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1.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 2004-2010, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880006

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the clinical characteristics and prognostic significance of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients with BCOR/BCORL1 mutation.@*METHODS@#The clinical characteristics of 135 patients diagnosed as de novo MDS in People's Hospital of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region from September 2015 to September 2019 were analyzed retrospectively. Next-generation sequencing was used to detect 34 kinds of myeloid-tumor-related gene in MDS patients. The clinical characteristics of BCOR/BCORL1 mutation and its effect to progression-free survival(PSF) and overall survival (OS) in MDS patients were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#Among MDS patients, BCOR/BCORL1 mutation was found in 34(25.2%) patients, including 16(11.9%) BCOR mutation and 18(13.3%) BCORL1 mutation. Patients with BCOR/BCORL1 mutation were more common in women and showed lower neutrophil count [0.75(0.08-22.20) vs 1.27(0.06-35.71)×10@*CONCLUSION@#BCOR/BCORL1 mutation is more common in MDS patients and often company with other genes co-mutations. BCOR/BCORL1 mutation is not associated with disease progression and AML transformation in MDS patients, but it predicts poor overall survival.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Mutation , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/genetics , Patients , Prognosis , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/genetics , Repressor Proteins/genetics , Retrospective Studies
2.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2298-2312, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878487

ABSTRACT

Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) is widely regarded as one of the most promising targets for cancer therapy due to its essential role in cell division and tumor cell survival. At present, most Plk1 inhibitors have been developed based on kinase domain, some of which are in clinical trial. However, inhibitors targeting kinase domain face off-target effect and drug resistance owing to the conserved nature and the frequent mutations in the ATP-binding pocket. In addition to a highly conserved kinase domain, Plk1 also contains a unique Polo-Box domain (PBD), which is essential for Plk1's subcellular localization and mitotic functions. Inhibitors targeting Plk1 PBD show stronger selectivity and less drug resistance for cancer therapy. Therefore, Plk1 PBD is an attractive target for the development of anti-cancer agents. In this review, we will summarize the up-to date drug discovery for targeting Plk1 PBD, including the molecular structure and cellular functions of Plk1 PBD. Small-molecule inhibitors targeting Plk1 PBD not only provide an opportunity to specifically inhibit Plk1 activity for cancer treatment, but also unveil novel biological basis regarding the molecular recognition of Plk1 and its substrates.


Subject(s)
Cell Cycle Proteins/genetics , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/genetics
3.
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 33(3): e1524, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1141902

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: KRAS mutations are important events in colorectal carcinogenesis, as well as negative predictors of response to EGFR inhibitors treatment. Aim: To investigate the association of clinical-pathological features with KRAS mutations in colorectal cancer patients treated. Methods: Data from 69 patients with colorectal cancer either metastatic at diagnosis or later, were retrospectively analyzed. The direct sequencing and pyrosequencing techniques were related to KRAS exon 2. The mutation diagnosis and its type were determined. Results: KRAS mutation was identified in 43.4% of patients. The most common was c.35G>T (p.G12V), c.35G>A (p.G12D) and c.38G>A (p.G13D). No correlation was found between KRAS mutation and age (p=0.646) or gender (p=0.815). However, mutated group had higher CEA levels at admission (p=0.048) and codon 13 mutation was associated with involvement of more than one metastatic site in disease progression (p=0.029). Although there was no association between primary tumor site and mutation diagnosis (p=0.568), primary colon was associated with worse overall survival (p=0.009). Conclusion: The KRAS mutation was identified in almost half of patients. Mutated KRAS group had higher levels of CEA at admission and the mutation at codon 13 was associated with involvement of more than one metastatic site in the course of the disease. Colon disease was associated with the worst overall survival.


RESUMO Racional: Mutações KRAS são eventos importantes na carcinogênese colorretal como preditores negativos de resposta ao tratamento. Objetivo: Investigar a associação de características clinicopatológicas com mutações no KRAS em pacientes com câncer colorretal tratados. Métodos: Sessenta e nove pacientes com câncer colorretal metastáticos ao diagnóstico ou posteriormente foram analisados. As técnicas de sequenciamento direto e pirosequenciamento foram relacionadas ao éxon 2 do KRAS e o diagnóstico da mutação e seu tipo foram determinados. Resultados: A mutação KRAS foi identificada em 43,4% dos pacientes, c.35G>T (p.G12V), c.35G>A (p.G12D) e c.38G>A (p.G13D). Não foi encontrada correlação entre a mutação KRAS e a idade (p=0,646) ou o gênero (p=0,815). No entanto, o grupo mutado apresentou níveis mais altos de CEA na admissão (p=0,048). A mutação do códon 13 foi associada ao envolvimento de mais de um local metastático na progressão da doença (p=0,029); não houve associação entre o local primário do tumor e o diagnóstico de mutação (p=0,568); a doença primária do cólon foi associada com pior sobrevida global (p=0,009). Conclusão: A mutação KRAS foi identificada em quase metade dos pacientes. O grupo KRAS mutado apresentou níveis mais altos de CEA na admissão e a mutação no códon 13 foi associada ao envolvimento de mais de um local metastático no curso da doença. A doença do cólon foi associada com pior sobrevida global.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Colorectal Neoplasms/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras)/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/metabolism , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/genetics , ras Proteins/genetics , Mutation
4.
Lima; s.n; oct. 2016.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BRISA | ID: biblio-847654

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Antecedentes: El presente dictamen expone la evaluación de tecnología de la eficacia y seguridad de la adición de cetuximab a FOLFIRI en el tratamiento de pacientes con diagnóstico de cáncer colorrectal metastásico e irresecable (CCRm) con estudio de KRAS WT (tipo salvaje), sin tratamiento sistémico previo en enfermedad metastásica. Aspectos Generales: El cáncer colorrectal (CCR) se origina en la parte baja del sistema digestivo, incluyendo el colon y el recto. El cáncer puede extenderse produciendo metástasis a lugares adyacentes a la lesión original, a los ganglios y también a otras partes distantes del cuerpo. Globalmente, el cáncer colorrectal (CCR) es el tercer cáncer más frecuentemente diagnosticado en hombres y el segundo en mujeres en el mundo (Torres). En el Perú, en el 2012 se estimó que la incidencia de este tipo de cáncer en hombres era de 9% a 16.1% con mortalidad alrededor del 5.8% a 9%; mientras que en mujeres la incidencia estimada fue de alrededor de 7.6% y 13.2%, con una mortalidad entre 5.3% y 6.9%(1,2). Tecnologia Sanitaria de Interés: El cetuximab (Erbitux, Merck Serono) es un anticuerpo monoclonal recombinante que bloquea el receptor del factor de crecimiento de la epidermis (EGFR), inhibiendo la proliferación de células que dependen de la activación de EGFR para crecer. Cetuximab está indicado en combinación con quimioterapia en el tratamiento de pacientes con CCRm que expresan EGFR y el tipo salvaje de KRAS (Kirsten rat sarcoma). METODOLOGIA: Estrategia de Búsqueda: Se realizó una búsqueda de la literatura con respecto a la eficacia y seguridad de la adición de cetuximab a FOLFIRI en el tratamiento de pacientes con diagnóstico de cáncer colorrectal metastásico e irresecable (CCRm) con estudio de KRAS WT no mutado (tipo salvaje), sin tratamiento sistémico previo para enfermedad metastásica. Esta búsqueda se realizó utilizando los meta-buscadores: Translating Research into Practice (TRIPDATABASE), National Library of Medicine (Pubmed-Medline) y Health Systems Evidence. RESULTADOS: Sinopsis de la Evidencia: Se realizó la búsqueda bibliográfica y de evidencia científica para el sustento de la adición de cetuximab a FOLFIRI como tratamiento de primera línea en pacientes con \r\ncarcinoma colorrectal metastásico irresecable y con estudio negativo de la mutación KRAS. Se presenta la evidencia disponible según el tipo de publicación priorizada en los criterios de inclusión. CONCLUSIONES: La mayoría de los pacientes con cáncer colorrectal metastásico (CCRm) no pueden ser curados, siendo candidatos a tratamiento paliativo con quimioterapia sistémica, como FOLFIRI, XELOX o FOLFOX, los cuales se encuentran disponibles en el Petitorio Farmacológico de EsSalud. No se han encontrado reportes sobre el impacto de adicionar cetuximab a la quimioterapia en pacientes con cáncer colorrectal metastásico. Sin embargo, del estudio CRYSTAL se evidencia que la incidencia general de eventos adversos grado 3 o 4 fue mayor en el grupo cetuximab­FOLFIRI que en el grupo FOLFIRI. el Instituto de Evaluación en Tecnologías en Salud e Investigación-IETSI, no aprueba el uso de cetuximab en combinación con FOLFIRI para el tratamiento de cáncer colorrectal metastásico KRAS WT.


Subject(s)
Humans , Colorectal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasm Metastasis/drug therapy , Cetuximab/administration & dosage , Peru , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/genetics , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Treatment Outcome
5.
Lima; s.n; mar. 2016.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BRISA | ID: biblio-847655

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Antecedentes: El presente dictamen expone la evaluación del medicamento cetuximab en combinación con irinotecán respecto a su uso en pacientes con cáncer colorrectal metastásico y gen KRAS' no mutado (WT) con progresión a primera línea de quimioterapia basada oxaliplatino. Aspectos Generales: A nivel mundial, en cáncer colorrectal es el tercer tipo de cáncer más frecuente, representando el 9.4% de todas las incidencias de cáncer en hombres y el 10.1% en mujeres. Aproximadamente el 25% de los pacientes diagnosticados con cáncer colorrectal presentan enfermedad metastásica al momento del diagnóstico y del resto de pacientes, el 25% a 35% desarrollará metástasis en el transcurso de la enfermedad. Tecnología Sanitaria de Interés: Cetuximab: Cetuximab con nombre comercial Erbitux, es un anticuerpo monoclonal recombinante que inhibe la proliferación de células bloqueando los EGFR(15). El EGFR es uno de los cuatro receptores pertenecientes a la familia de proteínas c-erbB de receptores de tirosina quinasa (i.e., c-erb-1, c-erb-2, c-erb-3, c-erb-4). METODOLOGÍA: Estrategia de Búsqueda: Se realizó una búsqueda de la literatura con respecto a la eficacia y seguridad de cetuximab para el tratamiento de cáncer colorrectal metastásico en pacientes sin mutación el en gen KRAS (KRAS WT) en las bases de datos de MEDLINE y TRIPDATABASE. Se hizo una búsqueda adicional en www.clinicaltrials.gov, para poder identificar ensayos aún en elaboración o que no hayan sido publicados. Asimismo, se hizo una búsqueda dentro de la información generada por grupos que realizan revisiones sistemáticas, evaluación de tecnologías sanitarias y guías de práctica clínica, tales como The Cochrane Library y The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). RESULTADOS: Sinopsis de la Evidencia: Se realizó la búsqueda bibliográfica y de evidencia científica para el sustento del uso de cetuximab como tratamiento para cáncer colorrectal metastásico con KRAS no mutado (WT), en pacientes con progresión a primera línea de quimioterapia basada en fluoropirimidina y oxaliplatino. Se presenta la evidencia disponible en Guías de Práctica Clínica, Evaluación de tecnologías sanitarias, Meta-análisis/Network Meta-análisis y Ensayos clínicos. CONCLUSIONES: -\tEn la actualidad el fármaco irinotecán se encuentra incluido en el petitorio farmacológico de ESSALUD para su uso en el tratamiento de cáncer colorrectal metastásico, lo que incluye su uso como alternativa en pacientes que no hayan recibido previamente regímenes con este fármaco. Así, ESSALUD cuenta con una alternativa para pacientes con cáncer colorrectal metastásico que hayan utilizado previamente regímenes con fluoropirimidina y oxaliplatino. Es por ello que se requiere que la adición de cetuximab a irinotecán suponga un beneficio adicional para dichos pacientes. Sin embargo, hasta la fecha (i.e., Marzo 2016) no se ha encontrado evidencia sólida con relación a la hipótesis que añadir cetuximab a irinotecán, en el contexto de progresión a regímenes con fluoropirimidina y oxaliplatino, ofrezca un beneficio mayor al obtenido con regímenes a base de irinotecán como monodroga. Así, la evidencia disponible al momento no justifica el uso de cetuximab en combinación con irinotecán para el tratamiento de cáncer colorrectal metastásico en pacientes que han progresado a regímenes de quimioterapia a base de fluoropirimidina y / u oxaliplatino; ya que en el petitorio de la Institución ya se cuenta con un tratamiento utilizado para dichos pacientes. -\tPor lo expuesto, el Instituto de evaluación en Tecnologías en Salud e Investigación-IETSI, no aprueba el uso de cetuximab en combinación con irinotecán para el tratamiento de cáncer colorrectal metastásico KRAS WT, en pacientes refractarios a quimioterapia pasada en fluoropirimidina y oxaliplatino.


Subject(s)
Humans , Colorectal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasm Metastasis/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/administration & dosage , Cetuximab/administration & dosage , Drug Therapy, Combination , Peru , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/genetics , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Treatment Outcome
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-224843

ABSTRACT

Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) mutation is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the occurrence of parathyroid, pancreatic islet, and anterior pituitary tumors. The incidence of insulinoma in MEN is relatively uncommon, and there have been a few cases of MEN manifested with insulinoma as the first symptom in children. We experienced a 9-year-old girl having a familial MEN1 mutation. She complained of dizziness, occasional palpitation, weakness, hunger, sweating, and generalized tonic-clonic seizure that lasted for 5 minutes early in the morning. At first, she was only diagnosed with insulinoma by abdominal magnetic resonance images of a 1.3 × 1.5 cm mass in the pancreas and high insulin levels in blood of the hepatic vein, but after her father was diagnosed with MEN1. We found she had familial MEN1 mutation, and she recovered hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia after enucleation of the mass. Therefore, the early genetic identification of MEN1 mutation is considerable for children with at least one manifestation.


Subject(s)
Alleles , Base Sequence , Child , DNA Mutational Analysis , Female , Humans , Hypoglycemia/diagnosis , Insulin/blood , Insulinoma/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1/diagnosis , Pancreatic Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Pedigree , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/genetics , Seizures/complications
7.
Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics [The]. 2016; 17 (2): 209-215
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-180240

ABSTRACT

Background: Acute myeloid leukemia [AML] is a heterogeneous clonal disorder in terms of cytogenetic and molecular aberrations. Ten-Eleven-Translocation 2 [TET2], Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog [KRAS], and Casitas B-cell lymphoma [CBL] have an important role pathogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia [AML] and their activated mutations confer proliferative and survival signals


Aim: In this study, we aimed to find possible genetic markers for molecular analysis in childhood AML by screening hot-spot exons of TET2, KRAS, and CBL using Next Generation Sequencing [NGS] analysis. In addition, association between found variants and mutations of Januse Kinase-2 [JAK2] and Fms-Related Tyrosine Kinase [FLT3] were analyzed which are important prognostic risk factors for AML


Methods: Eight patients who were diagnosed with pediatric AML at Losante Pediatric Hematology- Oncology Hospital were included to the study. Hot-spot exons of TET2, KRAS and CBL genes were screened using the NGS method. Furthermore, FLT3-Internal Tandem Duplicate [FLT3-ITD] and JAK2-V617F were analyzed by Real Time Polymerase chain Reaction [Real Time-PCR]


Results: In total, we identified 20 variants in studied genes by NGS. In our patient group, 16 variants in the TET2 [seven novel, seven missense and two silent], two variants in the KRAS [one missense and one intronic] and two variants in the CBL [two novel] were found. All of AML patients were found negative for JAK V617 F. Three of the eight patients [37.5%] showed mutations of both FLT3-ITD and TET2, KRAS, CBL


Conclusion: We found novel mutations forTET2, KRAS, and CBL. The detected variants in this article seem to be the first screening results of genes studied by NGS in childhood AML patients. Our results also showed some degree of association between FLT3-ITD and TET2, KRAS, CBL mutations


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras)/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-cbl/genetics , fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3/genetics , Janus Kinase 2/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA/trends
8.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 50-57, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-186123

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Traditional chemotherapy is the main adjuvant therapy for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the emergence of multi-drug resistance (MDR) has greatly restricted the curative effect of chemotherapy. Therefore, it is necessary to find a method to treat MDR NSCLC clinically. It is worth investigating whether NSCLCs that are resistant to traditional chemotherapy can be effectively treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and lung resistance-related protein (LRP) was detected by immunohistochemistry, and mutations in EGFR (exons 19 and 21) and Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) (exon 2) were detected by high-resolution melting analysis (HRMA) of surgical NSCLC specimens from 127 patients who did not undergo traditional chemotherapy or radiotherapy. A Pearson chi-square test was performed to analyze the correlations between the expression of P-gp and LRP and mutations in EGFR and KRAS. RESULTS: The expression frequencies of P-gp and LRP were significantly higher in adenocarcinomas from non-smoking patients; the expression frequency of LRP was significantly higher in cancer tissue from female patients. The frequency of EGFR mutations was significantly higher in well to moderately differentiated adenocarcinomas from non-smoking female patients. The frequency of EGFR mutations in the cancers that expressed P-gp, LRP, or both P-gp and LRP was significantly higher than that in cancers that did not express P-gp or LRP. CONCLUSION: NSCLCs expressing P-gp/LRP bear the EGFR mutation in exon 19 or 21 easily.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Exons/genetics , Female , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Middle Aged , Mutation , ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Subfamily B, Member 1/genetics , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras) , ErbB Receptors/genetics , Treatment Outcome , Vault Ribonucleoprotein Particles/genetics , ras Proteins/genetics
10.
Braz. j. phys. ther. (Impr.) ; 19(3): 227-234, May-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-751375

ABSTRACT

Background: Older females have less dynamic postural control and muscle strength than do middle-aged females. Aging-related strength losses may limit balancing performance. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of the Y Balance Test (YBT) and lower limb strength to discriminate between females in 2 age groups, the relationship between YBT distance and the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), and the degree to which performance on YBT distance is related to lower limb strength in middle-aged and older females. Method: The 40 healthy, independently active females were divided into 2 groups: older and middle-aged. The participants underwent measurements of YBT distance using the YBT, maximal muscular strength of the lower limbs using a handheld dynamometer, and the BBS. Results: The YBT distance in 3 directions and lower limb muscle strength for both lower limbs were significantly lower in the older adults than in the middle-aged group. A moderate correlation but insignificant correlation was found between the YBT composite distance and the BBS score. In the older females, YBT distance was significantly positively correlated with strength of the knee flexor and hip abductor. In the middle-aged group, YBT distance was significantly positively correlated with strength of the knee flexor and hip extensor. Conclusions: Performance on the YBT was influenced by the strength of lower limb. We suggested that YBT can be used to alternative as a measurement of dynamic balance. Proper training programs for older people could include not only strengthening exercises but also YBT performance to improve balance. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Adrenomedullin/metabolism , Colorectal Neoplasms/genetics , Colorectal Neoplasms/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/genetics , ras Proteins/genetics , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Hypoxia/physiology , Immunohistochemistry , Mice, Nude , Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis , Tumor Microenvironment/physiology , Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
11.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 41(2): 230-238, Mar-Apr/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748295

ABSTRACT

Varicocele is one of the most common causes of male infertility and spontaneous pregnancy rate after varicocelectomy is only about 30%. The most important seminal antioxidant is vitamin C but recent studies about the effects of vitamin C on spermatogenesis are controversial; therefore, we decided to evaluate its role after varicocelectomy. In a double blind randomized controlled clinical trial, 115 men with infertility and clinical varicocele with abnormal semen analyses were recruited. After surgery, the intervention group received vitamin C (250 mg bid) and the control group received placebo for three months. Mean sperm count, motility, and morphology index of two semen analyses (before and after surgery) were compared between the two groups. Univariate general linear model and stepwise linear regression were used in analysis. The mean age (±SD) of participants was 27.6±5.3 years. Vitamin C group had statistically significant better normal motility (20.8 vs. 12.6, P=0.041) and morphology (23.2 vs. 10.5, P<0.001) than placebo group. Considering the values prior to surgery as covariate, vitamin C was not effective on sperm count (P=0.091); but it improved sperm motility (P=0.016) and morphology (P<0.001) even after excluding the confounding effect of age (P=0.044 and P=0.001, respectively). Vitamin C was also an independent factor in predicting motility and normal morphology after surgery. Ascorbic acid can play a role as adjuvant treatment after varicocelectomy in infertile men.


Subject(s)
Humans , Gene Regulatory Networks , Neoplasms/genetics , Signal Transduction/genetics , /genetics , Genome, Human , Genomics , Mutation, Missense , MicroRNAs/genetics , Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasms/therapy , Nuclear Proteins/genetics , /genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/genetics , /metabolism
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-220405

ABSTRACT

Basal-type breast cancers are among the most aggressive and deadly breast cancer subtypes, displaying a high metastatic ability associated with mesenchymal features. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the maintenance of mesenchymal phenotypes of basal-type breast cancer cells remain obscure. Here, we report that KRAS is a critical regulator for the maintenance of mesenchymal features in basal-type breast cancer cells. KRAS is preferentially activated in basal-type breast cancer cells as compared with luminal type. By loss and gain of KRAS, we found that KRAS is necessary and sufficient for the maintenance of mesenchymal phenotypes and metastatic ability through SLUG expression. Taken together, this study demonstrates that KRAS is a critical regulator for the metastatic behavior associated with mesenchymal features of breast cancer cells, implicating a novel therapeutic target for basal-type breast cancer.


Subject(s)
Animals , Breast Neoplasms/genetics , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Transformation, Neoplastic/genetics , Disease Models, Animal , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition/genetics , Female , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Gene Knockdown Techniques , Heterografts , Humans , Neoplasm Invasiveness , Neoplasm Metastasis , Phenotype , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/genetics , Transcriptional Activation , ras Proteins/genetics
13.
J. bras. nefrol ; 36(4): 476-481, Oct-Dec/2014. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-731152

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Dados nacionais sobre diálise crônica têm tido impacto no planejamento do tratamento. Objetivo: Apresentar dados do inquérito da Sociedade Brasileira de Nefrologia sobre os pacientes com doença renal crônica em tratamento dialítico em julho de 2013 e comparar com dados de 2011- 12. Métodos: Levantamento de dados de unidades de diálise do país. A coleta de dados foi feita utilizando questionário preenchido on-line pelas unidades de diálise. Resultados: Trezentos e trinta e quatro (51%) unidades responderam ao inquérito. Em julho de 2013, o número total estimado de pacientes em diálise foi de 100.397. As estimativas nacionais das taxas de prevalência e de incidência de tratamento dialítico foram de 499 (variação: 284 na região Norte e 622 na Sul) e 170 pacientes por milhão da população, respectivamente. O número estimado de pacientes que iniciaram tratamento em 2013 foi 34.161. A taxa anual de mortalidade bruta foi de 17,9%. Dos pacientes prevalentes, 31,4% tinham idade ≥ 65 anos, 90,8% estavam em hemodiálise e 9,2% em diálise peritoneal, 31.351 (31,2%) estavam em fila de espera para transplante, 30% tinham diabetes, 17% tinham PTH > 600 pg/ml e 23% hemoglobina < 10 g/dl. Cateter venoso era usado como acesso em 15,4% dos pacientes em hemodiálise. Conclusão: O número absoluto de pacientes em diálise tem aumentado 3% ao ano nos últimos 3 anos. As taxas de prevalência e incidência de pacientes em diálise ficaram estáveis, e a taxa de mortalidade tendeu a diminuir em relação a 2012. Houve tendência a melhor controle da anemia e dos níveis de PTH. .


Introduction: National chronic dialysis data have had impact in the treatment planning. Objective: To report data of the annual survey of the Brazilian Society of Nephrology about chronic kidney disease patients on dialysis in July 2013 and compare with 2011-12. Methods: A survey based on data of dialysis units from the whole country. The data collection was performed by using a questionnaire filled out on-line by the dialysis units. Results: Three hundred thirty four (51%) of the dialysis units in the country answered the questionnaire. In July 2013, the total estimated number of patients on dialysis was 100,397. The estimated prevalence and incidence rates of chronic maintenance dialysis were 449 (range: 284 in the North region and 622 in the South) and 170 patients per million population, respectively. The estimated number of new patients starting dialysis in 2013 was 34,161. The annual gross mortality rate was 17.9%. For prevalent patients, 31.4% were aged 65 years or older, 90.8% were on hemodialysis and 9.2% on peritoneal dialysis, 31,351 (31.2%) were on a waiting list of renal transplant, 30% were diabetics, 17% had PTH levels > 600 pg/ml and 23% hemoglobin < 10 g/ dl. A venous catheter was the vascular access for 15.4% of the hemodialysis patients. Conclusion: The absolute number of patients on dialysis has increased 3% per year. The prevalence and incidence rates of patients on dialysis leveled off, while the mortality rate tended to decrease compared with 2012. There was a trend towards a better control of the anemia and PTH levels. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Cellular Senescence/physiology , /physiology , Lymphoma, B-Cell/etiology , Lymphoma, B-Cell/genetics , /physiology , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases , Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating/therapeutic use , Apoptosis/genetics , Apoptosis/physiology , Biomarkers , Cellular Senescence/drug effects , Cellular Senescence/genetics , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cell Survival/genetics , Cell Survival/physiology , /genetics , Cyclophosphamide/therapeutic use , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/genetics , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/physiology , Lymphoma, B-Cell/drug therapy , Mice, Knockout , Mice, Mutant Strains , Mutation , Prognosis , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-cbl , /metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/metabolism , Tumor Cells, Cultured , /genetics , /physiology , /genetics
14.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 142(11): 1407-1414, nov. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-734876

ABSTRACT

Background: The molecular testing of KRAS mutation status in metastatic colorectal cancer patients is mandatory to identify patients eligible for anti-epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibody therapy. Aim: To report the frequency of KRAS gene mutations in Chilean patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). Material and Methods: A cohort of 262 Chilean patients with CRC aged 26 to 90 years (53% males), was studied. KRAS mutation status was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and correlated with clinicopathological data. Results: Ninety-eight patients (37%) were positive for KRAS mutations. G12D was the most common mutation with a frequency of 36.7%, followed by G12V (25.5%), G13D (17.3%), G12A (7.1%), G12C (6.1%), G12S (5.1%) and G12R (2%). The frequency of the mutation in left, right colon and rectal tumors was 37.8, 32.6 and 44.9%, respectively. Among tumors with mutations, 86.7% were well or moderately differentiated tumors and the rest were poorly differentiated. No significant associations between KRAS gene mutations and other clinicopathological features of the tumor were observed. Conclusions: The frequencies of KRAS mutations reported in this study are similar to frequencies reported for European and North-American populations, lower than in a Spanish study and higher than in a Peruvian study.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Colorectal Neoplasms/genetics , Mutation , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/genetics , ras Proteins/genetics , Age Factors , Chile/ethnology , Colorectal Neoplasms/ethnology , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , DNA Mutational Analysis , DNA, Neoplasm/genetics , Epidermal Growth Factor/genetics , Neoplasm Invasiveness/genetics , Prospective Studies , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sex Factors
15.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 142(1): 55-60, ene. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-708851

ABSTRACT

Background: In colorectal cancer, BRAF and KRAS mutation are mutually exclusive, but both are independent prognostic factors for the disease. Aim: To determine the frequency of BRAF V600E mutation in colorectal cancer. Material and Methods: A KRAS mutation study was carried out in 100 tissue samples of primary and metastatic adenocarcinomas of colon and rectum from patients aged 61.1 ± 62 years (56 women). Negative KRAS mutation cases underwent study of BRAF V600E mutation by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and direct sequencing. Results: Primary tumors were located in the colon and rectum in 88 and six cases respectively. Five were liver metastases and in one case, the sample location was undetermined. Forty two samples were KRAS positive (mutated). In 12 of the 58 KRAS negative (wild type) samples, the V600E mutation in codon 15 of the BRAF gene was demonstrated. No differences in the frequency and distribution of mutations, stratified by gender, age, primary tumor versus metastasis, or tumor location were observed. Conclusions: Twelve percent of KRAS negative colorectal cancer samples showed BRAF gene mutation. Considering that 42% of samples have a KRAS mutation, 54% of patients should not respond to therapies with monoclonal antibodies directed against epidermic growth factor (EGFR) pathway.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Adenocarcinoma/genetics , Colorectal Neoplasms/genetics , Mutation/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/genetics , ras Proteins/genetics , Genotype , Neoplasm Staging , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length
16.
Gut and Liver ; : 582-589, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-55227

ABSTRACT

Hyperplastic or serrated polyps were once believed to have little to no clinical significance. A subset of these polyps are now considered to be precursors to colorectal cancers (CRC) in the serrated pathway that may account for at least 15% of all tumors. The serrated pathway is distinct from the two other CRC pathways and involves an epigenetic hypermethylation mechanism of CpG islands within promoter regions of tumor suppressor genes. This process results in the formation of CpG island methylator phenotype tumors. Serrated polyps are divided into hyperplastic polyps, sessile serrated adenomas/polyps (SSA/Ps), and traditional serrated adenomas (TSAs). The SSA/P and the TSA have the potential for dysplasia and subsequent malignant transformation. The SSA/Ps are more common and are more likely to be flat than TSAs. Their flat morphology may make them difficult to detect and thus explain the variation in detection rates among endoscopists. Challenges for endoscopists also include the difficulty in pathological interpretation as well surveillance of these lesions. Furthermore, serrated polyps may be inadequately resected by endoscopists. Thus, it is not surprising that the serrated pathway has been linked with interval cancers. This review will provide the physician or clinician with the knowledge to manage patients with serrated polyps.


Subject(s)
Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics , Adenomatous Polyps/genetics , Colonoscopy , Colorectal Neoplasms/genetics , DNA Methylation , Humans , Intestinal Polyposis/genetics , Intestinal Polyps/genetics , Nuclear Proteins/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf/genetics , ras Proteins/genetics
17.
An. bras. dermatol ; 88(6,supl.1): 203-205, Nov-Dec/2013. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-696791

ABSTRACT

A 45-year-old woman with a history of renal carcinoma was observed for facial, cervical and truncal flesh-colored papules. Relatives had similar skin findings and a brother had repeated episodes of pneumothorax. The computerized tomography scan revealed multiple cysts on both lungs. A skin biopsy revealed a perifollicular fibroma. The clinical diagnosis of Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHDS) was corroborated by identification of a novel frameshift c.573delGAinsT (p.G191fsX31) mutation in heterozygosity on exon 6 of the folliculin gene. The presence of multiple and typical benign hair follicle tumors highlights the role of the dermatologist in the diagnosis of this rare genodermatosis that is associated with an increased risk of renal cell cancer and pulmonary cysts, warranting personal and familial follow-up and counseling.


Uma mulher de 45 anos com história de carcinoma renal foi observada por pápulas cor da pele, faciais, cervicais e tronculares. Referia história familiar de achados cutâneos semelhantes e irmão com episódios repetidos de pneumotórax. Identificaram-se múltiplos quistos pulmonares por tomografia computorizada. Uma biópsia cutânea revelou fibroma perifolicular. O diagnóstico clínico de síndrome de Birt-Hogg-Dubé (BHDS) foi contudo corroborado pela identificação de uma nova mutação frameshift c.573delGAinsT (p.G191fsX31) em heterozigotia no exão 6 do gene da foliculina. A presença de múltiplos e típicos tumores benignos do folículo piloso, realça o papel do dermatologista no diagnóstico desta rara genodermatose, que está associada a um risco aumentado de tumores de células renais e cistos pulmonares, exigindo seguimento e aconselhamento pessoal e familiar.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Birt-Hogg-Dube Syndrome/pathology , Skin/pathology , Biopsy , Birt-Hogg-Dube Syndrome/genetics , Mutation , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/genetics , Tumor Suppressor Proteins/genetics
18.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 141(9): 1166-1172, set. 2013. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-699684

ABSTRACT

Background: KRAS oncogene is involved in colorectal carcinogenesis in 22 to 45% of cases. Aim: To determine the frequency, types and distribution of KRAS mutations in colorectal cancer. Material and Methods: KRAS mutations studies were carried out in primary tumors and metastases of colo-rectal cancer from 56 women aged 60 ± 14 years and 53 men aged 61 ± 11 years. Formalin fixed and paraffin embedded tissue samples were evaluated using RFLP (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism) and direct sequencing. Results: Primary tumors were located in the colon and rectum in 82 (75.2%) and 24 cases (20%), respectively. In three cases the extraction site of the tumor sample was unknown. In 46 cases (42.2%) KRAS mutations were demonstrated. The main point mutations were located in codon 12 (80.4%), G12D (39.1%), G12V (24.2%), G12S (6.5%), G12A (4.3%); G12C (4.3%), G12R (2.1%) and 19.6% at codon 13 (G13D). No differences were demonstrated in the frequency and distribution of mutations by gender, age, primary versus metastatic tumors or tumor location. Conclusions: In this series, 42% of colorectal cancer tissue samples had KRAS mutations. Their frequency and distribution are similar to those reported in the literature, except for G12C mutation.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Adenocarcinoma/genetics , Colonic Neoplasms/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/genetics , Rectal Neoplasms/genetics , ras Proteins/genetics , Chile , Codon , DNA Mutational Analysis , Mutation , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length
19.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 650-657, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-193938

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: ROS1 is an oncogene, expressed primarily in glioblastomas of the brain that has been hypothesized to mediate the effects of early stage tumor progression. In addition, it was reported that ROS1 expression was observed in diverse cancer tissue or cell lines and ROS1 is associated with the development of several tumors. However, ROS1 expression has not been studied in breast cancer to date. Therefore, we investigated ROS1 expression at the protein and gene level to compare expression patterns and to verify the association with prognostic factors in invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the breast. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tissue samples from 203 patients were used. Forty-six cases were available for fresh tissue. We performed immunohistochemical staining and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RESULTS: ROS1 expression was significantly lower in proportion to higher histologic grade, higher mitotic counts, lower estrogen receptor expression, and a higher Ki-67 proliferation index, although ROS1 expression was not significantly associated with the survival rate. The result of real-time PCR revealed similar trends, however not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Higher ROS1 expression may be associated with favorable prognostic factors of IDC and its expression in IDC is related to the proliferation of tumor cells.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Breast Neoplasms/metabolism , Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast/metabolism , Cell Proliferation , Female , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Grading , Prognosis , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/genetics , Survival Analysis
20.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 865-874, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-99052

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was designed to determine the relationship of cigarette smoking to the frequency and qualitative differences among KRAS mutations in lung adenocarcinomas from Korean patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Detailed smoking histories were obtained from 200 consecutively enrolled patients with lung adenocarcinoma according to a standard protocol. EGFR (exons 18 to 21) and KRAS (codons 12/13) mutations were determined via direct-sequencing. RESULTS: The incidence of KRAS mutations was 8% (16 of 200) in patients with lung adenocarcinoma. KRAS mutations were found in 5.8% (7 of 120) of tumors from never-smokers, 15% (6 of 40) from former-smokers, and 7.5% (3 of 40) from current-smokers. The frequency of KRAS mutations did not differ significantly according to smoking history (p=0.435). Never-smokers were significantly more likely than former or current smokers to have a transition mutation (G-->A or C-->T) rather than a transversion mutation (G-->T or G-->C) that is known to be smoking-related (p=0.011). In a Cox regression model, the adjusted hazard ratios for the risk of progression with epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) were 0.24 (95% CI, 0.14-0.42; p<0.001) for the EGFR mutation and 1.27 (95% CI, 0.58-2.79; p=0.537) for the KRAS mutation. CONCLUSION: Cigarette smoking did not influence the frequency of KRAS mutations in lung adenocarcinomas in Korean patients, but influenced qualitative differences in the KRAS mutations.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Asian Continental Ancestry Group/genetics , Female , Humans , Incidence , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Mutation , Mutation Rate , Proportional Hazards Models , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/genetics , ErbB Receptors/antagonists & inhibitors , Smoking/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome , ras Proteins/genetics
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