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Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(5): 791-799, oct. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351053


Resumen La mutación puntual V600E del gen BRAF juega un papel fundamental en la tumorigénesis de muchos gliomas. La inhibición de su producto forma parte de terapias innovadoras emergentes en los últimos años. Conocer el rol de estos tratamientos resulta imprescindible. El objetivo del trabajo fue describir la respuesta clínico-radiológica en niños con gliomas BRAF V600E mutado tratados con inhibidores BRAF. Para ello se realizó un estudio descriptivo y retrospectivo en pacientes menores de 16 años con gliomas BRAF V600E mu tado que recibieron vemurafenib o dabrafenib en el Hospital Garrahan. Trece pacientes tratados en los últimos 7 años fueron incluidos: 9 gliomas de bajo grado y 4 de alto grado. La mediana de edad al diagnóstico fue 8.6 años (0.89-14.04) y del comienzo del inhibidor 11.62 años (3.64-15.42). Inicialmente, todos habían realizado tratamiento quirúrgico, y 12/13 recibieron previamente otra terapia: 11 quimioterapia (eventualmente hasta 4 líneas distintas) y 4 radioterapia. Con la terapia dirigida, 10 pacientes tuvieron una disminución tumoral mayor o igual al 25%, quedando evidenciada en 7 niños la mejor respuesta dentro de los 6 meses del inicio. Hubo 4 progresados intratratamiento (todos alto grado), y 2 progresados prontamente luego de suspender el inhibidor (ambos bajo grado). Cinco presentaron efectos adversos grado 3-4, con recuperación ad-integrum. Se describe una buena y sostenida respuesta clínico-radiológica, con tolerancia aceptable, en pacientes con gliomas de bajo grado BRAF V600E mutado tratados con inhibidores BRAF V600E . En contraste, la respuesta en pacientes con gliomas de alto grado fue intermedia y de poca duración, con progresión tumoral precoz.

Abstract The BRAF V600E point mutation plays a key role in the tumorigenesis of many gliomas. Inhibiting its product is part of the innovative therapies emerging in recent years. Knowing the role of these treatments is essential. The aim of this experience was to describe the clinical-radiological response of pediatric BRAF V600E mutated gliomas treated with BRAF inhibitors. To this end, a descriptive and retrospective study was performed in patients under 16 years of age with BRAF V600E gliomas, who received vemurafenib or dabrafenib at Hospital Garrahan. Thirteen patients treated in the last 7 years were included: 9 were low-grade and 4 high-grade gliomas. The median age at diagnosis was 8.6 years (0.89-14.04) and at start of targeted therapy was 11.62 years (3.64-15.42). All patients had previously a surgical procedure, and 12/13 had received another therapy prior BRAF inhibition: 11 chemotherapy (in one case, up to 4 different protocols) and 4 radiotherapy. Under targeted therapy, tumour response was obtained in 10 patients (size reduction equal to or greater than 25%), and best response was observed in the first 6 months of treatment in 7 children. Four patients progressed under treatment (all high-grade gliomas) and 2 progressed shortly after stopping the inhibitor (both low-grade gliomas). Five patients had grade 3-4 toxicity, with subsequent full recovery. A good and sustained clinical-radiological response, with acceptable tolerance, is described in patients with BRAF V600E mutated low-grade gliomas treated with BRAF V600E inhibitors. In contrast, the response in patients with high-grade gliomas was intermediate and of short duration, with early tumour progression.

Humans , Child , Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf/antagonists & inhibitors , Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf/genetics , Glioma/genetics , Glioma/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Hospitals , Mutation
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(2): 242-247, Mar.-Apr. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248808


SUMMARY Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is the rarest tumor of the thyroid gland, representing less than 2% of clinically recognized thyroid cancers. Typically, it has an extremely rapid onset, fatal outcomes in most cases, and a median overall survival of 3 to 10 months despite aggressive multidisciplinary management. The presence of targetable mutations in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma patients is an opportunity for treatment when conventional therapeutics approaches are not effective, a frequent situation in the majority of patients. We present our experience in the management of a patient with unresectable anaplastic thyroid cancer who had a remarkable and rapid response to treatment with dabrafenib and trametinib during the COVID-19 pandemic. After four weeks of dabrafenib 150 mg twice daily plus trametinib 2 mg daily, he showed a dramatic reduction of the cervical mass around 90%. Nearly eight weeks under treatment with dabrafenib plus trametinib, the patient remains with minimal locoregional disease without distant metastases.

Humans , Male , Thyroid Neoplasms/drug therapy , Thyroid Carcinoma, Anaplastic/genetics , Thyroid Carcinoma, Anaplastic/drug therapy , COVID-19 , Oximes , Pyridones , Pyrimidinones , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf/genetics , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Imidazoles , Mutation
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 34(1): e1574, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284903


ABSTRACT Background: Inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor (EGFR) represent an effective therapeutic option for patients with metastatic colorectal carcinoma, free of activating mutations in KRAS and NRAS. However, the research of mutations is of high cost and scarcely accessible. The expression of the EGFR by immunohistochemistry predicting the mutation status of the expanded RAS (KRAS and NRAS), may allow treatment by a diagnostic method less costly and more accessible. Aim: Investigate the correlation between the clinical-pathological data, the cytoplasmic-membrane expression of the EGFR and the mutational status of the expanded RAS. Method: A total of 139 patients with colorectal carcinoma from the archives of Instituto Goiano de Oncologia e Hematologia were evaluated. Results: Mutation of the expanded RAS was detected in 78 (56.1%) cases. The EGFR expression was stratified in 23 (16.5%) "positive", 49 (35.2%) "negative" and 67 (48.2%) "uncertain". No significant correlation was found between the mutational status of the RAS and the EGFR expression in comparison to age, gender, location, histological type, histological grade and stage. From 23 "positive" cases, 21 (91.3%) showed wild-type RAS gene, and 49 "negative", 41 (83.7%) presented mutation, resulting in a strong association between EGFR "positive", "negative" groups and the mutational status of the RAS (p<0.001), with 86.1% of accuracy. Conclusions: The cytoplasmic-membrane analysis of the EGFR expression stratified into "positive", "negative" and "uncertain" predicts mutational status of the RAS in 51.7% of the cases (p<0.001), with 86.1% of accuracy.

RESUMO Racional: Inibidores do fator de crescimento epidermal (EGFR) representam opção de terapia efetiva para o câncer colorrectal metastático, na ausência de ativação de mutações KRAS e NRAS. Entretanto, a pesquisa de mutações é cara e pouco acessível. A expressão de EGFR por imuno-histoquímica predizendo o status mutacional do RAS expandido (KRAS e NRAS) poderia permitir o tratamento por método diagnóstico menos caro e mais acessível. Objetivo: Investigar a correlação entre os dados clinicopatológicos, a expressão de EGFR na membrana citoplasmática e o status mutacional do RAS expandido. Método: Estudo retrospectivo de acurácia envolvendo 139 pacientes com carcinoma colorretal. Resultado: A mutação do RAS expandido foi detectada em 78 (56,1%) casos. A expressão de EGFR foi estratificada em 23 (16,5%) casos "positivos", 49 (35,2%) casos "negativos" e 67 (48,2%) "duvidosos". Não houve correlação significante entre o status mutacional do RAS e a expressão de EGFR em relação a idade, gênero, local do tumor, tipo histológico, grau histológico e estádio clínico. Em 23 casos "positivos", 21 (91,3%) mostraram gene RAS tipo selvagem, e em 49 "negativos", 41 (83,7%) apresentaram mutação, resultando em forte associação entre grupos EGFR "positivo" ou "negativo" e o status mutacional do RAS (p<0.001), com 86,1% de acurácia. Conclusão: A análise da expressão de EGFR na membrana citoplasmática estratificada em "positivo", "negativo" e "duvidoso" prediz o status mutacional do RAS em 51,7% dos casos (p<0.001), com 86,1% de acurácia.

Humans , Colorectal Neoplasms/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf/genetics , Epidermal Growth Factor , ErbB Receptors/genetics , Mutation
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 714-722, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922132


With the development of precision medicine, therapies of targeting driver genes have significantly prolonged survival in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Among them, BRAF gene mutation is relatively rare, and the traditional regimen follows the treatment plan of NSCLC without driver gene mutation, which is far from meeting the clinical needs. In recent years, targeted therapy for NSCLC patients with BRAF V600E mutations has shown good efficacy when we are still exploring the better targeted therapies for other BRAF-mutated subtypes. Immunotherapy also showed positive antitumor activity in V600E and non-V600E subtypes of BRAF-mutated NSCLC. This article reviewed the progress of immunological and targeted therapy for patients with BRAF-mutated NSCLC.

Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Humans , Immunotherapy , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Mutation , Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf/genetics
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880678


Cardio-facio-cutaneous (CFC) syndrome is an extremely rare autosomal dominant genetic disease due to BRAF and other gene mutations. The main characteristics of the patients are craniofacial deformities, cardiac malformations, skin abnormalities, delay of language and motor development, gastrointestinal dysfunction, intellectual disability, and epilepsy. In this case, the child has a typical CFC syndrome face and developmental delay. The gene results of the second-generation sequencing technology showed that there was a mutation site c.1741A>G (p. Asn581Asp) (heterozygous) in exon 14 of the BRAF (NM_004333.5) gene. The mutation was not observed in the child's parents. The above-mentioned mutation may be a de novo mutation. There is no effective therapy for this disease so far.

Abnormalities, Multiple , Child , Ectodermal Dysplasia/genetics , Facies , Failure to Thrive , Heart Defects, Congenital/genetics , Humans , Mutation , Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf/genetics
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879266


In recent years, with the improvement of the sensitivity of examination equipment and the change of people's living environment and diet, the rate of thyroid cancer has risen rapidly, which has increased nearly five folds in 10 years. The pathogenesis, clinical manifestation, biological behavior, treatment and prognosis of thyroid carcinoma of different pathological types are obviously different. Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) can develop at any age, which accounts for about 90% of thyroid cancer. It progresses slowly and has favourable prognosis, but lymph node metastasis appears easily. Whether PTC is accompanied by lymph node metastasis has an important impact on its prognosis and outcome. The Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B(BRAF)gene mutation plays a crucial role in PTC lymph node metastasis. Having an in-depth understanding of the specific role and mechanism of BRAF gene mutation in PTC is expected to provide new ideas for diagnosis and treatment of PTC.

Animals , Carcinoma, Papillary/genetics , Humans , Lymphatic Metastasis , Mice , Mutation , Oncogenes , Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf/genetics , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/genetics , Thyroid Neoplasms/genetics
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(4): 458-460, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038300


Abstract: Melanoma is widely known as the most lethal skin cancer. Specific tumor-related mortality can be significantly reduced if diagnosis and treatment are properly performed during initial phases of the disease. The current search for biomarkers in early-stage melanomas is a high-priority challenge for physicians and researchers. We aimed to assess the immunoexpression of BRAFV600E and KIT in a case series consisting of 44 early-stage melanomas. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples were systematically evaluated using a semi-quantitative method based on scores of percentage and intensity for immunostained tumor cells. We observed significant concordance between BRAFV600E and KIT immunoexpression in thin invasive melanomas. Our findings corroborate previous evidence showing abnormal expression of proteins associated with MAPK intracellular signaling pathway in early-stage melanomas.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit/analysis , Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf/analysis , Melanoma/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Retrospective Studies , Disease Progression , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit/genetics , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/analysis , Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf/genetics , Mutation , Neoplasm Staging
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(4): 265-270, ago. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040519


El melanoma maligno es la forma más agresiva de cáncer de piel, con una tasa de mortalidad en Argentina 1997-2001 = 1.1/100 000 en varones y 0.6 en mujeres. El proto-oncogén BRAF es foco de intensa investigación, su mutación es uno de los principales promotores tumorales y pueden presentarse en 50% de los melanomas. Se han aprobado varios fármacos con actividad clínica sobre las mutaciones BRAF. El objetivo del trabajo es evaluar el estado mutacional de BRAF (exón 15) en biopsias con melanoma maligno cutáneo y su relación con las características histopatológicas. Realizamos un estudio observacional, retrospectivo, de muestras fijadas en formol e incluidas en parafina. Revisamos edad, sexo, diagnóstico y datos histopatológicos, tamaño y porcentaje tumoral, viabilidad para análisis molecular y presencia de melanina. Evaluamos mutaciones de BRAF con PCR/secuenciación Sanger. Utilizamos test de Student, Chi cuadrado, Wilcoxon y prueba exacta de Fisher. De 49 casos se pudo purificar y secuenciar el 76% (38/49), 13/38 (34%) mujeres y 25/38 (66%) varones, edad mediana 70 años. Localización más frecuente: tórax con 14/35 (40%). Tipo histológico: extensivo superficial 18/38 (47%). Niveles de Clark, 11/38 (29%): I-II y 27/38 (71%): III, IV y V. Mediana del Breslow: 1.6 mm. Fase de crecimiento radial 11/38 (29%) y 27/38 (71%) vertical. Presentaron mutaciones 16/38 (42%). Como lo informado por otros autores, no se encontró asociación entre el estado mutacional del exón 15 y los parámetros clínicos o histopatológicos.

Malignant melanoma (MM) is the more aggressive form of skin cancer with a mortality rate in Argentina 1997-2001 = 1.1/100 000 in men and 0.6 in women. BRAF proto-oncogene is focus of intense research; its mutation is one of the main tumor promoters and occurs in approximately 50% of MM. Several drugs with clinical activity on BRAF mutations have been approved. The aim of the study is to evaluate the mutational status of BRAF (exon 15) in cutaneous MM biopsies and its relationship with histopathological characteristics. We carried out an observational, retrospective study of samples fixed in formaldehyde and paraffin embedded; reviewing age, sex, diagnosis, histopathological data, tumor size and percentage, viability for molecular analysis and melanin presence. We evaluated BRAF mutations with PCR/Sanger sequencing. For statistics we used Student's t test, Chi square, Wilcoxon and Fisher's exact test. We were able to purify and sequence 76% (38/49) samples, 13/38 (34%) from women and 25/38 (66%) from men, the median age being 70 years. Most frequent location: thorax 14/35 (40%). Histological type: Superficial spreading 18/38 (47%). Clark´s levels, 11/38 (29%): I-II and 27/38 (71%): III, IV and V. Breslow´s median: 1.6 mm. Radial growth phase 11/38 (29%) and 27/38 (71%) vertical. Presented mutations 16/38 (42%). As reported by other authors, no association was found between the mutational state of exon 15 and clinical or histopathological parameters.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Skin Neoplasms/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf/genetics , Melanoma/genetics , Mutation/genetics , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , DNA Mutational Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Melanoma/pathology
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(2): 97-106, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001222


ABSTRACT Objectives: We aimed to investigate the prevalence of the BRAF (V600E) mutation in consecutive cases of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) in patients diagnosed and treated at the Hospital Sao Rafael (Salvador, BA, Brazil) and evaluate its association with clinical and pathological characteristics of PTC. Subjects and methods: We retrospectively enrolled in the study a total of 43 consecutive PTC patients who underwent total thyroidectomy. We performed DNA extraction from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumour tissue samples. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing were used to determine BRAF (V600E) mutation status. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were employed to identify independent associations. Results: The prevalence of BRAF (V600E) mutation was 65.1% (28/43). A high frequency of older patients (p value: 0.004) was observed among the BRAF-mutated PTC group and, in contrast, a low frequency of concurrent Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) (p value: 0.011) was noted. Multivariate analysis confirmed that older age (OR: 1.15; 95% CI: 1.00 - 1.33; p value: 0.047) and HT (OR: 0.05; 95% CI: 0.006-0.40; p value: 0.005) were independent factors associated with BRAF (V600E) mutation. Conclusion: We found a high prevalence of BRAF (V600E) mutation in PTC cases. Older age and no concurrent HT were independently associated with BRAF (V600E) mutation.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Thyroid Neoplasms/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf/genetics , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/genetics , Mutation/genetics , Prognosis , Brazil/epidemiology , Thyroid Neoplasms/epidemiology , DNA Mutational Analysis , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Age Factors , Hashimoto Disease/complications , Hashimoto Disease/genetics , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/complications , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/epidemiology
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(2): 107-112, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001216


ABSTRACT Objectives: This observational study analyzed telomerase reverse transcriptase (pTERT) mutations in 45 fine-needle aspiration (FNA) specimens obtained from thyroid nodules followed by postoperatively confirmation of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) diagnosis, examining their relationship with clinicopathologic aspects and the BRAFV600E mutation. Subjects and methods: Clinical information was collected from patients who presented to Ribeirao Preto University Hospital for surgical consultation regarding a thyroid nodule and who underwent molecular testing between January 2010 to October 2012. Tests included a DNA-based somatic detection of BRAFV600E and pTERT mutations. Results: We found coexistence of pTERTC228T and BRAFV600E mutations in 8.9% (4/45) of thyroid nodules. All nodules positive for pTERT mutations were BRAFV600E positives. There was a significant association between pTERTC228T/BRAFV600E with older age and advanced stage compared with the group negative for either mutation. Conclusions: This series provides evidence that FNA is a reliable method for preoperative diagnosis of high-risk thyroid nodules. pTERTC228T/BRAFV600E mutations could be a marker of poor prognosis. Its use as a personalized molecular medicine tool to individualize treatment decisions and follow-up design needs to be further studied.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Thyroid Neoplasms/genetics , Thyroid Nodule/genetics , Telomerase/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf/genetics , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/genetics , Prognosis , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , DNA Mutational Analysis , Predictive Value of Tests , Age Factors , Promoter Regions, Genetic/genetics , Thyroid Nodule/diagnosis , Thyroid Nodule/pathology , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Preoperative Period , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/diagnosis , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis/diagnosis , Mutation/genetics , Neoplasm Staging
Appl. cancer res ; 39: 1-7, 2019. ilustr.
Article in English | LILACS, Inca | ID: biblio-1023627


Background: Mutations in the RAS/RAF pathway predict resistance to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibodies in colorectal cancer (CRC), and may be targets for future therapies. This study investigates concordance of BRAF, HRAS, KRAS, NRAS and PIK3CA mutation status in primary CRC with matched liver (n = 274), lung (n = 114) or combined liver and lung metastases (n = 14). Methods: Next generation sequencing was performed on DNA from formalin-fixed paraffin embedded CRC and matched liver and/or lung metastases, for recurrent mutations in BRAF, HRAS, KRAS, NRAS and PIK3CA and using the single-molecule molecular inversion probe method. Results: Paired sequencing results on all five genes were reached in 249 of the 402 cases (62%). The obtained number of unique reads was not always sufficient to confidently call the absence or presence of mutations for all regions of interest. The mutational status of matched pairs was highly concordant; 91.1% concordance for all five genes, 95.5% for KRAS, 99.1% for NRAS. Lung metastases more often harboured RAS mutations compared to liver metastases (71% vs. 48%, p < 0.001). Conclusions: In this large series of CRC we show that both primary tumors and corresponding metastases can be used to determine the mutational status for targeted therapy, given the high concordance rates. Next generation sequencing including a single molecule tags is feasible, however in combination with archival formalin-fixed paraffin embedded material is limited by coverage depth.

Humans , Colorectal Neoplasms/genetics , ras Proteins/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf/genetics , Liver Neoplasms/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Base Sequence , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Liver Neoplasms/secondary , Lung Neoplasms/secondary , Mutation/genetics
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 78(6): 385-394, Dec. 2018. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-976135


The prevalence of relevant oncogenic drivers in lung adenocarcinoma varies in our region and data on clinical outcomes is scarce. The objective of the study was to describe the prevalence of KRAS, BRAF and EGFR mutations and ALK translocations in patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma, and to depict the clinical outcome according to treatment strategies. Patients with adequate tumor biopsy sampling were included. KRAS, BRAF and EGFR mutations were studied by Sanger sequencing. ALK translocations were studied by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and immunohistochemistry (IH) with antibodies against ALK with clones D5F3 and 5A4. Informed consent was signed by 118 patients and 84 (72%) with complete molecular analysis were included. KRAS mutations were detected in 16 samples (19%), EGFR in 11 (13%), 9 of them conferring sensitivity to EGFR inhibitors, and BRAF mutations in 1 (1%). ALK translocations were detected in 3 samples (4%). Median follow-up was 42.4 [interquartile range (IQR): 27.0-64.2] months. Globally, median overall survival was 10.3 [IQR: 5.6-20.2] months. Median survival was 10.8 [IQR: 6.0-20.3] months in the group of patients without detectable molecular alteration, 9.6 [IQR: 3.7-16.1] months in KRAS mutant population (HR: 1.08; p = 0.82) and 32.5 [IQR: 19.6-38.4] months in patients with ALK translocations or sensitizing EGFR mutated tumors treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (HR: 0.27; p = 0.03). In conclusion, the prevalence of molecular alterations and outcomes in our population is similar to that reported in other studies in Western countries.

La prevalencia de alteraciones en oncogenes en adenocarcinoma de pulmón varía en nuestra región. El objetivo fue describir la prevalencia de mutaciones en KRAS, BRAF y EGFR y las translocaciones de ALK en pacientes con adenocarcinoma de pulmón y estudiar la supervivencia de acuerdo a subtipos moleculares. Se incluyeron pacientes con biopsias adecuadas para el estudio. Se evaluó el estado mutacional de KRAS, BRAF y EGFR por secuenciación con la técnica de Sanger. Las translocaciones de ALK se estudiaron por hibridación in situ por fluorescencia (FISH) e inmunohistoquimica (IHQ) contra ALK (clones D5F3 y 5A4). De 118 pacientes evaluados, se incluyeron 84 (72%) con análisis molecular completo. Se detectaron mutaciones de KRAS en 16 muestras (19%), EGFR en 11 (13%), y BRAF en 1 muestra (1%). Se detectaron rearreglos de ALK en 3 muestras (4%). La mediana de seguimiento de los pacientes fue de 42.4 [rango intercuatilo (RIC): 27.0-64.2] meses. Globalmente, la mediana de supervivencia en la población fue 10.3 [RIC: 5.6-20.2] meses y fue de 10.8 [RIC: 6.0 20.3] meses en pacientes sin alteraciones moleculares detectables. La mediana de supervivencia de los pacientes con mutación en KRAS fue de 9.6 [RIC: 3.7-16.1] meses (HR: 1.08; p = 0.82) y 32.5 [RIC: 19.6-38.4] meses en el grupo con rearreglos de ALK o mutaciones en EGFR tratados con inhibidores de tirosina quinasa (HR: 0.27; p = 0.03). En conclusión, la prevalencia de alteraciones moleculares en nuestra población fue similar a otros países occidentales.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Adenocarcinoma/genetics , Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Mutation , Argentina/epidemiology , Biopsy , Immunohistochemistry , Adenocarcinoma/mortality , Prospective Studies , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Statistics, Nonparametric , Genes, erbB-1/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf/genetics , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/mortality
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 76(4): 223-229, Aug. 2016. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-841581


Este estudio prospectivo analizó en una población argentina la frecuencia de la mutación V600E del oncogén BRAF en pacientes operados por nódulos tiroideos benignos y por carcinoma papilar de tiroides. En estos últimos se compararon las características clínicas y anatomopatológicas en relación a la presencia o ausencia de la mutación. Se estudiaron prospectivamente 25 pacientes consecutivos operados en nuestra institución. Se obtuvieron muestras histológicas de tejido nodular y el adyacente no nodular en fresco. Se extrajo ADN, se amplificó según técnica amplification refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction (ARMS PCR). Se efectuó secuenciación directa del gen en 4 muestras. El 77% de los operados por carcinoma papilar resultaron BRAF+. Todas las muestras de tejido adyacente no tumoral y de los nódulos benignos fueron negativas para la mutación. La secuenciación directa confirmó los resultados obtenidos por ARMS PCR en las muestras en que fue efectuada. Los pacientes BRAF+ presentaron mayor edad al diagnóstico vs. aquellos BRAF- (47.7 ± 12.7 vs 24.7 ± 8.1 años, p < 0.01). Nueve de diez carcinomas papilares de tiroides con mutación de BRAF correspondieron a la variante histológica clásica, la cual no se observó en los tumores BRAF- (p < 0.02). En conclusión, comunicamos una elevada frecuencia de mutación V600E del oncogén BRAF en pacientes operados por carcinoma papilar de tiroides en Argentina. Estos resultados son acordes a lo referido en la bibliografía.

This prospective study analyzed the frequency of V600E mutation of oncogene BRAF in patients operated for benign thyroid nodules and for papillary thyroid cancer in an Argentine population. In patients with papillary thyroid cancer we compared clinicopathological characteristics between those harboring BRAF mutation and those without it. Twenty five consecutive patients operated for benign nodules and for papillary carcinoma were prospectively included. Fresh tissue samples of thyroid nodules and of adjacent thyroid parenchyma were obtained. DNA was extracted and amplified by amplification refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction (ARMS PCR). Direct sequencing was performed in four samples. Of those patients operated for papillary thyroid cancer, 77% harbored BRAF mutation. All samples from adjacent thyroid parenchyma and from patients operated for benign nodules tested negative for the mutation. Direct sequencing confirmed the results obtained by ARMS PCR. Patients with BRAF mutation were significantly older at the time of diagnosis (BRAF+ 47.7 ± 12.7 years vs. BRAF- 24.7 ± 8.1 years, p < 0.01). Nine out of ten papillary carcinomas with BRAF mutation corresponded to the classic histological subtype, which was not observed in BRAF negative tumors (p < 0.02). In conclusion, we found a high frequency of BRAF V600E mutation in this population of patients operated for papillary thyroid carcinoma in Argentina. These results are consistent with those reported in the literature.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Thyroid Neoplasms/genetics , Carcinoma/genetics , Thyroid Nodule/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf/genetics , Mutation , Argentina , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , DNA Mutational Analysis , Carcinoma/pathology , Carcinoma, Papillary , Prospective Studies , Thyroid Nodule/pathology , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 104(2): 136-143, 02/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741141


Background: Ischemic postconditioning (IPost) is a method of protecting the heart against ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. However, the effectiveness of IPost in cases of ischemic heart disease accompanied by co-morbidities such as hypothyroidism remains unclear. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of IPost on myocardial IR injury in hypothyroid male rats. Methods: Propylthiouracil in drinking water (500 mg/L) was administered to male rats for 21 days to induce hypothyroidism. The hearts from control and hypothyroid rats were perfused in a Langendorff apparatus and exposed to 30 min of global ischemia, followed by 120 min of reperfusion. IPost was induced immediately following ischemia. Results: Hypothyroidism and IPost significantly improved the left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) and peak rates of positive and negative changes in left ventricular pressure (±dp/dt) during reperfusion in control rats (p < 0.05). However, IPost had no add-on effect on the recovery of LVDP and ±dp/dt in hypothyroid rats. Furthermore, hypothyroidism significantly decreased the basal NO metabolite (NOx) levels of the serum (72.5 ± 4.2 vs. 102.8 ± 3.7 μmol/L; p < 0.05) and heart (7.9 ± 1.6 vs. 18.8 ± 3.2 μmol/L; p < 0.05). Heart NOx concentration in the hypothyroid groups did not change after IR and IPost, whereas these were significantly (p < 0.05) higher and lower after IR and IPost, respectively, in the control groups. Conclusion: Hypothyroidism protects the heart from IR injury, which may be due to a decrease in basal nitric oxide (NO) levels in the serum and heart and a decrease in NO after IR. IPost did not decrease the NO level and did not provide further cardioprotection in the hypothyroid group. .

Fundamento: O pós-condicionamento isquêmico (PCI) é um método potente utilizado para proteger o coração contra a lesão de isquemia-reperfusão (I/R). Não está claro se o PCI é eficaz quando a doença cardíaca isquêmica é acompanhada de comorbidades, tais como hipotireoidismo. Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar o efeito do PCI sobre a lesão de I/R do miocárdio em ratos machos com hipotireoidismo. Métodos: O hipotireoidismo foi induzido pela administração de propiltiouracila em água potável na concentração de 500 mg/L durante 21 dias. Os corações de ratos controle e com hipotireoidismo foram perfundidos utilizando o aparelho de Langendorff e expostos a isquemia global por 30 minutos, seguido de reperfusão por 120 minutos. O PCI foi iniciado imediatamente após a isquemia. Resultados: O hipotireoidismo e PCI aumentaram significativamente a pressão ventricular esquerda desenvolvida (PVED) e as taxas máximas de variação positiva (+dp/dt) e negativa (–dp/dt) da pressão ventricular esquerda durante a reperfusão em ratos controle (p < 0,05). No entanto, o PCI não teve efeito aditivo no restabelecimento da PVED e das ±dp/dt em ratos com hipotireoidismo. Além disso, o hipotireoidismo diminuiu significativamente os níveis basais séricos (72,5 ± 4,2 vs. 102,8 ± 3,7 μmol/L; p < 0,05) e cardíacos (7,9 ± 1,6 vs. 18,8 ± 3,2 μmol/L; p < 0,05) de NOx. Os níveis cardíacos de NOx não se alteraram no grupo com hipotireoidismo após I/R e PCI mas foram significativamente maiores e menores (p < 0,05) nos grupos controle após I/R e PCI, respectivamente. Conclusão: O hipotireoidismo protegeu o coração da lesão de I/R, o que pode ser devido à diminuição dos níveis séricos e cardíacos basais de óxido nítrico (NO) e à diminuição dos níveis de NO após I/R. No entanto, o PCI não diminuiu os níveis de NO e não conferiu proteção adicional ao grupo com hipotireoidismo. .

Adult , Humans , Male , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/genetics , Melanoma/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf/antagonists & inhibitors , Skin Neoplasms/genetics , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , DNA Mutational Analysis , Genome, Human , GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits/genetics , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Mutation, Missense , Melanoma/drug therapy , Melanoma/secondary , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Precision Medicine , PTEN Phosphohydrolase/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf/genetics , Sequence Deletion , Signal Transduction , Skin Neoplasms/drug therapy , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Treatment Outcome , Tumor Cells, Cultured
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-76931


BACKGROUND: Several molecular assays have been developed to detect the BRAF V600E mutation in fine needle aspirates (FNAs) for the diagnosis of papillary thyroid cancer. Using a multiplex PCR technique, we evaluated the Anyplex BRAF V600E Real-time Detection (Anyplex) assay and compared its efficacy with that of the Seeplex BRAF V600E ACE Detection (Seeplex) method. METHODS: We tested 258 consecutive FNA specimens using the Seeplex and Anyplex assays. Any conflicting results between the two assays were confirmed by using mutant enrichment with 3'-modified oligonucleotide (MEMO) sequencing. The limits of detection (LODs) and reproducibility for each assay were evaluated with serially diluted DNA from a BRAF V600E-positive cell line. RESULTS: The BRAF V600E mutation was detected in 36.4% (94/258) FNA specimens by either the Seeplex or Anyplex assay. Results for the two assays showed 93.4% (241/258) agreement, with a kappa value of 0.861 (95% confidence interval, 0.798-0.923). Of the eight specimens that were BRAF V600E-positive by the Anyplex assay but not by the Seeplex assay, five were found to be BRAF V600E-positive by MEMO sequencing. The mutation detection rate of the Seeplex and Anyplex assays was 79.0% and 84.0%, respectively, in the FNA specimens diagnosed as malignant (n=81). The LOD as determined by probit analysis was 0.046% (95% confidence interval, 0.019-0.532%). CONCLUSIONS: The Anyplex assay performed better than the Seeplex assay with respect to the detection of the BRAF V600E mutation.

Adult , Aged , Asian Continental Ancestry Group/genetics , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , DNA/chemistry , DNA Mutational Analysis/methods , DNA Primers/metabolism , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Oligonucleotides/metabolism , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf/genetics , Republic of Korea , Thyroid Nodule/metabolism
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 634-640, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-93956


PURPOSE: The BRAF(V600E) mutation represents a novel indicator of the progression and aggressiveness of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical significance of free circulating mutant BRAF(V600E) in predicting the advanced disease of PTC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy seven matched tumor and plasma samples obtained from patients with both benign and PTC were analyzed for BRAF(V600E) mutation using a peptide nucleic acid (PNA) clamp real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RESULTS: The BRAF(V600E) mutation was absent in tumor DNA samples obtained from patients with benign follicular adenomas or adenomatous goiter. In contrast, 49 of 72 (68.1%) PTC tumors were positive for the BRAF(V600E) mutation. Among them, 3 (6.1%) patients with PTC were positive for BRAF(V600E) mutation in plasma and tumor. However, all 3 patients (100%) had lateral lymph node and lung metastasis. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that the BRAF(V600E) mutation can be detected using a PNA clamp real-time PCR in the blood of PTC patients with lung metastasis. Future studies are warranted to determine clinical significance of serum BRAF(V600E) mutation in large prospective studies.

Adenocarcinoma, Papillary/genetics , Adult , Aged , Carcinoma/genetics , DNA Mutational Analysis , DNA, Neoplasm/genetics , Female , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis , Male , Middle Aged , Mutation , Neoplasm Invasiveness , Neoplasm Staging , Peptide Nucleic Acids , Prospective Studies , Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Thyroid Neoplasms/genetics
Indian J Cancer ; 2014 Jan-Mar; 51(1): 63-68
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-154288


BACKGROUND: The accurate diagnosis of benign and malign thyroid tumors is very important for the clinical management of patients. The distinction of thyroid papillary carcinoma follicular variant and follicular adenoma can be difficult. AIM: To investigate the alternative methods like immunohistochemistry and exon 15 in the BRAF gene 1799 T/A mutation analyses for distinguishing thyroid tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We applied immunohistochemical markers; CK19, HMWCK, Galectin‑3, HBME‑1 and Fibronectin and mutant allelespecific PCR amplification technique was used to determine 1799 T/A mutation within the BRAF gene. Formalin‑fixed parafin embedded tissues from 45 surgically total resected thyroids, included 26 thyroid papillary carcinoma follicular variant (FV‑TPC), 8 Follicular Adenoma (FA), 6 Minimal invasive follicular carcinoma (MIFC) and 5 Follicular Carcinoma (FC). STATISTICAL ANALYSES USED: Pearson Chi‑Square and Kruskal Wallis tests were performed. RESULTS: There was a positive correlation between FV‑TPC and HMWCK, CK 19, HBME1, Galectin 3, fibronectin (P < 0.05), but there was no correlation with FV‑TPC and BRAF gene mutation (P > 0.05). HBME‑1 and CK 19 stained strong and diffuse positive in FV‑TPCs but weak and focal in FAs. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that morphologic features combined with immunohistochemical panel of HMWCK, CK19, HBME‑1, Galectin‑3 and fibronectin can help to distinguish benign and malign thyroid neoplasms and FV‑TPC from follicular adenomas. BRAF gene 1799 T/A mutation has been non‑specific but its detection can be a useful tool combined with immunohistochemistry for diagnosing FV‑TPC.

Adenocarcinoma, Follicular/diagnosis , Adenocarcinoma, Follicular/genetics , Adenocarcinoma, Follicular/metabolism , Adenoma/diagnosis , Adenoma/genetics , Adenoma/metabolism , Carcinoma, Papillary/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Papillary/genetics , Carcinoma, Papillary/metabolism , Female , Humans , Male , Mutation/genetics , Prognosis , Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf/genetics , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Thyroid Neoplasms/genetics , Thyroid Neoplasms/metabolism , Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics , Biomarkers, Tumor/metabolism
Rev. méd. Chile ; 142(1): 55-60, ene. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-708851


Background: In colorectal cancer, BRAF and KRAS mutation are mutually exclusive, but both are independent prognostic factors for the disease. Aim: To determine the frequency of BRAF V600E mutation in colorectal cancer. Material and Methods: A KRAS mutation study was carried out in 100 tissue samples of primary and metastatic adenocarcinomas of colon and rectum from patients aged 61.1 ± 62 years (56 women). Negative KRAS mutation cases underwent study of BRAF V600E mutation by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and direct sequencing. Results: Primary tumors were located in the colon and rectum in 88 and six cases respectively. Five were liver metastases and in one case, the sample location was undetermined. Forty two samples were KRAS positive (mutated). In 12 of the 58 KRAS negative (wild type) samples, the V600E mutation in codon 15 of the BRAF gene was demonstrated. No differences in the frequency and distribution of mutations, stratified by gender, age, primary tumor versus metastasis, or tumor location were observed. Conclusions: Twelve percent of KRAS negative colorectal cancer samples showed BRAF gene mutation. Considering that 42% of samples have a KRAS mutation, 54% of patients should not respond to therapies with monoclonal antibodies directed against epidermic growth factor (EGFR) pathway.

Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Adenocarcinoma/genetics , Colorectal Neoplasms/genetics , Mutation/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/genetics , ras Proteins/genetics , Genotype , Neoplasm Staging , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length
Gut and Liver ; : 582-589, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-55227


Hyperplastic or serrated polyps were once believed to have little to no clinical significance. A subset of these polyps are now considered to be precursors to colorectal cancers (CRC) in the serrated pathway that may account for at least 15% of all tumors. The serrated pathway is distinct from the two other CRC pathways and involves an epigenetic hypermethylation mechanism of CpG islands within promoter regions of tumor suppressor genes. This process results in the formation of CpG island methylator phenotype tumors. Serrated polyps are divided into hyperplastic polyps, sessile serrated adenomas/polyps (SSA/Ps), and traditional serrated adenomas (TSAs). The SSA/P and the TSA have the potential for dysplasia and subsequent malignant transformation. The SSA/Ps are more common and are more likely to be flat than TSAs. Their flat morphology may make them difficult to detect and thus explain the variation in detection rates among endoscopists. Challenges for endoscopists also include the difficulty in pathological interpretation as well surveillance of these lesions. Furthermore, serrated polyps may be inadequately resected by endoscopists. Thus, it is not surprising that the serrated pathway has been linked with interval cancers. This review will provide the physician or clinician with the knowledge to manage patients with serrated polyps.

Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics , Adenomatous Polyps/genetics , Colonoscopy , Colorectal Neoplasms/genetics , DNA Methylation , Humans , Intestinal Polyposis/genetics , Intestinal Polyps/genetics , Nuclear Proteins/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf/genetics , ras Proteins/genetics