45 ℃, respectively. Its activity was 80% of initial activity after pretreatment at 4 ℃ for 24 h at pH 4-11, 95% after incubation below 50 ℃ for 15 min, and 20% when the temperature above 60 ℃. The xylanase could be efficiently secreted into the culture medium by C. glutamicum using its own genetic elements, and the secretion level could be improved through large-scale fed-batch cultivation. This bicistronic expression system can provide a useful tool for heterologous proteins secretion in C. glutamicum. In addition, the catalyze activity of xylanase could be further improved by enzyme properties study.


Subject(s)
Corynebacterium glutamicum , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Protein Sorting Signals , Protein Transport
9.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 687-696, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771341

ABSTRACT

In order to provide a theoretical basis for better understanding the function and properties of proteins, we proposed a simple and effective feature extraction method for protein sequences to determine the subcellular localization of proteins. First, we introduced sparse coding combined with the information of amino acid composition to extract the feature values of protein sequences. Then the multilayer pooling integration was performed according to different sizes of dictionaries. Finally, the extracted feature values were sent into the support vector machine to test the effectiveness of our model. The success rates in data set ZD98, CH317 and Gram1253 were 95.9%, 93.4% and 94.7%, respectively as verified by the Jackknife test. Experiments showed that our method based on multilayer sparse coding can remarkably improve the accuracy of the prediction of protein subcellular localization.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Amino Acid Sequence , Computational Biology , Protein Transport , Proteins , Subcellular Fractions , Support Vector Machine
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760882

ABSTRACT

Arthrogryposis-renal dysfunction-cholestasis (ARC) syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive multisystemic disease that is associated with the liver, kidney, skin, and central nervous and musculoskeletal systems. ARC occurs as a result of mutations in the VPS33B (Vacuolar protein sorting 33 homolog B) or VIPAR (VPS33B interacting protein, apical-basolateral polarity regulator) genes. A female infant presented with neonatal cholestasis with a severe clinical outcome. She was diagnosed with ARC syndrome using targeted exome sequencing (TES). Exome sequencing revealed compound heterozygous mutations, c.707A>T and c.239+5G>A, in VPS33B, where c.707A>T was a novel variant; the resultant functional protein defects were predicted via in silico analysis. c.239+5G>A, a pathogenic mutation that affects splicing, is found in less than 0.1% of the general population. Invasive techniques, such as liver biopsies, did not contribute to a differential diagnosis of ARC syndrome; thus, early TES together with clinical presentations constituted an apparently accurate diagnostic procedure.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Cholestasis , Computer Simulation , Diagnosis, Differential , Exome , Female , Humans , Infant , Kidney , Liver , Musculoskeletal System , Protein Transport , Skin
11.
São Paulo; s.n; 2018. 103 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-988219

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Doenças cardiovasculares constituem importante causa de morte em todo mundo e a hipercolesterolemia está diretamente relacionada como fator agravante desta morbidade. A dieta desempenha papel importante neste processo e alguns alimentos como o amaranto, especialmente sua proteína, tem mostrado capacidade de redução do colesterol plasmático. Estudos sugerem que este efeito está relacionado a peptídeos formados durante a digestão da sua proteína, os quais desempenham um papel importante na regulação e modulação do metabolismo lipídico. Os efeitos hipocolesterolêmicos, já observados, indicam o uso da proteína do amaranto como um composto bioativo direcionado para a promoção da saúde. Considerando que os efeitos hipocolesterolêmicos destes peptídeos são complexos e há diversas hipóteses formuladas, torna-se importante a realização de estudos visando avaliar a interação dos peptídeos na absorção intestinal do colesterol e da sua modulação genética. Objetivos: Verificar os efeitos do hidrolisado da farinha do grão de amaranto na absorção de colesterol e modulação de genes ABCA1, ABCG1, NPC1L1, AMPK, HMGR e SREBP-2em células Caco-2, e modulação dos genes ABCG8, HMGR, SREBP-2 e AMPKem enterócitos de hamsters. Metodologia: O amaranto foi triturado, sua farinha desengordurada e sua proteína isolada, com posterior digestão in vitro e filtração dos peptídeos. Três experimentos in vitro foram conduzidos com as células: permeação de hidrolisado, permeação de colesterol e de efeito sob a expressão gênica. No primeiro, o hidrolisado proteico de amaranto foi permeado em culturas celulares de Caco-2 no tempo de 2 horas. O permeato foi coletado e analisado por LC/MS/MS. No segundo, o hidrolisado de amaranto foi incorporado a micelas de colesterol e incubados em culturas celulares, nas concentrações de 1,0 mg/ml, e 3,0 mg/ml em tempos de 2h. Também em concentrações de 3,0 mg/ml foi adicionado albumina e caseína para efeito comparativo. O conteúdo de colesterol na porção apical e basolateral foi analisado em HPLC. O terceiro experimento foi avaliaçãoda exposição do hidrolisado, em concentrações de 0,5 mg/ml, 1,0 mg/ml e 3,0 mg/ml, em tempos de 2h e 12h. Após este período, foi realizada a extração de RNA total, avaliação de rendimento e integridade do material; medida quantitativa de expressão de RNAm por RT-PCR e quantificação relativa da expressão por ?CT dos genes ABCA1, ABCG1, ABCG8, NPC1L1, AMP1, HMGR e SREBP-2das células Caco-2 e tecido intestinal de hamsters, coletados em ensaios anteriores. Resultados: Na permeação de colesterol não houve diferença entre as concentrações dos hidrolisados proteicos e controle, porém o hidrolisado de amaranto em 1,0 mg/ml demonstrou uma tendência em diminuir a absorção de colesterol (p = 0,05). Na exposição das células Caco-2 aos peptídeos por 2h, houve uma diminuição nas concentrações de RNAm dos genes ABCA1, NPC1L1, AMPK, HMGR e SREBP-2 nas concentrações de 3,0 mg/ml. O tempo de exposição de 12h apresentou resultados semelhantes ao tempo de 2h. Somente a expressão gênica de ABCG8foi influenciada pelo isolado proteico de amaranto no experimento in vivo. Conclusão: A partir do exposto, podemos concluir que os peptídeos do grão de amaranto influenciam o metabolismo de colesterol por mecanismos genéticos. Portanto, torna-se uma alternativa a ser introduzida na dieta de indivíduos saudáveis e em pacientes com hipercolesterolemia, visando a prevenção de agravos e como estratégia de terapia adicional no controle dos níveis de LDL-c plasmático. Contudo, mais experimentos in vivo e em humanos são necessários para estabelecer a dose efetiva para consumo


Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases are an important cause of death worldwide and hypercholesterolemia is directly related as an aggravating factor of this morbidity. Diet plays an important role in this process and some foods such as amaranth, especially its protein, have shown ability to lower plasma cholesterol. Studies suggest that this effect is related to peptides formed during the digestion of their protein, which play an important role in the regulation and modulation of lipid metabolism. The hypocholesterolemic effects, already observed, indicate the use of amaranth protein as a bioactive compound aimed to promoting health. Considering that the hypocholesterolemic effects of these peptides are complex and there are several hypotheses formulated, it is important to carry out studies to evaluate the interaction of peptides in the intestinal absorption of cholesterol and its genetic modulation. Objectives: To verify the effects of amaranth grain flour hydrolyzate on cholesterol uptake and ABCA1, ABCG1, NPC1L1, AMPK, HMGR and SREBP-2 genes modulation in Caco-2 intestinal cells, and modulation of ABCG8, HMGR, SREBP-2 genes and AMPK in hamster intestinal cells. Methodology: Amaranth was crushed, the created flour was defatted and its protein isolated, with subsequent in vitro digestion and filtration of the peptides. Three in vitro experiments were conducted with the cells: hydrolyzate permeation, cholesterol permeation and genetic expression. In the first, the amaranth protein hydrolyzate was permeated in Caco-2 cell cultures in the time of 2 hours. The permeate was collected and analyzed by LC/MS/MS. In the second, the amaranth hydrolyzate was incorporated into cholesterol micelles and incubated in cell cultures at concentrations of 1.0 mg/ml and 3.0 mg/ml in times of 2 h. Also, at concentrations of 3.0 mg/ml albumin and casein were added for comparison. Cholesterol content in the apical and basolateral portion was analyzed by HPLC. The third experiment was to evaluate the exposure of the hydrolyzate at concentrations of 0.5 mg/ml, 1.0 mg/ml and 3.0 mg/ml, in times of 2 h and 12 h. After this period, the extraction of total RNA, evaluation of yield and integrity of the material was performed; quantitative measurement of mRNA expression by RT-PCR and relative quantification of ?CT expression of the ABCA1, ABCG1, ABCG8, NPC111, AMPK, HMGR and SREBP-2 genes from Caco-2 cells and hamster intestinal tissue, collected in previous assays, were finalized. Results: In cholesterol permeation there was no difference between the concentrations of the protein hydrolysates and control, but the amaranth hydrolyzate at 1.0 mg/ml showed a tendency to decrease the cholesterol absorption (p = 0.05). Exposure of Caco-2 cells to peptides for 2 h resulted in a decrease in ABCA1, NPC111, AMPK, HMGR and SREBP-2 mRNA levels at concentrations of 3.0 mg/ml. The exposure time of 12h presented results similar to the time of 2h. Only the gene expression of ABCG8 was influenced by the amaranth protein isolate in the in vivo experiment. Conclusion: From the above, we can conclude that amaranth peptides influence the metabolism of cholesterol by genetic mechanisms. Therefore, it becomes an alternative to be introduced in the diet of healthy individuals and in patients with hypercholesterolemia, aiming at the prevention of aggravations and as a strategy of additional therapy in the control of plasma LDL-c levels. However, more studies should bedone with animals and humans to define the dose-efficiency for diet.


Subject(s)
Peptides , Gene Expression , Cholesterol , Protein Transport , Amaranthus/metabolism , Hypercholesterolemia , In Vitro Techniques
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812398

ABSTRACT

Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) play a pivotal role in Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) pathogenesis through aggressive migration and invasion. Madecassoside (Madec), a triterpenoid saponin present in Centella asiatica herbs, has a potent anti-inflammatory effect. In the present study, Madec exerted an obvious therapeutic effect in reversing the histological lesions in adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) rats. To recognize the anti-rheumatoid potentials of Madec, we further investigated whether Madec interfered with FLS invasion and metalloproteinase (MMP) expression. In cultures of primary FLS isolated from the AIA rats, Madec (10 and 30 μmol·L) was proven to considerably inhibit migration and invasion of FLS induced by interleukin 1β (IL-1β), but exhibiting no obvious effect on cell proliferation. Madec repressed IL-1β-triggered FLS invasion by prohibiting the expression of MMP-13. Additionally, Madec suppressed MMP-13 transcription via inhibiting the MMP-13 promoter-binding activity of NF-κB. Our results further showed that Madec down-regulated the translocation and phosphorylation of NF-κB as demonstrated by Western blotting and immunofluorescence assays. In conclusion, our results suggest that Madec exerts anti-RA activity via inhibiting the NF-κB/MMP-13 pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antirheumatic Agents , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Arthritis, Experimental , Drug Therapy , Pathology , Cell Movement , Cell Nucleus , Metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic , Interleukin-1beta , Pharmacology , Matrix Metalloproteinase 13 , Genetics , NF-kappa B , Genetics , Metabolism , Phosphorylation , Protein Transport , Rats , Signal Transduction , Synoviocytes , Metabolism , Transcriptional Activation , Triterpenes , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773609

ABSTRACT

Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) play a pivotal role in Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) pathogenesis through aggressive migration and invasion. Madecassoside (Madec), a triterpenoid saponin present in Centella asiatica herbs, has a potent anti-inflammatory effect. In the present study, Madec exerted an obvious therapeutic effect in reversing the histological lesions in adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) rats. To recognize the anti-rheumatoid potentials of Madec, we further investigated whether Madec interfered with FLS invasion and metalloproteinase (MMP) expression. In cultures of primary FLS isolated from the AIA rats, Madec (10 and 30 μmol·L) was proven to considerably inhibit migration and invasion of FLS induced by interleukin 1β (IL-1β), but exhibiting no obvious effect on cell proliferation. Madec repressed IL-1β-triggered FLS invasion by prohibiting the expression of MMP-13. Additionally, Madec suppressed MMP-13 transcription via inhibiting the MMP-13 promoter-binding activity of NF-κB. Our results further showed that Madec down-regulated the translocation and phosphorylation of NF-κB as demonstrated by Western blotting and immunofluorescence assays. In conclusion, our results suggest that Madec exerts anti-RA activity via inhibiting the NF-κB/MMP-13 pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antirheumatic Agents , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Arthritis, Experimental , Drug Therapy , Pathology , Cell Movement , Cell Nucleus , Metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic , Interleukin-1beta , Pharmacology , Matrix Metalloproteinase 13 , Genetics , NF-kappa B , Genetics , Metabolism , Phosphorylation , Protein Transport , Rats , Signal Transduction , Synoviocytes , Metabolism , Transcriptional Activation , Triterpenes , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses
14.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1840-1849, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776285

ABSTRACT

To explore the effect of high fat diet on proteome in mice stomachs, we constructed a model in which the mice were fed with high fat diet as the high fat diet (HFD) group or normal diet as the control (CTRL) group for 110 days. The stomachs were collected and divided into three regions (forestomach (F), corpus (C) and antrum (A)) for protein extraction and mass spectrometry analysis. Of all 9 307 identified proteins in two groups, 4 066 proteins (HFD: 3 832, CTRL: 3 654) were strictly identified by at least one unique peptide and identified twice in three replicates. Using gene ontology (GO) and interaction network analysis we analyzed differentially expressed proteins (fold change≥2) in two groups or between regions. In the whole stomach tissues, proteins up-regulated in HFD group mainly were associated with protein stabilization and protein transport. Differentially expressed proteins between regions showed that forestomach was related to the biological process of keratinization and actin assembly, while corpus and antrum mainly performed digestive function. Compared with forestomach, the corpus and antrum were more affected by the diet. Though there was no significant effect on the basic digestive function of the stomach, proteins that were involved in protein transport and lipid metabolism-related biological processes were significantly highly expressed in HFD group.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diet, High-Fat , Lipid Metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Protein Transport , Proteome , Physiology , Stomach , Physiology
15.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(4): 809-814, Oct.-Dec. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889176

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This study aimed to describe a Bacillus subtilis expression system based on genetically modified B. subtilis. Abaecin, an antimicrobial peptide obtained from Apis mellifera, can enhance the effect of pore-forming peptides from other species on the inhibition of bacterial growth. For the exogenous expression, the abaecin gene was fused with a tobacco etch virus protease cleavage site, a promoter Pglv, and a mature beta-glucanase signal peptide. Also, a B. subtilis expression system was constructed. The recombinant abaecin gene was expressed and purified as a recombinant protein in the culture supernatant. The purified abaecin did not inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli strain K88. Cecropin A and hymenoptaecin exhibited potent bactericidal activities at concentrations of 1 and 1.5 µM. Combinatorial assays revealed that cecropin A and hymenoptaecin had sublethal concentrations of 0.3 and 0.5 µM. This potentiating functional interaction represents a promising therapeutic strategy. It provides an opportunity to address the rising threat of multidrug-resistant pathogens that are recalcitrant to conventional antibiotics.


Subject(s)
Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides/genetics , Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides/metabolism , Bacillus subtilis/genetics , Genetic Vectors/genetics , Insect Proteins/genetics , Insect Proteins/metabolism , Anti-Bacterial Agents/isolation & purification , Anti-Bacterial Agents/metabolism , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides/isolation & purification , Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides/pharmacology , Bacillus subtilis/metabolism , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Escherichia coli/growth & development , Gene Expression , Genetic Vectors/metabolism , Insect Proteins/isolation & purification , Insect Proteins/pharmacology , Protein Engineering , Protein Transport , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/isolation & purification , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , Recombinant Proteins/pharmacology
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764776

ABSTRACT

Calcium has versatile roles in diverse physiological functions. Among these functions, intracellular Ca²⁺ plays a key role during the secretion of salivary glands. In this review, we introduce the diverse cellular components involved in the saliva secretion and related dynamic intracellular Ca²⁺ signals. Calcium acts as a critical second messenger for channel activation, protein translocation, and volume regulation, which are essential events for achieving the salivary secretion. In the secretory process, Ca²⁺ activates K⁺ and Cl⁻ channels to transport water and electrolyte constituting whole saliva. We also focus on the Ca²⁺ signals from intracellular stores with discussion about detailed molecular mechanism underlying the generation of characteristic Ca²⁺ patterns. In particular, inositol triphosphate signal is a main trigger for inducing Ca²⁺ signals required for the salivary gland functions. The biphasic response of inositol triphosphate receptor and Ca²⁺ pumps generate a self-limiting pattern of Ca²⁺ efflux, resulting in Ca²⁺ oscillations. The regenerative Ca²⁺ oscillations have been detected in salivary gland cells, but the exact mechanism and function of the signals need to be elucidated. In future, we expect that further investigations will be performed toward better understanding of the spatiotemporal role of Ca²⁺ signals in regulating salivary secretion.


Subject(s)
Calcium Signaling , Calcium , Chloride Channels , Inositol , Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptors , Protein Transport , Saliva , Salivary Glands , Salivation , Second Messenger Systems , Secretory Pathway , Water
17.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 735-749, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-756951

ABSTRACT

Mammalian mitochondrial genome encodes a small set of tRNAs, rRNAs, and mRNAs. The RNA synthesis process has been well characterized. How the RNAs are degraded, however, is poorly understood. It was long assumed that the degradation happens in the matrix where transcription and translation machineries reside. Here we show that contrary to the assumption, mammalian mitochondrial RNA degradation occurs in the mitochondrial intermembrane space (IMS) and the IMS-localized RNASET2 is the enzyme that degrades the RNAs. This provides a new paradigm for understanding mitochondrial RNA metabolism and transport.


Subject(s)
Cell Line , Humans , Mitochondrial Membranes , Metabolism , Protein Transport , RNA , Chemistry , Metabolism , RNA Stability , RNA, Mitochondrial , Ribonucleases , Metabolism , Tumor Suppressor Proteins , Metabolism
18.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 750-761, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-756946

ABSTRACT

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) recruit the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) to repress the translation of target mRNAs. While the 5' 7-methylguanosine cap of target mRNAs has been well known to be important for miRNA repression, the underlying mechanism is not clear. Here we show that TNRC6A interacts with eIF4E2, a homologue of eIF4E that can bind to the cap but cannot interact with eIF4G to initiate translation, to inhibit the translation of target mRNAs. Downregulation of eIF4E2 relieved miRNA repression of reporter expression. Moreover, eIF4E2 downregulation increased the protein levels of endogenous IMP1, PTEN and PDCD4, whose expression are repressed by endogenous miRNAs. We further provide evidence showing that miRNA enhances eIF4E2 association with the target mRNA. We propose that miRNAs recruit eIF4E2 to compete with eIF4E to repress mRNA translation.


Subject(s)
Autoantigens , Metabolism , Cell Line , Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-4E , Metabolism , Gene Silencing , Humans , MicroRNAs , Genetics , Protein Transport , RNA, Messenger , Genetics , RNA-Binding Proteins , Metabolism
19.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 107(5): 427-436, Nov. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-827863

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: The mechanism underlying the vascular dysfunction induced by ethanol is not totally understood. Identification of biochemical/molecular mechanisms that could explain such effects is warranted. Objective: To investigate whether acute ethanol intake activates the vascular RhoA/Rho kinase pathway in resistance arteries and the role of NAD(P)H oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) on such response. We also evaluated the requirement of p47phox translocation for ethanol-induced NAD(P)H oxidase activation. Methods: Male Wistar rats were orally treated with ethanol (1g/kg, p.o. gavage) or water (control). Some rats were treated with vitamin C (250 mg/kg, p.o. gavage, 5 days) before administration of water or ethanol. The mesenteric arterial bed (MAB) was collected 30 min after ethanol administration. Results: Vitamin C prevented ethanol-induced increase in superoxide anion (O2-) generation and lipoperoxidation in the MAB. Catalase and superoxide dismutase activities and the reduced glutathione, nitrate and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels were not affected by ethanol. Vitamin C and 4-methylpyrazole prevented the increase on O2- generation induced by ethanol in cultured MAB vascular smooth muscle cells. Ethanol had no effect on phosphorylation levels of protein kinase B (Akt) and eNOS (Ser1177 or Thr495 residues) or MAB vascular reactivity. Vitamin C prevented ethanol-induced increase in the membrane: cytosol fraction ratio of p47phox and RhoA expression in the rat MAB. Conclusion: Acute ethanol intake induces activation of the RhoA/Rho kinase pathway by a mechanism that involves ROS generation. In resistance arteries, ethanol activates NAD(P)H oxidase by inducing p47phox translocation by a redox-sensitive mechanism.


Resumo Fundamento: O mecanismo da disfunção vascular induzido pelo consumo de etanol não é totalmente compreendido. Justifica-se, assim a identificação de mecanismos bioquímicos e moleculares que poderiam explicar tais efeitos. Objetivos: Investigar se a ingestão aguda de etanol ativa a via vascular RhoA/Rho quinase em artérias de resistência e o papel das espécies reativas de oxigênio (ERO) derivadas da NAD(P)H oxidase nessa resposta. Nós também avaliamos se ocorreu translocação da p47phox e ativação da NAD(P)H oxidase após o consumo agudo de etanol. Métodos: Ratos Wistar machos foram tratados com etanol via oral (1g/kg, p.o. gavagem) ou água (controle). Alguns ratos foram tratados com vitamina C (250 mg/kg, p.o. gavagem, 5 dias) antes de água ou etanol. O leito arterial mesentérico (LAM) foi coleado 30 min após a administração de etanol. Resultados: A vitamina C preveniu o aumento da geração de ânion superóxido (O2 -) e lipoperoxidação no LAM induzidos pelo etanol. A atividade da catalase (CAT), da superóxido dismutase (SOD) e os níveis de glutationa reduzida(GSH), nitrato e peróxido de hidrogênio (H2O2) não foram afetados após a ingestão aguda de etanol. A vitamina C e o 4-metilpirazol preveniram o aumento na geração de O2 - induzido pelo etanol em cultura de células do músculo liso vascular (CMLV). O etanol não afetou a fosforilação da proteína quinase B (Akt) e nem da óxido nítrico sintase endotelial (eNOS) (nos resíduos de Ser1177 ou Thr495) ou a reatividade vascular do LAM. A vitamina C preveniu o aumento da razão membrana:citosol da p47phox e a expressão da RhoA no LAM de rato induzido pelo etanol. Conclusão: A ingestão aguda de etanol induz a ativação da via RhoA/Rho quinase por um mecanismo que envolve a geração de ERO. Nas artérias de resistência, o etanol ativa NAD(P)H oxidase induzindo a translocação da p47phox por um mecanismo redox-sensível.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , NADPH Oxidases/metabolism , rhoA GTP-Binding Protein/metabolism , Ethanol/administration & dosage , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Ascorbic Acid/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , NADPH Oxidases/drug effects , Protein Transport , Disease Models, Animal , Enzyme Activation
20.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 114-118, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-303204

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the effect of Liuwei Wuling tablets on the cytoplasmic translocation and release of high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) in hepatocytes in mice with acute live injury induced by D-galactosamine (D-GalN) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A Balb/c mouse model of acute liver injury was established by intraperitoneal injection of D-GalN (400 mg/kg) and LPS (5 ug/kg). A total of 24 healthy mice were randomly and equally divided into acute liver injury control group and Liuwei Wuling tablet treatment group. The serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were measured in both groups at each time point within one week. Liver tissues were collected at 36 hours to perform pathological examination. The serum levels of HMGB1, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), complement 3a (C3a), and complement 5a (C5a) were measured. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the expression and cytoplasmic translocation of HMGB1 in hepatocytes.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>At 6, 12, and 24 hours, the Liuwei Wuling tablet treatment group had significantly lower serum levels of ALT than the control group (225.33±181.64 U/L vs 471.17±174.72 U/L, t = 3.38, P < 0.01; 1509.53±182.51 U/L vs 7149.52±734.25 U/L, t = 25.82, P < 0.01; 162.89±86.51 U/L vs 1318.16±557.71 U/L, t = 7.09, P < 0.01), as well as significantly lower serum levels of AST than the control group (179.22±94.57 U/L vs 561.91±209.6 U/L, t = 5.76, P < 0.01; 590.92±190.92 U/L vs 2266.48±705.64 U/L, t = 7.94, P < 0.01; 231.24±87.7 U/L vs 444.32±117.01 U/L, t = 5.05, P < 0.01). The treatment group had significantly lower levels of HMGB1 than the control group at 6 and 12 hours (54.21±11.89 ng/ml vs 72.07±13.65 ng/ml, t = 3.41, P < 0.01; 49.23±5.97 ng/ml vs 68.71±13.07 ng/ml, t = 4.70, P < 0.01). The treatment group had significantly lower levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 than the control group at 12 hours (163.62±9.12 pg/ml vs 237.09±51.47 pg/ml, t = 4.86, P < 0.01; 15.66±13.13 pg/ml vs 37.43±18.68 pg/ml, t = 3.30, P < 0.01; 7.10±3.06 pg/ml vs 21.42±8.23 pg/ml, t = 5.65, P < 0.01). The treatment group had significantly lower levels of C3a and C5a than the control group at 12 hours (2.52±1.27 pg/ml vs 9.83±2.96 ng/ml, t = 7.86, P < 0.01; 2.16±1.03 ng/ml vs 7.23±1.55 ng/ml, t = 9.67, P < 0.01). Compared with the control group, the treatment group had significantly reduced liver inflammation and necrosis, and a significantly lower cytoplasmic translocation rate of HMGB1 in hepatocytes (38.76%±7.37% vs 8.15%±2.11%, P < 0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Liuwei Wuling tablets can reduce the cytoplasmic translocation of HMGB1 in hepatocytes and relieve liver inflammation in mice with acute liver injury.</p>


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase , Blood , Animals , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Blood , Complement C3a , Complement C5a , Cytoplasm , Metabolism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Galactosamine , HMGB1 Protein , Metabolism , Hepatocytes , Interleukin-1beta , Blood , Interleukin-6 , Blood , Lipopolysaccharides , Liver Failure, Acute , Drug Therapy , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Protein Transport , Tablets , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Blood
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