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Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2712-2721, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007683


BACKGROUND@#Thymic carcinomas (TCs) and thymic neuroendocrine neoplasms (TNENs) are two aggressive subtypes of thymic malignancy. Traditional therapy for advanced TCs and TNENs has limited outcome. New genomic profiling of TCs and TNENs might provide insights that contribute to the development of new treatment approaches.@*METHODS@#We used gene panel sequencing technologies to investigate the genetic aberrations of 32 TC patients and 15 TNEN patients who underwent surgery at Shanghai Chest Hospital between 2015 and 2017. Patient samples were sequenced using a 324-gene platform with licensed technologies. In this study, we focused on clinically relevant genomic alterations (CRGAs), which are previously proven to be pathogenic alterations, to identify the pathology-specific mutational patterns, prognostic signatures of TCs and TNENs.@*RESULTS@#The mutational profiles between TCs and TNENs were diverse. The genetic alterations that ranked highest in TCs were in CDKN2A, TP53, ASXL1, CDKN2B, PIK3C2G, PTCH1, and ROS1 , while those in TNENs were in MEN1, MLL2, APC, RB1 , and TSC2 . Prognostic analysis showed that mutations of ROS1, CDKN2A, CDKN2B, BRAF, and BAP1 were significantly associated with worse outcomes in TC patients, and that mutation of ERBB2 indicated shortened disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in TNEN patients. Further investigation found that the prognosis-related genes were focused on signal pathways of cell cycle control, chromatin remodeling/DNA methylation, phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)/RAS/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling.@*CONCLUSION@#We profiled the mutational features of 47 Chinese patients with thymic malignancy of diverse pathologic phenotypes to uncover the integrated genomic landscape of these rare tumors, and identified the pathology-specific mutational patterns, prognostic signatures, and potential therapeutic targets for TCs and TNENs.

Humans , Thymoma , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/genetics , China , Thymus Neoplasms/pathology , Prognosis , Neuroendocrine Tumors/pathology , Mutation/genetics
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 346-358, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982706


Platycodon grandiflorum (Jacq.) A. DC. is a famous medicinal plant commonly used in East Asia. Triterpene saponins isolated from P. grandiflorum are the main biologically active compounds, among which polygalacin D (PGD) has been reported to be an anti-tumor agent. However, its anti-tumor mechanism against hepatocellular carcinoma is unknown. This study aimed to explore the inhibitory effect of PGD in hepatocellular carcinoma cells and related mechanisms of action. We found that PGD exerted significant inhibitory effect on hepatocellular carcinoma cells through apoptosis and autophagy. Analysis of the expression of apoptosis-related proteins and autophagy-related proteins revealed that this phenomenon was attributed to the mitochondrial apoptosis and mitophagy pathways. Subsequently, using specific inhibitors, we found that apoptosis and autophagy had mutually reinforcing effects. In addition, further analysis of autophagy showed that PGD induced mitophagy by increasing BCL2 interacting protein 3 like (BNIP3L) levels.In vivo experiments demonstrated that PGD significantly inhibited tumor growth and increased the levels of apoptosis and autophagy in tumors. Overall, our findings showed that PGD induced cell death of hepatocellular carcinoma cells primarily through mitochondrial apoptosis and mitophagy pathways. Therefore, PGD can be used as an apoptosis and autophagy agonist in the research and development of antitumor agents.

Humans , Mitophagy , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , Cell Line , Autophagy , Apoptosis , Membrane Proteins , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/genetics , Tumor Suppressor Proteins/pharmacology
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 129-135, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970146


Objective: To investigate the applicability of the 2021 WHO classification of thoracic tumors' new grading system for invasive pulmonary adenocarcinoma (IPA) with different clinical stages and its correlation with the characteristics of targeted genes' variation. Methods: A total of 2 467 patients with surgically resected primary IPA in Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, Shanghai, China from September to December 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. Eligible cases were graded using the new grading system of IPA of the 2021 WHO classification of thoracic tumors. The clinicopathological data and targeted-gene abnormality were collected. The utility of new grading system of IPA in different clinical stages was investigated. The correlation of clinicopathological features and targeted-gene abnormality in different grades of IPA were compared. Results: All 2 311 cases of IPA were included. There were 2 046 cases of stage Ⅰ IPA (88.5%), 169 cases of stage Ⅱ (7.3%), and 96 cases of stage Ⅲ (4.2%). According to the new classification system of IPA, 186 cases (9.1%), 1 413 cases (69.1%) and 447 cases (21.8%) of stage-Ⅰ adenocarcinoma were classified as Grade 1, Grade 2 and Grade 3, respectively. However, there were no Grade 1 adenocarcinomas in stages Ⅱ and Ⅲ cases. Among stage-Ⅱ and Ⅲ IPA cases, there were 38 Grade 2 cases (22.5%) and 131 Grade 3 cases (77.5%), and 3 Grade 2 cases (3.1%) and 93 Grade 3 cases (96.9%), respectively. In stage-Ⅰ cases, no tumor cells spreading through airspace (STAS), vascular invasion or pleural invasion was found in Grade 1 of IPA, while the positive rates of STAS in Grade 2 and 3 IPA cases were 11.3% (159/1 413) and 73.2% (327/447), respectively. There was a significant difference among the three grades (P<0.01). Similarly, the rates of vascular and pleural invasion in Grade 3 IPA cases were 21.3% (95/447) and 75.8% (339/447), respectively, which were significantly higher than those of 1.3% (19/1 413) and 3.0% (42/1 413) in Grade 2 (P<0.01). EGFR mutational rates in Grades 1, 2 and 3 IPA were 65.7% (94/143), 76.4% (984/1 288) and 51.3% (216/421), respectively. The differences among the three grades were statistically significant (P<0.01). No fusion genes were detected in Grade 1 IPA, while the positive rates of ROS1 and ALK fusion genes in Grade 3 were 2.4% (10/421) and 8.3% (35/421), respectively, which were significantly higher than that of 0.5% (7/1 288) and 1.6% (20/1 288) in Grade 2 (P<0.01). In stage-Ⅱ cases, only EGFR mutation rate in Grade 2 adenocarcinoma (31/37, 83.8%) was higher than that in Grade 3 adenocarcinoma (71/123, 57.7%; P<0.01). However, the correlation between the new grade system of IPA and the distribution characteristics of targeted-gene variation cannot be evaluated in stage Ⅲ cases. Conclusions: The new grading system for IPA is mainly applicable to clinical stage-Ⅰ patients. Tumor grades of IPA are strongly correlated with the high-risk factors of prognosis and the distribution features of therapeutic targets. It is of great significance and clinical value to manage postoperative patients with early-stage IPA.

Humans , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/genetics , Retrospective Studies , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/genetics , China , Adenocarcinoma of Lung/pathology , Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Prognosis , ErbB Receptors/genetics , World Health Organization , Neoplasm Staging
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 124-128, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970145


Objective: To investigate the clinicopathological features, treatment and prognosis of patients with RET fusion positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: A total of 1 089 NSCLCs were retrieved at Affiliated Hospital of Jiangnan University from August 2018 to April 2020. In all cases, multiple gene fusion detection kits (fluorescent PCR method) were used to detect the gene status of RET, EGFR, ALK, ROS1, KRAS, BRAF and HER2; and immunohistochemical method was used to detect the expression of PD-L1 and mismatch repair related proteins. The correlation between RET-fusion and patients' age, gender, smoking history, tumor stage, grade, pathologic type, and PD-L1, mismatch repair related protein expression was analyzed. Results: There were 22 cases (2.02%) detected with RET fusion-positive in 1 089 NSCLC patients, in which 11 males and 11 females; and the median age was 63.5 years. There were 20 adenocarcinomas, including 11 acinar predominant adenocarcinoma (APA), five solid predominant adenocarcinoma (SPA) and four lepidic predominant adenocarcinoma (LPA); There were one case each of squamous cell carcinoma (non-keratinizing type) and sarcomatoid carcinoma (pleomorphic carcinoma). There were 6 and 16 patients with RET fusion-positive who were in stage Ⅰ-Ⅱ and Ⅲ-Ⅳ respectively, and 16 cases with lymph node metastasis, 11 cases with distant metastasis. Among RET fusion-positive cases, one was detected with HER2 co-mutation. The tumor proportion score of PD-L1≥1% in patients with RET fusion positive lung cancer was 54.5% (12/22). Defects in mismatch repair protein expression were not found in patients with RET fusion positive NSCLC. Four patients with RET fusions positive (two cases of APA and two cases of SPA) received pratinib-targeted therapy, and two showed benefits from this targeted therapy. Conclusions: The histological subtypes of RET fusions positive NSCLC are more likely to be APA or SPA. RET fusion-positive NSCLC patients are associated with advanced clinical stage, lymph node metastases, and they may benefit from targeted therapy with RET-specific inhibitors.

Male , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , B7-H1 Antigen/genetics , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/genetics , Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/genetics , Mutation
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1129-1135, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888528


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of CDK1 interference regulation of PLK1, Aurora B and TRF1 on the proliferation of leukemia cells.@*METHODS@#The human myelogenous leukemia cell line HL-60 was selected as the research object, and the effect of TRF1 expression and its changes on cell proliferation and cycle was investigated by regulating intracellular CDK1 expression. The objects were divided into 5 groups, including control group, shRNA-NC group, CDK1-shRNA group, pcDNA group and pcDNA-CDK1 group. RT-PCR was used to detect the CDK1 expression of cells in each group; colony formation was used to detect the proliferation of the cells. Western blot was used to detect the expression of CDK1, PLK1, Aurora B, TRF1, and cyclin p53, p27, cyclinA.@*RESULTS@#The phosphorylation level of PLK1, Aurora B and the expression of TRF1 in the CDK1-shRNA group were significantly down-regulated as compared with those in the control group (P<0.05). Compared with the control group, the cells in CDK1-shRNA group showed lower clone formation rate, the increasing of cycle-associated proteins p53 and p27 and the decreasing of cyclinA expression (P<0.05). It was shown that interfered CDK1 expression could inhibit the proliferation of HL-60 cells and prolong the time that they enter mitosis, thereby extending the cell cycle. Compared with the control group, the overexpressed CDK1 in the pcDNA-CDK1 group made the phosphorylation level of PLK1, Aurora B, and TRF1 expression increase significantly (P<0.05), also the colony formation rate (P<0.05). The cycle-related proteins p53 and p27 was down-regulated, while cyclinA expression was up-regulate significantly (P<0.05). The results indicted that overexpressed CDK1 could stimulate adverse reactions, thereby promoting the proliferation of HL-60 cells and shortening the cell cycle.@*CONCLUSION@#Knocking out CDK1 can inhibit the phosphorylation of PLK1 and Aurora B and negatively regulate TRF1, thereby inhibiting the proliferation of leukemia cells.

Humans , CDC2 Protein Kinase , Cell Cycle Proteins/genetics , Cell Proliferation , Leukemia , Mitosis , Phosphorylation , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/genetics
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1011-1018, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888512


OBJECTIVE@#To the clinical characteristics and prognostic value of the patients with complete deletion of TET_JBP domain (ΔJBP) in TET2 acute myeloid leukemia (AML).@*METHODS@#Next Generation Sequencing technology was used to determine the mutations of 34 AML-related genes (including TET2 gene). The I-TASSER tool was used to predict the tertiary structure of the full-length TET2 protein and TET_JBP structure deletion.@*RESULTS@#Among 38 AML patients with TET2 mutations, 22(57.9%) showed truncation mutations, of which 16 (72.7%) produced TET2ΔJBP truncation mutants. Protein structure prediction showed that the deletion of TET_JBP domain lead to the significant changes of tertiary structure in TET2 protein. Compared with the patients in non-ΔJBP group, the age of patients in ΔJBP group were older (63 vs 54 years old, P=0.047), and the occurrence rate of CEBPA double mutation (CEBPA@*CONCLUSION@#AML patients with TET2ΔJBP truncation mutant shows lower CR rate, shorter EFS and OS after induction chemotherapy, which may be related to the poor prognosis, and co-mutation with CEBPA

Humans , Middle Aged , DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , Induction Chemotherapy , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/genetics , Mutation , Prognosis , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/genetics , Remission Induction
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 2004-2010, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880006


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the clinical characteristics and prognostic significance of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients with BCOR/BCORL1 mutation.@*METHODS@#The clinical characteristics of 135 patients diagnosed as de novo MDS in People's Hospital of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region from September 2015 to September 2019 were analyzed retrospectively. Next-generation sequencing was used to detect 34 kinds of myeloid-tumor-related gene in MDS patients. The clinical characteristics of BCOR/BCORL1 mutation and its effect to progression-free survival(PSF) and overall survival (OS) in MDS patients were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#Among MDS patients, BCOR/BCORL1 mutation was found in 34(25.2%) patients, including 16(11.9%) BCOR mutation and 18(13.3%) BCORL1 mutation. Patients with BCOR/BCORL1 mutation were more common in women and showed lower neutrophil count [0.75(0.08-22.20) vs 1.27(0.06-35.71)×10@*CONCLUSION@#BCOR/BCORL1 mutation is more common in MDS patients and often company with other genes co-mutations. BCOR/BCORL1 mutation is not associated with disease progression and AML transformation in MDS patients, but it predicts poor overall survival.

Female , Humans , Mutation , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/genetics , Patients , Prognosis , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/genetics , Repressor Proteins/genetics , Retrospective Studies
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2298-2312, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878487


Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) is widely regarded as one of the most promising targets for cancer therapy due to its essential role in cell division and tumor cell survival. At present, most Plk1 inhibitors have been developed based on kinase domain, some of which are in clinical trial. However, inhibitors targeting kinase domain face off-target effect and drug resistance owing to the conserved nature and the frequent mutations in the ATP-binding pocket. In addition to a highly conserved kinase domain, Plk1 also contains a unique Polo-Box domain (PBD), which is essential for Plk1's subcellular localization and mitotic functions. Inhibitors targeting Plk1 PBD show stronger selectivity and less drug resistance for cancer therapy. Therefore, Plk1 PBD is an attractive target for the development of anti-cancer agents. In this review, we will summarize the up-to date drug discovery for targeting Plk1 PBD, including the molecular structure and cellular functions of Plk1 PBD. Small-molecule inhibitors targeting Plk1 PBD not only provide an opportunity to specifically inhibit Plk1 activity for cancer treatment, but also unveil novel biological basis regarding the molecular recognition of Plk1 and its substrates.

Cell Cycle Proteins/genetics , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/genetics
ABCD (São Paulo, Impr.) ; 33(3): e1524, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1141902


ABSTRACT Background: KRAS mutations are important events in colorectal carcinogenesis, as well as negative predictors of response to EGFR inhibitors treatment. Aim: To investigate the association of clinical-pathological features with KRAS mutations in colorectal cancer patients treated. Methods: Data from 69 patients with colorectal cancer either metastatic at diagnosis or later, were retrospectively analyzed. The direct sequencing and pyrosequencing techniques were related to KRAS exon 2. The mutation diagnosis and its type were determined. Results: KRAS mutation was identified in 43.4% of patients. The most common was c.35G>T (p.G12V), c.35G>A (p.G12D) and c.38G>A (p.G13D). No correlation was found between KRAS mutation and age (p=0.646) or gender (p=0.815). However, mutated group had higher CEA levels at admission (p=0.048) and codon 13 mutation was associated with involvement of more than one metastatic site in disease progression (p=0.029). Although there was no association between primary tumor site and mutation diagnosis (p=0.568), primary colon was associated with worse overall survival (p=0.009). Conclusion: The KRAS mutation was identified in almost half of patients. Mutated KRAS group had higher levels of CEA at admission and the mutation at codon 13 was associated with involvement of more than one metastatic site in the course of the disease. Colon disease was associated with the worst overall survival.

RESUMO Racional: Mutações KRAS são eventos importantes na carcinogênese colorretal como preditores negativos de resposta ao tratamento. Objetivo: Investigar a associação de características clinicopatológicas com mutações no KRAS em pacientes com câncer colorretal tratados. Métodos: Sessenta e nove pacientes com câncer colorretal metastáticos ao diagnóstico ou posteriormente foram analisados. As técnicas de sequenciamento direto e pirosequenciamento foram relacionadas ao éxon 2 do KRAS e o diagnóstico da mutação e seu tipo foram determinados. Resultados: A mutação KRAS foi identificada em 43,4% dos pacientes, c.35G>T (p.G12V), c.35G>A (p.G12D) e c.38G>A (p.G13D). Não foi encontrada correlação entre a mutação KRAS e a idade (p=0,646) ou o gênero (p=0,815). No entanto, o grupo mutado apresentou níveis mais altos de CEA na admissão (p=0,048). A mutação do códon 13 foi associada ao envolvimento de mais de um local metastático na progressão da doença (p=0,029); não houve associação entre o local primário do tumor e o diagnóstico de mutação (p=0,568); a doença primária do cólon foi associada com pior sobrevida global (p=0,009). Conclusão: A mutação KRAS foi identificada em quase metade dos pacientes. O grupo KRAS mutado apresentou níveis mais altos de CEA na admissão e a mutação no códon 13 foi associada ao envolvimento de mais de um local metastático no curso da doença. A doença do cólon foi associada com pior sobrevida global.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Colorectal Neoplasms/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras)/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/metabolism , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/genetics , ras Proteins/genetics , Mutation
Lima; s.n; oct. 2016.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BRISA | ID: biblio-847654


INTRODUCCIÓN: Antecedentes: El presente dictamen expone la evaluación de tecnología de la eficacia y seguridad de la adición de cetuximab a FOLFIRI en el tratamiento de pacientes con diagnóstico de cáncer colorrectal metastásico e irresecable (CCRm) con estudio de KRAS WT (tipo salvaje), sin tratamiento sistémico previo en enfermedad metastásica. Aspectos Generales: El cáncer colorrectal (CCR) se origina en la parte baja del sistema digestivo, incluyendo el colon y el recto. El cáncer puede extenderse produciendo metástasis a lugares adyacentes a la lesión original, a los ganglios y también a otras partes distantes del cuerpo. Globalmente, el cáncer colorrectal (CCR) es el tercer cáncer más frecuentemente diagnosticado en hombres y el segundo en mujeres en el mundo (Torres). En el Perú, en el 2012 se estimó que la incidencia de este tipo de cáncer en hombres era de 9% a 16.1% con mortalidad alrededor del 5.8% a 9%; mientras que en mujeres la incidencia estimada fue de alrededor de 7.6% y 13.2%, con una mortalidad entre 5.3% y 6.9%(1,2). Tecnologia Sanitaria de Interés: El cetuximab (Erbitux, Merck Serono) es un anticuerpo monoclonal recombinante que bloquea el receptor del factor de crecimiento de la epidermis (EGFR), inhibiendo la proliferación de células que dependen de la activación de EGFR para crecer. Cetuximab está indicado en combinación con quimioterapia en el tratamiento de pacientes con CCRm que expresan EGFR y el tipo salvaje de KRAS (Kirsten rat sarcoma). METODOLOGIA: Estrategia de Búsqueda: Se realizó una búsqueda de la literatura con respecto a la eficacia y seguridad de la adición de cetuximab a FOLFIRI en el tratamiento de pacientes con diagnóstico de cáncer colorrectal metastásico e irresecable (CCRm) con estudio de KRAS WT no mutado (tipo salvaje), sin tratamiento sistémico previo para enfermedad metastásica. Esta búsqueda se realizó utilizando los meta-buscadores: Translating Research into Practice (TRIPDATABASE), National Library of Medicine (Pubmed-Medline) y Health Systems Evidence. RESULTADOS: Sinopsis de la Evidencia: Se realizó la búsqueda bibliográfica y de evidencia científica para el sustento de la adición de cetuximab a FOLFIRI como tratamiento de primera línea en pacientes con \r\ncarcinoma colorrectal metastásico irresecable y con estudio negativo de la mutación KRAS. Se presenta la evidencia disponible según el tipo de publicación priorizada en los criterios de inclusión. CONCLUSIONES: La mayoría de los pacientes con cáncer colorrectal metastásico (CCRm) no pueden ser curados, siendo candidatos a tratamiento paliativo con quimioterapia sistémica, como FOLFIRI, XELOX o FOLFOX, los cuales se encuentran disponibles en el Petitorio Farmacológico de EsSalud. No se han encontrado reportes sobre el impacto de adicionar cetuximab a la quimioterapia en pacientes con cáncer colorrectal metastásico. Sin embargo, del estudio CRYSTAL se evidencia que la incidencia general de eventos adversos grado 3 o 4 fue mayor en el grupo cetuximab­FOLFIRI que en el grupo FOLFIRI. el Instituto de Evaluación en Tecnologías en Salud e Investigación-IETSI, no aprueba el uso de cetuximab en combinación con FOLFIRI para el tratamiento de cáncer colorrectal metastásico KRAS WT.

Humans , Colorectal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasm Metastasis/drug therapy , Cetuximab/administration & dosage , Peru , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/genetics , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Treatment Outcome
Lima; s.n; mar. 2016.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BRISA | ID: biblio-847655


INTRODUCCIÓN: Antecedentes: El presente dictamen expone la evaluación del medicamento cetuximab en combinación con irinotecán respecto a su uso en pacientes con cáncer colorrectal metastásico y gen KRAS' no mutado (WT) con progresión a primera línea de quimioterapia basada oxaliplatino. Aspectos Generales: A nivel mundial, en cáncer colorrectal es el tercer tipo de cáncer más frecuente, representando el 9.4% de todas las incidencias de cáncer en hombres y el 10.1% en mujeres. Aproximadamente el 25% de los pacientes diagnosticados con cáncer colorrectal presentan enfermedad metastásica al momento del diagnóstico y del resto de pacientes, el 25% a 35% desarrollará metástasis en el transcurso de la enfermedad. Tecnología Sanitaria de Interés: Cetuximab: Cetuximab con nombre comercial Erbitux, es un anticuerpo monoclonal recombinante que inhibe la proliferación de células bloqueando los EGFR(15). El EGFR es uno de los cuatro receptores pertenecientes a la familia de proteínas c-erbB de receptores de tirosina quinasa (i.e., c-erb-1, c-erb-2, c-erb-3, c-erb-4). METODOLOGÍA: Estrategia de Búsqueda: Se realizó una búsqueda de la literatura con respecto a la eficacia y seguridad de cetuximab para el tratamiento de cáncer colorrectal metastásico en pacientes sin mutación el en gen KRAS (KRAS WT) en las bases de datos de MEDLINE y TRIPDATABASE. Se hizo una búsqueda adicional en, para poder identificar ensayos aún en elaboración o que no hayan sido publicados. Asimismo, se hizo una búsqueda dentro de la información generada por grupos que realizan revisiones sistemáticas, evaluación de tecnologías sanitarias y guías de práctica clínica, tales como The Cochrane Library y The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). RESULTADOS: Sinopsis de la Evidencia: Se realizó la búsqueda bibliográfica y de evidencia científica para el sustento del uso de cetuximab como tratamiento para cáncer colorrectal metastásico con KRAS no mutado (WT), en pacientes con progresión a primera línea de quimioterapia basada en fluoropirimidina y oxaliplatino. Se presenta la evidencia disponible en Guías de Práctica Clínica, Evaluación de tecnologías sanitarias, Meta-análisis/Network Meta-análisis y Ensayos clínicos. CONCLUSIONES: -\tEn la actualidad el fármaco irinotecán se encuentra incluido en el petitorio farmacológico de ESSALUD para su uso en el tratamiento de cáncer colorrectal metastásico, lo que incluye su uso como alternativa en pacientes que no hayan recibido previamente regímenes con este fármaco. Así, ESSALUD cuenta con una alternativa para pacientes con cáncer colorrectal metastásico que hayan utilizado previamente regímenes con fluoropirimidina y oxaliplatino. Es por ello que se requiere que la adición de cetuximab a irinotecán suponga un beneficio adicional para dichos pacientes. Sin embargo, hasta la fecha (i.e., Marzo 2016) no se ha encontrado evidencia sólida con relación a la hipótesis que añadir cetuximab a irinotecán, en el contexto de progresión a regímenes con fluoropirimidina y oxaliplatino, ofrezca un beneficio mayor al obtenido con regímenes a base de irinotecán como monodroga. Así, la evidencia disponible al momento no justifica el uso de cetuximab en combinación con irinotecán para el tratamiento de cáncer colorrectal metastásico en pacientes que han progresado a regímenes de quimioterapia a base de fluoropirimidina y / u oxaliplatino; ya que en el petitorio de la Institución ya se cuenta con un tratamiento utilizado para dichos pacientes. -\tPor lo expuesto, el Instituto de evaluación en Tecnologías en Salud e Investigación-IETSI, no aprueba el uso de cetuximab en combinación con irinotecán para el tratamiento de cáncer colorrectal metastásico KRAS WT, en pacientes refractarios a quimioterapia pasada en fluoropirimidina y oxaliplatino.

Humans , Colorectal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasm Metastasis/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/administration & dosage , Cetuximab/administration & dosage , Drug Therapy, Combination , Peru , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/genetics , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Treatment Outcome
Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics [The]. 2016; 17 (2): 209-215
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-180240


Background: Acute myeloid leukemia [AML] is a heterogeneous clonal disorder in terms of cytogenetic and molecular aberrations. Ten-Eleven-Translocation 2 [TET2], Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog [KRAS], and Casitas B-cell lymphoma [CBL] have an important role pathogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia [AML] and their activated mutations confer proliferative and survival signals

Aim: In this study, we aimed to find possible genetic markers for molecular analysis in childhood AML by screening hot-spot exons of TET2, KRAS, and CBL using Next Generation Sequencing [NGS] analysis. In addition, association between found variants and mutations of Januse Kinase-2 [JAK2] and Fms-Related Tyrosine Kinase [FLT3] were analyzed which are important prognostic risk factors for AML

Methods: Eight patients who were diagnosed with pediatric AML at Losante Pediatric Hematology- Oncology Hospital were included to the study. Hot-spot exons of TET2, KRAS and CBL genes were screened using the NGS method. Furthermore, FLT3-Internal Tandem Duplicate [FLT3-ITD] and JAK2-V617F were analyzed by Real Time Polymerase chain Reaction [Real Time-PCR]

Results: In total, we identified 20 variants in studied genes by NGS. In our patient group, 16 variants in the TET2 [seven novel, seven missense and two silent], two variants in the KRAS [one missense and one intronic] and two variants in the CBL [two novel] were found. All of AML patients were found negative for JAK V617 F. Three of the eight patients [37.5%] showed mutations of both FLT3-ITD and TET2, KRAS, CBL

Conclusion: We found novel mutations forTET2, KRAS, and CBL. The detected variants in this article seem to be the first screening results of genes studied by NGS in childhood AML patients. Our results also showed some degree of association between FLT3-ITD and TET2, KRAS, CBL mutations

Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras)/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-cbl/genetics , fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3/genetics , Janus Kinase 2/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA/trends
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 50-57, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-186123


PURPOSE: Traditional chemotherapy is the main adjuvant therapy for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the emergence of multi-drug resistance (MDR) has greatly restricted the curative effect of chemotherapy. Therefore, it is necessary to find a method to treat MDR NSCLC clinically. It is worth investigating whether NSCLCs that are resistant to traditional chemotherapy can be effectively treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and lung resistance-related protein (LRP) was detected by immunohistochemistry, and mutations in EGFR (exons 19 and 21) and Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) (exon 2) were detected by high-resolution melting analysis (HRMA) of surgical NSCLC specimens from 127 patients who did not undergo traditional chemotherapy or radiotherapy. A Pearson chi-square test was performed to analyze the correlations between the expression of P-gp and LRP and mutations in EGFR and KRAS. RESULTS: The expression frequencies of P-gp and LRP were significantly higher in adenocarcinomas from non-smoking patients; the expression frequency of LRP was significantly higher in cancer tissue from female patients. The frequency of EGFR mutations was significantly higher in well to moderately differentiated adenocarcinomas from non-smoking female patients. The frequency of EGFR mutations in the cancers that expressed P-gp, LRP, or both P-gp and LRP was significantly higher than that in cancers that did not express P-gp or LRP. CONCLUSION: NSCLCs expressing P-gp/LRP bear the EGFR mutation in exon 19 or 21 easily.

Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Exons/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Mutation , ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Subfamily B, Member 1/genetics , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras) , ErbB Receptors/genetics , Treatment Outcome , Vault Ribonucleoprotein Particles/genetics , ras Proteins/genetics
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 1003-1006, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-224843


Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) mutation is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the occurrence of parathyroid, pancreatic islet, and anterior pituitary tumors. The incidence of insulinoma in MEN is relatively uncommon, and there have been a few cases of MEN manifested with insulinoma as the first symptom in children. We experienced a 9-year-old girl having a familial MEN1 mutation. She complained of dizziness, occasional palpitation, weakness, hunger, sweating, and generalized tonic-clonic seizure that lasted for 5 minutes early in the morning. At first, she was only diagnosed with insulinoma by abdominal magnetic resonance images of a 1.3 × 1.5 cm mass in the pancreas and high insulin levels in blood of the hepatic vein, but after her father was diagnosed with MEN1. We found she had familial MEN1 mutation, and she recovered hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia after enucleation of the mass. Therefore, the early genetic identification of MEN1 mutation is considerable for children with at least one manifestation.

Child , Female , Humans , Alleles , Base Sequence , DNA Mutational Analysis , Hypoglycemia/diagnosis , Insulin/blood , Insulinoma/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1/diagnosis , Pancreatic Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Pedigree , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/genetics , Seizures/complications
Braz. j. phys. ther. (Impr.) ; 19(3): 227-234, May-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-751375


Background: Older females have less dynamic postural control and muscle strength than do middle-aged females. Aging-related strength losses may limit balancing performance. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of the Y Balance Test (YBT) and lower limb strength to discriminate between females in 2 age groups, the relationship between YBT distance and the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), and the degree to which performance on YBT distance is related to lower limb strength in middle-aged and older females. Method: The 40 healthy, independently active females were divided into 2 groups: older and middle-aged. The participants underwent measurements of YBT distance using the YBT, maximal muscular strength of the lower limbs using a handheld dynamometer, and the BBS. Results: The YBT distance in 3 directions and lower limb muscle strength for both lower limbs were significantly lower in the older adults than in the middle-aged group. A moderate correlation but insignificant correlation was found between the YBT composite distance and the BBS score. In the older females, YBT distance was significantly positively correlated with strength of the knee flexor and hip abductor. In the middle-aged group, YBT distance was significantly positively correlated with strength of the knee flexor and hip extensor. Conclusions: Performance on the YBT was influenced by the strength of lower limb. We suggested that YBT can be used to alternative as a measurement of dynamic balance. Proper training programs for older people could include not only strengthening exercises but also YBT performance to improve balance. .

Animals , Female , Humans , Adrenomedullin/metabolism , Colorectal Neoplasms/genetics , Colorectal Neoplasms/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/genetics , ras Proteins/genetics , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Hypoxia/physiology , Immunohistochemistry , Mice, Nude , Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis , Tumor Microenvironment/physiology , Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
Int. braz. j. urol ; 41(2): 230-238, Mar-Apr/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748295


Varicocele is one of the most common causes of male infertility and spontaneous pregnancy rate after varicocelectomy is only about 30%. The most important seminal antioxidant is vitamin C but recent studies about the effects of vitamin C on spermatogenesis are controversial; therefore, we decided to evaluate its role after varicocelectomy. In a double blind randomized controlled clinical trial, 115 men with infertility and clinical varicocele with abnormal semen analyses were recruited. After surgery, the intervention group received vitamin C (250 mg bid) and the control group received placebo for three months. Mean sperm count, motility, and morphology index of two semen analyses (before and after surgery) were compared between the two groups. Univariate general linear model and stepwise linear regression were used in analysis. The mean age (±SD) of participants was 27.6±5.3 years. Vitamin C group had statistically significant better normal motility (20.8 vs. 12.6, P=0.041) and morphology (23.2 vs. 10.5, P<0.001) than placebo group. Considering the values prior to surgery as covariate, vitamin C was not effective on sperm count (P=0.091); but it improved sperm motility (P=0.016) and morphology (P<0.001) even after excluding the confounding effect of age (P=0.044 and P=0.001, respectively). Vitamin C was also an independent factor in predicting motility and normal morphology after surgery. Ascorbic acid can play a role as adjuvant treatment after varicocelectomy in infertile men.

Humans , Gene Regulatory Networks , Neoplasms/genetics , Signal Transduction/genetics , /genetics , Genome, Human , Genomics , Mutation, Missense , MicroRNAs/genetics , Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasms/therapy , Nuclear Proteins/genetics , /genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/genetics , /metabolism
Experimental & Molecular Medicine ; : e137-2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-220405


Basal-type breast cancers are among the most aggressive and deadly breast cancer subtypes, displaying a high metastatic ability associated with mesenchymal features. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the maintenance of mesenchymal phenotypes of basal-type breast cancer cells remain obscure. Here, we report that KRAS is a critical regulator for the maintenance of mesenchymal features in basal-type breast cancer cells. KRAS is preferentially activated in basal-type breast cancer cells as compared with luminal type. By loss and gain of KRAS, we found that KRAS is necessary and sufficient for the maintenance of mesenchymal phenotypes and metastatic ability through SLUG expression. Taken together, this study demonstrates that KRAS is a critical regulator for the metastatic behavior associated with mesenchymal features of breast cancer cells, implicating a novel therapeutic target for basal-type breast cancer.

Animals , Female , Humans , Breast Neoplasms/genetics , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Transformation, Neoplastic/genetics , Disease Models, Animal , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Gene Knockdown Techniques , Heterografts , Neoplasm Invasiveness , Neoplasm Metastasis , Phenotype , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/genetics , Transcriptional Activation , ras Proteins/genetics
J. bras. nefrol ; 36(4): 476-481, Oct-Dec/2014. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-731152


Introdução: Dados nacionais sobre diálise crônica têm tido impacto no planejamento do tratamento. Objetivo: Apresentar dados do inquérito da Sociedade Brasileira de Nefrologia sobre os pacientes com doença renal crônica em tratamento dialítico em julho de 2013 e comparar com dados de 2011- 12. Métodos: Levantamento de dados de unidades de diálise do país. A coleta de dados foi feita utilizando questionário preenchido on-line pelas unidades de diálise. Resultados: Trezentos e trinta e quatro (51%) unidades responderam ao inquérito. Em julho de 2013, o número total estimado de pacientes em diálise foi de 100.397. As estimativas nacionais das taxas de prevalência e de incidência de tratamento dialítico foram de 499 (variação: 284 na região Norte e 622 na Sul) e 170 pacientes por milhão da população, respectivamente. O número estimado de pacientes que iniciaram tratamento em 2013 foi 34.161. A taxa anual de mortalidade bruta foi de 17,9%. Dos pacientes prevalentes, 31,4% tinham idade ≥ 65 anos, 90,8% estavam em hemodiálise e 9,2% em diálise peritoneal, 31.351 (31,2%) estavam em fila de espera para transplante, 30% tinham diabetes, 17% tinham PTH > 600 pg/ml e 23% hemoglobina < 10 g/dl. Cateter venoso era usado como acesso em 15,4% dos pacientes em hemodiálise. Conclusão: O número absoluto de pacientes em diálise tem aumentado 3% ao ano nos últimos 3 anos. As taxas de prevalência e incidência de pacientes em diálise ficaram estáveis, e a taxa de mortalidade tendeu a diminuir em relação a 2012. Houve tendência a melhor controle da anemia e dos níveis de PTH. .

Introduction: National chronic dialysis data have had impact in the treatment planning. Objective: To report data of the annual survey of the Brazilian Society of Nephrology about chronic kidney disease patients on dialysis in July 2013 and compare with 2011-12. Methods: A survey based on data of dialysis units from the whole country. The data collection was performed by using a questionnaire filled out on-line by the dialysis units. Results: Three hundred thirty four (51%) of the dialysis units in the country answered the questionnaire. In July 2013, the total estimated number of patients on dialysis was 100,397. The estimated prevalence and incidence rates of chronic maintenance dialysis were 449 (range: 284 in the North region and 622 in the South) and 170 patients per million population, respectively. The estimated number of new patients starting dialysis in 2013 was 34,161. The annual gross mortality rate was 17.9%. For prevalent patients, 31.4% were aged 65 years or older, 90.8% were on hemodialysis and 9.2% on peritoneal dialysis, 31,351 (31.2%) were on a waiting list of renal transplant, 30% were diabetics, 17% had PTH levels > 600 pg/ml and 23% hemoglobin < 10 g/ dl. A venous catheter was the vascular access for 15.4% of the hemodialysis patients. Conclusion: The absolute number of patients on dialysis has increased 3% per year. The prevalence and incidence rates of patients on dialysis leveled off, while the mortality rate tended to decrease compared with 2012. There was a trend towards a better control of the anemia and PTH levels. .

Animals , Mice , Cellular Senescence/physiology , /physiology , Lymphoma, B-Cell/etiology , Lymphoma, B-Cell/genetics , /physiology , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases , Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating/therapeutic use , Apoptosis/genetics , Apoptosis/physiology , Biomarkers , Cellular Senescence/drug effects , Cellular Senescence/genetics , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cell Survival/genetics , Cell Survival/physiology , /genetics , Cyclophosphamide/therapeutic use , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/genetics , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/physiology , Lymphoma, B-Cell/drug therapy , Mice, Knockout , Mice, Mutant Strains , Mutation , Prognosis , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-cbl , /metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/metabolism , Tumor Cells, Cultured , /genetics , /physiology , /genetics
Rev. méd. Chile ; 142(11): 1407-1414, nov. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-734876


Background: The molecular testing of KRAS mutation status in metastatic colorectal cancer patients is mandatory to identify patients eligible for anti-epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibody therapy. Aim: To report the frequency of KRAS gene mutations in Chilean patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). Material and Methods: A cohort of 262 Chilean patients with CRC aged 26 to 90 years (53% males), was studied. KRAS mutation status was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and correlated with clinicopathological data. Results: Ninety-eight patients (37%) were positive for KRAS mutations. G12D was the most common mutation with a frequency of 36.7%, followed by G12V (25.5%), G13D (17.3%), G12A (7.1%), G12C (6.1%), G12S (5.1%) and G12R (2%). The frequency of the mutation in left, right colon and rectal tumors was 37.8, 32.6 and 44.9%, respectively. Among tumors with mutations, 86.7% were well or moderately differentiated tumors and the rest were poorly differentiated. No significant associations between KRAS gene mutations and other clinicopathological features of the tumor were observed. Conclusions: The frequencies of KRAS mutations reported in this study are similar to frequencies reported for European and North-American populations, lower than in a Spanish study and higher than in a Peruvian study.

Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Colorectal Neoplasms/genetics , Mutation , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/genetics , ras Proteins/genetics , Age Factors , Chile/ethnology , Colorectal Neoplasms/ethnology , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , DNA Mutational Analysis , DNA, Neoplasm/genetics , Epidermal Growth Factor/genetics , Neoplasm Invasiveness/genetics , Prospective Studies , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sex Factors