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1.
Medicina UPB ; 41(1): 61-66, mar. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1362698

ABSTRACT

Los inhibidores de la bomba de protones (IBP) se encuentran entre los medicamentos más utilizados en el mundo por su bajo costo, extensa prescripción y efectividad. Sin embargo, su uso a largo plazo no es inocuo y aún hay vacíos en el conocimiento del empleo adecuado de estos medicamentos. Por lo tanto, en esta revisión se expone, además de sus propiedades generales, sus verdaderas indicaciones, el uso recomendado a largo plazo y las estrategias para lograr la deprescripción, con el fin de evitar el uso indiscriminado.


Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are among the most widely used drugs in the world, due to their low cost, extensive prescription and effectiveness. However, its long-term use is not safe and there are still certain gaps in the knowledge of the proper use of these drugs. Therefore, this review aims to expose their general properties as well as their true indications, the appropriate long-term use and strategies to achieve adequate deprescription of these drugs, seeking to avoid indiscriminate use.


Os inibidores da bomba de prótons (IBP) se encontram entre os medicamentos mais utilizados no mundo pelo seu baixo custo, extensa prescrição e efetividade. Embora, seu uso a longo prazo não é inócuo e ainda há vazios no conhecimento do uso adequado destes medicamentos. Por tanto, nesta revisão se expõe, além das suas propriedades gerais, suas verdadeiras indicações, o uso recomendado ao longo prazo e as estratégias para conseguir a deprescrição, com o fim de evitar o uso indiscriminado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Proton Pump Inhibitors , Effectiveness , Prescriptions , Deprescriptions
2.
Medicina UPB ; 41(1): 67-74, mar. 2022. tab, Ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1362702

ABSTRACT

La hemorragia del tracto digestivo superior (HTDS) es el sangrado originado por encima del ángulo de Treitz. A pesar del aumento en las estrategias de prevención, del incremento en los tratamientos con Inhibidor de bomba de protones (IBP) y de la intervención endoscópica temprana, esta patología sigue siendo una causa frecuente de consulta a urgencias, con una morbimortalidad no despreciable y alta carga para el sistema de salud. Esta revisión se enfoca en la HTDS de causa diferente a las varices. La principal causante de esta entidad es la enfermedad ácido-péptica, que es consecuencia del gran consumo de antiinflamatorios no esteroideos (AINES) y de la infección por Helicobacter Pylori. Otras causas son el síndrome de Mallory Weiss, la esofagitis erosiva, las malformaciones arteriovenosas y la malignidad.


Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) refers to any bleeding originating above the angle of Treitz. Despite an increase in prevention strategies, proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy and early endoscopic intervention, this pathology continues to be an important cause of admission to the emergency department for gastrointestinal causes, having a pretty high morbidity and mortality in addition to a high burden on the health system. This review focuses on non-variceal UGIB. The main cause of this entity being peptic acid disease, due to great consumption of NSAIDs and Helicobacter Pylori infection. Other causes are Mallory Weiss syndrome, erosive esophagitis, arteriovenous malformations, and malignancy.


A hemorragia do trato digestivo superior (HTDS) é o sangrado originado acima do ângulo de Treitz. Apesar do aumento nas estratégias de prevenção, do incremento nos tratamentos com Inibidor da bomba de prótons (IBP) e da intervenção endoscópica precoce, esta patologia segue sendo uma causa frequente de consulta a urgências, com uma morbimortalidade não depreciável e alta carga para o sistema de saúde. Esta revisão se enfoca na HTDS de causa diferente às varizes. A principal causante desta entidade é a doença ácido-péptica, que é consequência do grande consumo de anti-inflamatórios não esteróideos (AINES) e da infecção por HelicobacterPylori. Outras causas são a síndrome de Mallory Weiss, a esofagites erosiva, as malformações arteriovenosas e a malignidade. Palavras-chave: hemorragia gastrointestinal; úlcera péptica; endoscopia gastrointestinal; inibidores da bomba de prótons; medicina geral.


Subject(s)
Humans , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage , Peptic Ulcer , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Helicobacter pylori , Gastrointestinal Tract , Emergency Service, Hospital , Esophagitis , Proton Pump Inhibitors , Mallory-Weiss Syndrome , Neoplasms
3.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(1): 32-38, Jan.-Mar. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248997

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Intravenous (IV) use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) is advised only in cases of suspected upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) or impossibility of receiving oral medication, although there has been a persistent practice of their inappropriate use in health institutions. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our study was to measure the inappropriate use of IV PPIs in a high complexity hospital in Brazil and to estimate its costs. METHODS: Retrospective study of 333 patients who received IV omeprazole between July and December of 2018 in a high complexity hospital in Brazil. RESULTS: IV omeprazole was found to be appropriately prescribed in only 23.4% patient reports. This medication was administered mainly in cases of suspected UGIB (19.1%) and stress ulcer prophylaxis in patients with high risk of UGIB unable to receive medication orally (18.7%). It was observed a statistically significant association between adequate prescription and stress ulcer prophylaxis in patients with high risk of UGIB unable to receive medication orally; patient nil per os with valid indication for PPIs usage; prescription by intensive care unit doctors; prescription by emergency room doctors; intensive care unit admission; evolution to death; sepsis; and traumatic brain injury (P<0.05). On the other hand, inadequate prescription had a statistically significant association with surgical ward prescription and non-evolution to death (P<0.05). The estimated cost of the vials prescribed inadequately was US$1696. CONCLUSION: There was a high number of inappropriate IV omeprazole prescriptions in the studied hospital, entailing greater costs to the institution and unnecessary risks.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Atualmente, o uso intravenoso (IV) dos inibidores de bomba de prótons (IBPs) é indicado em poucas situações, como em casos de hemorragia digestiva alta ou impossibilidade de recebê-los via oral. Há diversos estudos mostrando o uso excessivo desse fármaco, na forma intravenosa, desnecessariamente e acarretando altos custos aos hospitais. OBJETIVO: Avaliar as indicações, posologias, duração do tratamento e custos das prescrições de omeprazol intravenoso. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo de 333 pacientes que receberam omeprazol intravenoso entre julho a dezembro de 2018 em um hospital de alta complexidade no Brasil. RESULTADOS: A prescrição de omeprazol intravenoso foi considerada totalmente adequada em apenas 23,4% das prescrições analisadas. O medicamento foi administrado principalmente em casos de suspeita de hemorragia digestiva alta (HDA) (19,1%) e profilaxia de úlcera de estresse em paciente com alto risco de HDA impossibilitado de receber via oral (18,7%). Foi observada associação estatisticamente significativa entre prescrição adequada e profilaxia de úlcera de estresse em paciente com alto risco de HDA impossibilitado de receber medicamento via oral; paciente em nil per os com indicação válida de IBPs; prescrição por médico da UTI; prescrição por médico do pronto atendimento; admissão na UTI; evolução a óbito; sepse; e traumatismo cranioencefálico (P<0,05). Já a prescrição inadequada teve associação estatisticamente significativa com prescrição por setor cirúrgico e a não evolução a óbito (P<0,05). O custo estimado do total de ampolas prescritas inadequadamente foi de US$1696,00. CONCLUSÃO: Houve um elevado número de prescrições de omeprazol intravenoso inadequadas no hospital estudado, acarretando um custo elevado para a instituição.


Subject(s)
Humans , Omeprazole , Proton Pump Inhibitors , Brazil , Retrospective Studies , Hospitals
4.
Rev. bras. med. fam. comunidade ; 16(43): 2486, 20210126. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1292038

ABSTRACT

Introdução: As interações medicamentosas podem alterar a segurança e/ou efetividade no tratamento das doenças. Alguns medicamentos precisam ser utilizados em jejum e a literatura apresenta informações divergentes sobre o real impacto clínico do uso destes no mesmo horário. Objetivos: Analisar as evidências sobre a relevância clínica de potenciais interações entre inibidores da bomba de prótons (IBPs), levotiroxina e alendronato de sódio. Métodos: Realizou-se uma revisão narrativa de artigos disponíveis na base de dados PubMed, além de consulta de potenciais interações medicamentosas em fontes de informações sobre medicamentos disponíveis na World Wide Web. Resultados: Em apenas três das 17 fontes de informações consultadas foi relatado uma possível redução dos níveis plasmáticos e/ou da efetividade da levotiroxina, quando administrada de forma concomitante com omeprazol ou outro da classe. Somente uma fonte relata leve redução dos níveis plasmáticos de alendronato de sódio por interação com a levotiroxina, e apenas duas fontes evidenciam possível redução do efeito terapêutico do alendronato de sódio por interação com IBPs. Apenas dois estudos relatam resultados significativos relacionados à existência de interação entre levotiroxina ou alendronato no uso concomitante de IBPs. Em todas as fontes consultadas, as interações são descritas como menores, leves, moderadas ou de significado desconhecido. Todas as fontes de informações sugerem a continuidade da terapia para manejo da interação. Conclusão: Até o momento não há evidências robustas que demonstrem impedimento de uso de inibidores da bomba de prótons, levotiroxina e alendronato de sódio no mesmo horário, sendo essencial o acompanhamento dos parâmetros clínicos e laboratoriais.


Introduction: Drug interactions can alter safety and/or effectiveness in the treatment of diseases. Some medications need to be used on an empty stomach and the literature presents divergent information about the real clinical impact of using them at the same time. Objectives: To analyze the evidence on the clinical relevance of potential interactions between proton pump inhibitors, levothyroxine and sodium alendronate. Methods: A narrative review of articles available in the PubMed database was carried out, in addition to consulting potential drug interactions in sources of information on drugs available on the World Wide Web. Results: In only three of the 17 information sources consulted, a report was reported possible reduction in plasma levels and the effectiveness of levothyroxine, when administered concomitantly with omeprazole or another in the class. Only one source reports a slight reduction in plasma sodium alendronate levels due to interaction with levothyroxine, and only two sources show a possible reduction in the therapeutic effect of sodium alendronate through interaction with PPIs. Only two studies report significant results related to the existence of an interaction between levothyroxine or alendronate in concomitant use of PPIs. In all sources consulted, interactions are described as minor, mild, moderate or of unknown significance. All sources of information suggest the continuity of therapy to manage the interaction. Conclusion: To date, there is no robust evidence demonstrating that it is impossible to use proton pump inhibitors, levothyroxine and sodium alendronate at the same time, and it is essential to monitor clinical and laboratory parameters.


Introducción: Las interacciones farmacológicas pueden alterar la seguridad y / o efectividad en el tratamiento de enfermedades. Algunos medicamentos deben usarse con el estómago vacío y la literatura presenta información divergente sobre el impacto clínico real de usarlos al mismo tiempo. Objetivo: Analizar la evidencia sobre la relevancia clínica de las posibles interacciones entre los inhibidores de la bomba de protones, la levotiroxina y el alendronato de sodio. Métodos: Se realizó una revisión narrativa de los artículos disponibles en la base de datos Pubmed, además de la consulta de posibles interacciones farmacológicas en las fuentes de información sobre medicamentos disponibles en la World Wide Web. Resultados: En solo tres de las 17 fuentes de información consultadas, se informó posible reducción en los niveles plasmáticos y la efectividad de la levotiroxina, cuando se administra concomitantemente con omeprazol u otro en la clase. Solo una fuente informa una ligera reducción en los niveles plasmáticos de alendronato de sodio debido a la interacción con levotiroxina, y solo dos fuentes muestran una posible reducción en el efecto terapéutico del alendronato de sodio a través de la interacción con los IBP. Solo dos estudios informan resultados significativos relacionados con la existencia de una interacción entre levotiroxina o alendronato en el uso concomitante de IBP. En todas las fuentes consultadas, las interacciones se describen como leves, moderadas o de significancia desconocida. Todas las fuentes de información sugieren la continuidad de la terapia para gestionar la interacción. Conclusión: Hasta la fecha, no existe evidencia sólida que demuestre que es imposible usar inhibidores de la bomba de protones, levotiroxina y alendronato de sodio al mismo tiempo, y es esencial monitorear los parámetros clínicos y de laboratorio.


Subject(s)
Thyroxine , Alendronate , Proton Pump Inhibitors , Drug Interactions
6.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(4): 404-408, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142351

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Clinical guidelines are available to steer decisions regarding diagnosis, management and treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. Despite this, variations in physician's practices regarding gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms are well described in the literature. OBJECTIVE: To describe practices of physicians from different specialties on the management of patients with typical symptoms of GERD (heartburn and regurgitation) in a Brazilian sample. METHODS: National online survey enrolling a sample of general practitioners, gastroenterologists, cardiologists and otolaryngologists. The survey was conducted from August 6th to September 12th, 2018. Subjects answered a structured questionnaire addressing variables regarding physicians' profile (age, sex, specialty, practice setting, years in practice, type of medical expense reimbursement), their patients characteristics and prescribing behaviors. RESULTS: The final weighted sample was comprised of 400 physicians, 64% male, with an average of 15 years of experience. Physicians' estimates of gastroesophageal symptoms prevalence among their pool of patients was 37.6% for the total sample, reaching 70.3% among gastroenterologists. The medical specialty with lower average percentage of patients presenting gastroesophageal symptoms was otolaryngology (24.5%). Physicians reported that they request ancillary tests for 64.5% of patients with GERD typical symptoms. The most common diagnostic test was endoscopy (69.4%), followed by video nasolaryngoscopy (16.6%). The percentage of patient to whom endoscopy is performed was significantly higher among gastroenterologists and general practitioners as compared to otolaryngologists and cardiologists, while video nasolaryngoscopy is markedly more frequent among otolaryngologists. In terms of therapeutic options, the most frequently reported strategy was lifestyle modifications followed by proton pump inhibitors. CONCLUSION: Overall patients' profile and patterns of GERD diagnosis and management seem different between gastroenterologists, general practitioners, otolaryngologists, and cardiologists. Clinical guidelines should address this variability and include other medical specialties besides gastroenterologists in their scope.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Diretrizes clínicas estão disponíveis para orientar decisões sobre diagnóstico, manejo e tratamento de desordens gastrointestinais. Apesar disso, variações nas práticas relacionadas aos sintomas de doença do refluxo gastroesofágico (DRGE) são observadas na literatura. OBJETIVO: Descrever os conhecimentos e práticas relacionados ao manejo de pacientes com sintomas típicos de DRGE (pirose e regurgitação) em uma amostra brasileira de médicos de especialistas e não especialistas. MÉTODOS: Inquérito nacional online investigando a conduta frente ao diagnóstico de DRGE em uma amostra de médicos generalistas, gastroenterologistas, cardiologistas e otorrinolaringologistas. O inquérito foi conduzido entre 6 de agosto e 12 de setembro de 2018. Os sujeitos responderam a um questionário estruturado avaliando variáveis relacionadas ao perfil dos médicos (idade, sexo, especialidade, contexto de prática, anos de experiência, tipo de reembolso de despesas médicas), características dos pacientes e comportamentos de prescrição. RESULTADOS: A amostra final ponderada foi composta por 400 médicos, 64% homens, com um tempo médio de experiência de 15 anos. A estimativa dos médicos a respeito da prevalência de sintomas gastroesofágicos entre seus pacientes foi de 37,6% para a amostra total, alcançando 70,3% entre gastroenterologistas. A especialidade médica com menor percentual de pacientes apresentando sintomas gastroesofágicos foi otorrinola­ringologia (24,5%). Os médicos requisitaram exames complementares em 64,5% dos pacientes com sintomas típicos de DRGE. O exame diagnóstico mais frequente foi endoscopia (69,4%), seguida de nasolaringoscopia (16,6%). O percentual de pacientes nos quais uma endoscopia é realizada é significativamente maior entre gastroenterologistas e médicos generalistas, quando comparado a otorrinolaringologistas e cardiologistas, enquanto nasolaringoscopia é marcadamente mais frequente entre otorrinolaringologistas. Em termos de opções terapêuticas, a estratégia mais frequentemente reportada foi modificações no estilo de vida, seguida de inibidores da bomba de prótons. CONCLUSÃO: De modo geral, o perfil de pacientes e os padrões de diagnóstico e manejo de DRGE parecem diferir entre gastroenterologistas, médicos generalistas, otorrinolaringologistas e cardiologistas. Diretrizes clínicas devem abordar esta variabilidade e incluir outras especialidades médicas além de gastroenterologistas em seu escopo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Gastroesophageal Reflux/diagnosis , Gastroesophageal Reflux/therapy , Physicians , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , Brazil , Surveys and Questionnaires , Proton Pump Inhibitors/therapeutic use
7.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(5): 809-827, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144282

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Introducción: Las últimas guías clínicas conjuntas de NASPGHAN y ESPGHAN en relación a la infección por H. pylori publicadas el año 2016, contienen 20 afirmaciones que han sido cuestionadas en la práctica respecto a su aplicabilidad en Latinoamérica (LA); en particular en relación a la preven ción del cáncer gástrico. Métodos: Se realizó un análisis crítico de la literatura, con especial énfasis en datos de LA y se estableció el nivel de evidencia y nivel de recomendación de las afirmaciones mas controversiales de las Guías Conjuntas. Se realizaron 2 rondas de votación de acuerdo a la técnica Delfi de consenso y se utilizó escala de Likert (de 0 a 4) para establecer el "grado de acuerdo" entre un grupo de expertos de SLAGHNP. Resultados: Existen pocos estudios en relación a diagnóstico, efectividad de tratamiento y susceptibilidad a antibióticos de H. pylori en pacientes pediátricos de LA. En base a estos estudios, extrapolaciones de estudios de adultos y la experiencia clínica del panel de expertos participantes, se realizan las siguientes recomendaciones. Recomendamos la toma de biopsias para test rápido de ureasa e histología (y muestras para cultivo o técnicas moleculares, cuando estén disponibles) durante la endoscopia digestiva alta sólo si en caso de confirmar la infección por H. pylori, se indicará tratamiento de erradicación. Recomendamos que centros regionales seleccio nados realicen estudios de sensibilidad/resistencia antimicrobiana para H. pylori y así actúen como centros de referencia para toda LA. En caso de falla de erradicación de H. pylori con tratamiento de primera línea, recomendamos tratamiento empírico con terapia cuádruple con inhibidor de bomba de protones, amoxicilina, metronidazol y bismuto por 14 días. En caso de falla de erradicación con el esquema de segunda línea, se recomienda indicar un tratamiento individualizado considerando la edad del paciente, el esquema indicado previamente y la sensibilidad antibiótica de la cepa, lo que implica realizar una nueva endoscopía con extracción de muestra para cultivo y antibiograma o es tudio molecular de resistencia. En niños sintomáticos referidos a endoscopía que tengan antecedente de familiar de primer o segundo grado con cáncer gástrico, se recomienda considerar la búsqueda de H. pylori mediante técnica directa durante la endoscopia (y erradicarlo cuando es detectado). Con clusiones: La evidencia apoya mayoritariamente los conceptos generales de las Guías NASPGHAN/ ESPGHAN 2016, pero es necesario adaptarlas a la realidad de LA, con énfasis en el desarrollo de centros regionales para el estudio de sensibilidad a antibióticos y mejorar la correcta selección del tratamiento de erradicación. En niños sintomáticos con antecedente familiar de primer o segundo grado de cáncer gástrico, se debe considerar la búsqueda y erradicación de H. pylori.


Abstract: Introduction: The latest joint H. pylori NASPGHAN and ESPGHAN clinical guidelines published in 2016, contain 20 statements that have been questioned in practice regarding their applicability in Latin America (LA); in particular in relation to gastric cancer prevention. Methods: We conduc ted a critical analysis of the literature, with special emphasis on LA data and established the level of evidence and level of recommendation of the most controversial claims in the Joint Guidelines. Two rounds of voting were conducted according to the Delphi consensus technique and a Likert scale (from 0 to 4) was used to establish the "degree of agreement" among a panel of SLAGHNP ex perts. Results: There are few studies regarding diagnosis, treatment effectiveness and susceptibility to antibiotics of H. pylori in pediatric patients of LA. Based on these studies, extrapolations from adult studies, and the clinical experience of the participating expert panel, the following recom mendations are made. We recommend taking biopsies for rapid urease and histology testing (and samples for culture or molecular techniques, when available) during upper endoscopy only if in case of confirmed H. pylori infection, eradication treatment will be indicated. We recommend that selected regional centers conduct antimicrobial sensitivity/resistance studies for H. pylori and thus act as reference centers for all LA. In case of failure to eradicate H. pylori with first-line treatment, we recommend empirical treatment with quadruple therapy with proton pump inhibitor, amoxi cillin, metronidazole, and bismuth for 14 days. In case of eradication failure with the second line scheme, it is recommended to indicate an individualized treatment considering the age of the pa tient, the previously indicated scheme and the antibiotic sensitivity of the strain, which implies performing a new endoscopy with sample extraction for culture and antibiogram or molecular resistance study. In symptomatic children referred to endoscopy who have a history of first or se cond degree family members with gastric cancer, it is recommended to consider the search for H. pylori by direct technique during endoscopy (and eradicate it when detected). Conclusions: The evidence supports most of the general concepts of the NASPGHAN/ESPGHAN 2016 Guidelines, but it is necessary to adapt them to the reality of LA, with emphasis on the development of regional centers for the study of antibiotic sensitivity and to improve the correct selection of the eradication treatment. In symptomatic children with a family history of first or second degree gastric cancer, the search for and eradication of H. pylori should be considered.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Endoscopy, Digestive System/standards , Helicobacter pylori/isolation & purification , Helicobacter Infections/diagnosis , Helicobacter Infections/pathology , Helicobacter Infections/prevention & control , Helicobacter Infections/drug therapy , Proton Pump Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Pediatrics/methods , Pediatrics/standards , Stomach/pathology , Stomach/diagnostic imaging , Biopsy , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/standards , Endoscopy, Digestive System/methods , Delphi Technique , Treatment Outcome , Drug Therapy, Combination , Latin America
8.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(6): 831-841, jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1139378

ABSTRACT

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic, immune-mediated disease, induced by food allergens, clinically characterized by symptoms of esophageal dysfunction. Pathologically there is a predominant eosinophilic inflammation. This disease is relatively new, and its definitions have evolved over time. Its prevalence and incidence are increasing and causes clinical problems both in children and adults. Its symptoms include food impaction, dysphagia, symptoms that resemble gastroesophageal reflux, abdominal pain, and vomiting. It can also have extra-digestive symptoms such as rhinosinusitis, chronic cough, recurrent croup and hoarseness. EoE can be associated with other atopic conditions, such as asthma, eczema and food allergies. The diagnosis is made by the analysis of endoscopic biopsies (> 15 eosinophils per high power field). Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are currently accepted as a treatment for EoE. The clinical and pathological improvement with the use PPIs ceased to be a criterion to define Esophageal eosinophilia responsive to PPIs as a differential diagnosis, since this condition is currently considered within the EoE spectrum. There are three main treatment approaches for EoE: diet, drugs and dilation. Its diagnosis and early treatment are key to avoid or delay its complications, such as stenosis and severe esophageal dysfunction.


Subject(s)
Humans , Gastroesophageal Reflux , Eosinophilic Esophagitis/diagnosis , Eosinophilic Esophagitis/therapy , Deglutition Disorders/diagnosis , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Deglutition Disorders/therapy , Proton Pump Inhibitors/therapeutic use
9.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(2): 154-160, Apr.-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131649

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: It has been proposed that the combination of gastrin-17 (G-17), pepsinogens I and II (PGI and PGII), and anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) antibodies (GastroPanel®, BIOHIT HealthCare, Helsinki, Finland) could serve as biomarkers of atrophic gastritis. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to ensure the diagnostic accuracy of GastroPanel® and evaluate the effect of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) on these biomarkers. METHODS: Dyspeptic patients who underwent gastrointestinal endoscopy were enrolled in the present study. Histological findings, which were the gold standard to stratify groups, were as follows: no atrophy (controls); antrum atrophy; corpus atrophy; multifocal atrophy; and neoplasia. G-17, PGI, PGII, and anti-H. pylori immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibodies were assayed using commercially available kits. The ratio of PGI/PGII was calculated. RESULTS: Among 308 patients, 159 (51.6%) were PPI users. The overall prevalence of atrophy was 43.8% (n=135). Ninety-two (29.9%) patients were H. pylori positive according to anti-H. pylori IgG levels. G-17 levels were not low in those with antrum atrophy but were high in those with corpus and multifocal atrophies. PGI levels were significantly lower in those with corpus and multifocal atrophies. The sensitivity of PGI <30 µg/L to detect corpus atrophy was 50% (95% CI 27.8-72.1%), with a specificity of 93.2% (95% CI 84.3-97.5%), a positive likelihood ratio of 7.4 (95% CI 2.9-19.2), and a negative likelihood ratio of 0.5 (95% CI 0.3-0.8). A small number of subjects (n=6) exhibited moderate to intense atrophy (4%), among whom 66.7% exhibited decreased PGI levels. PPI significantly increased the levels of G-17 and PGI, except in those with corpus and multifocal atrophies, in whom PGI levels were not increased by PPIs. CONCLUSION: GastroPanel® (Gastrin-17, PGI, and PGI/PGII ratio) did not demonstrate high sensitivity for detecting gastric atrophy.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Foi proposto que a combinação de gastrina 17 (G-17), pepsinogênios I e II (PGI e PGII), e anticorpos anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) (GastroPanel®, BIOHIT HealthCare), poderiam indicar gastrite atrófica. OBJETIVO: Portanto, o objetivo foi averiguar a acurácia diagnóstica do painel gástrico e avaliar o efeito dos inibidores de bomba de prótons (IBP) nesses marcadores. MÉTODOS: Pacientes dispépticos que se submeteram à endoscopia gastrointestinal entraram no estudo. Os achados histológicos foram o padrão ouro para estratificar os grupos: sem atrofia (controles), atrofia de antro, atrofia de corpo, atrofia multifocal e neoplasia. G-17, PGI, PGII, e anticorpos IgG anti-H. pylori foram determinados por kits comerciais. A razão PGI/PGII foi calculada. RESULTADOS: Entre 308 pacientes que foram incluídos, 159 estavam usando IBP (51,6%). A prevalência de atrofia foi de 43,8% (135 pacientes). H. pylori foi positivo em 92 (29,9%) pacientes por IgG anti-H. pylori. G-17 não estava diminuída na atrofia do antro, mas estava elevada nas atrofias do corpo e multifocal. PGI estava significantemente menor nas atrofias de corpo e multifocal. A sensibilidade da PGI <30 µg/L de indicar atrofia do corpo foi 50% (95%IC 27,8-72,1%) com especificidade de 93,2% (95%IC 84,3-97,5%), razão de verossimilhança positiva de 7,4 (95%IC 2,9-19,2) e razão de verossimilhança negativa de 0,5 (95%IC 0,3-0,8). O número de indivíduos com atrofia moderada para intensa foi pequeno (n=6;4%), dos quais 66,7% tinham diminuição dos níveis de PGI. IBP significantemente aumentou os níveis de G-17 e PGI, exceto nas atrofias de corpo e multifocal que não apresentaram aumento de PGI. CONCLUSÃO: O painel gástrico não teve alta sensibilidade de indicar gastrite atrófica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Proton Pump Inhibitors , Gastritis, Atrophic/diagnosis , Brazil , Helicobacter pylori , Helicobacter Infections , Antibodies, Bacterial
11.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(7): 913-917, 2020. graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136322

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVES To evaluate the frequency of prescription of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and their indications in patients hospitalized at the Hospital de Clínicas of the Federal University of Uberlândia (HC-UFU). METHODS This is a quantitative cross-sectional observational study that analyzes data obtained from patient records on prescriptions of PPIs for patients hospitalized at the HC-UFU and from a questionnaire applied to assistant physicians on the indications of the drug in each case and evaluates the indication based on literature data. RESULTS On a pre-determined day, of a total of 462 inpatients, there was a prescription of PPI for 183 (39.3%), with a higher frequency (73.5%) in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), followed by the infirmaries and the Emergency Room. The assistant physician was located in 116 cases, and the main motivation referred to prescription was prophylaxis of digestive hemorrhage (77%). However, after reviewing medical records, it was noticed that in 50.8% of the cases, the prescription was not supported by the literature. CONCLUSION The frequency of PPI prescriptions for inpatients in the HC-UFU is among the lowest described in the literature, but there are still unnecessary prescriptions. Instruction and awareness of the assisting team can minimize these numbers.


RESUMO OBJETIVOS Avaliar a frequência da prescrição de inibidores da bomba de prótons (IBPs) e suas indicações em pacientes internados no Hospital de Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia (HC-UFU). MÉTODOS Estudo observacional transversal quantitativo, análise de dados obtidos em prontuários sobre prescrições de IBPs para pacientes internados no HC-UFU, aplicação de questionário aos médicos assistentes sobre as indicações do medicamento em cada caso e avaliação dessas indicações com base em dados da literatura. RESULTADOS Em um dia predeterminado, de 462 pacientes internados, houve prescrição de IBP para 183 (39,3%), com maior frequência (73,5%) em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI), seguida das enfermarias e do pronto-socorro (PS). O médico assistente foi localizado em 116 casos, a principal motivação referida para prescrição foi a profilaxia de hemorragia digestiva (77%). Entretanto, após revisão de prontuários, percebeu-se que em 50,8% a prescrição não era respaldada por literatura. CONCLUSÃO A frequência de prescrição de IBP para pacientes internados no HC-UFU está entre as menores descritas na literatura, mas ainda há prescrições desnecessárias. Orientação e conscientização da equipe assistente podem minimizar esses números.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug Prescriptions , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Proton Pump Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Tertiary Care Centers
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-782182

ABSTRACT

12 weeks) were 81.8%, 50.0%, and 55.1% for DFD, and 68.8%, 50.0%, and 40.0% for SFED. Response based on age ( 12 years) were 59.3%, 42.9%, and 67.5% for DFD, and 36.4%, 58.8%, and 72.7% for SFED. In patients treated with DFD, concomitant proton pump inhibitor (PPI) administration resulted in improved outcomes (p=0.0177). Bivariate regression analysis showed that PPI with diet is the only predictor of response (p=0.0491), however, there were no significant predictors on multiple regression analysis.CONCLUSION: DFD and SFED are effective first line therapies for EoE. DFD should be tried first before extensive elimination diets. Concomitant therapy with PPI's may be helpful.


Subject(s)
Child , Connecticut , Diet , Endoscopy , Eosinophilic Esophagitis , Eosinophils , Humans , Male , Proton Pump Inhibitors , Proton Pumps , Retrospective Studies
15.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eAO4433, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056078

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To describe the pharmaceutical interventions of a vertical clinical pharmacy service to promote the rational use of intravenous omeprazole. Methods: A prospective and descriptive study carried out at a university hospital in the Midwestern Region of Brazil, from November 2014 to May 2015. The service consisted of the analysis of adequacy of the route of administration of omeprazole in relation to the clinical conditions of the patient, as well as the use of the appropriate diluent. Interventions were recorded in medical records and subsequently evaluated for acceptance. Results: A total of 770 prescriptions were evaluated. Interventions related to diluent replacement were more accepted (p<0.001), and surgeons were the specialty that used the intravenous route inappropriately (p<0.001). Conclusion: Although partially accepted, pharmaceutical interventions could contribute to improve patient safety, since they allowed the use of a safer route of administration.


RESUMO Objetivo: Descrever as intervenções farmacêuticas de um serviço farmacêutico clínico vertical, para a promoção do uso racional do omeprazol intravenoso. Métodos: Estudo prospectivo e descritivo realizado em um hospital universitário da região Centro-Oeste do Brasil, no período de novembro de 2014 a maio de 2015. O serviço consistia na análise da adequabilidade da via de administração do omeprazol em relação às condições clínicas do paciente, bem como a utilização do diluente adequado. As intervenções eram registradas em prontuário e, posteriormente, avaliadas quanto à aceitação. Resultados: Foram avaliadas 770 prescrições. As intervenções relacionadas à substituição do diluente foram mais aceitas (p<0,001), e os cirurgiões foram a especialidade que utilizou a via intravenosa de maneira inadequada (p<0,001). Conclusão: Embora parcialmente aceitas, as intervenções farmacêuticas puderam contribuir com a melhoria da segurança dos pacientes, uma vez que permitiram a utilização de uma via de administração mais segura.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Pharmacy Service, Hospital/standards , Omeprazole/administration & dosage , Proton Pump Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Administration, Intravenous/methods , Drug Prescriptions/statistics & numerical data , Brazil , Prospective Studies , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Patient Safety , Hospitals, University , Medication Errors/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged
16.
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 33(2): e1506, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130535

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Acid inhibition from chronic proton pump inhibitor use and a possible increase in gastrin can lead to changes in the regulation of hydrochloric acid production. However, it has not known whether such chronic use changes the presence of gastrin, delta, and enterochromaffin-like cells in the stomach or the relationship between gastrin and delta cells. Aim: To analyze the number of gastrin-producing gastrin cells, somatostatin-producing cells, and histamine-producing cells in patients who were chronic users of proton pump inhibitor, with or without related Helicobacter pylori infection. Methods: Biopsies from 105 patients, including 81 chronic proton pump inhibitor users (experimental group) and 24 controls, were processed immunohistochemically and subjected to counting of gastrin, delta, and enterochromaffin-like cells in high-magnification microscopic fields and in 10 glands. Results: Gastrin cell, delta cell, and enterochromaffin-like cells counts were similar across the groups and appeared to be unaffected by Helicobacter pylori infection. The ratio between gastrin cells and delta cells was higher in the chronic users of proton pump inhibitor group than in controls. Conclusion: Chronic users of proton pump inhibitor does not affect gastrin cell, delta cell, and enterochromaffin-like cell counts significantly, but may alter the ratio between gastrin cells and delta cells.


RESUMO Racional: A inibição ácida pelo uso crônico de inibidores de bomba de prótons e o possível aumento da gastrina podem ser seguidos de alterações na regulação da produção do ácido clorídrico. Ainda não está definido se o uso crônico altera a quantidade de células G, D e ECL no estômago ou a razão células G/D. Objetivo: Avaliar o número de células G - produtoras de gastrina -, células D - produtoras de somatostatina - e células ECL - produtoras de histamina -, em pacientes com uso crônico de inibidores de bomba de prótons, com ou sem infecção pelo Helicobacter pylori. Método: Trata-se de estudo retrospectivo avaliando 105 pacientes, 81 usadores crônicos de inibidores de bomba de prótons e 24 controles, através de biópsias com contagem das células G, D e ECL por estudo imunoistoquímico, de forma quantitativa onde havia maior número de células positivas por campo microscópico de grande aumento e em 10 glândulas. Resultados: Não houve diferença estatística comparando-se o número de células G, D e ECL. A razão entre as células G e D foi maior nos pacientes usadores crônicos de inibidores de bomba de prótons. Conclusão: O uso crônico de inibidores de prótons parece não interferir na contagem das células G, D e ECL, porém, interfere na razão entre as células G e D.


Subject(s)
Humans , Stomach Diseases/chemically induced , Gastrins/blood , Helicobacter pylori/isolation & purification , Helicobacter Infections/therapy , Proton Pumps/metabolism , Enterochromaffin-like Cells/metabolism , Proton Pump Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Stomach , Stomach Diseases/blood , Gastrins/physiology , Case-Control Studies , Helicobacter Infections/diagnosis , Enterochromaffin-like Cells/drug effects , Proton Pump Inhibitors/adverse effects
17.
Ann. afr. med ; 19(2): 131-136, 2020. tab
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1258921

ABSTRACT

Inappropriate prescribing of analgesics has a global impact on the health of elderly patients and the society. Empirical evidence on the prescription of analgesics among elderly Nigerians is scarce. Objectives: The objective of the study was to evaluate the prescription pattern of analgesics and describe the co-prescribing of gastroprotective agents with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) among elderly patients at the geriatric center, University College Hospital, Ibadan. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional, hospital-based study was carried out among elderly patients (≥60 years) who were prescribed analgesics. Using a data extraction sheet, information on demographic characteristics, drug utilization pattern, and morbidities was obtained from patients' case files via electronic health records. Results: A total of 337 patients case files were reviewed, the mean age was 72 ± 8.8 years, and 210 (62.3%) were females. There were a total of 2074 medications prescribed, with 733 (35.3%) being analgesics. Majority of the elderly patients (259, 76.9%) were on nonopioids, with 252 (74.8%) on NSAIDs. Paracetamol was the most commonly prescribed analgesics (181, 24.6%), followed by diclofenac/misoprostol (177, 24.1%), opioid analgesic prescribed was 88 (12.0%), with paracetamol/codeine 58 (65.9%), and tramadol 16 (18.2%) being the most prescribed opioid. A significant proportion of the hypertensive elderly patients (160, 78.8%; P < 0.036) were on NSAIDs. The oral route of administration (302, 89.6%) was the most common route of administration. Majority (310, 92%) of elderly patients taking NSAIDs had a co-prescription for gastroprotective agents. Conclusions: Majority of hypertensive patients were on NSAIDs. This calls for prompt awareness of rational analgesic use among the elderly to improve management and their survival


Subject(s)
Aged , Analgesics , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal , Drug Prescriptions , Nigeria , Proton Pump Inhibitors
18.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 56(3): 261-263, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038723

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is an inflammatory skin disease that affects 1%-3% of Caucasian populations and may be persistent, disfiguring and stigmatising. Proton pump inhibitors (PPI) are potent blockers of gastric acid secretion. They are widely regarded as the agents of choice for the treatment of acid-peptic disorders. In addition to anti-secretory effects PPI have been found to have anti-oxidant properties and direct effects on neutrophils, monocytes, endothelial, and epithelial cells that might prevent inflammation. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the treatment of psoriasis with esomeprazole. METHODS: Ten patients were selected and psoriasis was evaluated according to Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI). Exclusion criteria included concomitant use of any treatment for Psoriasis, organic diseases, use of other PPI than esomeprazole. Patients were medicated with esomeprazole 40 mg B.I.D. for 90 days. At the 90th day the patients were evaluated according PASI score. RESULTS: Statistically significant results were seen when compared PASI before and at 90th day of treatment (P=0.0002). CONCLUSION: The use of esomeprazole for psoriasis resulted in excellent clinical results with a significant reduction of PASI score.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A psoríase é uma doença inflamatória da pele que afeta 1%-3% das populações caucasianas e pode ser persistente, desfigurante e estigmatizante. Inibidores da bomba de prótons (IBP) são potentes bloqueadores da secreção de ácido no estômago. Eles são considerados como os agentes de escolha para o tratamento de doenças ácido-pépticas. No entanto, além dos efeitos anti-secretores, IBP apresentam propriedades anti-oxidantes e efeitos diretos sobre os neutrófilos, monócitos, células epiteliais e endoteliais que podem impedir a inflamação. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o tratamento da psoríase com esomeprazol. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionados pacientes adultos (18 anos ou mais) com psoríase. Os critérios de exclusão foram o uso concomitante de qualquer tratamento para a psoríase, doenças orgânicas e uso de outro IBP. Foram selecionados 10 pacientes e a psoríase foi avaliada pelo índice de gravidade e área da psoríase (Psoriasis Area and Severity Index - PASI). Os pacientes foram medicados com esomeprazol 40 mg BID por 90 dias. No nonagésimo dia os pacientes foram novamente avaliados por meio do PASI. RESULTADOS: Dados estatisticamente significativos foram vistos quando comparado PASI antes do tratamento e no nonagésimo dia de tratamento, P=0,0002. CONCLUSÃO: O uso do esomeprazol para psoríase apresentou excelentes resultados clínicos com redução importante do PASI. Este estudo piloto é a primeira publicação na literatura inglesa sobre o tratamento da psoríase com esomeprazol.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Psoriasis/drug therapy , Proton Pump Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Esomeprazole/therapeutic use , Pilot Projects , Middle Aged
20.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 23(3): 322-324, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040027

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Laryngeal granulomas are benign, recurrent lesions of many causes (reflux, voice abuse, intubation, and idiopathic), which renders its treatment difficult. Objective To describe our experience in the treatment of laryngeal granulomas. Methods From 16 medical records of the patients with laryngeal granulomas seen between 2010 and 2017 in a university hospital, the following data were analyzed: age, gender, vocal and gastroesophageal symptoms, vocal overuse, intubation, treatments, videolaryngoscopy before and after the treatment. Results Gender: female, 10; male, 6. Age: between 20 and 60 years old (11%). Etiology of the granulomas: intubation (9), reflux (4), idiopathic (3). The initial treatments adopted in all cases were: inhaled beclomethasone dipropionate 100 μg 12/12 hours (1month), proton pump inhibitor, omeprazole 40 mg/day (2months), and dietary and voice education. After this period, 10 patients (7 postintubation, 3 idiopathic) were submitted to surgery, since no improvements in the symptoms or in the lesions were seen. Of these, two recurred, requiring a second surgery, one of which recurred six times and received botulinum toxin A. Only one patient with granulomas due to laryngopharyngeal reflux presented no improvement in the symptoms nor in the lesion after the pharmacological treatment and had been submitted to microsurgery. All of the other patients with reflux granulomas were successfully treated with the drug treatment, and the longest treatment time for complete remission of the symptoms and of the lesions was 9 months. Conclusions In laryngeal granulomas caused by reflux, treatment with inhaled steroids and proton pump inhibitors proved to be effective, although prolonged. In postintubation and idiopathic granulomas, surgery was the best treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adult , Middle Aged , Granuloma, Laryngeal/therapy , Granuloma, Laryngeal/surgery , Granuloma, Laryngeal/complications , Granuloma, Laryngeal/etiology , Granuloma, Laryngeal/drug therapy , Medical Records , Proton Pump Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Laryngopharyngeal Reflux/complications , Intubation/adverse effects , Microsurgery
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