Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 147
Filter
1.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 527-539, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982722

ABSTRACT

Activated fibroblasts and M2-polarized macrophages may contribute to the progression of pulmonary fibrosis by forming a positive feedback loop. This study was aimed to investigate whether fibroblasts and macrophages form this loop by secreting SDF-1 and TGF-β and the impacts of neotuberostemonine (NTS) and tuberostemonine (TS). Mice were intratracheally injected with 3 U·kg-1 bleomycin and orally administered with 30 mg·kg-1 NTS or TS. Primary pulmonary fibroblasts (PFBs) and MH-S cells (alveolar macrophages) were used in vitro. The animal experiments showed that NTS and TS improved fibrosis related indicators, inhibited fibroblast activation and macrophage M2 polarization, and reduced the levels of TGF-β and SDF-1 in alveolar lavage fluid. Cell experiments showed that TGF-β1 may activated fibroblasts into myofibroblasts secreting SDF-1 by activating the PI3K/AKT/HIF-1α and PI3K/PAK/RAF/ERK/HIF-1α pathways. It was also found for the first time that SDF-1 was able to directly polarize macrophages into M2 phenotype secreting TGF-β through the same pathways as mentioned above. Moreover, the results of the cell coculture confirmed that fibroblasts and macrophages actually developed a feedback loop to promote fibrosis, and the secretion of TGF-β and SDF-1 was crucial for maintaining this loop. NTS and TS may disturb this loop through inhibiting both the PI3K/AKT/HIF-1α and PI3K/PAK/RAF/ERK/HIF-1α pathways to improve pulmonary fibrosis. NTS and TS are stereoisomeric alkaloids with pyrrole[1,2-a]azapine skeleton, and their effect on improving pulmonary fibrosis may be largely attributed to their parent nucleus. Moreover, this study found that inhibition of both the AKT and ERK pathways is essential for maximizing the improvement of pulmonary fibrosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Pulmonary Fibrosis/metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta/pharmacology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Alkaloids/pharmacology , Fibroblasts , Macrophages/metabolism
2.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 279-291, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982699

ABSTRACT

Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in cadmium (Cd)-induced myocardial injury. Mitsugumin 53 (MG53) and its mediated reperfusion injury salvage kinase (RISK) pathway have been demonstrated to be closely related to myocardial oxidative damage. Potentilla anserina L. polysaccharide (PAP) is a polysaccharide with antioxidant capacity, which exerts protective effect on Cd-induced damage. However, it remains unknown whether PAP can prevent and treat Cd-induced cardiomyocyte damages. The present study was desgined to explore the effect of PAP on Cd-induced damage in H9c2 cells based on MG53 and the mediated RISK pathway. For in vitro evaluation, cell viability and apoptosis rate were analyzed by CCK-8 assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Furthermore, oxidative stress was assessed by 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) staining and using superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) kits. The mitochondrial function was measured by JC-10 staining and ATP detection assay. Western blot was performed to detect the expression of proteins related to MG53, the RISK pathway, and apoptosis. The results indicated that Cd increased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in H9c2 cells. Cd decreased the activities of SOD and CAT and the ratio of GSH/GSSG, resulting in decreases in cell viability and increases in apoptosis. Interestingly, PAP reversed Cd-induced oxidative stress and cell apoptosis. Meanwhile, Cd reduced the expression of MG53 in H9c2 cells and inhibited the RISK pathway, which was mediated by decreasing the ratio of p-AktSer473/Akt, p-GSK3βSer9/GSK3β and p-ERK1/2/ERK1/2. In addition, Cd impaired mitochondrial function, which involved a reduction in ATP content and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and an increase in the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2, cytoplasmic cytochrome c/mitochondrial cytochrome c, and Cleaved-Caspase 3/Pro-Caspase 3. Importantly, PAP alleviated Cd-induced MG53 reduction, activated the RISK pathway, and reduced mitochondrial damage. Interestingly, knockdown of MG53 or inhibition of the RISK pathway attenuated the protective effect of PAP in Cd-induced H9c2 cells. In sum, PAP reduces Cd-induced damage in H9c2 cells, which is mediated by increasing MG53 expression and activating the RISK pathway.


Subject(s)
Cadmium/metabolism , Caspase 3/metabolism , Potentilla/metabolism , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta/pharmacology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Cytochromes c/metabolism , Glutathione Disulfide/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress , Myocytes, Cardiac , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Apoptosis , Polysaccharides/pharmacology , Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism
3.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 268-276, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982681

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Although there have been improvements in targeted therapy and immunotherapy, the majority of lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) patients still lack effective therapies. Consequently, it is urgent to screen for new diagnosis biomarkers and pharmacological targets. Junctional adhesion molecule-like protein (JAML) was considered to be an oncogenic protein and may be a novel therapeutic target in LUAD. Kaempferol is a natural flavonoid that exhibits antitumor activities in LUAD. However, the effect of kaempferol on JAML is still unknown.@*METHODS@#Small interfering RNA was used to knockdown JAML expression. The cell viability was determined using the cell counting kit-8 assay. The proliferation of LUAD cells was evaluated using the 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation assay. The migration and invasion of LUAD cells were evaluated by transwell assays. Molecular mechanisms were explored by Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#JAML knockdown suppressed proliferation, migration and invasion of LUAD cells, and JAML deficiency restrained epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) via inactivating the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/AKT/mTOR) pathway. Using a PI3K activator (740Y-P), rescue experiments showed that phenotypes to JAML knockdown in LUAD cells were dependent on the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. Kaempferol also inhibited proliferation, migration and invasion of A549 and H1299 cells and partially suppressed EMT through the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. Knockdown of JAML ameliorated the inhibitory effect of kaempferol on LUAD cells. Kaempferol exerted anticancer effects by targeting JAML.@*CONCLUSION@#JAML is a novel target for kaempferol against LUAD cells. Please cite this article as: Wu Q, Wang YB, Che XW, Wang H, Wang W. Junctional adhesion molecule-like protein as a novel target for kaempferol to ameliorate lung adenocarcinoma. J Integr Med. 2023; 21(3): 268-276.


Subject(s)
Humans , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Junctional Adhesion Molecules/metabolism , Kaempferols/pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Movement/genetics , Adenocarcinoma of Lung/metabolism , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Lung Neoplasms/metabolism , Cell Proliferation , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
4.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 648-662, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982334

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Restoration of blood circulation within "time window" is the principal treating goal for treating acute ischemic stroke. Previous studies revealed that delayed recanalization might cause serious ischemia/reperfusion injury. However, plenty of evidences showed delayed recanalization improved neurological outcomes in acute ischemic stroke. This study aims to explore the role of delayed recanalization on blood-brain barrier (BBB) in the penumbra (surrounding ischemic core) and neurological outcomes after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO).@*METHODS@#Recanalization was performed on the 3rd day after MCAO. BBB disruption was tested by Western blotting, Evans blue dye, and immunofluorescence staining. Infarct volume and neurological outcomes were evaluated on the 7th day after MCAO. The expression of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1), phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), and serine/threonine kinase (Akt) in the penumbra were observed by immunofluorescence staining and/or Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#The extraversion of Evans blue, IgG, and albumin increased surrounding ischemic core after MCAO, but significantly decreased after recanalization. The expression of Claudin-5, Occludin, and zona occludens 1 (ZO-1) decreased surrounding ischemic core after MCAO, but significantly increased after recanalization. Infarct volume reduced and neurological outcomes improved following recanalization (on the 7th day after MCAO). The expressions of Claudin-5, Occludin, and ZO-1 decreased surrounding ischemic core following MCAO, which were up-regulated corresponding to the increases of FGF21, p-FGFR1, PI3K, and p-Akt after recanalization. Intra-cerebroventricular injection of FGFR1 inhibitor SU5402 down-regulated the expression of PI3K, p-Akt, Occludin, Claudin-5, and ZO-1 in the penumbra, which weakened the beneficial effects of recanalization on neurological outcomes after MCAO.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Delayed recanalization on the 3rd day after MCAO increases endogenous FGF21 in the penumbra and activates FGFR1/PI3K/Akt pathway, which attenuates BBB disruption in the penumbra and improves neurobehavior in MCAO rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Blood-Brain Barrier/metabolism , Brain Ischemia , Claudin-5/metabolism , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/metabolism , Ischemic Stroke/metabolism , Occludin/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 1/metabolism , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism
5.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 459-469, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982299

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate autophagy-related mechanisms of electroacupuncture (EA) action in improving gastrointestinal motility in mice with functional constipation (FC).@*METHODS@#According to a random number table, the Kunming mice were divided into the normal control, FC and EA groups in Experiment I. The autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) was used to observe whether it antagonized the effects of EA in Experiment II. An FC model was established by diphenoxylate gavage. Then the mice were treated with EA stimulation at Tianshu (ST 25) and Shangjuxu (ST 37) acupoints. The first black stool defecation time, the number, weight, and water content of 8-h feces, and intestinal transit rate were used to assess intestinal transit. Colonic tissues underwent histopathological assessment, and the expressions of autophagy markers microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) and Beclin-1 were detected by immunohistochemical staining. The expressions of phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K)-protein kinase B (AKT)-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway members were investigated by Western blot and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, respectively. The relationship between enteric glial cells (EGCs) and autophagy was observed by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy, localization analysis, and electron microscopy.@*RESULTS@#EA treatment shortened the first black stool defecation time, increased the number, weight, and water content of 8-h feces, and improved the intestinal transit rate in FC mice (P<0.01). In terms of a putative autophagy mechanism, EA treatment promoted the expressions of LC3 and Beclin-1 proteins in the colonic tissue of FC mice (P<0.05), with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and LC3 significantly colocalized. Furthermore, EA promoted colonic autophagy in FC mice by inhibiting PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling (P<0.05 or P<0.01). The positive effect of EA on intestinal motility in FC mice was blocked by 3-MA.@*CONCLUSION@#EA treatment can inhibit PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling in the colonic tissues of FC mice, thereby promoting EGCs autophagy to improve intestinal motility.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Electroacupuncture , Beclin-1 , Signal Transduction , Constipation/therapy , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Autophagy , Neuroglia/metabolism , Mammals/metabolism
6.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 434-440, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982290

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect and potential mechanism of dihydromyricetin (Dmy) on H9C2 cell proliferation, apoptosis, and autophagy.@*METHODS@#H9C2 cells were randomly divided into 7 groups, namely control, model, EV (empty pCDH-CMV-MCS-EF1-CopGFP-T2A-Puro vector), IV (circHIPK3 interference), Dmy (50 µ mol/L), Dmy+IV, and Dmy+EV groups. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were detected by cell counting kit-8 assay and flow cytometry, respectivley. Western blot was used to evaluate the levels of light chain 3 II/I (LC3II/I), phospho-phosphoinositide 3-kinase (p-PI3K), protein kinase B (p-AKT), and phospho-mammalian target of rapamycin (p-mTOR). The level of circHIPK3 was determined using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Electron microscopy was used to observe autophagosomes in H9C2 cells.@*RESULTS@#Compared to H9C2 cells, the expression of circHIPK in H9C2 hypoxia model cells increased significantly (P<0.05). Compared to the control group, the cell apoptosis and autophagosomes increased, cell proliferation rate decreased significantly, and the expression of LC3 II/I significantly increased (all P<0.05). Compared to the model group, the rate of apoptosis and autophagosomes in IV, Dmy, and Dmy+IV group decreased, the cell proliferation rate increased, and the expression of LC3 II/I decreased significantly (all P<0.05). Compared to the control group, the expressions of p-PI3K, p-AKT, and p-mTOR in the model group significantly reduced (P<0.05), whereas after treatment with Dmy and sh-circHIPK3, the above situation was reversed (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Dmy plays a protective role in H9C2 cells by inhibiting circHIPK expression and cell apoptosis and autophagy, and the mechanism may be related to PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway.


Subject(s)
Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Apoptosis , Autophagy
7.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 331-338, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981934

ABSTRACT

Male diabetic individuals present a marked impairment in fertility; however, knowledge regarding the pathogenic mechanisms and therapeutic strategies is unsatisfactory. The new hypoglycemic drug dapagliflozin has shown certain benefits, such as decreasing the risk of cardiovascular and renal events in patients with diabetes. Even so, until now, the effects and underlying mechanisms of dapagliflozin on diabetic male infertility have awaited clarification. Here, we found that dapagliflozin lowered blood glucose levels, alleviated seminiferous tubule destruction, and increased sperm concentrations and motility in leptin receptor-deficient diabetic db/db mice. Moreover, the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) antagonist exendin (9-39) had no effect on glucose levels but reversed the protective effects of dapagliflozin on testicular structure and sperm quality in db/db mice. We also found that dapagliflozin inhibited the testicular apoptotic process by upregulating the expression of the antiapoptotic protein B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) and inhibiting oxidative stress by enhancing the antioxidant status, including total antioxidant capacity, total superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, as well as decreasing the level of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE). Exendin (9-39) administration partially reversed these effects. Furthermore, dapagliflozin upregulated the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) level in plasma and GLP-1R expression by promoting AKT8 virus oncogene cellular homolog (Akt) phosphorylation in testicular tissue. Exendin (9-39) partially inhibited Akt phosphorylation. These results suggest that dapagliflozin protects against diabetes-induced spermatogenic dysfunction via activation of the GLP-1R/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway. Our results indicate the potential effects of dapagliflozin against diabetes-induced spermatogenic dysfunction.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Male , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Antioxidants , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Semen/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus
8.
Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology ; (12): 516-525, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981894

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the effect of viral myocarditis serum exosomal miR-320 on apoptosis of cardiomyocytes and its mechanism. Methods The model of viral myocarditis mice was established by intraperitoneal injection of Coxsackie virus B3. Serum exosomes were extracted by serum exosome extraction kit and co-cultured with cardiomyocytes. The uptake of exosomes by cardiomyocytes was detected by laser confocal microscopy. Cardiomyocytes were transfected with miR-320 inhibitor or mimic, and the expression level of miR-320 was detected by real-time quantitative PCR. Flow cytometry was used to detect cardiomyocyte apoptosis rate, and the expression levels of B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl2) and Bcl2-related X protein (BAX) were tested by Western blot analysis. The prediction of miR-320 target genes and GO and KEGG enrichment analysis were tested by online database. The relationship between miR-320 and its target gene phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 1(Pik3r1) was examined by luciferase reporter gene. The effect of miR-320 on AKT/mTOR pathway protein was detected by Western blot analysis. Results Viral myocarditis serum exosomes promoted cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and increased the level of BAX while the level of Bcl2 was decreased. miR-320 was significantly up-regulated in myocardial tissue of viral myocarditis mice, and both pri-miR-320 and mature of miR-320 were up-regulated greatly in cardiomyocytes. The level of miR-320 in cardiomyocytes treated with viral myocarditis serum exosomes was significantly up-regulated, while transfection of miR-320 inhibitor counteracted miR-320 overexpression and reduced apoptosis rate caused by exosomes. Pik3r1 is the target gene of miR-320, and its overexpression reversed cardiomyocyte apoptosis induced by miR-320 up-regulation. The overexpression of miR-320 inhibited AKT/mTOR pathway activation. Conclusion Viral myocarditis serum exosome-derived miR-320 promotes apoptosis of mouse cardiomyocytes by inhibiting AKT/mTOR pathway by targeting Pik3r1.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Myocytes, Cardiac , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Myocarditis/pathology , Exosomes/metabolism , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/metabolism , MicroRNAs/metabolism , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Apoptosis/genetics
9.
Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology ; (12): 423-428, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981883

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the neuroprotective effect of methylene blue on diabetic retinopathy in rats. Methods Thirty SD rats were randomly divided into blank, control and experimental groups. The control and experimental groups were induced with diabetes by streptozotocin (STZ) intraperitoneal injection. After 6 weeks of successful modeling, the experimental group received intravitreal injection of methylene blue at a dose of [0.2 mg/(kg.d)], while the control group received an equal amount of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) intravitreal injection, both continuously injected for 7 days. ELISA was used to detect the levels of retinal superoxide dismutase (SOD), 8-iso-prostaglandin F2alpha (iPF2α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in rats. Western blot analysis was used to detect the expression of retinal extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation (p-ERK1/2) and phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-AKT), and PAS staining was used to detect retinal morphological changes. Results Compared with the blank group rats, the retinal SOD activity in the control and experimental group rats was significantly reduced. iPF2α, IL-1β and p-ERK1/2 level increased, while p-AKT level decreased. Compared with the control group, the SOD activity of the experimental group rats increased. iPF2α and IL-1β level went down, while p-ERK1/2 and p-AKT level went up significantly. The overall thickness of the retinal layer and the number of retinal ganglion cells were significantly reduced. Conclusion Methylene blue improves diabetic retinopathy in rats by reducing retinal oxidative stress and enhancing ERK1/2 and AKT phosphorylation.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Diabetic Retinopathy/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3/metabolism , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Methylene Blue/pharmacology , Phosphorylation , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism
10.
Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology ; (12): 404-409, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981880

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the ameliorative effect of salidroside on diabetes retinopathy (DR) rats and its mechanism. Methods Male SD rats were randomly divided into blank group, model group, low-dose and high-dose salidroside treatment groups. Except for the blank group, other groups were modeled by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. After successful modeling, treatment groups were injected intraperitoneally with [50 mg/(kg.d)] and [100 mg/(kg.d)] salidroside respectively, for 4 weeks; the blank group and model group were injected with corresponding doses of saline. ELISA was used to measure the expression levels of antioxidant-related enzyme activity and inflammatory factors in blood glucose and serum of rats in each group. Retinal tissue lesions were detected by HE staining, and the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) in retinal tissues were detected by immunohistochemical staining. Western blot analysis was used to detect the expression of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) , nuclear factor κB p65 (NF-κB p65), phosphorylated p38 MAPK (p-p38 MAPK), and phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-AKT) proteins. Results Compared with model group, salidroside could significantly reduce blood glucose level and increase body mass in DR rats. The serum levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were significantly increased, while the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and IL-1β were reduced. The protein expression of VEGF, ICAM-1, NF-κB p65 and p-p38 MAPK was significantly decreased, while the protein expression of PI3K and p-AKT was increased. Conclusion Salidroside can reduce DR in rats by inhibiting oxidative stress and immune inflammatory response, which may be related to the reduction of abnormal expression of VEGF and ICAM-1 and the activation of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Blood Glucose , Diabetes Mellitus , Inflammation/metabolism , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Retinal Diseases , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism
11.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2646-2656, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981369

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to explore the effects and mechanisms of total flavones of Abelmoschus manihot(TFA), the extracts from traditional Chinese medicine indicated for kidney diseases, on insulin resistance(IR) and podocyte epithelial-mesenchymal transition(EMT) in diabetic kidney disease(DKD), and further to reveal the scientific connotation. Thirty-two rats were randomly divided into a normal group, a model group, a TFA group, and a rosiglitazone(ROS) group. The modified DKD model was induced in rats by methods including high-fat diet feeding, unilateral nephrectomy, and streptozotocin(STZ) intraperitoneal injection. After modeling, the rats in the four groups were given double-distilled water, TFA suspension, and ROS suspension correspondingly by gavage every day. At the end of the 8th week of drug administration, all rats were sacrificed, and the samples of urine, blood, and kidney tissues were collected. The parameters and indicators related to IR and podocyte EMT in the DKD model rats were examined and observed, including the general condition, body weight(BW) and kidney weight(KW), the biochemical parameters and IR indicators, the protein expression levels of the key signaling molecules and structural molecules of slit diaphragm in the renal insulin receptor substrate(IRS) 1/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase(PI3K)/serine-threonine kinase(Akt) pathway, foot process form and glomerular basement membrane(GBM) thickness, the expression of the marked molecules and structural molecules of slit diaphragm in podocyte EMT, and glomerular histomorphological characteristics. The results showed that for the DKD model rats, both TFA and ROS could improve the general condition, some biochemical parameters, renal appearance, and KW. The ameliorative effects of TFA and ROS were equivalent on BW, urinary albumin(UAlb)/urinary creatinine(UCr), serum creatinine(Scr), triglyceride(TG), and KW. Secondly, they could both improve IR indicators, and ROS was superior to TFA in improving fast insulin(FIN) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance(HOMA-IR). Thirdly, they could both improve the protein expression levels of the key signaling molecules in the IRS1/PI3K/Akt pathway and glomerulosclerosis in varying degrees, and their ameliorative effects were similar. Finally, both could improve podocyte injury and EMT, and TFA was superior to ROS. In conclusion, this study suggested that podocyte EMT and glomerulosclerosis could be induced by IR and the decreased activation of the IRS1/PI3K/Akt pathway in the kidney in DKD. Similar to ROS, the effects of TFA in inhibiting podocyte EMT in DKD were related to inducing the activation of the IRS1/PI3K/Akt pathway and improving IR, which could be one of the scientific connotations of TFA against DKD. This study provides preliminary pharmacological evidence for the development and application of TFA in the field of diabetic complications.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Diabetic Nephropathies/drug therapy , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Abelmoschus/chemistry , Podocytes , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition , Flavones/pharmacology , Insulin Resistance , Reactive Oxygen Species , Diabetes Mellitus
12.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2203-2211, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981351

ABSTRACT

This study aims to investigate the therapeutic effect of alcohol extract of root and root bark of Toddalia asiatica(TAAE) on collagen-induced arthritis(CIA) in rats through phosphatidylinoinosidine-3 kinase/protein kinase B(PI3K/Akt) signaling pathway. To be specific, CIA was induced in rats, and then the rats were treated(oral, daily) with TAAE and Tripterygium Glycoside Tablets(TGT), respectively. The swelling degree of the hind leg joints was scored weekly. After 35 days of administration, the histopathological changes were observed based on hematoxylin and eosin(HE) staining. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) was employed to detect the levels of cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), interleukin(IL)-6)]. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling(TUNEL) staining was performed to detect the apoptosis of synoviocytes in rats. Western blot was used to detect the expression levels of apoptosis-related proteins B-cell lymphoma 2(Bcl-2)-associated X(Bax), Bcl-2, and caspase-3 and pathway-related proteins phosphoinositide 3-kinase(PI3K), phosphorylated(p)-PI3K, protein kinase B(Akt), and p-Akt. RT-qPCR was conducted to examine the mRNA levels of Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β and pathway-related proteins PI3K, p-PI3K, Akt, and p-Akt. TAAE can alleviate the joint swelling in CIA rats, reduce serum levels of inflammatory cytokines, improve synovial histopathological changes, promote apoptosis of synoviocytes, and inhibit synovial inflammation. In addition, RT-qPCR and Western blot results showed that TAAE up-regulated the level of Bax, down-regulated the level of Bcl-2, and activated caspase-3 to promote apoptosis in synoviocytes. TAAE effectively down-regulated the protein levels of p-PI3K and p-Akt. In this study, TAAE shows therapeutic effect on CIA in rats and reduces the inflammation. The mechanism is that it suppresses PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and promotes synoviocyte apoptosis. Overall, this study provides a new clue for the research on the anti-inflammatory mechanism of TAAE and lays a theoretical basis for the better clinical application of TAAE in the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Caspase 3/genetics , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/metabolism , Plant Bark , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Arthritis, Experimental/chemically induced , Inflammation/drug therapy , Cytokines/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 , Apoptosis
13.
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 324-332, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986007

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effect and mechanism of miR-96-5p on apoptosis of PC12 cells induced by maltol aluminum. Methods: In January 2021, PC12 cells at logarithmic growth phase were divided into blank control group and low, medium and high dose group. Cells in each group were treated with 0, 100, 200 and 400 μmol/L maltol aluminum for 24 hours respectively. Cells were collected and cell apoptosis rates were detected by flow cytometry, miR-96-5p and insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) mRNA expressions were detected by qRT-PCR, and the protein expression levels of cysteine protease 3 (Caspase3) 、activated cysteine protease 3 (Cleaved-caspase3) 、IRS1、phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-AKT) and phosphorylated glucose synthesis kinase 3β (p-GSK3β) were detected by western blotting. The target binding relationship between miR-96-5p and IRS1 was detected by double luciferase reporter gene experiment. The miR-96-5p inhibitor cells and negative control cells were constructed after transfecting PC12 cells with miR-96-5p inhibitor for 24 hours. The cells were divided into blank control group, negative control group, aluminum exposure group, aluminum exposure+negative control group, aluminum exposure+miR-96-5p inhibition group, and miR-96-5p inhibition group. After transfecting PC12 cells with miR-96-5p inhibition and IRS1 siRNA for 24 h, the cells were divided into aluminum exposure+miR-96-5p inhibition+negative control group and aluminum exposure+miR-96-5p inhibition+IRS1 inhibition group. The control group was cultured in complete culture medium, and cells in the aluminum exposure group were treated with 200 μmol/L maltol aluminum for 24 hours. Cells in each group were collected and the apoptosis rate, miR-96-5p and IRS1 mRNA expression levels, as well as protein expression levels of Caspase3, Cleaved-caspase3, IRS1, p-AKT, and p-GSK3β were measured. Results: After 24 hours of exposure, compared with blank control group and low-dose group, the apoptosis rates, relative expressions of Caspase3 and Cleaved-caspase3 proteins, and relative expressions of miR-96-5p in the medium and high-dose groups of PC12 cells were significantly increased, while the relative expression levels of IRS1 mRNA, IRS1, p-AKT and p-GSK3β proteins were significantly decreased (P<0.05). Targetscan prediction and double luciferase report experiment both proved that IRS1 was a direct target gene of miR-96-5p. In the transfection experiment, compared with the aluminum exposure group, the apoptosis rate, the relative expressions of Caspase3 and Cleaved-caspase3 proteins, the relative expression of miR-96-5p in the aluminum exposure+miR-96-5p inhibition group were significantly decreased, while the relative expression levels of IRS1 mRNA and IRS1, p-AKT and p-GSK3β proteins were significantly increased (P<0.05). In the IRS1 low expression experiment, compared with the aluminum exposure+miR-96-5p inhibition+negative control group, the apoptosis rate, the relative expressions of Caspase3 and Cleaved-caspase3 proteins in the aluminum exposure+miR-96-5p inhibition+IRS1 inhibition group were significantly increased, while the relative expression levels of IRS1 mRNA and IRS1, p-AKT and p-GSK3β proteins were significantly decreased (P<0.05) . Conclusion: The increased expression of miR-96-5p and the targeted inhibition of IRS1 may be one of the mechanisms of apoptosis of PC12 cells induced by maltol aluminum exposure.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Aluminum/toxicity , Apoptosis , Cell Proliferation , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta/metabolism , Insulin Receptor Substrate Proteins/metabolism , MicroRNAs/metabolism , PC12 Cells , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , RNA, Messenger
14.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 568-576, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986963

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of Akt2 inhibitor on macrophage polarization in the periapical tissue in a rat model of periapical inflammation.@*METHODS@#Rat models of periapical inflammation were established in 28 normal SD rats by opening the pulp cavity of the mandibular first molars, followed by injection of normal saline and Akt2 inhibitor into the left and right medullary cavities, respectively. Four rats without any treatment served as the healthy control group. At 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after modeling, 7 rat models and 1 control rat were randomly selected for observation of inflammatory infiltration in the periapical tissues by X-ray and HE staining. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression and localization of Akt2, macrophages and the inflammatory mediators. RT-PCR was performed to detect the mRNA expressions of Akt2, CD86, CD163, inflammatory mediators, miR-155-5p and C/EBPβ to analyze the changes in macrophage polarization.@*RESULTS@#X-ray and HE staining showed that periapical inflammation was the most obvious at 21 days after modeling in the rats. Immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR showed that compared with those in the control rats, the expressions of Akt2, CD86, CD163, miR-155-5p, C/EBPβ, and IL-10 increased significantly in the rat models at 21 days (P < 0.05). Compared with saline treatment, treatment with the Akt2 inhibitor significantly decreased the expression levels of Akt2, CD86, miR-155-5p and IL-6 and the ratio of CD86+M1/CD163+M2 macrophages (P < 0.05) and increased the expression levels of CD163, C/EBPβ and IL-10 in the rat models (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Inhibition of Akt2 can delay the progression of periapical inflammation in rats and promote M2 macrophage polarization in the periapical inflammatory microenvironment possibly by reducing miR-155-5p expression and activating the expression of C/EBPβ in the Akt signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , MicroRNAs/genetics , Interleukin-10 , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Macrophages/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism
15.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 527-536, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986958

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the role of myosin heavy chain 9 (MYH9) in regulation of cell proliferation, apoptosis, and cisplatin sensitivity of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).@*METHODS@#Six NSCLC cell lines (A549, H1299, H1975, SPCA1, H322, and H460) and a normal bronchial epithelial cell line (16HBE) were examined for MYH9 expression using Western blotting. Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect MYH9 expression in a tissue microarray containing 49 NSCLC and 43 adjacent tissue specimens. MYH9 knockout cell models were established in H1299 and H1975 cells using CRISPR/Cas9 technology, and the changes in cell proliferation cell were assessed using cell counting kit-8 (CCK8) and clone formation assays; Western blotting and flow cytometry were used to detect apoptosis of the cell models, and cisplatin sensitivity of the cells was evaluated using IC50 assay. The growth of tumor xenografts derived from NSCLC with or without MYH9 knockout was observed in nude mice.@*RESULTS@#MYH9 expression was significantly upregulated in NSCLC (P < 0.001), and the patients with high MYH9 expression had a significantly shorter survival time (P=0.023). In cultured NSCLC cells, MYH9 knockout obviously inhibited cell proliferation (P < 0.001), promoted cell apoptosis (P < 0.05), and increased their chemosensitivity of cisplatin. In the tumor-bearing mouse models, the NSCLC cells with MYH9 knockout showed a significantly lower growth rate (P < 0.05). Western blotting showed that MYH9 knockout inactivated the AKT/c- Myc axis (P < 0.05) to inhibit the expression of BCL2- like protein 1 (P < 0.05), promoted the expression of BH3- interacting domain death agonist and the apoptosis regulator BAX (P < 0.05), and activated apoptosis-related proteins caspase-3 and caspase-9 (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#High expression of MYH9 contributes to NSCLC progression by inhibiting cell apoptosis via activating the AKT/c-Myc axis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Apoptosis , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Cisplatin/pharmacology , Cytoskeletal Proteins/metabolism , Lung Neoplasms/metabolism , Mice, Nude , Myosin Heavy Chains/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Signal Transduction
16.
Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 681-689, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986945

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate whether tanshinone ⅡA can protect the apoptosis of mice cochlear pericytes induced by high glucose and its specific protective mechanism, so as to provide experimental evidence for the prevention and treatment of diabetic hearing loss. Methods: C57BL/6J male mice were used to prepare type 2 diabetes model, which were divided into normal (NG) group, diabetic (DM) group, diabetic+tanshinone ⅡA (HG+tanshinone ⅡA) group and tanshinone ⅡA group. Each group had 10 animals. Primary cochlear pericytes were divided into NG group, HG group (high glucose 35 mmol/L), HG+tanshinone ⅡA (1, 3, 5 μmol/L) group, HG+Tanshinone ⅡA+LY294002 (PI3K/AKT pathway inhibitor) group, LY294002 group, tanshinone ⅡA group and DMSO group. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) was used to measure hearing threshold. Evans blue was used to detect the permeability of blood labyrinth barrier in each group. TBA methods were used to detect oxidative stress levels in various organs of mice. Morphological changes of stria vascularis were observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining (HE). Evans blue was used to detect the vascular labyrinth barrier permeability in cochlea. The expression of apoptosis protein in stria vascularis pericytes was observed by immunofluorescence. Pericytes apoptosis rate was observed by flow cytometry. DCFH-DA was combined with flow cytometry to detect intracellular ROS content, and Western blot was used to detect the expression of apoptotic proteins (Cleaved-caspase3, Bax), anti-apoptotic proteins (BCL-2) and pathway proteins (PI3K, p-PI3K, AKT, p-AKT). SPSS software was used for statistical analysis. Independent sample t test was performed, and P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Animal experiments: Tanshinone ⅡA decreased the hearing threshold of DM group [(35.0±3.5) dB SPL vs. (55.3±8.1) dB SPL] (t=4.899, P<0.01), decreased the oxidative stress level in cochlea (t=4.384, P<0.05), improved the structure disorder, atrophy of cochlea vascular lines, vacuole increased phenomenon. Tanshinone ⅡA alleviated the increased permeability of the blood labyrinth barrier [Evans blue leakage (6.84±0.27) AU vs. (8.59±0.85) AU] in the cochlea of DM mice (t=2.770, P<0.05), reversed the apoptotic protein: Caspase3 (t=4.956, P<0.01) and Bax (t=4.388, P<0.05) in cochlear vascularis. Cell experiments: Tanshinone ⅡA decreased intracellular ROS content in a concentration-dependent way (t=3.569, P<0.05; t=4.772, P<0.01; t=7.494, P<0.01); Tanshinone ⅡA decreased apoptosis rate and apoptotic protein, and increased the expression of anti-apoptotic protein, p-PI3K/PI3K and p-AKT/AKT in concentration-dependent manner (all P values<0.05); LY294002 reversed the protective effect of tanshinone ⅡA on pericytes apoptosis (all P values<0.05). Conclusion: Tanshinone ⅡA can inhibit the apoptosis of cochlear pericytes induced by high glucose by reducing oxidative stress level and activating PI3K/AKT signaling pathway under high glucose environment, thus playing a protective role in diabetic hearing loss.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Apoptosis , bcl-2-Associated X Protein , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Evans Blue , Glucose , Hearing Loss , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Pericytes/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Signal Transduction
17.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1977-1989, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980990

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) are a small subset of cells in tumors that exhibit self-renewal and differentiation properties. CSCs play a vital role in tumor formation, progression, relapse, and therapeutic resistance. B7-H3, an immunoregulatory protein, has many protumor functions. However, little is known about the mechanism underlying the role of B7-H3 in regulating gastric cancer (GC) stemness. Our study aimed to explore the impacts of B7-H3 on GC stemness and its underlying mechanism.@*METHODS@#GC stemness influenced by B7-H3 was detected both in vitro and in vivo . The expression of stemness-related markers was examined by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and flow cytometry. Sphere formation assay was used to detect the sphere-forming ability. The underlying regulatory mechanism of B7-H3 on the stemness of GC was investigated by mass spectrometry and subsequent validation experiments. The signaling pathway (Protein kinase B [Akt]/Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 [Nrf2] pathway) of B7-H3 on the regulation of glutathione (GSH) metabolism was examined by Western blotting assay. Multi-color immunohistochemistry (mIHC) was used to detect the expression of B7-H3, cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), and Nrf2 on human GC tissues. Student's t -test was used to compare the difference between two groups. Pearson correlation analysis was used to analyze the relationship between two molecules. The Kaplan-Meier method was used for survival analysis.@*RESULTS@#B7-H3 knockdown suppressed the stemness of GC cells both in vitro and in vivo . Mass spectrometric analysis showed the downregulation of GSH metabolism in short hairpin B7-H3 GC cells, which was further confirmed by the experimental results. Meanwhile, stemness characteristics in B7-H3 overexpressing cells were suppressed after the inhibition of GSH metabolism. Furthermore, Western blotting suggested that B7-H3-induced activation of GSH metabolism occurred through the AKT/Nrf2 pathway, and inhibition of AKT signaling pathway could suppress not only GSH metabolism but also GC stemness. mIHC showed that B7-H3 was highly expressed in GC tissues and was positively correlated with the expression of CD44 and Nrf2. Importantly, GC patients with high expression of B7-H3, CD44, and Nrf2 had worse prognosis ( P = 0.02).@*CONCLUSIONS@#B7-H3 has a regulatory effect on GC stemness and the regulatory effect is achieved through the AKT/Nrf2/GSH pathway. Inhibiting B7-H3 expression may be a new therapeutic strategy against GC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cell Line, Tumor , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Stomach Neoplasms
18.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 184-193, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971653

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Physical exercise, a common non-drug intervention, is an important strategy in cancer treatment, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the mechanism remains largely unknown. Due to the importance of hypoxia and cancer stemness in the development of HCC, the present study investigated whether the anti-HCC effect of physical exercise is related to its suppression on hypoxia and cancer stemness.@*METHODS@#A physical exercise intervention of swimming (30 min/d, 5 d/week, for 4 weeks) was administered to BALB/c nude mice bearing subcutaneous human HCC tumor. The anti-HCC effect of swimming was assessed in vivo by tumor weight monitoring, hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) detection of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Ki67. The expression of stemness transcription factors, including Nanog homeobox (NANOG), octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT-4), v-Myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (C-MYC) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), was detected using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. A hypoxia probe was used to explore the intratumoral hypoxia status. Western blot was used to detect the expression of HIF-1α and proteins related to protein kinase B (Akt)/glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β)/β-catenin signaling pathway. The IHC analysis of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (CD31), and the immunofluorescence co-location of CD31 and desmin were used to analyze tumor blood perfusion. SMMC-7721 cells were treated with nude mice serum. The inhibition effect on cancer stemness in vitro was detected using suspension sphere experiments and the expression of stemness transcription factors. The hypoxia status was inferred by measuring the protein and mRNA levels of HIF-1α. Further, the expression of proteins related to Akt/GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling pathway was detected.@*RESULTS@#Swimming significantly reduced the body weight and tumor weight in nude mice bearing HCC tumor. HE staining and IHC results showed a lower necrotic area ratio as well as fewer PCNA or Ki67 positive cells in mice receiving the swimming intervention. Swimming potently alleviated the intratumoral hypoxia, attenuated the cancer stemness, and inhibited the Akt/GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling pathway. Additionally, the desmin+/CD31+ ratio, rather than the number of CD31+ vessels, was significantly increased in swimming-treated mice. In vitro experiments showed that treating cells with the serum from the swimming intervention mice significantly reduced the formation of SMMC-7721 cell suspension sphere, as well as the mRNA expression level of stemness transcription factors. Consistent with the in vivo results, HIF-1α and Akt/GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling pathway were also inhibited in cells treated with serum from swimming group.@*CONCLUSION@#Swimming alleviated hypoxia and attenuated cancer stemness in HCC, through suppression of the Akt/GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling pathway. The alleviation of intratumoral hypoxia was related to the increase in blood perfusion in the tumor. Please cite this article as: Xiao CL, Zhong ZP, Lü C, Guo BJ, Chen JJ, Zhao T, Yin ZF, Li B. Physical exercise suppresses hepatocellular carcinoma progression by alleviating hypoxia and attenuating cancer stemness through the Akt/GSK-3β/β-catenin pathway. J Integr Med. 2023; 21(2): 184-193.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Mice , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/drug therapy , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen/therapeutic use , Mice, Nude , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta/genetics , beta Catenin/therapeutic use , Liver Neoplasms/drug therapy , Desmin/therapeutic use , Ki-67 Antigen , Cell Line, Tumor , Hypoxia , RNA, Messenger/therapeutic use , Cell Proliferation
19.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 62-76, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971641

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#The current study evaluated various new colchicine analogs for their anticancer activity and to study the primary mechanism of apoptosis and in vivo antitumor activity of the analogs with selective anticancer properties and minimal toxicity to normal cells.@*METHODS@#Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay was used to screen various colchicine analogs for their in vitro cytotoxicity. The effect of N-[(7S)-1,2,3-trimethoxy-9-oxo-10-(pyrrolidine-1-yl)5,6,7,9-tetrahydrobenzo[a] heptalene-7-yl] acetamide (IIIM-067) on clonogenicity, apoptotic induction, and invasiveness of A549 cells was determined using a clonogenic assay, scratch assay, and staining with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and annexin V/propidium iodide. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were observed using fluorescence microscopy. Western blot analysis was used to quantify expression of proteins involved in apoptosis, cell cycle, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. Pharmacokinetic and in vivo efficacy studies against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) and Ehrlich solid tumor models were conducted using Swiss albino mice.@*RESULTS@#IIIM-067 showed potent cytotoxicity and better selectivity than all other colchicine analogs screened in this study. The selective activity of IIIM-067 toward A549 cells was higher among other cancer cell lines, with a selectivity index (SI) value of 2.28. IIIM-067 demonstrated concentration- and time-dependent cytotoxicity against A549 cells with half-maximal inhibitory concentration values of 0.207, 0.150 and 0.106 μmol/L at 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. It also had reduced toxicity to normal cells (SI > 1) than the parent compound colchicine (SI = 1). IIIM-067 reduced the clonogenic ability of A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner. IIIM-067 enhanced ROS production from 24.6% at 0.05 μmol/L to 82.1% at 0.4 μmol/L and substantially decreased the MMP (100% in control to 5.6% at 0.4 μmol/L). The annexin V-FITC assay demonstrated 78% apoptosis at 0.4 μmol/L. IIIM-067 significantly (P < 0.5) induced the expression of various intrinsic apoptotic pathway proteins, and it differentially regulated the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. Furthermore, IIIM-067 exhibited remarkable in vivo anticancer activity against the murine EAC model, with tumor growth inhibition (TGI) of 67.0% at a dose of 6 mg/kg (i.p.) and a reduced mortality compared to colchicine. IIIM-067 also effectively inhibited the tumor growth in the murine solid tumor model with TGI rates of 48.10%, 55.68% and 44.00% at doses of 5 mg/kg (i.p.), 6 mg/kg (i.p.) and 7 mg/kg (p.o.), respectively.@*CONCLUSION@#IIIM-067 exhibited significant anticancer activity with reduced toxicity both in vitro and in vivo and is a promising anticancer candidate. However, further studies are required in clinical settings to fully understand its potential.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Colchicine/pharmacology , Apoptosis , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Mammals/metabolism
20.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 119-131, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971625

ABSTRACT

Treating patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is challenging due to the high chemoresistance. Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) is crucial in the development of various types of tumors and negatively related to the prognosis of ESCC patients according to our previous research. In this study, the link between GDF15 and chemotherapy resistance in ESCC was further explored. The relationship between GDF15 and the chemotherapy response was investigated through in vitro and in vivo studies. ESCC patients with high levels of GDF15 expression showed an inferior chemotherapeutic response. GDF15 improved the tolerance of ESCC cell lines to low-dose cisplatin by regulating AKT phosphorylation via TGFBR2. Through an in vivo study, we further validated that the anti-GDF15 antibody improved the tumor inhibition effect of cisplatin. Metabolomics showed that GDF15 could alter cellular metabolism and enhance the expression of UGT1A. AKT and TGFBR2 inhibition resulted in the reversal of the GDF15-induced expression of UGT1A, indicating that TGFBR2-AKT pathway-dependent metabolic pathways were involved in the resistance of ESCC cells to cisplatin. The present investigation suggests that a high level of GDF15 expression leads to ESCC chemoresistance and that GDF15 can be targeted during chemotherapy, resulting in beneficial therapeutic outcomes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma/drug therapy , Cisplatin/metabolism , Esophageal Neoplasms/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/genetics , Growth Differentiation Factor 15/therapeutic use , Receptor, Transforming Growth Factor-beta Type II/therapeutic use , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL