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1.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 43(3): 171-178, July-sept. 2023. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521147

ABSTRACT

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is among the most diagnosed malignancies worldwide, and it is also the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Despite recent progress in screening programs, noninvasive accurate biomarkers are still needed in the CRC field. In this study, we evaluated and compared the urinary proteomic profiles of patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma and patients without cancer, aiming to identify potential biomarker proteins. Urine samples were collected from 9 patients with CRC and 9 patients with normal colonoscopy results. Mass spectrometry (label-free LC—MS/MS) was used to characterize the proteomic profile of the groups. Ten proteins that were differentially regulated were identified between patients in the experimental group and in the control group, with statistical significance with a p value ≤ 0.05. The only protein that presented upregulation in the CRC group was beta-2-microglobulin (B2M). Subsequent studies are needed to evaluate patients through different analysis approaches to independently verify and validate these biomarker candidates in a larger cohort sample. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Rectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Biomarkers, Tumor/urine , Colonic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Proteomics , Neoplasm Staging
2.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1089-1097, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980886

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Hair follicles are easily accessible and contain stem cells with different developmental origins, including mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), that consequently reveal the potential of human hair follicle (hHF)-derived MSCs in repair and regeneration. However, the role of hHF-MSCs in Achilles tendinopathy (AT) remains unclear. The present study investigated the effects of hHF-MSCs on Achilles tendon repair in rabbits.@*METHODS@#First, we extracted and characterized hHF-MSCs. Then, a rabbit tendinopathy model was constructed to analyze the ability of hHF-MSCs to promote repair in vivo . Anatomical observation and pathological and biomechanical analyses were performed to determine the effect of hHF-MSCs on AT, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and immunohistochemical staining were performed to explore the molecular mechanisms through which hHF-MSCs affects AT. Furthermore, statistical analyses were performed using independent sample t test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and one-way repeated measures multivariate ANOVA as appropriate.@*RESULTS@#Flow cytometry, a trilineage-induced differentiation test, confirmed that hHF-derived stem cells were derived from MSCs. The effect of hHF-MSCs on AT revealed that the Achilles tendon was anatomically healthy, as well as the maximum load carried by the Achilles tendon and hydroxyproline proteomic levels were increased. Moreover, collagen I and III were upregulated in rabbit AT treated with hHF-MSCs (compared with AT group; P  < 0.05). Analysis of the molecular mechanisms revealed that hHF-MSCs promoted collagen fiber regeneration, possibly through Tenascin-C (TNC) upregulation and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 downregulation.@*CONCLUSIONS@#hHF-MSCs can be a treatment modality to promote AT repair in rabbits by upregulating collagen I and III. Further analysis revealed that treatment of AT using hHF-MSCs promoted the regeneration of collagen fiber, possibly because of upregulation of TNC and downregulation of MMP-9, thus suggesting that hHF-MSCs are more promising for AT.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Rabbits , Hair Follicle , Achilles Tendon/pathology , Tendinopathy/pathology , Proteomics , Collagen Type I , Mesenchymal Stem Cells
3.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 1116-1126, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-987029

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the potential mechanisms that mediate the inhibitory effect of porcine recombinant NKlysin (prNK-lysin) against liver cancer cell metastasis.@*METHODS@#HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry was used to identify the differentially expressed proteins in prNK-lysin-treated hepatocellular carcinoma SMMOL/LC-7721 cells in comparison with the control and PBS-treated cells. GO functional annotation and KEGG pathway analysis of the differentially expressed proteins were performed using GO and KEGG databases. RT-qPCR was used to determine the mRNA expression levels of polypeptide-N-acetylgalactosaminotransferase 13 (GALNT13), transmembrane protein 51 (TMEM51) and FKBP prolyl isomerase 3 (FKBP3) in the cells, and the protein expression of FKBP3 was verified using Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#Proteomic analysis identified 1989 differentially expressed proteins in prNK-lysin-treated cells compared with the control cells, and 2753 compared with PBS-treated cells. Fifteen proteins were differentially expressed between PBS-treated and the control cells, and 1909 were differentially expressed in prNK- lysin group compared with both PBS and control groups. These differentially expressed proteins were involved mainly in the viral process, translational initiation and RNA binding and were enriched mainly in ribosome, protein process in endoplasmic reticulum, and RNA transport pathways. RT-qPCR showed that compared with the control group, prNK-lysin treatment significantly increased the mRNA expressions of GALNT13 (P < 0.05) and TMEM51 (P < 0.01) and lowered FKBP3 mRNA expression (P < 0.05). Western blotting also showed a significantly decreased expression of FKBP3 protein in prNK-lysin-treated cells (P < 0.001).@*CONCLUSION@#Treatment with prNK-lysin causes significant changes in protein expression profile of SMMOL/LC-7721 cells and inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma metastasis by downregulating FKBP3 protein and affecting the cellular oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis pathways.


Subject(s)
Animals , Swine , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , Oxidative Phosphorylation , Proteomics , Glycolysis , RNA, Messenger
4.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 910-921, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980842

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of obesity has increased worldwide in recent decades. Genetic factors are now known to play a substantial role in the predisposition to obesity and may contribute up to 70% of the risk for obesity. Technological advancements during the last decades have allowed the identification of many hundreds of genetic markers associated with obesity. However, the transformation of current genetic variant-obesity associations into biological knowledge has been proven challenging. Genomics and proteomics are complementary fields, as proteomics extends functional analyses. Integrating genomic and proteomic data can help to bridge a gap in knowledge regarding genetic variant-obesity associations and to identify new drug targets for the treatment of obesity. We provide an overview of the published papers on the integrated analysis of proteomic and genomic data in obesity and summarize four mainstream strategies: overlap, colocalization, Mendelian randomization, and proteome-wide association studies. The integrated analyses identified many obesity-associated proteins, such as leptin, follistatin, and adenylate cyclase 3. Despite great progress, integrative studies focusing on obesity are still limited. There is an increased demand for large prospective cohort studies to identify and validate findings, and further apply these findings to the prevention, intervention, and treatment of obesity. In addition, we also discuss several other potential integration methods.


Subject(s)
Humans , Proteome/metabolism , Proteomics , Prospective Studies , Obesity/genetics , Genomics , Genome-Wide Association Study
5.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 89-98, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971645

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#The study explores the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) at the governing vessel (GV) on proteomic changes in the hippocampus of rats with cognitive impairment.@*METHODS@#Healthy male rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: sham, model and EA. Cognitive impairment was induced by left middle cerebral artery occlusion in the model and EA groups. Rats in the EA group were treated with EA at Shenting (GV24) and Baihui (GV20) for 7 d. Neurological deficit was scored using the Longa scale, the learning and memory ability was detected using the Morris water maze (MWM) test, and the proteomic profiling in the hippocampus was analyzed using protein-labeling technology based on the isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ). The Western blot (WB) analysis was used to detect the proteins and validate the results of iTRAQ.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the model group, the neurological deficit score was significantly reduced, and the escape latency in the MWM test was significantly shortened, while the number of platform crossings increased in the EA group. A total of 2872 proteins were identified by iTRAQ. Differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were identified between different groups: 92 proteins were upregulated and 103 were downregulated in the model group compared with the sham group, while 142 proteins were upregulated and 126 were downregulated in the EA group compared with the model group. Most of the DEPs were involved in oxidative phosphorylation, glycolipid metabolism and synaptic transmission. Furthermore, we also verified 4 DEPs using WB technology. Although the WB results were not exactly the same as the iTRAQ results, the expression trends of the DEPs were consistent. The upregulation of heat-shock protein β1 (Hspb1) was the highest in the EA group compared to the model group.@*CONCLUSION@#EA can effect proteomic changes in the hippocampus of rats with cognitive impairment. Hspb1 may be involved in the molecular mechanism by which acupuncture improves cognitive impairment.


Subject(s)
Rats , Male , Animals , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Electroacupuncture , Proteomics , Cognitive Dysfunction/therapy , Hippocampus
6.
China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology ; (12): 336-344, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981693

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore pathogenesis of glucocortocoid-induced osteoporosis(GIOP) based on label-free mass proteomics.@*METHODS@#Twevle female Sprague-Dawley(SD) rats were randomly divided into two groups, named as sham group and GIOP group. After one-week adaptive feeding, the rats of GIOP group were administered with dexamethasone via intramuscular injection according to 2.5 mg/kg weighting, while the rats of sham group were administered with the same amount of saline, twice a week. The tibias of each group were collected after 8-week modeling and made pathological sections to confirm the success of modeling. Three samples of each group were picked up to perform label-free mass proteomics. After quality control, differentially expressed proteins were identified according to qualitative and quantitative analyses. Then gene ontology(GO) and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis, cluster analysis as well as protein-protein interaction analysis were performed using bioinformatics analysis.@*RESULTS@#Compared with sham group, the structure of bone trabecular in GIOP group showed abnormal arrangement, uneven distribution and obvious fragmentation, which could demonstrate successful modeling. A total of 47 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were identified including 20 up-regulated and 27 down-regulated proteins. The expression of protein nucleophosmin 1(NPM1), adipocyte plasma membrane associated protein (APMAP), cytochromec oxidase subunit 6A1 (COX6A1) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (ACP5) showed a significant difference between two groups. KEGG results showed DEPs were enriched on metabolism-related pathways, immune-related pathways and AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway.@*CONCLUSION@#Protein NPM1, APMAP, COX6A1 and ACP5 showed a close relationship with pathogenesis of GIOP, which could serve as potential biomarkers of GIOP. AMPK signaling pathway played an important role in the occurrence and development of GIOP, which could be regarded as potential signaling pathway to treatment GIOP.


Subject(s)
Female , Rats , Animals , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases , Proteomics , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Osteoporosis/genetics , Nuclear Proteins/adverse effects
7.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3224-3234, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981459

ABSTRACT

This study aims to investigate the efficacy and possible mechanism of Liuwei Dihuang Pills in the treatment of diminished ovarian reserve(DOR) by using proteomic techniques. Firstly, cyclophosphamide(60 mg·kg~(-1)) combined with busulfan(6 mg·kg~(-1)) was injected intraperitoneally to establish the mouse model of DOR. After drug injection, the mice were continuously observed and the success of modeling was evaluated by the disturbance of the estrous cycle. After successful modeling, the mice were administrated with the suspension of Liuwei Dihuang Pills by gavage for 28 days. At the end of the gavage, four female mice were selected and caged together with males at a ratio of 2∶1 for the determination of the pregnancy rate. Blood and ovary samples were collected from the remaining mice on the next day after the end of gavage. Hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining and transmission electron microscopy(TEM) were then employed to observe the morphological and ultrastructural changes in the ovaries. The serum levels of hormones and oxidation indicators were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Quantitative proteomics techniques were used to compare the ovarian protein expression before and after modeling and before and after the intervention with Liuwei Dihuang Pills. The results showed that Liuwei Dihuang Pills regulated the estrous cycle of DOR mice, elevated the serum levels of hormones and anti-oxidation indicators, promoted follicle development, protected the mitochondrial morphology of ovarian granulosa cells, and increased the litter size and survival of DOR mice. Furthermore, Liuwei Dihuang Pills negatively regulated the expression of 12 differentially expressed proteins associated with DOR, which were mainly involved in lipid catabolism, inflammatory response, immune regulation, and coenzyme biosynthesis. These differentially expressed proteins were significantly enriched in sphingolipid metabolism, arachidonic acid metabolism, ribosomes, ferroptosis, and cGMP-PKG signaling pathway. In summary, the occurrence of DOR and the treatment of DOR with Liuwei Dihuang Pills are associated with multiple biological pathways, mainly including oxidative stress response, inflammatory response, and immune regulation. "Mitochondria-oxidative stress-apoptosis" is the key to the treatment of DOR by Liuwei Dihuang Pills. YY1 and CYP4F3 may be the key upstream targets that trigger mitochondrial dysfunction and ROS accumulation, and the metabolism of arachidonic acid is the main signaling pathway of drug action.


Subject(s)
Female , Male , Pregnancy , Animals , Mice , Arachidonic Acid , Ovarian Reserve , Proteomics , Ovary , Lipid Metabolism
8.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 150-158, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970068

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Long-term remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) has been proven to be beneficial in multiple diseases, such as cerebral and cardiovascular diseases. However, the hyperacute and acute effects of a single RIC stimulus are still not clear. Quantitative proteomic analyses of plasma proteins following RIC application have been conducted in preclinical and clinical studies but exhibit high heterogeneity in results due to wide variations in experimental setups and sampling procedures. Hence, this study aimed to explore the immediate effects of RIC on plasma proteome in healthy young adults to exclude confounding factors of disease entity, such as medications and gender.@*METHODS@#Young healthy male participants were enrolled after a systematic physical examination and 6-month lifestyle observation. Individual RIC sessions included five cycles of alternative ischemia and reperfusion, each lasting for 5 min in bilateral forearms. Blood samples were collected at baseline, 5 min after RIC, and 2 h after RIC, and then samples were processed for proteomic analysis using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method.@*RESULTS@#Proteins related to lipid metabolism (e.g., Apolipoprotein F), coagulation factors (hepatocyte growth factor activator preproprotein), members of complement cascades (mannan-binding lectin serine protease 1 isoform 2 precursor), and inflammatory responses (carboxypeptidase N catalytic chain precursor) were differentially altered at their serum levels following the RIC intervention. The most enriched pathways were protein glycosylation and complement/coagulation cascades.@*CONCLUSIONS@#One-time RIC stimulus may induce instant cellular responses like anti-inflammation, coagulation, and fibrinolysis balancing, and lipid metabolism regulation which are protective in different perspectives. Protective effects of single RIC in hyperacute and acute phases may be exploited in clinical emergency settings due to apparently beneficial alterations in plasma proteome profile. Furthermore, the beneficial effects of long-term (repeated) RIC interventions in preventing chronic cardiovascular diseases among general populations can also be expected based on our study findings.


Subject(s)
Young Adult , Humans , Male , Proteome , Cardiovascular Diseases , Proteomics , Ischemia , Blood Coagulation
9.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1535-1545, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970625

ABSTRACT

To compare the pancreatic proteomics and autophagy between Rehmanniae Radix-and Rehmanniae Radix Praeparata-treated mice with type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2DM). The T2DM mouse model was established by high-fat diet coupled with streptozotocin(STZ, intraperitoneal injection, 100 mg·kg~(-1), once a day for three consecutive days). The mice were then randomly assigned into a control group, low-(5 g·kg~(-1)) and high-dose(15 g·kg~(-1)) Rehmanniae Radix groups, low-(150 mg·kg~(-1)) and high-dose(300 mg·kg~(-1)) catalpol groups, low-(5 g·kg~(-1)) and high-dose(15 g·kg~(-1)) Rehmanniae Radix Praeparata groups, low-(150 mg·kg~(-1)) and high-dose(300 mg·kg~(-1)) 5-hydroxymethyl furfuraldehyde(5-HMF) groups, and a metformin(250 mg·kg~(-1)) group. In addition, a normal group was also set and each group included 8 mice. The pancreas was collected after four weeks of administration and proteomics tools were employed to study the effects of Rehmanniae Radix and Rehmanniae Radix Praeparata on protein expression in the pancreas of T2DM mice. The expression levels of proteins involved in autophagy, inflammation, and oxidative stress response in the pancreatic tissues of T2DM mice were determined by western blotting, immunohistochemical assay, and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that the differential proteins between the model group and Rehmanniae Radix/Rehmanniae Radix Prae-parata group were enriched in 7 KEGG pathways, such as autophagy-animal, which indicated that the 7 pathways may be associated with T2DM. Compared with the control group, drug administration significantly up-regulated the expression levels of beclin1 and phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin(p-mTOR)/mTOR and down-regulated those of the inflammation indicators, Toll-like receptor-4(TLR4) and Nod-like receptor protein 3(NLRP3), in the pancreas of T2DM mice, and Rehmanniae Radix showed better performance. In addition, the expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase(iNOS), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2(Nrf2), and heine oxygenase-1(HO-1) in the pancreas of T2DM mice were down-regulated after drug administration, and Rehmanniae Radix Praeparata demonstrated better performance. The results indicate that both Rehmanniae Radix and Rehmanniae Radix Praeparata can alleviate the inflammatory symptoms, reduce oxidative stress response, and increase the autophagy level in the pancreas of T2DM mice, while they exert the effect on different autophagy pathways.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Streptozocin/pharmacology , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Proteomics , Inflammation , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases , Autophagy , Mammals
10.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1310-1318, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970602

ABSTRACT

In this study, the underlying mechanism of Qiwei Guibao Granules(QWGB) in the treatment of premature ovarian fai-lure(POF) was explored by the proteomics technique. Firstly, the POF model was induced in mice by intragastric administration of Tripterygium wilfordii glycosides solution at 50 mg·kg~(-1) for 14 days. Ten days prior to the end of the modeling, the estrous cycle of mice was observed every day to evaluate the success of modeling. From the 1st day after modeling, the POF model mice were treated with QWGB by gavage every day and the treatment lasted four weeks. On the 2nd day after the end of the experiment, blood was collected from the eyeballs and the serum was separated by centrifugation. The ovaries and uterus were collected and the adipose tissues were carefully stripped. The organ indexes of the ovaries and uterus of each group were calculated. The serum estrogen(E_2) level of mice in each group was detected by ELISA. Protein samples were extracted from ovarian tissues of mice, and the differential proteins before and after QWGB intervention and before and after modeling were analyzed by quantitative proteomics using tandem mass tags(TMT). As revealed by the analysis of differential proteins, QWGB could regulate 26 differentially expressed proteins related to the POF model induced by T. wilfordii glycosides, including S100A4, STAR, adrenodoxin oxidoreductase, XAF1, and PBXIP1. GO enrichment results showed that the 26 differential proteins were mainly enriched in biological processes and cellular components. The results of KEGG enrichment showed that those differential proteins were involved in signaling pathways such as completion and coalescence cascades, focal adhesion, arginine biosynthesis, and terpenoid backbone biosynthesis. The complement and coalescence cascades signaling pathway was presumably the target pathway of QWGB in the treatment of POF. In this study, the proteomics technique was used to screen the differential proteins of QWGB in the treatment of POF in mice induced by T. wilfordii glycosides, and they were mainly involved in immune regulation, apoptosis regulation, complement and coagulation cascade reactions, cholesterol metabolism, and steroid hormone production, which may be the main mechanisms of QWGB in the treatment of POF.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Mice , Animals , Primary Ovarian Insufficiency/chemically induced , Proteomics , Signal Transduction , Glycosides/adverse effects
11.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 304-317, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970376

ABSTRACT

Candida albicans is one of the major causes of invasive fungal infections and a serious opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised individuals. The antimicrobial peptide AMP-17 has prominent anti-Candida activity, and proteomic analysis revealed significant differences in the expression of cell wall (XOG1) and oxidative stress (SRR1) genes upon the action of AMP-17 on C. albicans, suggesting that AMP-17 may exert anti-C. albicans effects by affecting the expression of XOG1 and SRR1 genes. To further investigate whether XOG1 and SRR1 genes were the targets of AMP-17, C. albicans xog1Δ/Δ and srr1Δ/Δ mutants were constructed using the clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeats-associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system. Phenotypic observations revealed that deletion of two genes had no significant effect on C. albicans growth and biofilm formation, whereas XOG1 gene deletion affected in vitro stress response and mycelium formation of C. albicans. Drug sensitivity assay showed that the MIC80 values of AMP-17 against xog1Δ/Δ and srr1Δ/Δ mutants increased from 8 μg/mL (for the wild type C. albicans SC5314) to 16 μg/mL, while the MIC80 values against srr1Δ/Δ: : srr1 revertants decreased to the level of the wild type SC5314. In addition, the ability of AMP-17 to inhibit biofilm formation of both deletion strains was significantly reduced compared to that of wild type SC5314, indicating that the susceptibility of the deletion mutants to AMP-17 was reduced in both the yeast state and during biofilm formation. These results suggest that XOG1 and SRR1 genes are likely two of the potential targets for AMP-17 to exert anti-C. albicans effects, which may facilitate further exploration of the antibacterial mechanism of novel peptide antifungal drugs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Candida albicans , Antimicrobial Peptides , Proteomics , Peptides/pharmacology , Transcription Factors/metabolism , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology
12.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 99-105, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922581

ABSTRACT

The abnormality of platelet function plays an important role in the pathogenesis and evolution of blood stasis syndrome (BSS). The explanation of its mechanism is a key scientific issue in the study of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases and treatment. System biology technology provides a good technical platform for further development of platelet multi-omics, which is conducive to the scientific interpretation of the biological mechanism of BSS. The article summarized the pathogenesis of platelets in BSS, the mechanism of action of blood activating and stasis resolving drugs, and the application of genomics, proteomics, and metabonomics in platelet research, and put forward the concept of "plateletomics in BSS". Through the combination and cross-validation of multi-omics technology, it mainly focuses on the clinical and basic research of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases; through the interactive verification of multi-omics technology and system biology, it mainly focuses on the platelet function and secretion system. The article systematically explains the molecular biological mechanism of platelet activation, aggregation, release, and other stages in the formation and development of BSS, and provides a new research idea and method for clarifying the pathogenesis of BSS and the mechanism of action of blood activating and stasis resolving drugs.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets , Hemostasis , Platelet Activation , Proteomics , Technology
13.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 961-975, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927757

ABSTRACT

Chromatography is a basic process in the current proteomics workflow, and the retention time alignment of the chromatogram is one of the important steps to effectively improve the identification and quantification accuracy. After years of development, a series of algorithms for retention time alignment have been developed. This review summarizes the advances of chromatographic retention time alignment algorithms and tools for proteomics analysis from the perspective of proteomics users, and discusses the development and future application directions.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Proteomics/methods
14.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 460-477, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927722

ABSTRACT

In recent years, the interaction mechanisms underpinning the synthetic microbial co-culture systems have gained increasing attention due to their potentials in various biotechnological applications. Exploration of the inter-species mechanisms underpinning the synthetic microbial co-culture system could contribute to a better understanding of the theoretical basis to further optimize the existing co-culture systems, and design new synthetic co-culture system for large-scale application. OMICS technologies such as genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics could analyze the biological processes in a high throughput manner. Multi-omics analysis could achieve a "global view" of various members in the microbial co-culture systems, which presents opportunities in understanding synthetic microbial consortia better. This article summarizes recent advances in understanding the mechanisms of synthetic microbial co-culture systems using omics technologies, from the aspects of metabolic network, energy metabolism, signal transduction, membrane transport, stress response, community stability and structural rationality. All these findings could provide important theoretical basis for future application of the microbial co-culture systems with the aids of emerging biotechnologies such as synthetic biology and genome editing.


Subject(s)
Coculture Techniques , Genomics , Metabolomics , Proteomics , Synthetic Biology
15.
São Paulo; s.n; 2022. 120 p. tab, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, Inca | ID: biblio-1396817

ABSTRACT

O câncer de cólon é uma das principais causas de morte por câncer em todo mundo e aproximadamente 50% dos pacientes desenvolvem metástases hepáticas durante o curso da doença. Ainda que a ressecção cirúrgica proporcione sobrevida de 5 anos ao redor de 40%, a maior parte dos pacientes apresenta doença irressecável ao diagnóstico. Neste caso, o cenário é devastador devido à resistência das células tumorais ao tratamento padrão com quimioterapia e/ou anticorpo monoclonal. Apesar dos avanços alcançados pelo rastreamento genômico das metástases, o conhecimento sobre o envolvimento de transcritos e proteínas específicas na atividade de sinalização e recrutamento de populações imunes ainda é limitado nessa doença. Considerando o grande potencial de descoberta e inovação que pode ser alcançado, este projeto propôs o desenvolvimento de uma meta-análise de dados públicos para a exploração de metástases hepáticas e a caracterização proteômica de metástases hepáticas inicialmente irressecáveis em busca de alvos promissores que possam ser explorados em novas opções terapêuticas. As principais etapas metodológicas incluem (1) desenvolvimento de um modelo de integração de dados para a obtenção, processamento e análise de aproximadamente 3.5 mil amostras de RNA-seq, microarray e proteômica de metástases hepáticas inicialmente ressecáveis, tumores primários do cólon e tecidos não-neoplásicos, (2) rastreamento por espectrometria de massas de 30 biópsias pareadas, sendo 15 de metástases hepáticas inicialmente irressecáveis e 15 de tecidos não-neoplásicos adjacentes, (3) investigação de potenciais moduladores da sinalização oncogênica associada à resistência à terapia e (4) exploração dos resultados em um conjunto independente com aproximadamente 138 mil células obtidas por single-cell RNA-seq em busca de associações entre alvos, vias de sinalização e populações imunes. Após a análise de espectrometria de massas e integração de dados da metaanálise, das 46 proteínas diferencialmente reguladas entre metástases hepáticas inicialmente irressecáveis e tecidos não-neoplásicos, TGFB1, CDH2, APOA1, TNFR2, EGFR, MDH2, ITIH2, YWHAZ, PCBP1, TOP2A e ENO1 (todas com aumento de regulação nas metástases) e CXCL14, PLA2G2A e CAV1 (com diminuição de regulação nas metástases) prosseguiram na análise. Dessas, PLA2G2A e CAV1 não foram estatisticamente confirmadas após comparação com cinco estudos independentes. Também foi identificada a ativação nas metástases de importantes vias como JAK-STAT (z-score=3,18), VEGF (z-score=2,67), WNT (z-score=3,22), PI3K (z-score=3,99), MAPK (z-score=2,85), EGFR (z-score=2,49) e NFkB (zscore=4,11). Em seguida observamos pela análise de single-cell RNA-seq que a presença de TGFB1, TNFR2 e EGFR estava associada a maior polarização de neutrófilos e células Tregs em metástases hepáticas, sugerindo uma participação desses alvos no recrutamento dessas populações imunes ou em conjunto durante o desenvolvimento, estabelecimento dessas células no fígado e progressão da doença. Tanto TGFB1 (p=0,01) quanto TNFR2 (p=0,048) foram associados a pior sobrevida global em pacientes metastáticos e apresentaram AUC=0,95 na separação entre câncer primário no cólon e metástases no fígado. Especificamente sobre a comparação entre metástases inicialmente ressecáveis e irressecáveis, apesar de termos identificado alguns alvos com mais de 10-fold de diferença (YWHAZ, AHNAK, HNRNPH1, PCBP1 e TGFB1) apenas TGFB1 prosseguiu em todas as análises, porém, esses resultados sugerem a exploração posterior desses candidatos em novos estudos. Quando buscamos por alvos relacionados à resistência à terapia, nossa estratégia selecionou 32 proteínas diferencialmente reguladas nas metástases resistentes, com envolvimento de CDH2 (p=0,002), CXCL14 (p=0,05), SERPINA1 (p=0,012) e LRGR (p=0,049) com pior sobrevida global em pacientes metastáticos. Nesses tumores também foi observada uma tendência de ativação das vias TGF-ß e TNF-α, já descritas na literatura devido a participação no desenvolvimento e progressão de metástases, além de favorer um perfil de resistência às células tumorais. Por meio de uma análise de deconvolução também observamos maior presença de células Tregs em pacientes resistentes. Essa relação entre Tregs/LGR5 também já foi associada a pior prognóstico em outros tipos de cânceres e suportam uma participação de ambos em um possível mecanismo de resistência desses tumores. Com base nos resultados obtidos, acreditamos oferecer um conjunto de dados inéditos que podem modificar o prognóstico e diagnóstico das metástases hepáticas, bem como contribuir para que os pacientes tenham novas opções terapêuticas com melhora na sobrevida


Colon cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death worldwide and approximately 50% of patients develop liver metastases during the course of the disease. Although surgical resection provides a 5-year survival rate of around 40%, most patients have unresectable disease at diagnosis. In this case, the scenario is devastating due to the resistance of tumor cells to standard treatment with chemotherapy and/or monoclonal antibody. Despite the advances achieved by genomic tracking of metastases, the involvement of specific transcripts and proteins in the signaling activity and recruitment of immune populations is still limited in this disease. Considering the great potential for discovery and innovation that can be achieved, this project proposed the development of a meta-analysis for the exploration of liver metastases and the proteomic characterization of initially unresectable liver metastases in search of promising targets that can be explored in new therapeutics options. Key methodological steps include (1) development of a data integration model for obtaining, processing and analyzing approximately 3,500 RNA-seq, microarray and proteomic samples from initially resectable liver metastases, primary colon tumors and non-neoplastic tissues, (2) mass spectrometry screening of 30 paired biopsies, 15 from initially unresectable liver metastases and 15 from adjacent non-neoplastic tissues, (3) investigation of potential modulators of oncogenic signaling associated with therapy resistance, and (4) exploration of the results in an independent pool of approximately 138,000 cells obtained by single-cell RNA-seq in search of associations between targets, signaling pathways and immune populations. After mass spectrometry analysis and integration of metaanalysis data, of the 46 differentially regulated proteins between initially unresectable liver metastases and non-neoplastic tissues, TGFB1, CDH2, APOA1, TNFR2, EGFR, MDH2, ITIH2, YWHAZ, PCBP1, TOP2A and ENO1 (all with upregulation in metastases) and CXCL14, PLA2G2A and CAV1 (with downregulation in metastases) continued in the analysis. Of these, PLA2G2A and CAV1 were not statistically confirmed after comparison with five independent studies. We identified activation of important pathways such as JAK-STAT (zscore=3.18), VEGF (z-score=2.67), WNT (z-score=3.22), PI3K (z-score=3.99), MAPK (z- score=2.85), EGFR (z-score=2.49) and NFkB (z-score=4.11). Then we observed by single-cell RNA-seq analysis that the presence of TGFB1, TNFR2 and EGFR was associated with greater polarization of neutrophils and Treg cells in liver metastases, suggesting a participation of these targets in the recruitment of these immune populations or together during development, establishment of these cells in the liver and disease progression. Both TGFB1 (p=0.01) and TNFR2 (p=0.048) were associated with worse overall survival in patients with metastatic disease and had AUC=0.95 separating primary colon cancer from liver metastases. Specifically, regarding the comparison between initially resectable and unresectable metastases, although we identified some targets with more than 10-fold difference (YWHAZ, AHNAK, HNRNPH1, PCBP1 and TGFB1) only TGFB1 continued in all analyses, however, these results suggest the exploration of these candidates in further studies. When looking for targets related to therapy resistance, our strategy selected 32 proteins differentially regulated in resistant metastases, with involvement of CDH2 (p=0.002), CXCL14 (p=0.05), SERPINA1 (p=0.012) and LRGR (p=0.049) with poor overall survival in metastatic patients. In these tumors, a tendency of activation of the TGF-ß and TNF-α pathways was also observed, already described in the literature due to their participation in the development and progression of metastases, in addition to favoring a resistance profile to tumor cells. By means of a deconvolution analysis, we also observed a greater presence of Treg cells in resistant patients. This relationship between Tregs/LGR5 has also been associated with a worse prognosis in other types of cancers and supports the participation of both in a possible mechanism of resistance in these tumors. Based on the results obtained, we believe to offer a set of unpublished data that can modify the prognosis and diagnosis of liver metastases, as well as contribute to patients having new therapeutic options with improved survival


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Colonic Neoplasms , Proteomics , Prognosis , Neoplasm Metastasis
16.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2022. 66 p. graf, ilus.
Thesis in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1397067

ABSTRACT

Neutrophils are polymorphonuclear leukocytes that play a key role in the organism defense. These cells enroll in a range of actions to ensure pathogen elimination and orchestrate both innate and adaptative immune responses. The main physiological structures of neutrophils are their storage organelles that are essential since the cells activation and participate in all their functions. The storage organelles are divided into 2 types: granules and secretory vesicles. The granules are subdivided into azurophilic, specific and gelatinase. The granules are distinguished by their protein content, and since they play an important role on the neutrophil function, the knowledge of the proteins stored in these organelles can help to better understand these cells. Some proteins are present in high abundance and are used as markers for each storage organelle. These proteins are myeloperoxidase (MPO) for azurophil granules, neutrophil gelatinase associated with lipocalin-2 (NGAL) and lactoferrin (LTF) for specific granules, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) for gelatinase granules and alkaline phosphatase (AP) for secretory vesicles. The isolation of neutrophils granules, however, is challenging and the existing procedures rely on large sample volumes, about 400 mL of peripheral blood or 3 x 108 neutrophils, not allowing for multiple biological and technical replicates. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a miniaturized neutrophil granules isolation method and to use biochemical assays, mass spectrometry-based proteomics and a machine learning approach to investigate the protein content of the neutrophils storage organelles. With that in mind, 40 mL of the peripheral blood of three apparently healthy volunteers were collected. The neutrophils were isolated, disrupted using nitrogen cavitation and organelles were fractionated with a discontinuous 3-layer Percoll density gradient. The presence of granules markers in each fraction was assessed using western blot , gelatin zymography and enzymatic assays. The isolation was proven successful and allowed for a reasonable separation of all neutrophils storage organelles in a gradient of less than 1 mL, about 37 times smaller than the methodsdescribed in the literature. Moreover, mass spectrometry-based proteomics identified 369 proteins in at least 3 of the 5 samples, and using a machine learning strategy, the localization of 140 proteins was predicted with confidence. Furthermore, this study was the first to investigate the proteome of neutrophil granules using technical and biological replicates, creating a reliable database for further studies. In conclusion, the developed miniaturized method is reproducible, cheaper, and reliable. In addition, it provides a resource for further studies exploring neutrophil granules protein content and mobilization during activation with different stimuli


Neutrófilos são leucócitos polimorfonucleares que possuem papel fundamental na defesa do organismo. Essas células desempenham diversas ações a fim de assegurar a eliminação de um patógeno e, além disso, orquestram a resposta imune inata e adaptativa. O conjunto composto pelos grânulos de armazenamento e as vesículas secretórias compõe a principal estrutura fisiológica dos neutrófilos. Estes componentes são essenciais desde a ativação celular, participando de todas as funcionalidades desta célula. Os grânulos são subdivididos em azurófilos, específicos e gelatinase. Eles podem ser distinguidos por meio de seu conteúdo proteico e, como são importantes na funcionalidade dos neutrófilos, identificar quais proteínas são armazenadas nestas organelas é imprescindível para entender melhor essa célula como um todo. Algumas proteínas, estão presentes de forma abundante e, portanto, são utilizadas como marcadores dos grânulos. Tais proteínas são mieloperoxidase (MPO) para os grânulos azurófilos, gelatinase de neutrófilo associada a lipocalina (NGAL) e lactoferrina (LTF) para os específicos, metaloproteinase de matrix 9 (MMP9) para os grânulos de gelatinase e fosfatase alcalina (AP) para as vesículas secretórias. Isolar estas estruturas, no entanto, é desafiador visto que os protocolos existentes na literatura utilizam grandes volumes de amostra, cerca de 400 mL de sangue ou 3 x 108 neutrófilos, para apenas um isolamento, impedindo a realização de replicatas técnicas e biológicas. Desta forma, o objetivo do presente estudo foi desenvolver um protocolo miniaturizado de isolamento dos grânulos neutrofílicos e utilizar métodos bioquímicos, de proteômica e machine learning para investigar o conteúdo proteico destas estruturas celulares. Para isto, 40 mL de sangue periférico de três voluntários aparentemente saudáveis foi coletado. Os neutrófilos foram então isolados, lisados com cavitação de nitrogênio e o fracionamento subcelular foi realizado baseado em um gradiente descontínuo de 3 camadas de Percoll. O método de isolamento foi avaliado através da investigação dos marcadores utilizando western blotting (WB), zimografia de gelatina e ensaios enzimáticos em cada fração coletada. O isolamento demonstrou-se eficiente e permitiu uma ótima separação dos grânulosem um gradiente menor que 1 mL, cerca de 37 vezes menor que os métodos atualmente descritos na literatura. Além disso, a análise proteômica foi capaz de identificar 369 proteínas presentes em pelo menos 3 das 5 réplicas investigadas e, utilizando ferramentas de machine learning, 140 proteínas foram classificadas como pertencentes a um dos tipos de grânulos ou vesícula secretória com alto nível de confiabilidade. Por fim, o presente estudo foi o primeiro a investigar o proteoma dos grânulos utilizando replicatas técnicas e biológicas, criando e fornecendo uma base de dados robusta que poderá ser utilizada em estudos futuros. Conclui-se, portanto, que a metodologia miniaturizada desenvolvida é eficaz, reprodutível e mais barata, além de permitir estudos mais complexos e profundos sobre o proteoma dos grânulos dos neutrófilos em diferentes momentos celulares, tais como quando ativados via estímulos distintos


Subject(s)
Proteomics/instrumentation , Methodology as a Subject , Neutrophils/classification , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Cavitation , Blotting, Western/instrumentation , Gelatinases/analysis , Alkaline Phosphatase/adverse effects , Machine Learning/classification
17.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2022. 103 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1397316

ABSTRACT

The inverse relationship between HDL-C (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) and cardiovascular disease is well established. However, it is consensus that the cholesterol content present in HDL does not capture its complexity, and other metrics need to be explored. HDL is a heterogeneous, protein-enriched particle with functions going beyond lipid metabolism. In this way, its protein content seems to be attractive to investigate its behavior in the face of pathologies. Many of the proteins with important function in HDL are in low abundance (<1% of total proteins), which makes their detection challenging. Quantitative proteomics allows detecting proteins with high precision and robustness in complex matrix. However, quantitative proteomics is still poorly explored in the context of HDL. In this sense, in the second chapter of this thesis, the analytical performance of two quantitative methodologies was carefully investigated. These methods achieved adequate linearity and high precision using labeled peptides in a pool HDL, in addition to comparable ability to differentiate proteins from HDL subclasses of healthy subjects. Another bottleneck that waits for a solution in proteomics is the lack of standardization in data processing and analysis after mass spectrometry acquisition. In addition, interest in the cardioprotective properties of omega-3 is growing, but little is known about its effects on the HDL proteome. Thus, in the third chapter of this thesis, we compared five protein quantification strategies using Skyline and MaxDIA software platforms in order to investigate the HDL proteome from mice submitted to a high-fat diet supplemented or not with omega-3. MaxDIA with label-free quantification (MaxLFQ) achieved high precision to show that polyunsaturated fatty acids remodel the HDL proteome to a less inflammatory profile. Therefore, the two studies presented in this thesis begin to open new paths for a deeper and more reliable understanding of HDL, both at the level of protein quantification by mass spectrometry and after data acquisition


A inversa relação entre HDL-C (do inglês, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) e doenças cardiovasculares é bem estabelecida. No entanto, é consenso que o conteúdo de colesterol presente na HDL não captura sua complexidade, e outras métricas precisam ser exploradas. A HDL é uma partícula heterogênea, enriquecida em proteínas, com funções que vão além do metabolismo de lipídeos. Dessa forma, seu conteúdo proteico parece ser mais atrativo para exprimir seu comportamento frente às patologias. Muitas das proteínas com função importante estão em baixa abundância (<1% do total de proteínas), o que torna a detecção desafiadora. Métodos quantitativos de proteômica permitem detectar proteínas com alta precisão e robustez em matrizes complexas. No entanto, a proteômica quantitativa ainda é pouco explorada no contexto da HDL. Nesse sentido, no segundo capítulo dessa tese, a performance analítica de dois métodos quantitativos foi criteriosamente investigada, os quais alcançaram adequada linearidade e alta precisão usando peptídeos marcados em um pool de HDL, além de comparável habilidade em diferenciar as proteínas das subclasses da HDL de indivíduos saudáveis. Outro gargalo que aguarda por solução em proteômica é a falta de padronização no processamento e análise de dados após a aquisição por espectrometria de massas. Além disso, é crescente o interesse das propriedades cardioprotetivas do ômega-3, porém pouco se conhece sobre seus efeitos no proteoma da HDL. Então, no terceiro capítulo dessa tese, comparamos cinco estratégias de quantificação de proteínas utilizando os softwares Skyline e MaxDIA com o intuito de comparar o proteoma da HDL de camundongos submetidos a uma dieta hiperlipídica suplementados ou não com ômega-3. MaxDIA com quantificação label-free (MaxLFQ) apresentou alta precisão para mostrar que o ômega-3 remodela o proteoma da HDL para um perfil menos inflamatório. Portanto, os dois estudos apresentados nessa tesa começam a abrir novos caminhos para o entendimento mais profundo e confiável da HDL tanto por meio da quantificação das proteínas por espectrometria de massas quanto após à aquisição dos dados


Subject(s)
Proteomics/instrumentation , Hyperlipidemias/pathology , Cholesterol, HDL/analysis , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Cardiovascular Diseases/pathology , Diet/classification , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects
18.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2022. 172 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1378625

ABSTRACT

The solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation that reaches the Earth is composed of 95% of UVA (320 to 400 nm) and 5% of UVB (280 to 320 nm) radiation. UVB is carcinogenic, generating potentially mutagenic DNA lesions. The solar UVA radiation also causes DNA damage, but this fact does not fully account for its biological impact. UVA is absorbed by non-DNA cellular chromophores, generating reactive oxygen species such as singlet oxygen. Knowing the proteome mediates stress responses in cells, here we investigated the cellular effects of a non-cytotoxic dose of UVA radiation, equivalent to about 20 minutes of midday sun exposure, on the proteome of human keratinocytes. Using a combination of mass spectrometry-based proteomics, bioinformatics, and conventional biochemical assays, we analyzed two aspects of UVA-induced stress: spatial remodeling of the proteome in subcellular compartments 30 minutes after stress and long-term changes in protein levels and secretion (24 hours and 7 days postirradiation). In the first part of this thesis, we quantified and assigned subcellular localization for over 3000 proteins, of which about 600 potentially redistribute upon UVA exposure. Protein redistributions were accompanied by redox modulations, mitochondrial fragmentation and DNA damage. In the second part of the work, our results showed that primary human keratinocytes enter senescence upon exposure to a single dose of UVA, mounting antioxidant and inflammatory responses. Cells under UVA-induced senescence further elicit paracrine responses in neighboring premalignant HaCaT epithelial cells via inflammatory mediators. Altogether, these results reiterate the role of UVA radiation as a potent metabolic stressor in the skin


A radiação ultravioleta (UV) solar que atinge a superfície terrestre é composta por 95% de radiação UVA (320 a 400 nm) e 5% de radiação UVB (280 a 320 nm). A radiação UVB é carcinogênica e gera lesões potencialmente mutagênicas no DNA. A radiação UVA solar também gera danos no DNA, mas a genotoxicidade dessa radiação não explica inteiramente o seu impacto biológico. Atualmente, sabe-se que a radiação UVA é absorvida por cromóforos celulares, gerando espécies reativas de oxigênio, como o oxigênio singlete. Sabendo que o proteoma é um mediador de respostas ao estresse celular, nós investigamos os efeitos celulares de uma dose não-citotóxica de radiação UVA, equivalente a cerca de 20 minutos de exposição ao sol, no proteoma de queratinócitos humanos. Utilizando espectrometria de massas, bioinformática e ensaios bioquímicos convencionais, nós analisamos dois aspectos do estresse induzido por radiação UVA: o remodelamento espacial do proteoma 30 minutos depois do estresse e alterações nos níveis e na secreção de proteínas no longo prazo (24 horas e 7 dias depois da irradiação). Na primeira parte desta tese, nós quantificamos e atribuímos classificações de localização subcelular a mais de 3000 proteínas. Dentre essas proteínas, 600 tem potencialmente a sua distribuição subcelular alterada em resposta à radiação. As redistribuições subcelulares são acompanhadas de modulações redox, fragmentação mitocondrial e danos no DNA. Na segunda parte da tese, os nossos resultados mostraram que queratinócitos humanos primários entram em senescência sob exposição a uma única dose de radiação UVA, montando respostas antioxidantes e pró-inflamatórias. Células sob senescência induzida por UVA, por sua vez, desencadeiam respostas parácrinas em queratinócitos pré-tumorais (células HaCaT) por meio de mediadores inflamatórios. Em conjunto, esses resultados reiteram o papel da radiação UVA como um potente estressor metabólico em células da pele


Subject(s)
Skin , Ultraviolet Rays/adverse effects , Keratinocytes/chemistry , Proteomics/classification , Radiation Dosage , Mass Spectrometry/methods , DNA , Epithelial Cells/classification , Genotoxicity/adverse effects , HaCaT Cells/classification , Antioxidants/adverse effects
19.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2022. 86 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1378701

ABSTRACT

Responsável por milhões de óbitos anuais e um grande custo para a saúde pública, o câncer é a segunda maior causa de mortes no mundo. Dentre seus diversos tipos, o câncer de pulmão, além da alta incidência, é um dos mais letais. A exposição a substâncias tóxicas provenientes da combustão de matéria orgânica, assim como o consumo de cigarro, são os principais responsáveis pela alta incidência de câncer de pulmão. Dentre estas substâncias, está o benzo[α]pireno (B[α]P), um carcinógeno completo, ou seja, capaz de iniciar e promover o processo de carcinogênese. Resultados anteriores obtidos pelo grupo demonstraram que células BEAS-2B expostas a 1 µM de B[α]P apresentaram alterações das concentrações de metabólitos intracelulares, indução de estresse redox e hipermetilação do DNA. A exposição a 1 µM de nicotinamida ribosídeo (NR), um dos precursores de NAD+, foi capaz de proteger as células BEAS-2B contra a transformação induzida por B[α]P, além de impedir totalmente que células não expostas a B[α]P formassem colônias em soft-agar. A utilização da proteômica neste trabalho permitiu verificar a abundância das proteínas nos quatro diferentes grupos de exposição: Controle, B[α]P, B[α]P + NR e NR. Após 120 h de exposição as células foram coletadas, as proteínas extraídas e preparadas para análise. Foram descobertas 3024 proteínas posteriormente analisadas com o objetivo de elucidar vias possivelmente envolvidas na proteção contra o processo de transfomação maligna. Os grupos NR e Controle demonstram ser mais parecidos em relação ao seu conteúdo, enquanto os grupos B[α]P e B[α]P + NR foram mais semelhantes entre si. A análise de proteínas exclusivas revelou menos processos relacionados ao reparo de DNA no grupo tratado apenas com B[α]P quando comparado com B[α]P + NR. A análise estatística do total de proteínas utilizando o teste ANOVA (p < 0,05, N = 5) revelou 564 proteínas diferencialmente expressas entre os grupos. A clusterização nos permitiu observar a diferença na abundância de proteínas entre os quatro tratamentos. As proteínas estão envolvidas em funções como a regulação do metabolismo, resposta a estresse, transdução de sinal, regulação de expressão gênica e morte celular. Um dos clusters (cluster 1), contendo 59 proteínas, revelou poucos processos na análise de enriquecimento, mas as proteínas contidas nele apresentam funções como controle da divisão celular, apoptose e proteção ao estresse redox. Nele podemos observar que, no geral, o tratamento com B[α]P aumentou a abundância de algumas proteínas, o que foi revertido no grupo B[α]P + NR. O tratamento apenas com NR diminuiu a abundância das proteínas contidas nesse cluster. Outro cluster (cluster 4) apresentou 51 proteínas de abundância diminuída durante a exposição ao B[α]P, o que se reverteu no grupo B[α]P + NR. As proteínas desse cluster estão envolvidas em etapas importantes da via glicolítica, de crescimento, adesão, migração e invasão celular. Apesar de ser descrito que a exposição a NR pode aumentar a eficiência do reparo de DNA, os resultados apresentados nesse trabalho indicam que o efeito protetor pode estar relacionado com a modulação do ciclo celular ou alterações na adesão celular


Responsible for millions of annual deaths and a great health expense, cancer is the second leading cause of death in the world. Among its many types, lung cancer, besides its high incidence, is also one of the most lethal. Exposure to toxic substances resulting from the combustion of organic matter, as well as cigarette consumption, are the mainly responsible for the high incidence of lung cancer. One of these substances is benzo[α]pyrene (B[α]P), a complete carcinogen, able to initiate and promote the carcinogenesis process. Results obtained previously demonstrated that BEAS-2B cells exposed to 1 µM BaP presented alterations in the levels of intracellular metabolites, induction of oxidative stress, and hypermethylation of DNA. The exposure to 1 µM nicotinamide riboside (NR), one of the precursors of NAD+, was able to protect BEAS-2B cells against the transformation induced by B[α]P, moreover, it also totally prevented the colonies formation on soft agar in cells not exposed to B[α]P. The use of proteomics allowed us to verify the abundance of proteins in the four different exposure groups: Control, B[α]P, B[α]P + NR e NR. After 120h of exposure, the cells were collected followed by the extraction of the proteins. A total of 3024 proteins were identified and analyzed aiming to elucidate possible pathways involved in the protective effect against the malignant transformation induced by B[α]P. The NR and Control groups showed to be more similar, while B[α]P and B[α]P + NR were more similar. The analysis of exclusive proteins revealed fewer processes related to DNA repair in B[α]P when compared with B[α]P + NR. The statistical analysis of the total proteins using the ANOVA test (p <0.5, N = 5) revealed 564 proteins differentially expressed between the groups. The heatmap showed the difference in protein abundance between the four treatments. Proteins are involved in functionssuch asthe regulation of metabolism, stress response, signal transduction, regulation of gene expression, and cell death. One of the clusters (cluster 1), containing 59 proteins, revealed a few processes in the enrichment analysis, but the proteins contained in it have functions such as control of cell division, apoptosis, and protection from redox stress. It is possible to observe, in general, treatment with B[α]P increased the abundance of some proteins, which was partially reversed in group B[α]P + NR. On the other hand, the NR treatment decreased the abundance of proteins contained in this cluster. Another cluster (cluster 4) showed 51 proteins of decreased abundance during exposure to B [α] P, which was partially reversed in group B[α]P + NR. The proteins in this cluster are involved in important stages of the glycolytic pathway, also in growth, adhesion, migration, and cell invasion. Although it has been described that exposure to NR can increase the efficiency of DNA repair, the results presented in this work indicate that the protective effect may be related to the modulation of the cell cycle or cell adehsion modifications


Subject(s)
Proteomics/classification , Tobacco Products/classification , Carcinogenesis , Neoplasms , Cells/classification , Analysis of Variance , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Cell Death , Niacinamide/agonists , Oxidative Stress , Lung Neoplasms/pathology
20.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 400-407, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984133

ABSTRACT

Abstrct: Metabonomics is a relative discipline that develops after genomics and proteomics, and it is an important component of systems biology. It uses high-throughput and high-sensitivity instruments to perform qualitative and quantitative analysis of all metabolic components in specific biological samples under limited conditions and combines with multivariate statistics to analyze and process the data to obtain information about physiological, pathological or toxicological changes in organisms. In recent years, because of the complicated mechanism of substance abuse and the continuous emergence of new psychoactive substances, metabonomics is increasingly used in substance abuse research. Therefore, this article reviews the application of metabonomics of substance abuse in the toxic mechanism, the mechanism of addiction and the discovery of biomarkers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biomarkers , Metabolomics , Proteomics , Substance-Related Disorders
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