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1.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1351-1354, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888565

ABSTRACT

Thrombopoietin (TPO) can activate hematopoietic cell proliferation by its receptor c-MPL mediated downstream pathways and induce the generation of megakaryocyte. In recent years, domestic and foreign researches have confirmed that TPO/ c-MPL pathway also plays an important role in the self-renewal and quiescence of leukemia stem cell, and its expression in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) also indicates the chemotherapy resistance and poor prognosis. In this article, the research progress of the roles of TPO/c-MPL pathway in chemotherapy resistance, prognosis of AML patients, and the application of TPO/ c-MPL receptor agonists in AML were summarized briefly.


Subject(s)
Humans , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Neoplasm Proteins , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/metabolism , Receptors, Cytokine , Receptors, Thrombopoietin , Signal Transduction , Thrombopoietin
2.
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 33(3): e1524, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1141902

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: KRAS mutations are important events in colorectal carcinogenesis, as well as negative predictors of response to EGFR inhibitors treatment. Aim: To investigate the association of clinical-pathological features with KRAS mutations in colorectal cancer patients treated. Methods: Data from 69 patients with colorectal cancer either metastatic at diagnosis or later, were retrospectively analyzed. The direct sequencing and pyrosequencing techniques were related to KRAS exon 2. The mutation diagnosis and its type were determined. Results: KRAS mutation was identified in 43.4% of patients. The most common was c.35G>T (p.G12V), c.35G>A (p.G12D) and c.38G>A (p.G13D). No correlation was found between KRAS mutation and age (p=0.646) or gender (p=0.815). However, mutated group had higher CEA levels at admission (p=0.048) and codon 13 mutation was associated with involvement of more than one metastatic site in disease progression (p=0.029). Although there was no association between primary tumor site and mutation diagnosis (p=0.568), primary colon was associated with worse overall survival (p=0.009). Conclusion: The KRAS mutation was identified in almost half of patients. Mutated KRAS group had higher levels of CEA at admission and the mutation at codon 13 was associated with involvement of more than one metastatic site in the course of the disease. Colon disease was associated with the worst overall survival.


RESUMO Racional: Mutações KRAS são eventos importantes na carcinogênese colorretal como preditores negativos de resposta ao tratamento. Objetivo: Investigar a associação de características clinicopatológicas com mutações no KRAS em pacientes com câncer colorretal tratados. Métodos: Sessenta e nove pacientes com câncer colorretal metastáticos ao diagnóstico ou posteriormente foram analisados. As técnicas de sequenciamento direto e pirosequenciamento foram relacionadas ao éxon 2 do KRAS e o diagnóstico da mutação e seu tipo foram determinados. Resultados: A mutação KRAS foi identificada em 43,4% dos pacientes, c.35G>T (p.G12V), c.35G>A (p.G12D) e c.38G>A (p.G13D). Não foi encontrada correlação entre a mutação KRAS e a idade (p=0,646) ou o gênero (p=0,815). No entanto, o grupo mutado apresentou níveis mais altos de CEA na admissão (p=0,048). A mutação do códon 13 foi associada ao envolvimento de mais de um local metastático na progressão da doença (p=0,029); não houve associação entre o local primário do tumor e o diagnóstico de mutação (p=0,568); a doença primária do cólon foi associada com pior sobrevida global (p=0,009). Conclusão: A mutação KRAS foi identificada em quase metade dos pacientes. O grupo KRAS mutado apresentou níveis mais altos de CEA na admissão e a mutação no códon 13 foi associada ao envolvimento de mais de um local metastático no curso da doença. A doença do cólon foi associada com pior sobrevida global.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Colorectal Neoplasms/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras)/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/metabolism , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/genetics , ras Proteins/genetics , Mutation
3.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(4): e9290, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089356

ABSTRACT

This study was designed to investigate the expression of RBM8A protein in patients with gastric cancer (GC) and to explore its correlation with clinical pathological features as well as prognosis. One hundred pairs of gastric carcinoma tissues and adjacent tissues from patients undergoing gastrectomy for GC were included in this study. The protein expression level of RBM8A was determined by immunohistochemistry using tissue microarrays. We also detected the mRNA expression level of RBM8A in 16 pairs of gastric carcinoma tissues and adjacent tissues. Meanwhile, we predicted the potential correlation between RBM8A and tumor stages as well as survival condition in patents with GC based on The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. The correlation of RBM8A with the clinical pathological features and prognosis of the 100 patients with GC was also elucidated. The expression level of RBM8A was significantly higher in gastric carcinoma tissues compared to the adjacent tissues. The protein level of RBM8A was correlated with tumor size (P=0.031), depth of invasion (P<0.001), lymph node metastasis (P<0.001), TNM stage (<0.001), and distant metastasis (P=0.001). Patients with increased RBM8A expression (P<0.0018, 95%CI=0.322−0.871), higher TNM stage (P<0.001, 95%CI=4.990−11.283), and lymph node metastasis (P<0.001, 95%CI=2.873−4.002) had a lower overall survival. Taken together, our study demonstrated that RBM8A may act as a proto-oncogene, which could be a promising biomarker and therapeutic target in the diagnosis and treatment of GC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Stomach Neoplasms/metabolism , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Prognosis , Stomach Neoplasms/genetics , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Survival Analysis , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/metabolism , RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , Gastric Mucosa/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Neoplasm Metastasis , Neoplasm Staging
4.
Biol. Res ; 51: 22, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950906

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Our study aimed to investigate the roles of autophagy against high glucose induced response in retinal pigment epithelium (ARPE-19 cells). METHODS: The morphological changes and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in ARPE-19 cells under high glucose treatment were respectively detected using the transmission electron microscopy and flow cytometry. The expression levels of Parkin, PINK1, BNIP3L, LC3-I and LC3-II in ARPE-19 cells received high glucose treatment were measured by western blot after pretreatment of carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), 3-methyladenine (3-MA), N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) or cyclosporin A (CsA) followed by high glucose treatment. RESULTS: ARPE-19 cells subjected to high glucose stress showed an obvious reduction in the LC3-I expression and significant increase in the number of autophagosomes, in the intracellular ROS level, and in the expression levels of Parkin, PINK1, BNIP3L and LC3-II (p < 0.05). Pretreatment with CCCP significantly reduced the LC3-I expression and increased the expression levels of Parkin, PINK1, BNIP3L and LC3-II (p < 0.05). ARPE-19 cells pretreated with CsA under high glucose stress showed markedly down-regulated expressions of Parkin, PINK1 and BNIP3L compared with the cells treated with high glucose (p < 0.05). Pretreatment of ARPE-19 cells with NAC or 3-MA under high glucose stress resulted in a marked reduction in the expression levels of PINK1, BNIP3L and LC3-II (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, the expression level of Parkin in the ARPE-19 cells pretreated with NAC under high glucose stress was comparable with that in the control cells. CONCLUSION: Autophagy might have protective roles against high glucose induced injury in ARPE19 cells via regulating PINK1/Parkin pathway and BNIP3L.


Subject(s)
Humans , Protein Kinases/drug effects , Autophagy/drug effects , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/drug effects , Tumor Suppressor Proteins/drug effects , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/drug effects , Retinal Pigment Epithelium/drug effects , Glucose/pharmacology , Membrane Proteins/drug effects , Protein Kinases/metabolism , Autophagy/physiology , Signal Transduction/physiology , Cell Line , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Tumor Suppressor Proteins/metabolism , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Retinal Pigment Epithelium/cytology , Flow Cytometry , Membrane Proteins/metabolism
5.
Biol. Res ; 50: 31, 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950882

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: MiR-320 is downregulated in multiple cancers, including glioma and acts as tumor suppressor through inhibiting tumor cells proliferation and inducing apoptosis. PBX3 (Pre-B cell leukemia homeobox 3), a putative target gene of miR-320, has been reported to be upregulated in various tumors and promote tumor cell growth through regulating MAKP/ERK pathway. This study aimed to verify whether miR-320 influences glioma cells growth through regulating PBX3. METHODS: Twenty-four human glioma and paired adjacent nontumorous tissues were collected for determination of miR-320 and PBX3 expression using RT-qPCR and western blot assays. Luciferase reporter assay was performed to verify the interaction between miR-320 and its targeting sequence in the 3' UTR of PBX3 in glioma cells U87 and U251. Increased miR-320 level in U87 and U251 cells was achieved through miR-320 mimic transfection and the effect of which on glioma cells growth, proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis and activation of Raf-1/MAPK pathway was determined using MTT, colony formation, flow cytometry and western blot assays. PBX3 knockdown was performed using shPBX3 and the influence on MAPK pathway activation was evaluated. RESULTS: MiR-320 downregulation and PBX3 upregulation was found in glioma tissues. Luciferase reporter assays identified miR-320 directly blinds to the 3' UTR of PBX3 in glioma cells. MiR-320 mimic transfection suppressed glioma cells proliferation, and induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Both miR-320 overexpression and PBX3 knockdown inhibited Raf-1/MAPK activation. CONCLUSION: MiR-320 may suppress glioma cells growth and induced apoptosis through the PBX3/Raf-1/MAPK axis, and miR-320 oligonucleotides may be a potential cancer therapeutic for glioma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Brain Neoplasms/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/metabolism , Homeodomain Proteins/metabolism , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Glioma/metabolism , Brain Neoplasms/pathology , Down-Regulation , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Up-Regulation , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Glioma/pathology
6.
São Paulo; s.n; 2016. 115 p. i, tabelas, quadros.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, Inca | ID: biblio-1178187

ABSTRACT

Introdução: As neoplasias das glândulas salivares têm amplo espectro histológico resultante da múltipla diferenciação celular tumoral. O adenoma pleomórfico (AP) e o carcinoma adenoide cístico (CAC) são as mais comuns neoplasias benignas e malignas provenientes do ducto intercalado, respectivamente, além de serem compostas por estruturas luminais e células mioepiteliais. Em estudo realizado previamente pelo nosso grupo, detectamos que a proteína c-kit está envolvida nos processos da morfogênese das glândulas salivares e no adenoma pleomórfico. A proteína c-Kit tem papel importante no desenvolvimento de muitos processos embrionários, incluindo a gametogênese, melanogênese e hematopoiese, e também na biologia de tumores. Sua ativação induz diversas respostas intracelulares através de cascatas de sinalização de vias como PI3K/AKT e MAPK. Em tumores da glândula salivar ainda há poucos estudos sobre as alterações do gene KIT e das proteínas relacionadas a sua via de sinalização, assim como sua regulação pós-transcricional, realizada principalmente por meio dos microRNAs. O presente estudo avaliou, em APs e CACs (a) a localização das proteínas das vias PI3K/AKT/mTOR e MAPK por meio da técnica de imunoistoquímica; (b) a expressão dos microRNAs 221 e 222, relacionados ao gene KIT (c) a associação dos achados laboratoriais com variáveis clínicas, patológicas e sobrevida. Resultados: Nos casos de AP a proteína c-Kit foi identificada em formações luminais e em raras células isoladas no parênquima tumoral. Já nos CAC, observou-se positividade na membrana das células ductais. Para a via de PI3K/AKT/mTOR, no AP, a proteína PI3K beta mostrou-se parcialmente positiva no citoplasma das células próximas à capsula tumoral, e as proteínas AKT e mTOR fosforiladas, foram expressas especialmente nas células epiteliais e em poucas células mioepiteliais. Já no CAC, a proteína PI3K beta e AKT fosforilada mostraram-se negativas na maioria dos casos, e a proteína mTOR fosforilada foi expressa no citoplasma das células epiteliais e em algumas células mioepiteliais. Para a via MAPK, as proteínas RAS, MEK-1 fosforilada e ERK 1/2 foram negativas na maioria dos AP e CAC; B-Raf e MEK-2 fosforilada foram observadas nas células luminais dos AP. Nos CAC, estruturas luminais neoplásicas foram positivas para a proteína MEK-2 fosforilada; B-Raf foi positivo nas células luminais e mioepiteliais. Além disso, os pacientes que expressaram as proteínas mTOR e MEK-2 fosforilada apresentaram sobrevida câncer-específica significativamente aumentada (p=0,040 e p=0,005, respectivamente). Na análise do microRNAs, a expressão do miR-221 foi variável nas 13 amostras analisadas, tendo baixa expressão em 30,77% dos casos, expressão normal em 38,46 e expressão aumentada em 30,77% dos casos. Já nos APs o miR-221 foi detectado em 19 amostras, sendo 36,84% com baixa expressão, 52,63% com expressão normal e expressão aumentada foi vista em 10,53% dos casos. A expressão do miR-222 foi detectada em 14 CACs, sendo que a maioria dos casos (8 casos ­ 57,1%) a expressão do miR-222 foi semelhante ao observado nas amostras não neoplásicas. Nos APs, o miR-222 foi detectado em 22 amostras, sendo 31,8% com baixa expressão, 31,8% com expressão normal e 36,4% com expressão aumentada. Conclusão: Apesar de a proteína c-Kit ser expressa em ambas as neoplasias ­ AP e CAC, sua influência sobre as vias de sinalização MAPK e PI3K/AKT/mTOR ainda permanece por ser estabelecida. Ainda, os microRNAs 221 e 222 não mostram correlação consistente com a expressão de c-Kit nos tipos tumorais estudados.


Introduction: Salivary gland tumors present broad histological spectrum resulting from multiple tumor cell differentiation. Pleomorphic adenoma (PA) and adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) are the commonest benign and malignant salivary gland neoplasms originated from the intercalated duct region, respectively, and are composed by luminal structures and myoepithelial cells. In a previous study we detected that protein c-kit is involved in the process of salivary gland morphogenesis and PA. c-Kit protein is important during embryogenesis, including gametogenesis, melanogeneis and hematopoiesis as well as in tumorigenesis. Its activation induces various intracellular responses through pathways such as MAPK and PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling cascades. In salivary gland neoplasms, only a few reports have shown that alterations in KIT gene are present and proteins related to its signaling pathway as well as its post-transcriptional regulation. This study has aimed at evaluating in PA and ACC: (a) the proteins location of PI3K/AKT/mTOR and MAPK pathways using immunohistochemistry (IHC); (b) expression of miR-221 and miR-222, related to KIT gene; and (c) the association of these findings with clinical, pathological and survival data of patients. Results: In PA c-kit was positive in isolated luminal cells; in ACC, neoplastic luminal structures were positive for c-Kit. In PA, PI3K beta protein was shown to be partially positive in the cytoplasm of cells near the tumor capsule and phosphor AKT and phospho mTOR, are specifically expressed in epithelial cells and in a few myoepithelial. In ACC, PI3K and phosphor AKT protein showed to be negative in most of cases. Phospho mTOR protein was expressed in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells and some myoepithelial cells. In MAPK pathway, Ras, ERK1/2 and phosphor MEK-1 proteins were negative in most PAs and CACs; B-Raf and phospho MEK-2 were detected in luminal cells of PA. In ACC neoplastic luminal structures were positive for phospho MEK-2; B-Raf was also positive in myoepithelial and epithelial cells. In addition, cases with expressed phospho-mTOR and phosphor MEK-2 proteins were significantly associated with higher cancer-specific survival (p = 0.040 and p = 0.005, respectively). Moreover, expression of miR-221 was detected in 13 CAC samples and 19 PA samples. In CAC, expression of miR-221 was downregulated in 30,77% of the samples, upregulated in 30,77% samples, and normal in 38,46% samples. In PA, miR-221 expression was downregulated in 36,84% samples, upregulated in 10,53% samples, and normal in 52,63% samples. Expression of miR-222 was detected in 14 CAC samples and 22 PA samples. In the majority of CAC samples, the expression of miR-222 was similar to that observed in non-neoplastic samples. In PA samples, expression of miR-222 was downregulated in 31,8% samples, upregulated in 36,4% samples, and normal in 31,8% samples. Conclusion: Although c-Kit expression is detected in PA and ACC, its influence on the MAPK e PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling cascades remains to be established. miR-221 e -222 did not show a robust correlation with c-Kit expression in the tumors studied.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Salivary Gland Neoplasms/genetics , Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic/genetics , Adenoma, Pleomorphic/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit/genetics , Salivary Gland Neoplasms/metabolism , Salivary Gland Neoplasms/pathology , Gene Expression , Survival Analysis , Gene Expression Regulation , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/physiology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/metabolism , DNA, Complementary , Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic/metabolism , Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic/pathology , Adenoma, Pleomorphic/metabolism , Adenoma, Pleomorphic/pathology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit/physiology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit/metabolism , MicroRNAs , Mutation
7.
J. bras. nefrol ; 36(4): 476-481, Oct-Dec/2014. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-731152

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Dados nacionais sobre diálise crônica têm tido impacto no planejamento do tratamento. Objetivo: Apresentar dados do inquérito da Sociedade Brasileira de Nefrologia sobre os pacientes com doença renal crônica em tratamento dialítico em julho de 2013 e comparar com dados de 2011- 12. Métodos: Levantamento de dados de unidades de diálise do país. A coleta de dados foi feita utilizando questionário preenchido on-line pelas unidades de diálise. Resultados: Trezentos e trinta e quatro (51%) unidades responderam ao inquérito. Em julho de 2013, o número total estimado de pacientes em diálise foi de 100.397. As estimativas nacionais das taxas de prevalência e de incidência de tratamento dialítico foram de 499 (variação: 284 na região Norte e 622 na Sul) e 170 pacientes por milhão da população, respectivamente. O número estimado de pacientes que iniciaram tratamento em 2013 foi 34.161. A taxa anual de mortalidade bruta foi de 17,9%. Dos pacientes prevalentes, 31,4% tinham idade ≥ 65 anos, 90,8% estavam em hemodiálise e 9,2% em diálise peritoneal, 31.351 (31,2%) estavam em fila de espera para transplante, 30% tinham diabetes, 17% tinham PTH > 600 pg/ml e 23% hemoglobina < 10 g/dl. Cateter venoso era usado como acesso em 15,4% dos pacientes em hemodiálise. Conclusão: O número absoluto de pacientes em diálise tem aumentado 3% ao ano nos últimos 3 anos. As taxas de prevalência e incidência de pacientes em diálise ficaram estáveis, e a taxa de mortalidade tendeu a diminuir em relação a 2012. Houve tendência a melhor controle da anemia e dos níveis de PTH. .


Introduction: National chronic dialysis data have had impact in the treatment planning. Objective: To report data of the annual survey of the Brazilian Society of Nephrology about chronic kidney disease patients on dialysis in July 2013 and compare with 2011-12. Methods: A survey based on data of dialysis units from the whole country. The data collection was performed by using a questionnaire filled out on-line by the dialysis units. Results: Three hundred thirty four (51%) of the dialysis units in the country answered the questionnaire. In July 2013, the total estimated number of patients on dialysis was 100,397. The estimated prevalence and incidence rates of chronic maintenance dialysis were 449 (range: 284 in the North region and 622 in the South) and 170 patients per million population, respectively. The estimated number of new patients starting dialysis in 2013 was 34,161. The annual gross mortality rate was 17.9%. For prevalent patients, 31.4% were aged 65 years or older, 90.8% were on hemodialysis and 9.2% on peritoneal dialysis, 31,351 (31.2%) were on a waiting list of renal transplant, 30% were diabetics, 17% had PTH levels > 600 pg/ml and 23% hemoglobin < 10 g/ dl. A venous catheter was the vascular access for 15.4% of the hemodialysis patients. Conclusion: The absolute number of patients on dialysis has increased 3% per year. The prevalence and incidence rates of patients on dialysis leveled off, while the mortality rate tended to decrease compared with 2012. There was a trend towards a better control of the anemia and PTH levels. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Cellular Senescence/physiology , /physiology , Lymphoma, B-Cell/etiology , Lymphoma, B-Cell/genetics , /physiology , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases , Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating/therapeutic use , Apoptosis/genetics , Apoptosis/physiology , Biomarkers , Cellular Senescence/drug effects , Cellular Senescence/genetics , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cell Survival/genetics , Cell Survival/physiology , /genetics , Cyclophosphamide/therapeutic use , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/genetics , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/physiology , Lymphoma, B-Cell/drug therapy , Mice, Knockout , Mice, Mutant Strains , Mutation , Prognosis , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-cbl , /metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/metabolism , Tumor Cells, Cultured , /genetics , /physiology , /genetics
8.
Braz. dent. j ; 25(5): 447-450, Sep-Oct/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-731048

ABSTRACT

The radicular cyst is an inflammatory odontogenic cyst of endodontic origin. Radiographically, the lesion appears as a periapical radiolucent image. This report describes a very rare case of a mixed periapical radiographic image diagnosed as a radicular cyst. A 37-year-old female patient presented a mixed, well-circumscribed image located in the periapical region of the left maxillary central incisor, which presented unsatisfactory endodontic treatment. Microscopic examination revealed a cavity lined by non-keratinized squamous epithelium and extensive calcifications in the cystic lumen and lining epithelium. Diagnosis of radicular cyst with extensive calcifications was established. Endodontic retreatment was performed and no radiographic signs of recurrence were observed 18 months after treatment. Although very rare, a radicular cyst should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a mixed periapical image associated to teeth with pulp necrosis.


O cisto radicular é um cisto odontogênico inflamatório de origem endodôntica. Radiograficamente, a lesão se apresenta como uma imagem radiolúcida periapical. Este relato descreve um caso muito raro de uma imagem radiográfica periapical mista diagnosticada como cisto radicular. Uma paciente de 37 anos de idade, do gênero feminino, apresentava uma imagem mista, bem circunscrita, localizada na região periapical do incisivo central superior esquerdo, que apresentava tratamento endodôntico insatisfatório. Avaliação microscópica revelou uma cavidade revestida por epitélio escamoso não-queratinizado e calcificações extensas na cavidade cística e revestimento epitelial. O diagnóstico de cisto radicular com extensas calcificações foi estabelecido. Retratamento endodôntico foi realizado e não foram observados sinais radiográficos de recorrência da lesão após 18 meses de tratamento. Embora muito raro, um cisto radicular deve ser considerado no diagnóstico diferencial de uma imagem periapical mista associada a dentes com necrose pulpar.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Cellular Senescence/physiology , Genes, ras/genetics , MAP Kinase Signaling System/physiology , Nuclear Proteins , /metabolism , Cell Fractionation , Cells, Cultured , Colony-Forming Units Assay , Cell Cycle/physiology , Enzyme Activation , Embryo, Mammalian/physiology , Fibroblasts/cytology , Fibroblasts/metabolism , MAP Kinase Kinase 1 , Mice, Knockout , Microscopy, Fluorescence , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases/metabolism , Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/metabolism , Temperature , /metabolism , ras Proteins/metabolism
9.
Int. j. morphol ; 30(3): 1115-1131, Sept. 2012. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-665535

ABSTRACT

El cáncer colorrectal (CCR) constituye el segundo tipo de cáncer más frecuente en la población europea. Actualmente no existe biomarcadores moleculares que se pueden utilizar para la detección temprana del cáncer de CCR. KLF6 es un supresor tumoral relacionado con varios tipos de cánceres. Nuestra hipótesis plantea que KLF6 puede ser un excelente marcador en el diagnóstico precoz de CCR. Para estudiar la implicancia de KLF6 en el CCR, se seleccionaron 15 biopsias de cada estadio (T1,T2 y T3) de los archivos del Servicio de Anatomía Patológica del Hospital Central de la Defensa Gómez-Ulla, las cuales presentaban áreas de tejido afectado (tumor) y áreas sin afectación (no tumorales). Para ello se realizó un estudio histológico, inmunohistoquímico y RT-PCR, basada en la expresión de 3 genes, Ki67 y p53 como marcadores positivos y KLF6 como marcador en estudio. Los resultados mostraron que la expresión de KLF6 está directamente relacionada con el aumento de la malignidad celular en los adenocarcinomas, corroboradas por las RT-PCR, observándose la aparición progresiva de formas de procesado alternativo, no correspondiente a KLF6. Esta proteína, se expresó tanto a nivel citoplasmático como nuclear en los primeros estadios T1 y T2, para desaparecer a nivel nuclear en el estadio más avanzado (T3). Concluimos que KLF6 es un buen marcador tumoral de CCR, debido a que muestra patrones crecientes de expresión a nivel citoplasmático y decrecientes a nivel nuclear...


Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common type of cancer in the European population. Currently there molecular biomarkers that can be used for early detection of cancer of CRC. Is a tumor suppressor KLF6 associated with several types of cancers. Our hypothesis is that KLF6 can be an excellent marker for the early diagnosis of CRC. To study the implication of KLF6 in CRC, we selected 15 biopsies of each stage (T1, T2 and T3) from the archives of the Pathology Department of Defense Central Hospital Gómez-Ulla, which had areas of affected tissue (tumor) and unaffected areas (non-tumor). This study was performed histological, immunohistochemical and RT-PCR, based on the expression of three genes, markers Ki67 and p53 as positive and as a marker in KLF6 study. The results showed that the expression of KLF6 is directly related to increased malignancy cell adenocarcinomas, corroborated by RT-PCR, showing the gradual emergence of alternative forms processing, corresponding to no KLF6. This protein was expressed both cytoplasmic and nuclear in the early stages T1 and T2, disappearing at the nuclear level in the most advanced stage (T3). KLF6 conclude that a good CRC tumor marker because it shows patterns of expression level increased cytoplasmic and nuclear level decreasing...


Subject(s)
Humans , Adenocarcinoma/metabolism , Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors/metabolism , Colorectal Neoplasms/metabolism , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/metabolism , Adenocarcinoma/genetics , Early Diagnosis , Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors/genetics , Immunohistochemistry , Biomarkers, Tumor , Colorectal Neoplasms/genetics , Predictive Value of Tests , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
10.
Clinics ; 67(supl.1): 49-56, 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-623131

ABSTRACT

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is an inherited endocrine tumor syndrome, predominantly characterized by tumors of the parathyroid glands, gastroenteropancreatic tumors, pituitary adenomas, adrenal adenomas, and neuroendocrine tumors of the thymus, lungs or stomach. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is caused by germline mutations of the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 tumor suppressor gene. The initial germline mutation, loss of the wild-type allele, and modifying genetic and possibly epigenetic and environmental events eventually result in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 tumors. Our understanding of the function of the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 gene product, menin, has increased significantly over the years. However, to date, no clear genotype-phenotype correlation has been established. In this review we discuss reports on exceptional clinical presentations of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, which may provide more insight into the pathogenesis of this disorder and offer clues for a possible genotype-phenotype correlation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adenoma/genetics , Genetic Association Studies , Germ-Line Mutation/genetics , Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1/genetics , Pituitary Neoplasms/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/metabolism , Adenoma/metabolism , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1/metabolism , Pituitary Neoplasms/metabolism
11.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 129(5): 320-324, 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-604792

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The Wnt pathway is involved in tumorigenesis of several tissues. For this reason, we proposed to evaluate Wnt gene expression in endometrial cancer type I. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study on materials gathered from the tissue bank of the Department of Pathology, Universidade Federal de São Paulo. METHODS: Endometrial specimens were obtained from surgeries performed between 1995 and 2005 at São Paulo Hospital, Universidade Federal de São Paulo. The material was divided into two groups according to tissue type: Group A, atrophic endometrium (n = 15); and Group B, endometrial adenocarcinoma (n = 45). We compared the immunohistochemical expression of Wnt1, Frizzled-1 (FZD1), Wnt5a, Frizzled-5 (FZD5) and beta-catenin between endometrial cancer type I and atrophic endometrium. RESULTS: Regarding Wnt1, FZD1 and Wnt5a expression, no significant association was observed between the groups. A significant association was observed between the groups in relation to FZD5 expression (P = 0.001). The proportion of FZD5-positive samples was significantly higher in group A (80.0 percent) than in group B (31.1 percent). Regarding the survival curve for FZD5 in group B, we did not find any significant association between atrophic endometrium and endometrial adenocarcinoma. We also did not find any significant association regarding beta-catenin expression (P = 1.000). CONCLUSION: FZD5 is downregulated in endometrial adenocarcinoma, in comparison with atrophic endometrium.


CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: A via Wnt está envolvida na tumorigênese de diversos tipos de tecidos. Por essa razão, propusemo-nos a avaliar a expressão de genes da família Wnt no câncer endometrial tipo I. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Estudo transversal com coleta de materiais do banco de tecidos do Departamento de Patologia da Universidade Federal de São Paulo. MÉTODOS: Amostras endometriais foram obtidas de cirurgias que ocorreram entre 1995 e 2005 no Hospital São Paulo, Universidade Federal de São Paulo. Foram separados dois grupos segundo o tipo de tecido obtido: grupo A, com endométrio atrófico (n = 15); e grupo B, com adenocarcinoma endometrial (n = 45). Comparamos a expressão imunoistoquímica de Wnt 1, Frizzled-1 (FZD1), Wnt 5a, Frizzled-5 (FZD 5) e beta-catenina entre câncer endometrial tipo I e endométrio atrófico. RESULTADOS: Na expressão do Wnt1, FZD1 e Wnt5a, não observamos associação significante entre os grupos. Na expressão do FZD5, encontramos associação significante entre os grupos (P = 0,001). A proporção de positividade do FZD5 foi significantemente maior no grupo A comparado ao grupo B (31,1 por cento). Em relação à curva de sobrevida para o FZD5 no grupo B, não tivemos associação significante entre endométrio atrófico e adenocarcinoma do endométrio. Também não observamos associação significante na expressão da beta-catenina (P = 1,000). CONCLUSÃO: FZD5 é downregulated no adenocarcinoma endometrial quando comparado ao endométrio atrófico.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Endometrial Neoplasms/metabolism , Endometrium/metabolism , Wnt Signaling Pathway/physiology , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Endometrial Neoplasms/pathology , Endometrium/pathology , Frizzled Receptors/analysis , Frizzled Receptors/metabolism , Postmenopause/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/analysis , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/metabolism , Time Factors , Wnt Proteins/analysis , Wnt Proteins/metabolism , beta Catenin/analysis , beta Catenin/metabolism
12.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 35(5): 599-607, Sept.-Oct. 2009. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-532774

ABSTRACT

Cigarette smoking (CS) is the main risk factor for bladder cancer development. There are more than 100 carcinogens present in cigarette smoke. Among the potential mediators of CS-induced alterations is nuclear factor-kappa (NF-êB), which is responsible for the transcription of genes related to cell transformation, tumor promotion, angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis. Curcumin is a polyphenol compound derived from Curcuma longa that suppress cellular transformation, proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis by down regulating NF-êB and its regulated genes. The aim of our study was to assess the effects of curcumin in bladder urothelial carcinoma. We studied the effects of curcumin in vitro and in vivo using the orthotropic syngeneic bladder tumor animal model MB49. Curcumin promotes apoptosis of bladder tumor cells in vitro. In vivo tumors of animals treated with curcumin were significantly smaller as compared to controls. Using immunohistochemistry, we demonstrated a decrease in the expression of Cox-2 by 8 percent and Cyclin D1 by 13 percent in the animals treated with curcumin; both genes regulated by NF-êB and related to cell proliferation. In this study, we showed that curcumin acts in bladder urothelial cancer, possibly dowregulating NF-êB-related genes, and could be an option in the treatment of urothelial neoplasms. The results of our study suggest that further research is warranted to confirm our findings.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Curcumin/therapeutic use , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/drug therapy , Cyclin D1/metabolism , /metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor , Immunohistochemistry , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/metabolism , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/metabolism , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/pathology
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-136589

ABSTRACT

Serum amyloid A (SAA) has been regarded as an important mediator of inflammatory responses. The effect of several formyl peptide receptor-like 1 (FPRL1) ligands on the production of IL-8 by SAA was investigated in human neutrophils. Among the ligands tested, LL-37 was found to specifically inhibit SAA-induced IL-8 production in transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Since SAA stimulated IL-8 production via ERK and p38 MAPK in human neutrophils, we tested the effect of LL-37 on SAA induction for these two MAPKs. LL-37 caused a dramatic inhibition of ERK and p38 MAPK activity, which is induced by SAA. LL-37 was also found to inhibit SAA-stimulated neutrophil chemotactic migration. Further, the LL-37-induced inhibitory effect was mediated by FPRL1. Our findings indicate that LL-37 is expected to be useful in the inhibition of SAA signaling and for the development of drugs against SAA-related inflammatory diseases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides/pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Movement , Chemotaxis, Leukocyte , Humans , Interleukin-8/biosynthesis , MAP Kinase Kinase Kinases/metabolism , Neutrophils/drug effects , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/metabolism , Rats , Receptors, Formyl Peptide/metabolism , Receptors, Lipoxin/metabolism , Serum Amyloid A Protein/antagonists & inhibitors , Signal Transduction , Transcription, Genetic
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-136588

ABSTRACT

Serum amyloid A (SAA) has been regarded as an important mediator of inflammatory responses. The effect of several formyl peptide receptor-like 1 (FPRL1) ligands on the production of IL-8 by SAA was investigated in human neutrophils. Among the ligands tested, LL-37 was found to specifically inhibit SAA-induced IL-8 production in transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Since SAA stimulated IL-8 production via ERK and p38 MAPK in human neutrophils, we tested the effect of LL-37 on SAA induction for these two MAPKs. LL-37 caused a dramatic inhibition of ERK and p38 MAPK activity, which is induced by SAA. LL-37 was also found to inhibit SAA-stimulated neutrophil chemotactic migration. Further, the LL-37-induced inhibitory effect was mediated by FPRL1. Our findings indicate that LL-37 is expected to be useful in the inhibition of SAA signaling and for the development of drugs against SAA-related inflammatory diseases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides/pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Movement , Chemotaxis, Leukocyte , Humans , Interleukin-8/biosynthesis , MAP Kinase Kinase Kinases/metabolism , Neutrophils/drug effects , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/metabolism , Rats , Receptors, Formyl Peptide/metabolism , Receptors, Lipoxin/metabolism , Serum Amyloid A Protein/antagonists & inhibitors , Signal Transduction , Transcription, Genetic
15.
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 51(5): 843-851, jul. 2007. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-461334

ABSTRACT

Apoptosis is an essential physiological process of elimination of destined cells during the development and differentiation or after damage from external stresses such as ionizing radiation or chemotherapeutic agents. Disruption of apoptosis is proved to cause various diseases including cancer. Among numerous molecules involved in diverse anti- or pro-apoptotic signaling pathways, NF-kappaB is one of the key factors controlling anti-apoptotic responses. Its anti-apoptotic effect is thought to be mediated through not only transcriptional activation of dependent genes but also by crosstalking with the JNK pathway. Oncogenic proteins such as Ret/PTC, Ras and BRAF can induce NF-kappaB activation making it an important change in thyroid cancer. A number of specific or non-specific NF-kappaB inhibitors have been tried to take over the cascade in in vitro and in vivo experiments. These agents can induce massive apoptosis especially in combination with radio- or chemotherapy. Current results suggest that the inhibition of the NF-kappaB may be a promising strategy for advanced thyroid cancer treatment but further investigations are warranted to develop specific and clinically effective NF-kappaB inhibitors in future.


A apoptose é um processo fisiológico essencial destinado a eliminar células durante o desenvolvimento e diferenciação ou após danos decorrentes de estresses externos com a radiação ionizante ou agentes quimioterápicos. Distúrbios na apoptose têm sido demonstrados como causadores de várias doenças, incluindo câncer. Entre as inúmeras moléculas envolvidas nas várias vias de sinalização anti- ou pró-apoptoticas, NF-kapaB é um dos fatores-chave que controlam as respostas anti-apoptóticas. Acredita-se que seu efeito anti-apoptótico seja mediado não apenas pela ativação transcricional de genes dependentes mas também por crosstalking com a via JNK. Proteínas oncogênicas como Ret/PTC, Ras e BRAF podem induzir ativação de NF-kapaB promovendo importante transformação no câncer da tireóide. Uma série de inibidores específicos e não-específicos do NF-kapaB tem sido usada em experimentos in vitro e in vivo procurando inibir a cascata. Esses agentes podem induzir apoptose maciça especialmente em combinação com radio ou quimioterapia. Resultados atuais sugerem que a inibição de NF-kapaB pode ser uma estratégia promissora no tratamento do câncer da tireóide avançado, mas novas investigações são necessárias para desenvolver inibidores específicos e clinicamente efetivos do NF-kapaB.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Apoptosis/physiology , Carcinoma/drug therapy , NF-kappa B/physiology , Thyroid Neoplasms/drug therapy , /metabolism , Apoptosis/drug effects , Apoptosis/genetics , Benzamides/metabolism , Benzamides/pharmacology , Carcinoma/metabolism , Cyclohexanones/metabolism , Cyclohexanones/pharmacology , Enzyme Activation , Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins/pharmacology , JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , NF-kappa B/antagonists & inhibitors , NF-kappa B/drug effects , Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/metabolism , Signal Transduction/genetics , Transcriptional Activation , Thyroid Neoplasms/metabolism
16.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-37685

ABSTRACT

Induction of apoptosis is one of the most active strategies in cancer chemoprevention and the ability of medicinal plants in this regard has attracted major research interest. The present study was designed to investigate the apoptosis inducing capacity of an ethanolic neem leaf extract (ENLE) during 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis using the apoptosis-associated proteins Bcl-2, Bim, caspase 8 and caspase 3 as markers. Topical application of DMBA to the hamster cheek pouch for 14 weeks resulted in well developed squamous cell carcinomas associated with increased expression of Bcl-2 and decreased expression of Bim, caspase 8 and caspase 3. Administration of ENLE inhibited DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis, as revealed by the absence of neoplasms, with induction of Bim and caspases 8 and 3 and inhibition of Bcl-2 expression. Our results suggest that the chemopreventive effects of ENLE may be mediated by induction of apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis/drug effects , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/metabolism , Azadirachta , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/metabolism , Caspase 3 , Caspase 8 , Caspases/metabolism , Cheek , Cricetinae , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Male , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Mesocricetus , Mouth Neoplasms/metabolism , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/metabolism
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-201946

ABSTRACT

We investigated glucose uptake and the translocation of Akt and caveolin-3 in response to insulin in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts exposed to an experimental insulin resistance condition of 100 nM insulin in a 25 mM glucose containing media for 24 h. The cells under the insulin resistance condition exhibited a decrease in insulin-stimulated 2-deoxy[3 H]glucose uptake as compared to control cells grown in 5 mM glucose media. In addition to a reduction in insulin-induced Akt translocation to membranes, we observed a significant decrease in insulin-stimulated membrane association of phosphorylated Akt with a consequent increase of the cytosolic pool. Actin remodeling in response to insulin was also greatly retarded in the cells. When translocation of Akt and caveolin-3 to caveolae was examined, the insulin resistance condition attenuated localization of Akt and caveolin-3 to caveolae from cytosol. As a result, insulin-stimulated Akt activation in caveolae was significantly decreased. Taken together, our data indicate that the decrease of glucose uptake into the cells is related to their reduced levels of caveolin-3, Akt and phosphorylated Akt in caveolae. We conclude that the insulin resistance condition induced the retardation of their translocation to caveolae and in turn caused an attenuation in insulin signaling, namely activation of Akt in caveolae for glucose uptake into H9c2 cardiomyoblasts.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biological Transport , Caveolae/drug effects , Caveolins/metabolism , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Cytosol/metabolism , Enzyme Activation/drug effects , Glucose/metabolism , Heart/embryology , Insulin/pharmacology , Insulin Resistance , Myocytes, Cardiac/drug effects , Phosphorylation , Protein Transport , Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/metabolism , Rats
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-201942

ABSTRACT

Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) has been reported to be associated with tumor development and progression as well as to protect cells from apoptosis induced by various cellular stresses. Through a tetracycline-regulated COX-2 overexpression system, we found that COX-2 inhibits detachment-induced apoptosis (anoikis) in a human bladder cancer cell line, EJ. We also found that the inhibition of anoikis by COX-2 results from activation of the PI-3K/Akt pathway as evidenced by suppression of the COX-2 effect on anoikis by a PI-3K inhibitor, LY294002. Furthermore, COX-2 enhanced Mcl-1 expression in the anoikis process, implying that Mcl-1 also may be involved in mediating the survival function of COX-2. Together, these results suggest that COX-2 inhibits anoikis by activation of the PI-3K/Akt pathway and probably by enhancement of Mcl-1 expression in human bladder cancer cells. This anti- anoikis effect of COX-2 may be a part of mechanisms to promote tumor development and progression.


Subject(s)
Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/metabolism , Anoikis/physiology , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/metabolism , Enzyme Activation , Humans , Neoplasm Proteins/metabolism , Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases/metabolism , Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Transfection , Tumor Cells, Cultured
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-201939

ABSTRACT

It has been known that O-linked beta-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification of proteins plays an important role in transcription, translation, nuclear transport and signal transduction. The increased flux of glucose through the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP) and increased O-GlcNAc modification of protein have been suggested as one of the causes in the development of insulin resistance. However, it is not clear at the molecular level, how O-GlcNAc protein modification results in substantial impairment of insulin signaling. To clarify the association of O-GlcNAc protein modification and insulin resistance in rat primary adipocytes, we treated the adipocytes with O-(2-acetamido-2deoxy-D-glucopyranosylidene)amino-N-phenylcarbamate (PUGNAc), a potent inhibitor of O-GlcNAcase that catalyzes removal of O-GlcNAc from proteins. Prolonged treatment of PUGNAc (100 micrometer for 12 h) increased O-GlcNAc modification on proteins in adipocytes. PUGNAc also drastically decreased insulin-stimulated 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) uptake and GLUT4 translocation in adipocytes, indicating that PUGNAc developed impaired glucose utilization and insulin resistance in adipocytes. Interestingly, the O-GlcNAc modification of IRS-1 and Akt2 was increased by PUGNAc, accompanied by a partial reduction of insulin-stimulated phosphorylations of IRS-1 and Akt2. The PUGNAc treatment has no effect on the expression level of GLUT4, whereas O-GlcNAc modification of GLUT4 was increased. These results suggest that the increase of O-GlcNAc modification on insulin signal pathway intermediates, such as IRS-1 and Akt2, reduces the insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of IRS-1 and Akt2, subsequently leading to insulin resistance in rat primary adipocytes.


Subject(s)
Acetylglucosamine/analogs & derivatives , Adipocytes/metabolism , Animals , Deoxyglucose/pharmacokinetics , Glycosylation , Immunoprecipitation , Insulin Resistance , Male , Monosaccharide Transport Proteins/metabolism , Oximes/pharmacology , Phenylcarbamates/pharmacology , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , Phosphorylation , Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Subcellular Fractions/metabolism , beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidases/antagonists & inhibitors
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-177636

ABSTRACT

Hypoxia, a common consequence of solid tumor growth in breast cancer or other cancers, serves to propagate a cascade of molecular pathways which include angiogenesis, glycolysis, and various cellcycle control proteins. As we have shown previously, hypoxia activates STAT5 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 5) and increases its binding activity to the GAS element in mammary epithelial cells. In this study we attempted to elucidate the mechanism by which cyclin D1 is regulated by the STAT5 protein under hypoxic conditions. Our data demonstrate that hypoxia (2% O2) or desferrioxamine (DFO) induces tyrosine and serine phosphorylation of STAT5 in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) and mammary epithelial cells (HC11). Imunoprecipitation and subsequent Western analysis showed that Jak2 leads to the tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of STAT5a or STAT5b under hypoxic conditions. Using a transfected COS-7 cell model system, we demonstrate that the activity of a cyclin D1 promoter-luciferase construct increased under hypoxic conditions or DFO treatment. The activity of the STAT5b/cyclin D1 promoter increased significantly by 12 h of hypoxia, whereas the activity of the STAT5a/cyclin D1 promoter was unaffected under hypoxic conditions. These increases in promoter activity are predominantly mediated by the Jak2/ STAT5b signaling pathway. We have shown by EMSA that hypoxia induces STAT5 to bind to the cyclin D1 promoter (GAS-1) in MCF-7 and HC11 cells. These data suggest that STAT5b may mediate the transcriptional activation of cyclin D1 after hypoxic stimulation.


Subject(s)
Anaerobiosis/genetics , Animals , Breast Neoplasms/genetics , COS Cells , Cell Hypoxia/genetics , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cyclin D1/genetics , Deferoxamine/pharmacology , Female , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Humans , Phosphorylation/drug effects , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/metabolism , Serine/metabolism , Tumor Cells, Cultured , Tyrosine/metabolism
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