Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 100
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1589-1601, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927803


Gas vesicles are a unique class of gas-filled protein nanostructures which are commonly found in cyanobacteria and Halobacterium. The gas vesicles may scatter sound waves and generate harmonic signals, which enabled them to have the potential to become a novel ultrasound contrast agent. However, the current hypertonic cracking method for isolating gas vesicles contains tedious operational procedures and is of low yield, thus not suitable for large-scale application. To overcome these technical challenges, we developed a rapid and efficient method for isolating gas vesicles from Microcystis. The new H2O2-based method increased the yield by three times and shortened the operation time from 24 hours to 7 hours. The H2O2 method is not only suitable for isolation of gas vesicles from laboratory-cultured Microcystis, but also suitable for colonial Microcystis covered with gelatinous sheath. The gas vesicles isolated by H2O2 method showed good performance in ultrasound contrast imaging. In conclusion, this new method shows great potential for large-scale application due to its high efficiency and wide adaptability, and provides technical support for developing gas vesicles into a biosynthetic ultrasonic contrast agent.

Contrast Media , Cyanobacteria , Hydrogen Peroxide , Microcystis , Proteins/chemistry
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 620-631, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927732


Genetic code expansion (GCE) allows the incorporation of unnatural amino acids into proteins via using stop codons. GCE may achieve site-specific labeling of proteins in combination with the click reaction. Compared with other labeling tools such as fluorescent proteins and tagged antibodies, the compound molecules used in protein labeling by GCE technology are smaller, and therefore, may less interfere the conformational structure of proteins. In addition, through click reaction, GCE allows a 1:1 stoichiometric ratio of the target protein molecule and the fluorescent dye, and the protein can be quantified based on the fluorescence intensity. Thus, GCE technology has great advantages in the researches that require the exposition of living cells under high laser power for longer time, for example, in the context of single molecule tracing and super-resolution microscopic imaging. Meanwhile, this technology lays the foundation for improving the accuracy of positioning and molecule counting in the imaging process of living cells. This review summarized the GCE technology and its recent applications in functionally characterizing, labeling and imaging of proteins.

Amino Acids/chemistry , Fluorescent Dyes/chemistry , Genetic Code , Proteins/chemistry
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(1): e9001, Jan. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055477


Due to its various structures in bio-compounds, snake venom is the indisputable result of evolutionary stages of molecules with an increasingly complex structure, high specificity, and of great importance for medicine because of their potential. The present study proposed an underpinning examination of venom composition from nine species of venomous snakes using a useful and replicable methodology. The objective was the extension of the evaluation of protein fractions in the field up to 230 kDa to permit possible identification of some fractions that are insufficiently studied. The gel capillary electrophoresis method on the chip was performed using an Agilent 2100 bioassay with the 80 and 230-LabChip Protein kits. Interpretation of electrophoresis was performed using the Protein 2100 expert (Agilent) test software as follows: a) Protein 80 (peak size scale): 1.60, 3.5, 6.50, 15.00, 28.00, 46.00, 63.00, 95.00 kDa; b) Protein 230 (peak size scale): 4.50, 7.00, 15.00, 28.00, 46.00, 63.00, 95.00, 150.00, 240.00 kDa. The screening revealed the presence of compounds with a molecular weight greater than 80 kDa, in the case of Vipera aspis and Vipera xantina palestinae. For V. aspis, a 125 kDa molecular weight pro-coagulant protein was identified, known as being involved in the reduction of plasma clotting time without any direct activity in the fibrinogen coagulation process. The samples examined on the Protein 230-LabChip electrophoresis chip can be considered as a novelty with possible uses in medicine, requiring further approaches by advanced proteomics techniques to confirm the intimate structural features and biological properties of snake venoms.

Animals , Viper Venoms/chemistry , Proteins/chemistry , Viperidae/classification , Viper Venoms/analysis , Proteins/isolation & purification , Proteins/analysis , Electrophoresis, Capillary , Proteome/classification , Proteome/chemistry , Proteomics/methods
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 24: 1-13, 2018. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1484756


Background: Fire ant venom is a complex mixture consisting of basic piperidine alkaloids, various biologically active peptides and protein components, including a variety of major allergenic proteins. Tropical fire ant Solenopsis geminata is an important stinging ant species that causes anaphylaxis and serious medical problems. Although the biological activities of allergenic venom proteins that are unique to ant venom, particularly Solenopsis 2 and 4, are still unknown, these proteins are believed to play important roles in mediating the effects of the piperidine derivatives in the venom. Methods: In the present study, the cDNA cloning, sequencing and three-dimensional structure of Sol g 4.1 venom protein are described. The recombinant Sol g 4.1 protein (rSol g 4.1) was produced in E. coli , and its possible function as a hydrophobic binding protein was characterized by paralyzing crickets using the 50% piperidine dose (PD50). Moreover, an antiserum was produced in mice to determine the allergenic properties of Sol g 4.1, and the antiserum was capable of binding to Sol g 4.1, as determined by Western blotting. Results: The molecular weight of Sol g 4.1 protein is 16 kDa, as determined by SDS-PAGE. The complete cDNA is 414 bp in length and contains a leader sequence of 19 amino acids. The protein consists of six cysteines that presumably form three disulfide bonds, based on a predicted three-dimensional model, creating the interior hydrophobic pocket and stabilizing the structure. The rSol g 4.1 protein was expressed in inclusion bodies, as determined by SDS-PAGE. Dialysis techniques were used to refold the recombinant protein into the native form. Its secondary structure, which primarily consists of -helices, was confirmed by circular dichroism analysis, and the three-dimensional model was also verified. The results of allergenic analysis performed on mice showed that the...

Animals , Allergens , Ants/chemistry , Proteins/chemistry , Ant Venoms/chemistry
Med. leg. Costa Rica ; 34(1): 194-201, ene.-mar. 2017.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-841441


Resumen:La barrera de filtración glomerular está formada por tres capas: el endotelio fenestrado, la membrana basal glomerular y las células epiteliales especializadas, llamadas podocitos. El contenido de proteínas en la orina es muy bajo y consiste primariamente de albúmina y de otras proteínas. La alteración de los componentes de la barrera de filtración puede resultar en la proteinuria clínica. La proteinuria usualmente refleja un incremento de la permeabilidad glomerular para la albúmina y otras proteínas. Hay varios tipos de proteinuria.Las relaciones albumina/creatinina (RAC) y proteína/creatinina (RPC) en orina son marcadores importantes de daño renal. No obstante, varias guías de manejo recomiendan la identificación y cuantificación de la proteinuria usando RAC de preferencia a RPC. Además, algunas guías de manejo recomiendan repetir la medición de RAC en la identificación inicial de la albuminuria para evitar el sobrediagnóstico debido a cambios transitorios en la albuminuria.

Abstract:The glomerular filtration barrier is made up of three layers: the fenestrated endothelium, the glomerular basement membrane and the specialized epitelial cells, podocytes. The final urine protein content is very low and consists primarily of plasma albumin and other proteins. Perturbation of the components of the filtration barrier can results in the clinical proteinuria. Proteinuria usually reflects an increase in glomerular permeability for albumin and other proteins. There are several types of proteinuria.Urine albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) and protein/creatinine (PCR) are important markers of kidney damage,However several management guidelines recommend identification and quantification of proteinuria using ACR in preference to PCR. In addition, some guidelines recommend repeating ACR measurements for initial identification of albuminuria to avoid over diagnosis due to transient albuminuria changes.

Humans , Proteinuria/microbiology , Proteins/chemistry , Creatinine/analysis , Albuminuria/pathology , Kidney Diseases/microbiology , Costa Rica
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 65(5): 384-394, Sept.-Oct. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-763142


ABSTRACTBACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although many recognize that the first year of life and specifically the neonatal period are associated with increased risk of anesthetic morbidity and mortality, there are no studies directed to these pediatric subpopulations. This systematic review of the scientific literature including the last 15 years aimed to analyze the epidemiology of morbidity and mortality associated with general anesthesia and surgery in the first year of life and particularly in the neonatal (first month) period.CONTENT: The review was conducted by searching publications in Medline/PubMed databases, and the following outcomes were evaluated: early mortality in the first year of life (<1 year) and in subgroups of different vulnerability in this age group (0-30 days and 1-12 months) and the prevalence of cardiac arrest and perioperative critical/adverse events of various types in the same subgroups.CONCLUSIONS: The current literature indicates great variability in mortality and morbidity in the age group under consideration and in its subgroups. However, despite the obvious methodological heterogeneity and absence of specific studies, epidemiological profiles of morbidity and mortality related to anesthesia in children in the first year of life show higher frequency of morbidity and mortality in this age group, with the highest peaks of incidence in the neonates' anesthesia.

RESUMOJUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Embora muitos reconheçam que a idade inferior a um ano e especificamente o período neonatal estejam associados a maior risco de morbimortalidade anestésica, não existem estudos dirigidos a essas subpopulações pediátricas. Esta revisão sistemática das publicações científicas dos últimos 15 anos teve como objetivo analisar o perfil epidemiológico da morbimortalidade relacionada com a anestesia geral e cirurgia no primeiro ano de idade e em particular no período neonatal (primeiro mês de idade).CONTEúDO: A revisão foi conduzida por pesquisa de publicações nas bases de dados Medline/PubMed. Foram avaliados os seguintes desfechos: mortalidade precoce no primeiro ano de idade (< 1A) e em subgrupos de diferente vulnerabilidade nesta faixa etária (0-30 dias e 1-12 meses) e prevalência de parada cardíaca e eventos críticos/adversos perioperatórios de diversos tipos nos mesmos subgrupos.CONCLUSÕES: A literatura corrente indica grande variabilidade nos índices de mortalidade e morbidade na faixa etária em análise, bem como nos seus subgrupos. No entanto, apesar da óbvia heterogeneidade metodológica e da ausência de estudos específicos, os perfis epidemiológicos de morbimortalidade relacionada com a anestesia de crianças no primeiro ano de idade mostram frequência mais alta de morbimortalidade nessa faixa etária, com os maiores picos de incidência na anestesia de neonatos.

Binding Sites , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , Proteins/chemistry , Proteins/metabolism , Computational Biology , Databases, Protein , Models, Molecular , Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular
Braz. j. oral sci ; 14(2): 159-165, Apr.-June 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755037


Aim: To determine the relationship between the chemical composition of saliva, periodontal disease and dental calculus. Methods: An observational analytical cross-sectional study was conducted with patients over 55 years of age. Ethical principles of autonomy and risk protection were applied according to the international standards. Sociodemographic and diagnosis variables (presence of dental calculus and periodontal status) were considered to measure salivary concentrations of glucose (by the glucose oxidase/peroxidase method, amylase (by the colorimetric test), urea (by the amount of indophenol), total protein (by the Bradford method) and albumin (by the nephelometric method). Patients chewed a sterile rubber band and 3 mL of stimulated saliva were collected. The samples were stored at -5 °C, centrifuged at 2,800 rpm for 10 min, and the supernatant was removed and stored at -20 °C. Data were presented as frequencies and proportions for qualitative variables and measures of central tendency and dispersion for quantitative variables. Data were analyzed by either analysis of variance or Kruskal Wallis test . A p value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Significant relationships were observed between the concentration of salivary urea and periodontal status (p = 0.03) and the presence of dental calculus and urea (p = 0.04) was demonstrated. Conclusions: A relationship between the salivary urea concentration and the presence of periodontal disease and dental calculus is suggested.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dental Calculus/chemistry , Periodontal Diseases/diagnosis , Periodontal Diseases/epidemiology , Gingivitis/diagnosis , Gingivitis/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Saliva/chemistry , Albumins/analysis , Albumins/chemistry , Amylases/analysis , Amylases/chemistry , Glucose/analysis , Glucose/chemistry , Proteins/analysis , Proteins/chemistry , Urea/analysis , Urea/chemistry
Salud colect ; 11(1): 115-128, ene.-mar. 2015.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-746688


Los antipsicóticos no parecen revertir las causas de la esquizofrenia y, aunque son fármacos que pueden aliviar los síntomas a corto y mediano plazo, a largo plazo pueden no ser beneficiosos e incluso ser contraproducentes. Su empleo debería limitarse a situaciones agudas con agitación y tensión incapacitante. Presentan considerables efectos adversos y, ante la negativa de una persona a seguir tomándolos, adoptar una estrategia de reducción de daños apoyando y supervisando la retirada puede ser preferible a la coerción. Existen alternativas a los neurolépticos. Los prescriptores deberían estar más atentos y considerar las valoraciones que los usuarios hacen de sus efectos. El apego a las guías de tratamiento es escaso, seguramente por basarse en ensayos clinicos de calidad deficente, que deben mejorar y prolongarse en el tiempo. La raíz del problema probablemente se encuentra en la tautología sobre la etiología y naturaleza biológica de lo que llaman esquizofrenia, que realmente no parece ser más que un constructo ideológico-comercial.

Antipsychotic drugs do not appear to reverse the causes of schizophrenia, and although they can relieve symptoms in the short to medium term, in the long term they may not be beneficial and could even be counterproductive. Their use should be limited to acute situations in which agitation and tension is disabling. The drugs have significant adverse effects, and given the refusal of a person to continue taking them, a harm reduction strategy to support and monitor the withdrawal may be preferable to coercion. There are alternatives to neuroleptics. Prescribers should be more vigilant and consider the assessments of users regarding the drugs' effects. Adherence to treatment guidelines is low, probably because the guidelines are based on clinical trials of deficient quality which consequently should be improved and extended over a greater period of time. The root of the problem is likely the tautology on the etiology and biological nature of what is known as schizophrenia, which in fact does not seem to be more than a commercial and ideological construct.

Bacterial Proteins/chemistry , Biophysics/methods , DNA-Binding Proteins/chemistry , Microscopy, Atomic Force/methods , Hydrogen Bonding , Kinetics , Models, Molecular , Models, Statistical , Monte Carlo Method , Protein Conformation , Protein Denaturation , Protein Folding , Protein Structure, Secondary , Protein Structure, Tertiary , Peptostreptococcus/metabolism , Proteins/chemistry , Stress, Mechanical , Temperature , Time Factors , Ubiquitin/chemistry
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2014 Jun; 51(3): 188-200
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-154222


The complementarity plot (CP) is based on packing and electrostatics of amino acid residues buried within globular proteins and is a sensitive indicator of the harmony or disharmony of interior residues with regard to short and long range forces sustaining the native fold. As a structure validation tool, it has already been reported to be effective in detecting erroneous side-chain torsions in obsoleted structures. The current study describes the design of several local and global scores based on CP and surveys their utilities in discriminating between obsolete structures and their corresponding upgraded counterparts, detection of wrong rotamer assignments and in identifying packing anomalies. CPs are especially effective in the detection of low-intensity errors (in main-chain geometrical parameters) diffused over the entire polypeptide chain. The methodology is also used to confirm the integral role played by strategic deviations (in main-chain geometrical parameters) in maintaining fold integrity, as reversal to their corresponding ideal values (either unimodal or conformation dependent) lead to large-scale structural distortions. A special feature of this validation tool is to signal unbalanced partial charges within protein interiors. The application of CP in protein homology modeling and protein design is also demonstrated.

Algorithms , Databases, Protein , Humans , Models, Molecular , Protein Conformation , Protein Folding , Proteins/chemistry
Arq. ciênc. vet. zool. UNIPAR ; 15(1): 5-12, jan-jun. 2012. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-681421


Com o aumento da população, crescimento de renda, redução dos preços de produtos e mudanças dos hábitos alimentares, a demanda por leite e derivados tem aumentado, sendo importante melhorar a qualidade do leite e aumentar o rendimento das indústrias. Este artigo relata os resultados de um estudo no qual foram utilizadas 18.366 amostras de leite coletadas de tanques de resfriamento, entre 2007 e 2010, nos municípios de Verê, Guaraniaçú e Tapejara, localizados respectivamente nas regiões Sudoeste, Oeste e Noroeste do Estado do Paraná. Foi montado um banco de dados, a partir do qual se realizou análise de variância, para verificar os efeitos das estações do ano e das regiões sobre a qualidade do leite, bem como análise da correlação da contagem bacteriana total (CBT) e de células somáticas (CCS). Concluiu-se que o leite produzido nas estações frias do ano apresenta melhor qualidade físico-química e microbiológica (p<0,01). Quanto às regiões, o leite produzido no município de Verê foi superior em sólidos totais (ST), gordura e proteína. O município de Tapejara teve o maior índice de lactose e menor quantidade de CCS (p<0,01), e em Guaraniaçú se obteve menor CBT (p<0,01). Os níveis de gordura e proteína foram os fatores que mais interferiram no porcentual de ST (p<0,01). Já os níveis de CBT e CCS interferiram de forma negativa sobre a maioria dos parâmetros da qualidade do leite. Observou-se diminuição significativa na CBT e aumento no teor de ST, mas a CCS mostrou tendência de alta, indicando falta de controle eficiente das mastites.

The growth of human population and higher financial income, food price reduction, and changes of nutritional habits have led to the increasing demand for milk and dairy products, making important to improve milk quality and industrial productivity. This paper reports the results of a 2007-2010 study using 18,366 milk samples collected from cooling reservoirs in the cities of Verê, Guaraniaçú and Tapejara, respectivelylocated in the southwestern, western and northwestern regions of the State of Paraná, Brazil. A database was set and was utilized for the analysis of variance to verify the effects of seasons and regions on the milk quality, and for the correlation analysis of total bacterial count (TBC) and somatic cell count (SCC). It was concluded that milk produced in the cold seasons has better physical-chemical and microbiological qualities (p<0.01). Regarding the regions, milk produced in Verêpresented more total solids (TS), fat and protein. Milk from the city of Tapejara had the highest rate of lactose and lowest SCC (p<0.01), and milk from Guaraniaçu showed the least amount of CBT (p<0.01). Fat and protein levels were the most interfering factors in the percentage of ST (p<0.01), whereas TBC and SCC levels interfered negatively on most parameters of milk quality. Significant decrease ofTBC and increase of TS were observed, but SCC tended to increase, indicating lack of efficient mastitis control.

Con el aumento de la población, crecimiento de la renta, reducción de precios de los productos, cambios en los hábitos de alimentación, la demanda por la leche y productos lácteos han aumentado, así es importante mejorar la calidad de la leche y aumentar la rentabilidad de las industrias. Este artículo presenta los resultados de un estudio que empleó 18.366 muestras de leche colectadas de tanques de resfriamiento, entre 2007 y 2010, en los municipios de Verê, Guaraniaçú y Tapejara, ubicados respectivamente en las regiones Suroeste, Oeste y Noroeste del Estado de Paraná, Brasil. Se creó una base de datos, de la cual se realizó análisis de varianza para verificar los efectos de las estaciones del año y de las regiones sobre la calidad de la leche, así como análisis de la correlación de recuento total de bacterias (RTB) y recuento de células somáticas (RCS). Se concluyó que la leche producida en las estaciones frías del año presenta mejor calidad fisicoquímica y microbiológicos (p <0,01). Cuanto a las regiones, la leche producida en el municipio de Verê fue superior en sólidos totales (ST), grasa y proteína. El municipio de Tapejara tuvo la tasa más alta de lactosa y menos SCC (p <0,01), y Guaraniaçu mostró menor cantidad de TCC (p <0,01). Los niveles de grasa y proteína fueron los factores que más influyeron en el porcentaje de ST (p <0,01). Los niveles de TBC y SCC han interferido negativamente sobre la mayoría de los parámetros de calidad de la leche. Se observó disminución significativa en RTB y aumento en el tenor de ST, pero SCC ha mostrado tendencia de alta, indicando falta de control eficiente de las mastitis.

Hybrid Cells/cytology , Fats/analysis , Proteins/chemistry , Milk/classification , Food Quality
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2012 Feb; 49(1): 7-17
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-140213


Structural characteristics of numerous globular proteins in the denatured state have been reviewed using literature data. Recent more precise experiments show that in contrast to the conventional standpoint, proteins under strongly denaturing conditions do not unfold completely and adopt a random coil state, but contain significant residual ordered structure. These results cast doubt on the basis of the conventional approach representing the process of protein folding as a spontaneous transition of a polypeptide chain from the random coil state to the unique globular structure. The denaturation of proteins is explained in terms of the physical properties of proteins such as stability, conformational change, elasticity, irreversible denaturation, etc. The spontaneous renaturation of some denatured proteins most probably is merely the manifestation of the physical properties (e.g., the elasticity) of the proteins per se, caused by the residual structure present in the denatured state. The pieces of the ordered structure might be the centers of the initiation of renaturation, where the restoration of the initial native conformation of denatured proteins begins. Studies on the denaturation of proteins hardly clarify how the proteins fold into the native conformation during the successive residue-by-residue elongation of the polypeptide chain on the ribosome.

Elasticity , Protein Conformation , Protein Denaturation , Protein Folding , Proteins/chemistry
Medical Journal of the Islamic Republic of Iran. 2012; 26 (2): 45-49
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-144312


Candida species are among the most common causes of opportunistic fungal diseases. Among Candida species, Candida albicans is responsible for most infections. Having many strains, C. albicans is very polymorph. C. dubliniensis is very similar to albicans species both morphologically and physiologically. For an infection to occur, cell wall proteins play an important role as they enable yeast to adhere to host cells and begin pathogenesis. Therefore, we decided to extract these proteins and examine them through common molecular methods of protein analysis including SDS-PAGE. Initially cell wall proteins of two C. albicans strains [CBS 562 and PTCC6027] and one C. dubliniensis strain [CBS7987] were extracted by using a solution of beta-mercaptoethanol and ammonium carbonate. After dialysis against Tris-HCL buffer, SDS gel electrophoresis was performed on the proteins extract. Bands were then visualized by using three different staining methods among which one method provided improved detection. By using Coomassie Brilliant Blue staining method, proteins with molecular weight of 42, 66.2 and 200 kDa were detected. By using Silver staining method, proteins with molecular weight of 21.5, 28.5 and 37 kDa were detected. However, using combined Coomassie Brilliant Blue and Sliver staining method visualized more bands resulting in improved detection. To answer many existing questions about fungal diseases, fungi cell wall proteins are necessary to be examined. To commence such examinations, a simple step may be an SDS-PAGE performance on as many strains as possible. A combined staining method can enhance bands detection

Candida albicans/cytology , Candida/cytology , Proteins/chemistry
Braz. j. vet. res. anim. sci ; 49(5): 377-385, 2012.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-687636


Considerando as limitações dos atuais métodos de controle contra a anaplasmose bovina, o desenvolvimento de uma vacina efetiva se faz necessário. A partir do advento da análise genômica e proteômica, novas proteínas de membrana de Anaplasma marginale foram identificadas como possíveis candidatas a componentes de uma vacina, tais como, VirB9, VirB10 e Fator Termo Instavél de Elongação de Peptídeos (EF-Tu). Embora estas proteínas ainda não estejam bem caracterizadas na membrana de A. marginale, a produção destas na forma recombinante (rVirB 9, rVirB10 e rEF-Tu) tem sido realizada, mas as mesmas ainda não foram exploradas em formulações vacinais. Neste trabalho, avaliou-se o uso de rVirB9, rVirB10 e rEF-Tu emulsionadas em adjuvante Montanide em camundongos. Nas condições testadas, verificou-se a indução de forte resposta imune humoral com a produção de IgG1 e IgG2a, sendo que as proporções dos níveis de produção destas subclasses indicam predomínio de IgG1. Entretanto, esplenócitos de animais, que foram injetados com rVirB9 ou rVirB10, produziram interferon-gama acima do limite de detecção do ensaio após estimulação in vitro, sinalizando assim resposta celular específica. Assim, novas avaliações serão realizadas com a finalidade de modular o perfil de resposta imune obtido em bovinos e avaliar a proteção contra A. marginale.

Considering the limitations of current methods of anaplasmosis control, the development of a more effective vaccine is required. Previous studies, using proteomic and genomic approaches, have identified new membrane proteins in Anaplasma marginale that may be vaccine candidates. These include VirB9, VirB10 and elongation factor-Tu (EFTu). Although the role of these proteins in the membrane of A. marginale has not been properly characterized, production of the recombinant proteins rVirB9, rVirB10, and rEF-Tu has been achieved. However, these recombinant proteins have not yet been exploited in vaccine formulations. The present study describes the use of rVirB9, rVirB10 and rEF-Tu, emulsificated in adjuvant Montanide, in mice. A strong humoral immune response was induced under these conditions, with both IgG1 and IgG2a production. The IgG2a/IgG1 ratios revealed a predominance of IgG1. However, splenocytes of the animals that received rVirB9 or rVirB10 produced high levels of gamma interferon after in vitro stimulation, indicating a specific cellular immune response to these proteins. Therefore, further studies are required to adjust the profile of the immune response in order to perform tests of protection against A. marginale in cattle.

Animals , Anaplasma/pathogenicity , Mice/classification , Peptides/chemistry , Allergy and Immunology , Proteins/chemistry
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2010 Apr; 47(2): 121-123
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135255


Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and the levels of protein thiols and carbonyls were estimated in the blood samples of thyroid cancer patients (n = 20) before and after thyroidectomy, as well as in healthy controls (n = 10) to study the extent of damage caused by tumor tissue proliferation-induced oxidative stress and to ascertain that oxidative stress levels drop, when there was no proliferation. A significant decrease (p<0.001) in the levels of serum protein thiols and FRAP as well as a significant increase (p<0.001) in the levels of protein carbonyls and MPO activity in the blood of thyroid cancer patients before surgery was observed as compared to healthy controls. All the parameters studied also showed a significant difference (p<0.001) in their respective levels in thyroid cancer patients, pre- and post-thyroidectomy. These findings present the role of oxidative stress as a pathological implication of thyroid cancer.

Antioxidants/metabolism , Biomarkers/blood , Biomarkers/metabolism , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Oxidative Stress , Peroxidase/metabolism , Proteins/chemistry , Sulfhydryl Compounds/metabolism , Thyroid Neoplasms/blood , Thyroid Neoplasms/metabolism , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Thyroidectomy
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 82(1): 109-126, Mar. 2010. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-539319


Ion-specific interactions between two colloidal particles are calculated using a modified Poisson-Boltzmann (PB)equationandMonteCarlo(MC)simulations. PBequationspresentgoodresultsofionicconcentration profiles around a macroion, especially for salt solutions containing monovalent ions. These equations include not only electrostatic interactions, but also dispersion potentials originated from polarizabilities of ions and proteins. This enables us to predict ion-specific properties of colloidal systems. We compared results obtained from the modified PB equation with those from MC simulations and integral equations. Phase diagrams and osmotic second virial coefficients are also presented for different salt solutions at different pH and ionic strengths, in agreement with the experimental results observed Hofmeister effects. In order to include the water structure and hydration effect, we have used an effective interaction obtained from molecular dynamics of each ion and a hydrophobic surface combined with PB equation. The method has been proved to be efficient and suitable for describing phenomena where the water structure close to the interface plays an essential role. Important thermodynamic properties related to protein aggregation, essential in biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries, can be obtained from the method shown here.

Interações íon-específicas (dependentes do tipo de íon presente em solução) entre duas partículas coloidais são calculadas usando a equação de Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) modificada e simulações de Monte Carlo (MC). As equações de PB apresentam bons resultados de perfis de concentração nas proximidades de um macro-íon, principalmente para soluções salinas contendo íons monovalentes. Estas equações incluem não só interações eletrostáticas, mas também potenciais de dispersão, que têm origem nas polarizabilidades de íons e proteínas, permitindo a predição de propriedades íon-específicas de sistemas coloidais. Os resultados obtidos a partir da equação de PB modificada são comparados com outros obtidos por simulação de MC e por equações integrais. Diagramas de fase e o segundo coeficiente de virial são obtidos para diferentes sais e diferentes valores de pH e força iônica, em concordância com efeitos de Hofmeister observados experimentalmente. Interações efetivas obtidas por dinâmica molecular entre cada íon e uma superfície hidrofóbica foram incluídas na equação de PB, a fim de considerar a estrutura da água e efeitos de hidratação. O método mostrou-se eficiente e adequado para descrever fenômenos onde a estrutura da água nas proximidades da interface desempenha papel essencial. Propriedades termodinâmicas importantes, relacionadas com a agregação de proteínas, essenciais em biotecnologia e indústrias farmacêuticas, podem ser obtidas pelo método aqui apresentado.

Colloids/chemistry , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions , Ions/chemistry , Proteins/chemistry , Thermodynamics , Models, Chemical , Monte Carlo Method
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2008 May; 46(5): 353-7
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-62111


The nonlinear mechanism for the origin of the weak biophoton emission from biological systems is suggested. The mechanism is based on the properties of solitons that provide energy transfer and charge transport in metabolic processes. Such soliton states are formed in alpha-helical proteins. Account of the electron-phonon interaction in macromolecules results in the self-trapping of electrons in a localized soliton-like state, known as Davydov's solitons. The important role of the helical symmetry of macromolecules is elucidated for the formation, stability and dynamical properties of solitons. It is shown that the soliton with the lowest energy has an inner structure with the many-hump envelope. The total probability of the excitation in the helix is characterized by interspine oscillations with the frequency of oscillations, proportional to the soliton velocity. The radiative life-time of a soliton is calculated and shown to exceed the life-time of an excitation on an isolated peptide group by several orders of magnitude.

Biophysics/methods , Electrons , Models, Chemical , Models, Statistical , Oscillometry , Peptides/chemistry , Photons , Probability , Protein Structure, Secondary , Proteins/chemistry , Radiation , Time Factors
KMJ-Kuwait Medical Journal. 2008; 40 (1): 3-17
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-103218


Chronic diseases are repeatedly associated to accumulation in the body of glycated and lipoxidated proteins and peptides. PubMed reports in excess of 5000 papers plus about 14,000 articles about the related HbA[1c] RAGE, a member of the immunoglobulin super-family of cell surface molecules and receptor for advanced glycation end products, functions as a master switch, induces sustained activation of NF-[K]B, suppresses a series of endogenous auto-regulatory functions and converts long-lasting pro-inflammatory signals into sustained cellular dysfunction and disease. RAGE is activated by high levels of dysfunctioning proteins in body fluids and tissues and is strongly associated with chronic diseases from allergy and Alzheimer to rheumatoid arthritis and urogenital disorders. Heat-treatment, irradiation and ionization of foods increase the content in foods of advanced glycated end-products [AGE] and advances lipoxidated end-products [ALE]. Some processed foods, much like tobacco smoking are major contributors to accumulation of glycated and lipoxidated molecules in the tissues. Change of life style: avoidance of foods rich in deranged proteins and peptides and increased consumption of antioxidants, especially polyphenols counteracts such a development

Glycation End Products, Advanced , NF-kappa B , Food Irradiation/adverse effects , Proteins/chemistry , Peptides/chemistry , Flavonoids , Phenols
Acta cient. Soc. Venez. Bioanalistas Esp ; 11(1): 12-21, 2008. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-733443


Trypanosoma cruzi es el agente causal de la Enfermedad de Chagas, una entidad endémica no controlada y en crecimiento en Latinoamérica. El parásito, durante su ciclo de vida, se ve sometido a cambios bruscos en la osmolaridad. Tales situaciones de estrés osmótico ameritan sistemas fisiológicos que le permitan a estas células adaptarse y sovrevivir a la nueva situación. En distintos organismos, no de los elementos primordiales que intervienen en osmorregulación son las acuaporinas, proteínas de membrana pertenecientes a la familia MIP ("major intrinsec protein"), que permiten el paso selectivo de agua (acuaparinas clásicas) y otras moléculas no cargadas (acuagliceroporinas) a través de membranas biológicas, en función de gradientes osmóticos. En el genoma de T. cruzi existen cinco genes que presentan similitud con proteínas de la familia MIP. Una de estás ya ha sido caracterizada, TcAQP1 (Trypanosoma cruzi, acuaporina 1), un canal permeable solo al agua. En este artículo de investigación se inició el estudio de un segundo gen con similitud a acuaporina, al cual hemos denominado TcAQP2. El gen TcAQP2 codifica para una proteína de 276 aminoácios. Por medio de herramientas de bioinformática se realizó la predicción de las estructura de dicha proteína; posee características que permiten ubicarla dentro de la familia MIP. Se realizó el clonamiento y secuenciación de la TcAQP2, detectándose diez mutaciones silentes. Este hecho sugiere que se trata de mutaciones propias de la cepa de T. cruzi CL Brener utilizada en el desarrollo experimental de este trabajo. Posteriormente se realizó el subclonamiento de TcAQP2 en el plásmido de expresión en el modelo de levadura pYES.2 y se transformó en las células de saccharomyces cerevisiae. La expresión funcional de la TcAQP2 en dichas células, muestra evidencias de que está proteína interviene en osmorregulación cuando las células son expuestas a choques hiper-osmóticos e hipo-osmóticos...

Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of changes disease, es prevalent throughout Latin America. During its life cycle, the parasite undergoes extreme fluctuations in osmolarity, consequentrly physiological systems are required to assure its survival. In many organisms one of the more important systems involved in osmoregulation are aquaporins. These proteins are members of the major intrinsic protein family (MIP). Aquaporins can be divided in two groups according to its permeablity: the first one is only permeable to water (orthodox aquiaporins and the second one is permeable to water, glycerol, and other small, uncharged molecules (aquaglyceroporins). In the T cruzi genome there are 5 genes that encode proteins similar to aquaporins. One of these genes (Trypanosoma cruzi aquaporin 1, TcAQp1) has been already characerized as a channel that is only permeable to water. It was also demonstrated that TcAQP1 is involved in parasite osmoregulation. In this work, we started to investigate other gene with aquaporin similarity, which we named Trypanosoma cruzi aquaporin 2 (TcAQP2). The gene TcAQP2 encodes a protein of 276 aminoacids. The protein has six putative transmembrane domains and the two signature motifs asparagine-proline-alanine (NPA), which is the classical conserve motif in the MIP family proteins. Cloning and sequencing of the TcAQP2 gene allowed the detection of ten silent mutations in all clones analyzed, as compare to the sequence reported in data bank of the parasite, suggesting that they belong to the CL Brener strain used in this study. In order to analyze the TcAQP2 function, subcloning in the plasmid for heterologous expression in yeast (pYES.2) of this gene was performed. After transformation and functional expression alf TcAQP2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cells were exposed to osmotic stress. The results indicate that this protein is involved in osmoregulation, and suggest that TcAQP2 participate as a channer for water and/or glycerol in...

Aquaporins/agonists , Aquaporins/chemistry , Diffusion Chambers, Culture , Chagas Disease/blood , Chagas Disease/transmission , Proteins/analysis , Proteins/chemistry , Trypanosoma cruzi/genetics , Trypanosoma cruzi/chemistry , Blood Chemical Analysis , DNA , Hematology , Water-Electrolyte Balance
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-634642


The differences in intracellular and extracellular protein expressions between human prostate cancer lines LNCap and DU145 were examined. The proteins of the two cell lines were extracted and condensed by using protein extraction kits. And the intracellular and extracellular proteins were quantitatively detected on a micro-plate reader by using bicinchoninic acid (BCA) method. The proteins in cell culture fluid were qualitatively assayed by SELDI-TOF-MS. The results showed that the intracellular protein contents of LNCap cells were extremely higher than those of DU145 cells. After serum-free culture, both intracellular and extracellular protein contents of LNCap and DU145 were decreased to some extent. And the intracellular proteins were decreased by 5% in LNCap and by 36% in DU145 respectively, while the extracellular proteins were decreased by 89% in LNCap and 96% in DU145 respectively. SELDI assay revealed that there were 5 marker proteins in LNCap and 6 in DU145. Although both LNCap and DU145 cell lines originated from human prostate cancer, they had some differences in protein expression.

Cell Line, Tumor , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Prostatic Neoplasms/metabolism , Proteins/chemistry , Proteins/metabolism , Proteomics/methods , Biomarkers, Tumor
J Biosci ; 2007 Sep; 32(6): 1041-3
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-111307