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1.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 43(2): 191-200, Apr.-June 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286684

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This manuscript summarizes the results of the consensus meeting composed of hematologists and cardiologists to establish recommendations for the prevention and follow-up of cardiovascular (CV) risk in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) treated with BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) from the point of view of clinical practice and from the perspective of hematology consultation.In the first medical appointment, the CV risk factors should be identified to perform the baseline risk stratification, based on the Brazilian Guideline of Dyslipidemia and Atherosclerosis Prevention Update (risk levels: very high, high, intermediate and low).Once stratified, the treatment of the CV risk factors should be administered. If the patient presents risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes, renal disease, smoking and hypercholesterolemia, the evaluation and initial treatment may be done by the hematologist, being an option the request for evaluation by a specialist. If the patient has a history of previous CV disease, we recommend referral to a specialist. As the CV risk score is dynamic and the control of risk factors can reduce the patient risk, this expert consensus recommends that the re-evaluation of the CV risk after the baseline should be performed at 3 months, 6 months and 12 months. After this period, it should be done annually and, for specific patients, at the clinician's discretion.The evaluation of the baseline CV risk and the safe administration of a TKI allow the patient to benefit from the maximum treatment, avoiding unwanted effects.


Subject(s)
Humans , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Tobacco Use Disorder/prevention & control , Monitoring , Diabetes Mellitus/prevention & control , Hypertension/prevention & control
2.
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2021251, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285418

ABSTRACT

Introduction Squamous carcinoma is the commonest malignancy of the head and neck region. It is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) regulates downstream signaling pathways through its tyrosine kinase (TK) domains that play a role in cell proliferation and survival. EGFR mutations have been found to occur between exons 18 to 21 on chromosome 7. Limited studies are available on EGFR-TK mutations in the head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) globally. This study explores EGFR mutations in 30 HNSCC cases presenting to a tertiary care hospital over a period of two years. Material and Methods Fresh tumor tissue was collected from the resection specimens of cases of primary HNSCC. Cases with pre-operative therapy were not included. Parameters in the form of patients' age, gender, smoking/tobacco intake, site of the lesion were recorded. Tumor parameters after histopathological examination were recorded in the form of TNM stage, tumor grade. DNA was extracted from fresh tissue of all the cases. EGFR Mutation Analysis Kit assay was used to detect mutations of the EGFR gene. PCR was run and results were analyzed. Results EGFR Mutations were found in 6.7%of the patients. There was no significant association of the EGFR Mutation with the studied parameters. Conclusion EGFR mutations are present in a subset of patients of HNSCC. Patients having these mutations may benefit from targeted therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Genes, erbB-1 , ErbB Receptors , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/pathology , Head and Neck Neoplasms/pathology , Mutation , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , Reference Parameters
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880765

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To screen the key genes related to the prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma through big data analysis and explore their clinical value and potential mechanism.@*METHODS@#We analyzed GSE18842, GSE27262, and GSE33532 gene expression profile data obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). Bioinformatics methods were used to screen the differentially expressed genes in lung adenocarcinoma tissues and KEGG and GO enrichment analysis was performed, followed by PPI interaction network analysis, module analysis, differential expression analysis, and prognosis analysis. The expressions of MAD2L1 and TTK by immunohistochemistry were verified in 35 non-small cell lung cancer specimens and paired adjacent tissues.@*RESULTS@#We identified a total of 256 genes that showed significant differential expressions in lung adenocarcinoma, including 66 up-regulated and 190 down-regulated genes. Thirty-two up-regulated core genes were screened by functional analysis, and among them 29 were shown to significantly correlate with a poor prognosis of patients with lung adenocarcinoma. All the 29 genes were highly expressed in lung adenocarcinoma tissues compared with normal lung tissues and were mainly enriched in cell cycle pathways. Seven of these key genes were closely related to the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) complex and responsible for regulating cell behavior in G2/M phase. We selected SAC-related proteins TTK and MAD2L1 to test their expressions in clinical tumor samples, and detected their overexpression in lung adenocarcinoma tissues as compared with the adjacent tissues.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Seven SAC complex-related genes, including TTK and MAD2L1, are overexpressed in lung adenocarcinoma tissues with close correlation with the prognosis of the patients.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma of Lung/genetics , Big Data , Cell Cycle Proteins/genetics , Computational Biology , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , M Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Mad2 Proteins/genetics , Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/genetics , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/genetics
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-782505

ABSTRACT

10% of labeled tumor cells) of TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1), the protein product of TNFRSF1A gene, was correlated with sarcomatoid dedifferentiation and was an independent predictive factor of clinically unfavorable response and shorter survivals in separated TKI-treated ccRCC cohort.CONCLUSION: TNF-α signaling may play a role in TKI resistance, and TNFR1 expression may serve as a predictive biomarker for clinically unfavorable TKI responses in ccRCC.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Carcinoma, Renal Cell , Cohort Studies , Dataset , Drug Resistance , Gene Expression , Gene Expression Profiling , Heterografts , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor , Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811184

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rosae Multiflorae fructus (RMF), known to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, has been used as a traditional remedy for inflammatory diseases such as arthritis in Eastern Asia. However, its effect on osteoclasts, which play a crucial role in resorptive inflammatory bone diseases, is yet to be elucidated.METHODS: The effect of extract of RMF (RMF-E) on receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-mediated osteoclastogenesis was examined by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining, real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. In addition, RANKL-induced Ca2⁺-oscillation was also investigated.RESULTS: RMF-E remarkably inhibited TRAP+-osteoclast and resorptive pit formation in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the expression of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T-cells cytoplasmic, known as pivotal transcription factors for osteoclast formation in vitro and in vivo, and that of the osteoclast differentiation markers such as Acp5, Oscar, CtsK, Atp6v0d2, Tm7sf4, and Nfatc1 were significantly decreased by RMF-E treatment during osteoclastogenesis. The inhibitory effect of RMF-E on RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis was caused by the suppression of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, and RANKL-induced Ca2⁺-oscillation removal via inactivation of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), and subsequently phospholipase C-γ2.CONCLUSIONS: RMF-E negatively regulates osteoclast differentiation and formation. These findings suggest the possibility of RMF-E as a traditional therapeutic agent against osteoclast-related bone disorders such as osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and periodontitis.


Subject(s)
Acid Phosphatase , Antigens, Differentiation , Arthritis , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Blotting, Western , Bone Diseases , Calcium Signaling , Cytoplasm , Far East , In Vitro Techniques , Osteoclasts , Osteogenesis , Osteoporosis , Periodontitis , Phospholipases , Protein Kinases , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rosa , T-Lymphocytes , Transcription Factors
7.
Immune Network ; : 10-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811172

ABSTRACT

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have shown remarkable benefit in the treatment of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and have emerged as an effective treatment option even in the first-line setting. ICIs can block inhibitory pathways that restrain the immune response against cancer, restoring and sustaining antitumor immunity. Currently, there are 4 PD-1/PD-L1 blocking agents available in clinics, and immunotherapy-based regimen alone or in combination with chemotherapy is now preferred option. Combination trials assessing combination of ICIs with chemotherapy, targeted therapy and other immunotherapy are ongoing. Controversies remain regarding the use of ICIs in targetable oncogene-addicted subpopulations, but their initial treatment recommendations remained unchanged, with specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors as the choice. For the majority of patients without targetable driver oncogenes, deciding between therapeutic options can be difficult due to lack of direct cross-comparison studies. There are continuous efforts to find predictive biomarkers to find those who respond better to ICIs. PD-L1 protein expressions by immunohistochemistry and tumor mutational burden have emerged as most well-validated biomarkers in multiple clinical trials. However, there still is a need to improve patient selection, and to establish the most effective concurrent or sequential combination therapies in different NSCLC clinical settings. In this review, we will introduce currently used ICIs in NSCLC and analyze most recent trials, and finally discuss how, when and for whom ICIs can be used to provide promising avenues for lung cancer treatment.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Drug Therapy , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Immunotherapy , Lung Neoplasms , Oncogenes , Patient Selection , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
8.
Immune Network ; : 11-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811171

ABSTRACT

Most patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are diagnosed at an advanced stage of disease. Until recently, systemic treatment options that showed survival benefits in HCC have been limited to tyrosine kinase inhibitors, antibodies targeting oncogenic signaling pathways or VEGF receptors. The HCC tumor microenvironment is characterized by a dysfunction of the immune system through multiple mechanisms, including accumulation of various immunosuppressive factors, recruitment of regulatory T cells and myeloid-derived suppressor cells, and induction of T cell exhaustion accompanied with the interaction between immune checkpoint ligands and receptors. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have been interfered this interaction and have altered therapeutic landscape of multiple cancer types including HCC. In this review, we discuss the use of anti-PD-1, anti-PD-L1, and anti-CTLA-4 antibodies in the treatment of advanced HCC. However, ICIs as a single agent do not benefit a significant portion of patients. Therefore, various clinical trials are exploring possible synergistic effects of combinations of different ICIs (anti-PD-1/PD-L1 and anti-CTLA-4 antibodies) or ICIs and target agents. Combinations of ICIs with locoregional therapies may also improve therapeutic responses.


Subject(s)
Antibodies , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Humans , Immune System , Immunotherapy , Ligands , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory , Tumor Microenvironment
9.
Lima; IETSI; dic. 2019.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BRISA | ID: biblio-1116625

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: El presente dictamen expone la evaluación de la eficacia y seguridad del esquema ibrutinib + corticoides, comparado con los esquemas basados en corticoides + inmunosupresores, para el tratamiento de pacientes adultos con enfermedad de injerto contra huésped crónica (cGVHD) post-trasplante alogénico de progenitores hematopoyéticos (TACPH) refractaria a corticoides. La enfermedad de injerto contra huésped (GVHD, por sus siglas en inglés) es un desorden inflamatorio multisistémico, potencialmente mortal, que puede ocurrir tras el trasplante de un órgano o tejido. La GVHD ocurre porque las células T del donante fallan en reconocer los antígenos de histocompatibilidad principales del receptor y, por lo tanto, empiezan a atacarlo; produciendo una reacción inflamatoria exagerada. Durante el trasplante alogénico de células progenitoras hematopoyéticas (TACPH) se transfiere una mayor cantidad de células T maduras e inmunocompetentes. Por este motivo, el GVHD es más frecuente en pacientes post-TACPH que en pacientes con trasplante de órganos sólidos o de médula ósea. TECNOLOGÍA SANITARIA DE INTERÉS: Ibrutinib: Ibrutinib es un inhibidor irreversible de la tirosina quinasa de Bruton y la quinasa inducible por interleucina 2, las cuales activan las vías de señalización de los receptores de células B y células T, respectivamente (Ramachandran, Kolli, y Strowd 2019). Al inhibir estas vías, la activación, diferenciación y proliferación de células B y células T no se producirá; y en consecuencia se podrá manejar la respuesta anti-inflamatoria, la vía pro-fibrótica y la producción de anticuerpos anti-receptor (National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases 2012; Jaglowski y Blazar 2018). METODOLOGÍA: Se llevó a cabo una búsqueda sistemática de la literatura con respecto a la eficacia y seguridad del esquema ibrutinib + corticoides en el tratamiento de pacientes adultos con cGVHD post-TACPH refractaria a corticoides. Se realizó tanto una búsqueda sistemática como una búsqueda manual en las páginas web de grupos dedicados a la investigación y educación en salud que elaboran guías de práctica clínica (GPC) y evaluaciones de tecnologías sanitarias (ETS). RESULTADOS: La presente evaluación de tecnología sanitaria muestra la evidencia encontrada luego de una búsqueda sistemática, con respecto a la eficacia y seguridad del esquema ibrutinib + corticoides, en términos de: sobrevida global, tasa de respuesta total, calidad de vida, reducción/descontinuación de corticoides e incidencia de eventos adversos, en comparación con tratamientos basados en corticoides e inmunosupresores en pacientes adultos con cGVHD post-TACPH refractaria a corticoides. Al respecto, se identificó una guía de práctica clínica (GPC) sobre el manejo de cGVHD y un ensayo clínico (EC) fase Ib/II, sin grupo de comparación, que evalúa la eficacia y seguridad de ibrutinib en el tratamiento de pacientes con cGVHD y falla al tratamiento con corticoides. La GPC publicada por la Sociedad Francófona de Trasplante de Médula Ósea y Terapia Celular (SFGM-TC, por sus siglas en francés) señala que en pacientes con cGVHD no existe un tratamiento de segunda línea de referencia, pero presenta una lista de 20 alternativas de tratamiento, entre medicamentos y otros procedimientos. Aunque el grado de recomendación de estas alternativas es bajo (grado C), muchas de estas alternativas también han sido recomendadas por otras dos GPC publicadas antes de la aprobación de ibrutinib para el tratamiento de cGVHD. La GPC de la SFGM-TC no presenta una descripción detallada de la metodología utilizada para selección de la evidencia y la formulación de las recomendaciones; sin embargo, la consistencia con las recomendaciones de otras GPC internacionales les confiere cierto grado de confianza. CONCLUSIONES: El equipo técnico del IETSI valoró los siguientes aspectos: i) La cGVHD es una condición relativamente frecuente que puede ser mortal si no es tratada ii) La evidencia disponible es escasa e insuficiente para disipar la incertidumbre sobre la eficacia de ibrutinib en el tratamiento de pacientes con cGVHD refractaria a corticoides, iii) Aproximadamente, la mitad de pacientes del único EC disponible a la fecha descontinuó el tratamiento por eventos adversos, muerte o progresión de la enfermedad, iv) La ausencia de estudios que comparen el esquema ibrutinib + corticoides con otros esquemas de tratamiento impiden formular conclusiones sobre la superioridad de ibrutinib en eficacia y seguridad y v) Actualmente, existen otras alternativas disponibles en ESSALUD que también son recomendadas por las GPC internacionales. El Instituto de Evaluación de Tecnologías en Salud e Investigación - IETSI no aprueba el uso de ibrutinib para el tratamiento de pacientes adultos con cGVHD, post-TACPH refractaria a corticoides.


Subject(s)
Humans , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , Graft vs Host Disease/drug therapy , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Health Evaluation , Cost-Benefit Analysis
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766022

ABSTRACT

Liquid biopsy for detection of mutation from circulating tumor DNA is a new technology which is attractive in that it is non-invasive. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) is an effective first line drug for advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients who harbor activating EGFR mutation. During the course of treatment, resistance against TKI arises which can be contributed to EGFR T790M mutation in about 50–60% of patients. Third generation TKI may overcome the resistance. In patients who cannot undergo tissue biopsy due to variable reasons, liquid biopsy is an excellent alternative for the detection of EGFR T790M mutation. However, this relatively novel method requires standardization and vigorous quality insurance. Thus, a standard set of guideline recommendations for liquid biopsy for EGFR mutation testing suitable for the Korean medical community is necessary. In this article, we propose a set of provisional guideline recommendations that was discussed and approved by the Cardiopulmonary Pathology Study Group of the Korean Society of Pathologists.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , DNA , Genes, erbB-1 , Humans , Insurance , Lung Neoplasms , Lung , Methods , Pathology , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , ErbB Receptors
11.
Journal of Liver Cancer ; : 74-78, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765700

ABSTRACT

Sorafenib is a well-known approved systemic therapeutic agent used in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Regorafenib and nivolumab are approved as second-line therapeutic drugs in patients showing disease progression after sorafenib therapy. However, there is no established third- or fourth-line therapy in patients with progression after regorafenib or nivolumab treatment. Recently, the combination of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICPIs) has been attempted as a first-line treatment strategy in advanced HCC patients based on the hypothesis that combination therapy may overcome resistance in ICPI monotherapy. On the basis of this suggestion, we herein describe the case of an HCC patient demonstrating macrovascular invasion, whereby partial remission was achieved via the combination of sorafenib and nivolumab following disease progression after nivolumab therapy. Further studies on the combination of TKIs and ICPIs are necessary to determine ways to manage HCC patients showing disease progression after ICPI therapy.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Disease Progression , Humans , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765398

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a member of the neurotrophic factor family and plays a vital role in the physiological processes of organisms, especially in the nervous system. Many recent studies have reported that NGF is also involved in the regulation of tumourigenesis by either promoting or suppressing tumor growth, which depends on the location and type of tumor. However, little is known regarding the effect of NGF on interspinal schwannoma (IS). In the present study, we aimed to explored whether mouse nerve growth factor (mNGF), which is widely used in the clinic, can influence the growth of interspinal schwannoma cells (ISCs) isolated from IS in vitro. METHODS: ISCs were isolated, cultured and identified by S-100 with immunofluorescence analysis. S-100-positive cells were divided into five groups, and separately cultured with various concentrations of mNGF (0 [phosphate buffered saline, PBS], 40, 80, 160, and 320 ng/mL) for 24 hours. Western blot and quantantive real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were applied to detect tyrosine kinase A (TrkA) receptor and p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)) in each group. Crystal violet staining was selected to assess the effect of mNGF (160 ng/mL) on ISCs growth. RESULTS: ISCs growth was enhanced by mNGF in a dose-dependent manner. The result of crystal violet staining revealed that it was significantly strengthened the cells growth kinetics when cultured with 160 ng/mL mNGF compared to PBS group. Western blot and quantantive real time PCR discovered that TrkA receptor and mRNA expression were both up-regualated under the condition of mNGF, expecially in 160 ng/mL, while the exoression of p75(NTR) demonstrated no difference among groups. CONCLUSION: From these data, we conclude that exogenous mNGF can facilitate ISC growth by activating both TrkA receptor and p75(NTR). In addition, patients who are suffering from IS should not be administered mNGF in the clinic.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blotting, Western , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Gentian Violet , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Kinetics , Mice , Nerve Growth Factor , Nervous System , Neurilemmoma , Physiological Phenomena , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Receptor, Nerve Growth Factor , Receptor, trkA , Receptors, Nerve Growth Factor , RNA, Messenger
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774363

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To compare the immunomodulatory effects of the 2nd generation of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs)-dasatinib and nilotinib as well as the 1st generation of TKI-imatinib on chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients.@*METHOD@#To evaluate the T cell subtypes by flow cytometry on the CML patients of our center who received the treatment with dasatinib (n=10), nilotinib (n=26) or imatinib (n=44) for more than 3 months, and to analyze and correlate these data with the clinical remission situations and prognosis.@*RESULTS@#80.0% of the patients in dasatinib group, 16.6% of the patients in nilotinib group and 27.5% of the patients in imatinib group respectively had a Th1 proportion in the peripheral blood (Th1/CD4 T) above the upper limit of normal. More specifically, the Th1 proportion in dasatinib group (30.86%±9.75%) was significantly higher than that in nilotinib group(17.37%±9.35%) (P<0.001) and that in imatinib group (20.79%±9.01%) (P<0.001). Among the 3 groups, both the CD8 T cell proportion (CD8 T/Lymphocyte) and the Th2 proportion (Th2/CD4 T) in the peripheral blood did not show a statistically significant difference. The Treg proportion (Treg/CD4 T) in dasatinib group (1.31%±0.10%) was significantly lower than that in nilotinib group (2.65%±0.97%) (P<0.001) and that in imatinib group(2.99%±1.40%) (P<0.001).Among all the CML patients analyzed, for CML patients who had a Th1 proportion above the upper limit of normal(25.8%) (n=28), 84.62% of these patients obtained CCyR (complete cytogenetic response), 71.43% of these patients obtained MMR (major molecular response), 71.43% of these patients obtained MR4.5; for CML patients who had the Th1 proportion in the normal range(11.8%-25.8%) (n=45), 90.7% of these patients obtained CCyR, 75.56% of these patients obtained MMR, and 75.56% of these patients obtained MR4.5; for CML patients who had the Th1 proportion below the lower limit of normal (11.8%) (n=21), 57.14% of these patients obtained CCyR, 47.62% of these patients obtained MMR, and 47.62% of these patients obtained MR4.5. The above-mentioned data shows that the patients in high Th1 group and the normal Th1 group obtained the higher remission rate as well as the deeper remission level.@*CONCLUSION@#This study shows that during the CML treatment with TKIs, the increased or normal Th1 proportion indicates a bigger chance for CCyR, MMR, and MR4.5. Dasatinib may significantly increase the level of Th1 while decrease the level of Treg in the patients, as compared with nilotinib and imatinib.


Subject(s)
Dasatinib , Humans , Imatinib Mesylate , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive , Protein Kinase Inhibitors , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory , Th1 Cells , Treatment Outcome
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777246

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the effects of (resolving stasis, promoting collateral circulation) moxibustion on learning and memory ability and the expressions of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) in the rats of vascular dementia (VD) in the microenvironment of neurovascular niche.@*METHODS@#Using 2-vessel occlusion (2-VO), the VD rat models were duplicated. The neural stem cells (NSCs) labeled with lentiviral vector-mediated enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) were co-cultured with endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) to structure the NSCs + EPCs implant. The implant was transplanted into the lateral ventricle of VD rats and the VD rat models with neurovascular niche were established. In No.1 experiment, the successful-modeled rats were divided into 3 groups, i.e. a NSCs + EPCs moxibustion group, a NSCs + EPCs blank group and a model group, 12 rats in each one. No any treatment was provided in the model group and the NSCs + EPCs blank group. The moxibustion therapy was adopted in the NSCs + EPCs moxibustion group, in which, the suspending moxibustion technique was applied to "Baihui" (GV 20), "Dazhui" (GV 14) and "Shenting" (GV 24), 20 min at each acupoint. The treatment was given once every day and a 14-day treatment was as one course. Totally, 3 courses of treatment were required. At the end of treatment, Morris water maze experiment was adopted to determine the learning and memory ability of the rats in each group. In the No.2 experiment, the model rats were divided into 3 groups, a NSCs + EPCs moxibustion group, a NSCs + EPCs blank group and a model group, 18 rats in each one. In each group, according to the durations of treatment, 3 subgroups were divided and 6 rats in each one. The intervention method was same as the No.1 experiment. Additionally, after corresponding treatment course, using perfusion, the brains were collected in each subgroup and the slices were frozen. BDNF/TrkB expressions were observed in the immunofluorescence test.@*RESULTS@#After treatment, in the NSCs + EPCs moxibustion group, the escape incubation was reduced, the time of the first running-cross platform was shortened and the frequency of running-cross platform increased as compared with the model group and the NSCs + EPCs blank group (<0.01, <0.05). The protein expressions were increased in tendency among the 3 courses of treatment in the NSCs + EPCs moxibustion group, indicating the significant differences (all <0.05), in which, the increase of the protein expressions in the NSCs + EPCs moxibustion group was better than the NSCs + EPCs blank group (<0.05, <0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#The moxibustion therapy is the effective approach to VD in clinical treatment. This therapy up-regulates the BDNF/TrkB protein expressions in the microenvironment of neurovascular niche, co-modulates NSCs-EPCs coupling mechanism, promotes nerve neogenesis and repairs the injured nerve.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Metabolism , Complement Factor B , Dementia, Vascular , Metabolism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Hippocampus , Moxibustion , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , Metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776825

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis of a child featuring intellectual disability, developmental delay and epilepsy.@*METHODS@#Cytogenetic and molecular analysis including chromosomal karyotyping analysis, single nucleotide polymorphism array (SNP array) and qPCR were performed.@*RESULTS@#The karyotype of the child was determined as 46, XX; SNP array: arr [19]21q22.12q22.13(36 860 195-38 801 482)×1 dn. A heterozygous 1.9 Mb microdeletion was detected at 21q22.12q22.13. qPCR has confirmed deletion of exon 1 of the DYRK1A gene, which has occurred de novo.@*CONCLUSION@#A 21q22 deletion was diagnosed with multiple genetic methods. Genotype-phenotype correlation suggested DYRK1A to be a candidate for intellectual disability.


Subject(s)
Child , Developmental Disabilities , Genetics , Epilepsy , Genetics , Genetic Association Studies , Humans , Intellectual Disability , Genetics , Karyotyping , Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases , Genetics , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , Genetics , Sequence Deletion
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763184

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Amplified mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor, MET, is a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) that has been considered a druggable target in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Although multiple MET tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are being actively developed for MET-driven NSCLC, the mechanisms of acquired resistance to MET-TKIs have not been well elucidated. To understand the mechanisms of resistance and establish therapeutic strategies, we developed an in vitro model using the MET-amplified NSCLC cell line EBC-1. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We established capmatinib-resistant NSCLC cell lines and identified alternative signaling pathways using 3′ mRNA sequencing and human phospho-RTK arrays. Copy number alterations were evaluated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and cell proliferation assay; activation of RTKs and downstream effectors were compared between the parental cell line EBC-1 and the resistant cell lines. RESULTS: We found that EBC-CR1 showed an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)‒dependent growth and sensitivity to afatinib, an irreversible EGFR TKI. EBC-CR2 cells that had overexpression of EGFR-MET heterodimer dramatically responded to combined capmatinib with afatinib. In addition, EBC-CR3 cells derived from EBC-CR1 cells that activated EGFR with amplified phosphoinositide-3 kinase catalytic subunit α (PIK3CA) were sensitive to combined afatinib with BYL719, a phosphoinositide 3-kinase α (PI3Kα) inhibitor. CONCLUSION: Our in vitro studies suggested that activation of EGFR signaling and/or genetic alteration of downstream effectors like PIK3CA were alternative resistance mechanisms used by capmatinib-resistant NSCLC cell lines. In addition, combined treatments with MET, EGFR, and PI3Kα inhibitors may be effective therapeutic strategies in capmatinib-resistant NSCLC patients.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Catalytic Domain , Cell Line , Cell Proliferation , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Parents , Phosphotransferases , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , ErbB Receptors , RNA, Messenger
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763145

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation and clinical outcomes in patients with stage III non-squamous cell lung cancer treated with definitive concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 2008 to December 2013, the medical records of 197 patients with stage III non- squamous non-small cell lung cancer treated with definitive CCRT were analyzed to determine progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) according to EGFR mutation status. RESULTS: Among 197 eligible patients, 81 patients were EGFR wild type, 36 patients had an EGFR mutation (exon 19 Del, n=18; L858R, n=9, uncommon [G719X, L868, T790M], n=9), and 80 patients had unknown EGFR status. The median age was 59 years (range, 28 to 80 years) and 136 patients (69.0%) were male. The median follow-up duration was 66.5 months (range, 1.9 to 114.5 months). One hundred sixty-four patients (83.2%) experienced disease progression. Median PFS was 8.9 months for the EGFR mutation group, 11.8 months for EGFR wild type, and 10.5 months for the unknown EGFR group (p=0.013 and p=0.042, respectively). The most common site of metastasis in the EGFR mutant group was the brain. However, there was no significant difference in OS among the three groups (34.6 months for EGFR mutant group vs. 31.9 months for EGFR wild type vs. 22.6 months for EGFR unknown group; p=0.792 and p=0.284). A total of 29 patients (80.6%) with EGFR mutation were treated with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (gefitinib, n=24; erlotinib, n=3; afatinib, n=2) upon progression. CONCLUSION: EGFR mutation is associatedwith short PFS and the brain is the most common site of distant metastasis in patients with stage III non- squamous cell lung cancer treated with CCRT.


Subject(s)
Brain , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Chemoradiotherapy , Disease Progression , Disease-Free Survival , Epithelial Cells , Erlotinib Hydrochloride , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Lung Neoplasms , Lung , Male , Medical Records , Neoplasm Metastasis , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , ErbB Receptors
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763132

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) exon 20 insertion mutations account for approximately 4% of all EGFR mutations. Given the rarity of this mutation, its clinical outcomes are not fully established. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 2009 and 2017, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients who showed an exon 20 insertion were retrospectively reviewed for clinical characteristics and outcomes, including responses to chemotherapy (CTx) or targeted therapy. RESULTS: Of 3,539 NSCLC patients who harbored an activating EGFR mutation, 56 (1.6%) had an exon 20 insertion. Of the advanced NSCLC patients, 27 of 1,479 (1.8%) had an exon 20 insertion. The median overall survival was 29.4 months (95% confidence interval 9.3 to 49.6) for 27 advancedNSCLC patients. The 22 patientswho received systemic CTx achieved a 50.0% response rate and a 77.2% disease control rate, with 4.2 months of progression-free survival. Six patients received EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Three of the four patients that had only an exon 20 insertion showed progressive disease, while one showed stable disease. The othertwo patients had an exon 20 insertion and another EGFR mutation and achieved a partial response. CONCLUSION: The incidence of an exon 20 insertion mutation is rare in Korea and occasionally accompanied by other common EGFR mutations. Although the response to systemic CTx. in these patients is comparable to that of patients with other mutations, the response rate to first- or second-generation EGFR TKIs is quite low. Therefore, the development of a more efficient agent is urgently needed.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Exons , Humans , Incidence , Korea , Mutagenesis, Insertional , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , ErbB Receptors , Retrospective Studies
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763124

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The optimal cytotoxic regimens have not been established for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who develop disease progression on first-line epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a multi-center randomized phase II trial to compare the clinical outcomes between pemetrexed plus cisplatin combination therapy followed by maintenance pemetrexed (PC) and pemetrexed monotherapy (P) after failure of first-line EGFR-TKI. The primary objective was progression-free survival (PFS), and secondary objectives included overall response rate (ORR), overall survival (OS), health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and safety and toxicity profiles. RESULTS: A total of 96 patientswere randomized, and 91 patientswere treated at 14 centers in Korea. The ORR was 34.8% (16/46) for the PC arm and 17.8% (8/45) for the P arm (p=0.066). With 23.4 months of follow-up, the median PFS was 5.4 months in the PC arm and 6.4 months in the P arm (p=0.114). The median OS was 17.9 months and 15.7 months in PC and P arms, respectively (p=0.787). Adverse events ≥ grade 3 were reported in 12 patients (26.1%) in the PC arm and nine patients (20.0%) in the P arm (p=0.491). The overall time trends of HRQOL were not significantly different between the two arms. CONCLUSION: The outcomes of pemetrexed therapy in NSCLC patients with disease progression after firstline EGFR-TKI might not be improved by adding cisplatin.


Subject(s)
Arm , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Cisplatin , Disease Progression , Disease-Free Survival , Epidermal Growth Factor , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Korea , Lung Neoplasms , Lung , Pemetrexed , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , Quality of Life , ErbB Receptors , Tyrosine
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763118

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Administering the best treatment after failure of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy requires knowledge of resistance status. In this trial, treatment efficacy of osimertinib was assessed in patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) harboring the T790M resistance mutation, detected from circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) with unknown tumor mutation status. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To extract ctDNA from plasma, 15 mL of peripheral blood was withdrawn and centrifuged immediately before storage. Cobas ver. 2 and PANA Mutyper were used for ctDNA genotyping. Patients with T790M, detected from ctDNA, were enrolled and they received a once-daily administration of osimertinib 80 mg. The primary endpoint was objective response rate (ORR), and secondary endpoints were ctDNA test sensitivity, progression-free survival (PFS), duration of response (DoR), and safety. RESULTS: Eighty patients with acquired resistance to prior EGFR-TKI therapies were screened. ctDNA of 21 patients showed T790M positivity, and 19 patients were enrolled. In the response-evaluable population (n=15), ORR was 66.7% (10/15). Median PFS was 8.3 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.9 to 8.7) and median DoR was 6.8 months (95% CI, 5.3 to 8.3) in the intent-to-treat population (n=19). No subject experienced drug-related adverse event of grades ≥ 3 or required dose reduction. The sensitivity of the ctDNA tests was 56.8% using both methods and 45.9% with either method from the estimated T790M-positive cases. CONCLUSION: Osimertinib has favorable efficacy in patients with NSCLC harboring T790M, detected from ctDNA with unknown tumor mutation status, in whom disease had progressed during prior EGFR-TKI therapy.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Disease-Free Survival , DNA , Humans , Lung , Methods , Plasma , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , ErbB Receptors , Treatment Outcome
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