Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 115
Filter
1.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 96(5): 638-643, Set.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135065

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To compare endoscopic and histologic features of pediatric patients with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) responding to proton pump inhibitor (PPI) to those not responding to PPI. Methods: Endoscopic reports and photographs of patients with symptoms of esophageal dysfunction and ≥15 eosinophils per high-powered field (eos/hpf) in esophageal biopsies prior to PPI trial were reviewed. Patients were classified as responsive to PPI (PPIREoE) or non-responsive to PPI (PPINREoE) according to response totreatment (<15 eos/hpf) at second endoscopy after 8 weeks. Results: Of the 231 patients (72.3% male), 64 (27.7%) were responsive to the proton pump inhibitors. Edema (77.3% vs. 62.5%, p = 0.031) and vertical lines (69.5% vs. 51.6%, p = 0.014) were more frequent in PPINREoE patients. An eosinophil count in the mid-esophagus ≥ 35 eos/HPF (25.1% vs. 12.5%) was more frequent in these patients (p = 0.001). Those with eosinophil count < 15 eos/HPF in the mid-esophagus at the first endoscopy were more likely to respond to treatment with proton pump inhibitors compared to patients with 15-34 eos/HPF (p = 0.004, OR: 3.26, 95% CI: 1.46-7.24) and to patients with ≥ 35 eos/HPF (p = 0.006, OR: 3.20, 95% CI: 1.39-7.41). Conclusion: Edema and vertical lines at the endoscopy and a higher eosinophil count in the mid-esophagus were more frequent in patients who were non-responsive to proton pump inhibitors. As there were no significant differences in the other findings between the groups, it cannot be affirmed that these characteristics are sufficient to differentiate between PPINREoE and PPIREoE patients.


Resumo Objetivo: Comparar características endoscópicas e histológicas entre pacientes com esofagite eosinofílica responsiva (EoERIBP) e não responsiva (EoENRIBP) ao tratamento com inibidores de bomba de prótons. Métodos: Avaliados laudos e imagens endoscópicas de pacientes com sintomas de disfunção esofágica associados a contagem ≥ 15 eosinófilos por campo de grande aumento (eos/CGA) em biópsia do esôfago. Os pacientes foram classificados em responsivos (EoERIBP) ou não responsivos (EoENRIBP) aos inibidores de bomba de prótons conforme resposta ao tratamento na segunda endoscopia (< 15 eos/CGA) após 8 semanas. Resultados: Dos 231 pacientes (72,3% masculino), 64 (27,7%) foram responsivos aos inibidores de bomba de prótons. Edema (77,3% vs. 62,5%, p = 0,031) e linhas verticais (69,5% vs. 51,6%, p = 0,014) foram mais frequentes nos EoENRIBP. A contagem de eosinófilos em esôfago médio ≥ 35 eos/CGA (25,1% vs. 12,5%) foi mais frequente nesses pacientes (p = 0,001). Os que apresentaram contagem de eosinófilos < 15 eos/CGA no esôfago médio à primeira endoscopia apresentaram maior chance de responder ao tratamento com inibidores de bomba de prótons em comparação aos pacientes com 15-34 eos/CGA (p = 0,004; OR: 3,26; IC95%: 1,46-7,24) e aos pacientes com ≥ 35 eos/CGA (p = 0,006; OR: 3,20; IC95%: 1,39-7,41). Conclusão: Edema e linhas verticais à endoscopia e maior contagem de eosinófilos em esôfago médio foram mais frequentes nos pacientes não responsivos aos inibidores de bomba de prótons. Uma vez que não houve diferenças significativas nos outros achados entre os grupos, não se pode afirmar que essas características sejam suficientes para distinguir pacientes com EoENRIBP dos pacientes com EoERIBP.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Eosinophilic Esophagitis/drug therapy , Biopsy , Endoscopy , Proton Pump Inhibitors/therapeutic use
2.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(4): 404-408, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142351

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Clinical guidelines are available to steer decisions regarding diagnosis, management and treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. Despite this, variations in physician's practices regarding gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms are well described in the literature. OBJECTIVE: To describe practices of physicians from different specialties on the management of patients with typical symptoms of GERD (heartburn and regurgitation) in a Brazilian sample. METHODS: National online survey enrolling a sample of general practitioners, gastroenterologists, cardiologists and otolaryngologists. The survey was conducted from August 6th to September 12th, 2018. Subjects answered a structured questionnaire addressing variables regarding physicians' profile (age, sex, specialty, practice setting, years in practice, type of medical expense reimbursement), their patients characteristics and prescribing behaviors. RESULTS: The final weighted sample was comprised of 400 physicians, 64% male, with an average of 15 years of experience. Physicians' estimates of gastroesophageal symptoms prevalence among their pool of patients was 37.6% for the total sample, reaching 70.3% among gastroenterologists. The medical specialty with lower average percentage of patients presenting gastroesophageal symptoms was otolaryngology (24.5%). Physicians reported that they request ancillary tests for 64.5% of patients with GERD typical symptoms. The most common diagnostic test was endoscopy (69.4%), followed by video nasolaryngoscopy (16.6%). The percentage of patient to whom endoscopy is performed was significantly higher among gastroenterologists and general practitioners as compared to otolaryngologists and cardiologists, while video nasolaryngoscopy is markedly more frequent among otolaryngologists. In terms of therapeutic options, the most frequently reported strategy was lifestyle modifications followed by proton pump inhibitors. CONCLUSION: Overall patients' profile and patterns of GERD diagnosis and management seem different between gastroenterologists, general practitioners, otolaryngologists, and cardiologists. Clinical guidelines should address this variability and include other medical specialties besides gastroenterologists in their scope.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Diretrizes clínicas estão disponíveis para orientar decisões sobre diagnóstico, manejo e tratamento de desordens gastrointestinais. Apesar disso, variações nas práticas relacionadas aos sintomas de doença do refluxo gastroesofágico (DRGE) são observadas na literatura. OBJETIVO: Descrever os conhecimentos e práticas relacionados ao manejo de pacientes com sintomas típicos de DRGE (pirose e regurgitação) em uma amostra brasileira de médicos de especialistas e não especialistas. MÉTODOS: Inquérito nacional online investigando a conduta frente ao diagnóstico de DRGE em uma amostra de médicos generalistas, gastroenterologistas, cardiologistas e otorrinolaringologistas. O inquérito foi conduzido entre 6 de agosto e 12 de setembro de 2018. Os sujeitos responderam a um questionário estruturado avaliando variáveis relacionadas ao perfil dos médicos (idade, sexo, especialidade, contexto de prática, anos de experiência, tipo de reembolso de despesas médicas), características dos pacientes e comportamentos de prescrição. RESULTADOS: A amostra final ponderada foi composta por 400 médicos, 64% homens, com um tempo médio de experiência de 15 anos. A estimativa dos médicos a respeito da prevalência de sintomas gastroesofágicos entre seus pacientes foi de 37,6% para a amostra total, alcançando 70,3% entre gastroenterologistas. A especialidade médica com menor percentual de pacientes apresentando sintomas gastroesofágicos foi otorrinola­ringologia (24,5%). Os médicos requisitaram exames complementares em 64,5% dos pacientes com sintomas típicos de DRGE. O exame diagnóstico mais frequente foi endoscopia (69,4%), seguida de nasolaringoscopia (16,6%). O percentual de pacientes nos quais uma endoscopia é realizada é significativamente maior entre gastroenterologistas e médicos generalistas, quando comparado a otorrinolaringologistas e cardiologistas, enquanto nasolaringoscopia é marcadamente mais frequente entre otorrinolaringologistas. Em termos de opções terapêuticas, a estratégia mais frequentemente reportada foi modificações no estilo de vida, seguida de inibidores da bomba de prótons. CONCLUSÃO: De modo geral, o perfil de pacientes e os padrões de diagnóstico e manejo de DRGE parecem diferir entre gastroenterologistas, médicos generalistas, otorrinolaringologistas e cardiologistas. Diretrizes clínicas devem abordar esta variabilidade e incluir outras especialidades médicas além de gastroenterologistas em seu escopo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Gastroesophageal Reflux/diagnosis , Gastroesophageal Reflux/therapy , Physicians , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , Brazil , Surveys and Questionnaires , Proton Pump Inhibitors/therapeutic use
3.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(5): 809-827, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144282

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Introducción: Las últimas guías clínicas conjuntas de NASPGHAN y ESPGHAN en relación a la infección por H. pylori publicadas el año 2016, contienen 20 afirmaciones que han sido cuestionadas en la práctica respecto a su aplicabilidad en Latinoamérica (LA); en particular en relación a la preven ción del cáncer gástrico. Métodos: Se realizó un análisis crítico de la literatura, con especial énfasis en datos de LA y se estableció el nivel de evidencia y nivel de recomendación de las afirmaciones mas controversiales de las Guías Conjuntas. Se realizaron 2 rondas de votación de acuerdo a la técnica Delfi de consenso y se utilizó escala de Likert (de 0 a 4) para establecer el "grado de acuerdo" entre un grupo de expertos de SLAGHNP. Resultados: Existen pocos estudios en relación a diagnóstico, efectividad de tratamiento y susceptibilidad a antibióticos de H. pylori en pacientes pediátricos de LA. En base a estos estudios, extrapolaciones de estudios de adultos y la experiencia clínica del panel de expertos participantes, se realizan las siguientes recomendaciones. Recomendamos la toma de biopsias para test rápido de ureasa e histología (y muestras para cultivo o técnicas moleculares, cuando estén disponibles) durante la endoscopia digestiva alta sólo si en caso de confirmar la infección por H. pylori, se indicará tratamiento de erradicación. Recomendamos que centros regionales seleccio nados realicen estudios de sensibilidad/resistencia antimicrobiana para H. pylori y así actúen como centros de referencia para toda LA. En caso de falla de erradicación de H. pylori con tratamiento de primera línea, recomendamos tratamiento empírico con terapia cuádruple con inhibidor de bomba de protones, amoxicilina, metronidazol y bismuto por 14 días. En caso de falla de erradicación con el esquema de segunda línea, se recomienda indicar un tratamiento individualizado considerando la edad del paciente, el esquema indicado previamente y la sensibilidad antibiótica de la cepa, lo que implica realizar una nueva endoscopía con extracción de muestra para cultivo y antibiograma o es tudio molecular de resistencia. En niños sintomáticos referidos a endoscopía que tengan antecedente de familiar de primer o segundo grado con cáncer gástrico, se recomienda considerar la búsqueda de H. pylori mediante técnica directa durante la endoscopia (y erradicarlo cuando es detectado). Con clusiones: La evidencia apoya mayoritariamente los conceptos generales de las Guías NASPGHAN/ ESPGHAN 2016, pero es necesario adaptarlas a la realidad de LA, con énfasis en el desarrollo de centros regionales para el estudio de sensibilidad a antibióticos y mejorar la correcta selección del tratamiento de erradicación. En niños sintomáticos con antecedente familiar de primer o segundo grado de cáncer gástrico, se debe considerar la búsqueda y erradicación de H. pylori.


Abstract: Introduction: The latest joint H. pylori NASPGHAN and ESPGHAN clinical guidelines published in 2016, contain 20 statements that have been questioned in practice regarding their applicability in Latin America (LA); in particular in relation to gastric cancer prevention. Methods: We conduc ted a critical analysis of the literature, with special emphasis on LA data and established the level of evidence and level of recommendation of the most controversial claims in the Joint Guidelines. Two rounds of voting were conducted according to the Delphi consensus technique and a Likert scale (from 0 to 4) was used to establish the "degree of agreement" among a panel of SLAGHNP ex perts. Results: There are few studies regarding diagnosis, treatment effectiveness and susceptibility to antibiotics of H. pylori in pediatric patients of LA. Based on these studies, extrapolations from adult studies, and the clinical experience of the participating expert panel, the following recom mendations are made. We recommend taking biopsies for rapid urease and histology testing (and samples for culture or molecular techniques, when available) during upper endoscopy only if in case of confirmed H. pylori infection, eradication treatment will be indicated. We recommend that selected regional centers conduct antimicrobial sensitivity/resistance studies for H. pylori and thus act as reference centers for all LA. In case of failure to eradicate H. pylori with first-line treatment, we recommend empirical treatment with quadruple therapy with proton pump inhibitor, amoxi cillin, metronidazole, and bismuth for 14 days. In case of eradication failure with the second line scheme, it is recommended to indicate an individualized treatment considering the age of the pa tient, the previously indicated scheme and the antibiotic sensitivity of the strain, which implies performing a new endoscopy with sample extraction for culture and antibiogram or molecular resistance study. In symptomatic children referred to endoscopy who have a history of first or se cond degree family members with gastric cancer, it is recommended to consider the search for H. pylori by direct technique during endoscopy (and eradicate it when detected). Conclusions: The evidence supports most of the general concepts of the NASPGHAN/ESPGHAN 2016 Guidelines, but it is necessary to adapt them to the reality of LA, with emphasis on the development of regional centers for the study of antibiotic sensitivity and to improve the correct selection of the eradication treatment. In symptomatic children with a family history of first or second degree gastric cancer, the search for and eradication of H. pylori should be considered.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Endoscopy, Digestive System/standards , Helicobacter pylori/isolation & purification , Helicobacter Infections/diagnosis , Helicobacter Infections/pathology , Helicobacter Infections/prevention & control , Helicobacter Infections/drug therapy , Proton Pump Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Pediatrics/methods , Pediatrics/standards , Stomach/pathology , Stomach/diagnostic imaging , Biopsy , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/standards , Endoscopy, Digestive System/methods , Delphi Technique , Treatment Outcome , Drug Therapy, Combination , Latin America
4.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(6): 831-841, jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1139378

ABSTRACT

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic, immune-mediated disease, induced by food allergens, clinically characterized by symptoms of esophageal dysfunction. Pathologically there is a predominant eosinophilic inflammation. This disease is relatively new, and its definitions have evolved over time. Its prevalence and incidence are increasing and causes clinical problems both in children and adults. Its symptoms include food impaction, dysphagia, symptoms that resemble gastroesophageal reflux, abdominal pain, and vomiting. It can also have extra-digestive symptoms such as rhinosinusitis, chronic cough, recurrent croup and hoarseness. EoE can be associated with other atopic conditions, such as asthma, eczema and food allergies. The diagnosis is made by the analysis of endoscopic biopsies (> 15 eosinophils per high power field). Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are currently accepted as a treatment for EoE. The clinical and pathological improvement with the use PPIs ceased to be a criterion to define Esophageal eosinophilia responsive to PPIs as a differential diagnosis, since this condition is currently considered within the EoE spectrum. There are three main treatment approaches for EoE: diet, drugs and dilation. Its diagnosis and early treatment are key to avoid or delay its complications, such as stenosis and severe esophageal dysfunction.


Subject(s)
Humans , Gastroesophageal Reflux , Eosinophilic Esophagitis/diagnosis , Eosinophilic Esophagitis/therapy , Deglutition Disorders/diagnosis , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Deglutition Disorders/therapy , Proton Pump Inhibitors/therapeutic use
5.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(7): 913-917, 2020. graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136322

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVES To evaluate the frequency of prescription of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and their indications in patients hospitalized at the Hospital de Clínicas of the Federal University of Uberlândia (HC-UFU). METHODS This is a quantitative cross-sectional observational study that analyzes data obtained from patient records on prescriptions of PPIs for patients hospitalized at the HC-UFU and from a questionnaire applied to assistant physicians on the indications of the drug in each case and evaluates the indication based on literature data. RESULTS On a pre-determined day, of a total of 462 inpatients, there was a prescription of PPI for 183 (39.3%), with a higher frequency (73.5%) in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), followed by the infirmaries and the Emergency Room. The assistant physician was located in 116 cases, and the main motivation referred to prescription was prophylaxis of digestive hemorrhage (77%). However, after reviewing medical records, it was noticed that in 50.8% of the cases, the prescription was not supported by the literature. CONCLUSION The frequency of PPI prescriptions for inpatients in the HC-UFU is among the lowest described in the literature, but there are still unnecessary prescriptions. Instruction and awareness of the assisting team can minimize these numbers.


RESUMO OBJETIVOS Avaliar a frequência da prescrição de inibidores da bomba de prótons (IBPs) e suas indicações em pacientes internados no Hospital de Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia (HC-UFU). MÉTODOS Estudo observacional transversal quantitativo, análise de dados obtidos em prontuários sobre prescrições de IBPs para pacientes internados no HC-UFU, aplicação de questionário aos médicos assistentes sobre as indicações do medicamento em cada caso e avaliação dessas indicações com base em dados da literatura. RESULTADOS Em um dia predeterminado, de 462 pacientes internados, houve prescrição de IBP para 183 (39,3%), com maior frequência (73,5%) em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI), seguida das enfermarias e do pronto-socorro (PS). O médico assistente foi localizado em 116 casos, a principal motivação referida para prescrição foi a profilaxia de hemorragia digestiva (77%). Entretanto, após revisão de prontuários, percebeu-se que em 50,8% a prescrição não era respaldada por literatura. CONCLUSÃO A frequência de prescrição de IBP para pacientes internados no HC-UFU está entre as menores descritas na literatura, mas ainda há prescrições desnecessárias. Orientação e conscientização da equipe assistente podem minimizar esses números.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug Prescriptions , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Proton Pump Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Tertiary Care Centers
6.
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 33(2): e1506, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130535

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Acid inhibition from chronic proton pump inhibitor use and a possible increase in gastrin can lead to changes in the regulation of hydrochloric acid production. However, it has not known whether such chronic use changes the presence of gastrin, delta, and enterochromaffin-like cells in the stomach or the relationship between gastrin and delta cells. Aim: To analyze the number of gastrin-producing gastrin cells, somatostatin-producing cells, and histamine-producing cells in patients who were chronic users of proton pump inhibitor, with or without related Helicobacter pylori infection. Methods: Biopsies from 105 patients, including 81 chronic proton pump inhibitor users (experimental group) and 24 controls, were processed immunohistochemically and subjected to counting of gastrin, delta, and enterochromaffin-like cells in high-magnification microscopic fields and in 10 glands. Results: Gastrin cell, delta cell, and enterochromaffin-like cells counts were similar across the groups and appeared to be unaffected by Helicobacter pylori infection. The ratio between gastrin cells and delta cells was higher in the chronic users of proton pump inhibitor group than in controls. Conclusion: Chronic users of proton pump inhibitor does not affect gastrin cell, delta cell, and enterochromaffin-like cell counts significantly, but may alter the ratio between gastrin cells and delta cells.


RESUMO Racional: A inibição ácida pelo uso crônico de inibidores de bomba de prótons e o possível aumento da gastrina podem ser seguidos de alterações na regulação da produção do ácido clorídrico. Ainda não está definido se o uso crônico altera a quantidade de células G, D e ECL no estômago ou a razão células G/D. Objetivo: Avaliar o número de células G - produtoras de gastrina -, células D - produtoras de somatostatina - e células ECL - produtoras de histamina -, em pacientes com uso crônico de inibidores de bomba de prótons, com ou sem infecção pelo Helicobacter pylori. Método: Trata-se de estudo retrospectivo avaliando 105 pacientes, 81 usadores crônicos de inibidores de bomba de prótons e 24 controles, através de biópsias com contagem das células G, D e ECL por estudo imunoistoquímico, de forma quantitativa onde havia maior número de células positivas por campo microscópico de grande aumento e em 10 glândulas. Resultados: Não houve diferença estatística comparando-se o número de células G, D e ECL. A razão entre as células G e D foi maior nos pacientes usadores crônicos de inibidores de bomba de prótons. Conclusão: O uso crônico de inibidores de prótons parece não interferir na contagem das células G, D e ECL, porém, interfere na razão entre as células G e D.


Subject(s)
Humans , Stomach Diseases/chemically induced , Gastrins/blood , Helicobacter pylori/isolation & purification , Helicobacter Infections/therapy , Proton Pumps/metabolism , Enterochromaffin-like Cells/metabolism , Proton Pump Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Stomach , Stomach Diseases/blood , Gastrins/physiology , Case-Control Studies , Helicobacter Infections/diagnosis , Enterochromaffin-like Cells/drug effects , Proton Pump Inhibitors/adverse effects
8.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 56(3): 261-263, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038723

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is an inflammatory skin disease that affects 1%-3% of Caucasian populations and may be persistent, disfiguring and stigmatising. Proton pump inhibitors (PPI) are potent blockers of gastric acid secretion. They are widely regarded as the agents of choice for the treatment of acid-peptic disorders. In addition to anti-secretory effects PPI have been found to have anti-oxidant properties and direct effects on neutrophils, monocytes, endothelial, and epithelial cells that might prevent inflammation. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the treatment of psoriasis with esomeprazole. METHODS: Ten patients were selected and psoriasis was evaluated according to Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI). Exclusion criteria included concomitant use of any treatment for Psoriasis, organic diseases, use of other PPI than esomeprazole. Patients were medicated with esomeprazole 40 mg B.I.D. for 90 days. At the 90th day the patients were evaluated according PASI score. RESULTS: Statistically significant results were seen when compared PASI before and at 90th day of treatment (P=0.0002). CONCLUSION: The use of esomeprazole for psoriasis resulted in excellent clinical results with a significant reduction of PASI score.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A psoríase é uma doença inflamatória da pele que afeta 1%-3% das populações caucasianas e pode ser persistente, desfigurante e estigmatizante. Inibidores da bomba de prótons (IBP) são potentes bloqueadores da secreção de ácido no estômago. Eles são considerados como os agentes de escolha para o tratamento de doenças ácido-pépticas. No entanto, além dos efeitos anti-secretores, IBP apresentam propriedades anti-oxidantes e efeitos diretos sobre os neutrófilos, monócitos, células epiteliais e endoteliais que podem impedir a inflamação. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o tratamento da psoríase com esomeprazol. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionados pacientes adultos (18 anos ou mais) com psoríase. Os critérios de exclusão foram o uso concomitante de qualquer tratamento para a psoríase, doenças orgânicas e uso de outro IBP. Foram selecionados 10 pacientes e a psoríase foi avaliada pelo índice de gravidade e área da psoríase (Psoriasis Area and Severity Index - PASI). Os pacientes foram medicados com esomeprazol 40 mg BID por 90 dias. No nonagésimo dia os pacientes foram novamente avaliados por meio do PASI. RESULTADOS: Dados estatisticamente significativos foram vistos quando comparado PASI antes do tratamento e no nonagésimo dia de tratamento, P=0,0002. CONCLUSÃO: O uso do esomeprazol para psoríase apresentou excelentes resultados clínicos com redução importante do PASI. Este estudo piloto é a primeira publicação na literatura inglesa sobre o tratamento da psoríase com esomeprazol.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Psoriasis/drug therapy , Proton Pump Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Esomeprazole/therapeutic use , Pilot Projects , Middle Aged
9.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 23(3): 322-324, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040027

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Laryngeal granulomas are benign, recurrent lesions of many causes (reflux, voice abuse, intubation, and idiopathic), which renders its treatment difficult. Objective To describe our experience in the treatment of laryngeal granulomas. Methods From 16 medical records of the patients with laryngeal granulomas seen between 2010 and 2017 in a university hospital, the following data were analyzed: age, gender, vocal and gastroesophageal symptoms, vocal overuse, intubation, treatments, videolaryngoscopy before and after the treatment. Results Gender: female, 10; male, 6. Age: between 20 and 60 years old (11%). Etiology of the granulomas: intubation (9), reflux (4), idiopathic (3). The initial treatments adopted in all cases were: inhaled beclomethasone dipropionate 100 μg 12/12 hours (1month), proton pump inhibitor, omeprazole 40 mg/day (2months), and dietary and voice education. After this period, 10 patients (7 postintubation, 3 idiopathic) were submitted to surgery, since no improvements in the symptoms or in the lesions were seen. Of these, two recurred, requiring a second surgery, one of which recurred six times and received botulinum toxin A. Only one patient with granulomas due to laryngopharyngeal reflux presented no improvement in the symptoms nor in the lesion after the pharmacological treatment and had been submitted to microsurgery. All of the other patients with reflux granulomas were successfully treated with the drug treatment, and the longest treatment time for complete remission of the symptoms and of the lesions was 9 months. Conclusions In laryngeal granulomas caused by reflux, treatment with inhaled steroids and proton pump inhibitors proved to be effective, although prolonged. In postintubation and idiopathic granulomas, surgery was the best treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adult , Middle Aged , Granuloma, Laryngeal/therapy , Granuloma, Laryngeal/surgery , Granuloma, Laryngeal/complications , Granuloma, Laryngeal/etiology , Granuloma, Laryngeal/drug therapy , Medical Records , Proton Pump Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Laryngopharyngeal Reflux/complications , Intubation/adverse effects , Microsurgery
10.
Rev. medica electron ; 41(4): 979-992, jul.-ago. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1094102

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La infección por helicobacter pylori afecta aproximadamente al 50% de la población mundial, es causante de gastritis crónica, úlcera péptica, cáncer gástrico y linfoma del tejido linfoide asociado a la mucosa. Desde su descubrimiento, la erradicación ha sido uno de los más importantes retos en Gastroenterología. En muchos países se desconoce la prevalencia de resistencia primaria del microorganismo a los diferentes antibióticos que empíricamente se utilizan, y por no realizar pruebas de rutina que verifican su erradicación en la práctica diaria, se ignora la efectividad de los esquemas prescritos. El incremento progresivo de la resistencia a la claritromicina y metronidazol, unido a una ausencia de antibioticoterapia alternativa, desafía la capacidad para eliminar de manera efectiva a ésta bacteria. El subcitrato de bismuto ha resurgido y su adición en la terapia ha permitido aumentar las tasas de curación por encima del 90%. Actualmente se invoca que para mejorar la eficacia en el tratamiento se debe combinar una supresión potente del ácido gástrico en tratamientos combinados cuádruples con una duración de 14 días, para la mayoría de los casos. La adherencia al tratamiento es crucial para obtener buenos resultados terapéuticos.


ABSTRACT The infection for helicobacter pylori affects approximately to the world population's 50%, it is causing of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, gastric cancer and linfoma associated to the mucous one. From their discovery, the eradication has been one of the most important challenges in Gastroenterología. In many countries the prevalencia of primary resistance is ignored from the microorganism to the different antibiotics that empirically they are used, and for not carrying out routine tests that verify its eradication in the daily practice, the effectiveness of the prescribed outlines it is ignored. The progressive increment of the resistance to the claritromicina and metronidazol, together to an absence of alternative antibioticotherapy, challenges the capacity to eliminate from an effective way to this bacteria. The bismuth subcitrato has resurged and its addition in the therapy has allowed to increase the cure rates above 90%. At the moment it is invoked that to improve the effectiveness in the treatment, that is should combine a potent suppression of the gastric acid in combined quadruple treatments with a duration of 14 days, for most of the cases. The adherence to the treatment is crucial to obtain therapeutic good results.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Risk Factors , Helicobacter Infections/etiology , Helicobacter Infections/drug therapy , Helicobacter Infections/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome , Drug Therapy, Combination , Disease Eradication , Peptic Ulcer/diagnosis , Stomach Neoplasms/diagnosis , Tetracycline/therapeutic use , Bismuth/therapeutic use , Adenocarcinoma/diagnosis , Clarithromycin , Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone/diagnosis , Acidity Regulator , Proton Pump Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Treatment Adherence and Compliance , Gastritis/diagnosis , Gastroenterology , Metronidazole , Metronidazole/therapeutic use
11.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 56(2): 202-208, Apr.-June 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019452

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is one of the most prevalent gastrointestinal diseases. GERD generates significant impairment in patients' quality of life and it is associated to relevant medical resources utilization. A better understanding of GERD pathophysiology in the past five decades has favored the evolution of therapeutic strategies from non-drug interventions and antacids to more efficacious and safer alternatives. OBJECTIVE: To summarize data about the historical evolution of GERD management in Brazil, focusing on medical therapy and addressing evidence on efficacy and safety of drug classes currently recommended. METHODS: A narrative review was conducted by systematizing information about discoveries on GERD pathophysiology. We also addressed efficacy and safety of medications currently used to reduce symptoms and improve endoscopic healing of esophageal lesions. A structured search on Pubmed was performed to identify systematic reviews and meta-analysis investigating GERD outcomes positively impacted by proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), the first choice of pharmacotherapy for the disease. RESULTS: The chronological development of therapeutic measures for GERD in Brazil evolved from lifestyle interventions with relative poor effect on symptoms related to esophageal acid exposure, particularly heartburn, to effective and safe pharmacological interventions such as histamine H2-receptor antagonists and PPIs. In the present days, some drug classes play a minor role in disease management, namely prokinetics and antacids, due to their reduced efficacy and relevant safety concerns (particularly with prokinetics). The main challenge for prescribers and researchers seems to be finding long-acting acid suppressants strategies able to ameliorate patients' symptoms and quality of life, thereafter, reducing medical resource consumption. The dual delayed-release PPI dexlansoprazole seems to respond for some of the limitations other PPIs have. CONCLUSION: Recognizing the historical evolution of GERD management can help care providers to better understand therapeutic options for their patients, as well as focus on unmet needs that deserve further attention. PPIs are still the first choice therapy, with good evidence in favor of their efficacy, despite some safety concerns. However, as with any medical intervention, it is recommended to prescribe PPIs for patients with clear indication, using adequate dosing and monitoring for adverse events.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A doença do refluxo gastroesofágico (DRGE) é uma das doenças gastrointestinais mais prevalentes, resultando em limitações significativas na qualidade de vida dos pacientes e, também, relevante utilização de recursos médicos. Um melhor entendimento da fisiopatologia da doença nas últimas cinco décadas tem favorecido a evolução das estratégias de tratamento, desde intervenções não farmacológicas e antiácidos, a alternativas mais eficazes e seguras. OBJETIVO: Resumir os dados sobre a evolução histórica do manejo da DRGE no Brasil, focando na terapia medicamentosa e abordando evidências sobre a eficácia e segurança de classes medicamentosas atualmente recomendadas. MÉTODOS: Uma revisão narrativa foi conduzida para sistematizar informações sobre descobertas na fisiopatologia da DRGE e, também, sobre a eficácia e segurança de medicamentos utilizados atualmente para reduzir os sintomas e melhorar a cicatrização endoscópica de lesões esofágicas. Uma busca estruturada na base de dados Pubmed foi realizada para identificar revisões sistemáticas e metanálises que investigassem desfechos da doença impactados positivamente pelos inibidores da bomba de prótons (IBPs), a primeira escolha farmacológica para a doença. RESULTADOS: O desenvolvimento cronológico das medidas terapêuticas para a DRGE no Brasil evoluiu de modificações no estilo de vida que demonstraram relativamente pouco efeito sobre os sintomas relacionados à exposição esofágico ao ácido, particularmente a azia, a intervenções farmacológicas eficazes e seguras como os anti-histamínicos H2 e os IBPs. Atualmente, algumas classes de medicamentos exercem um papel menor no manejo da doença, procinéticos e antiácidos por exemplo, devido à sua eficácia reduzida e a preocupações relevantes quanto a segurança (particularmente com os procinéticos). O principal desafio para os prescritores e pesquisadores parece ser encontrar estratégias supressoras de ácidos de longa duração capazes de melhorar os sintomas e a qualidade de vida dos pacientes, reduzindo assim o consumo de recursos médicos. O dexlansoprazol, um IBP de liberação retardada dupla, parece responder a algumas limitações que outros IBPs têm. CONCLUSÃO: O reconhecimento da evolução histórica do manejo da DRGE pode auxiliar aos profissionais assistentes a melhor entender as opções terapêuticas para seus pacientes, assim como focar em necessidades não atendidas que necessitem de maior atenção. IBPs ainda são a terapia de escolha inicial, com boas evidências a favor de sua eficácia, apesar algumas questões acerca da segurança de seu uso. No entanto, assim como para qualquer intervenção medicamentosa, é recomendada a prescrição dos IBPs para pacientes com indicação clara, utilizando doses adequadas e monitorando a ocorrência de eventos adversos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Behavior Therapy/methods , Gastroesophageal Reflux/therapy , Evidence-Based Medicine , Life Style , Proton Pump Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Histamine H2 Antagonists/therapeutic use , Antacids/therapeutic use , Antiemetics/therapeutic use
12.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 95(3): 275-281, May-June 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012612

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the practical diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to eosinophilic esophagitis and to increase the visibility of the disease among pediatricians. Sources: A search of the MEDLINE, Embase, and CINAHL databases and recent consensus statements and guidelines were performed. Summary of the findings: The definition of eosinophilic esophagitis is based on symptoms and histology. It is important to rule out other diseases associated with esophageal eosinophil-predominant inflammation. It is not yet clear whether the increased prevalence is due to a real increase in incidence or a result of increased awareness of the disease. Various options for management have been used in pediatric patients, including proton pump inhibitors, dietary restriction therapies, swallowed topical steroids, and endoscopic dilations. More recently, proton pump inhibitor-responsive esophageal eosinophilia and eosinophilic esophagitis have been contemplated on the same spectrum, and proton pump inhibitors should be considered the initial step in the treatment of these patients. Conclusions: Eosinophilic esophagitis is a relatively new disease with a remarkable progression of its incidence and prevalence in the past two to three decades, and diagnostic criteria that are constantly evolving. It is important to better understand the pathogenesis of the disease, the predisposing factors, the natural history, and the categorization of varying phenotypes to develop diagnostic and therapeutic strategies that meet the clinical needs of patients.


Resumo Objetivo: Fornecer uma visão geral do diagnóstico e do tratamento da esofagite eosinofílica na prática clínica e aumentar a visibilidade da doença entre os pediatras. Fontes dos dados: Foi feita uma busca na literatura relevante nos bancos de dados Medline, Embase, CINAHL e consensos e diretrizes recentes foram revisados. Síntese dos dados: A definição de esofagite eosinofílica é baseada nos sintomas e na histologia. É importante excluir outras doenças associadas com inflamação esofágica predominantemente eosinofílica. Ainda não está claro se o aumento na prevalência é devido a um real aumento da incidência ou se é o resultado da maior suspeição diagnóstica. Várias opções para tratamento, inclusive inibidores de bomba de prótons, restrições dietéticas, esteroides tópicos deglutidos e dilatações endoscópicas têm sido usadas em pacientes pediátricos. Mais recentemente a eosinofilia esofágica responsiva a inibidores de bomba de prótons e a esofagite eosinofílica têm sido contempladas no mesmo espectro e os inibidores de bomba de prótons devem ser considerados como opção inicial no tratamento desses pacientes. Conclusões: A esofagite eosinofílica é uma doença relativamente nova com uma notável progressão da incidência e prevalência nas últimas 2-3 décadas e critérios diagnósticos estão em evolução constante. É importante entender melhor a patogênese dessa doença, os fatores predisponentes, a história natural e a categorização dos diferentes fenótipos para desenvolver estratégias diagnósticas e terapêuticas que vão ao encontro das necessidades clínicas dos pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Eosinophilic Esophagitis/diagnosis , Eosinophilic Esophagitis/therapy , Esophagoscopy , Dilatation , Proton Pump Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use
13.
Rev. medica electron ; 41(1): 189-195, ene.-feb. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-991337

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El doble píloro es una comunicación anormal entre el antro gástrico y el bulbo duodenal y representa un raro hallazgo endoscópico. Se presentó un paciente de 80 años de edad, con antecedentes de hipertensión arterial, fumador inveterado, tomador de aspirina, que presentó melena aproximadamente 15 días antes del ingreso. La videoendoscopia reveló la existencia de dos orificios similares en el antro, que se comunicaban con el bulbo duodenal de manera independiente que fueron catalogados como píloros. La comunicación se constató con el paso del endoscopio a su través. Se impuso tratamiento médico con inhibidores de la bomba de protones y la evolución fue favorable. Es el cuarto caso reportado en la literatura en nuestro país y el primero en la provincia de Matanzas.


ABSTRACT Double pylorus is an abnormal communication between the gastric antrum and the duodenal bulb and represents a rare endoscopic finding. It is presented the case of a patient aged 80 years, with a background of arterial hypertension, inveterate smoker, taking aspirin, who presented melena about 15 days before the admission. The video-endoscopy revealed the existence of two similar orifices in the antrum that were independently communicating with the duodenal bulb and they went catalogued like pylori. The communication was proved by passing the endoscope through it. He was treated with IBP (the Spanish acronym for proton bomb inhibitors) and the evolution was favorable. It is the fourth case reported in the literature in Cuba and the first one in Matanzas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged, 80 and over , Pylorus/abnormalities , Pylorus/physiopathology , Pylorus/diagnostic imaging , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal/methods , Diverticulum, Colon/diagnostic imaging , Duodenal Ulcer/diagnostic imaging , Proton Pump Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Melena/diagnosis , Barium Enema/methods , Smokers , Hypertension/diagnosis
14.
Gastroenterol. latinoam ; 30(supl.1): S18-S25, 2019. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1116305

ABSTRACT

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a gram negative bacteria that survives in the gastric acid environment. The infection is acquired mainly during childhood. Fifty to 70% of adult population has the infection. However, in the last 10 year, a decrease in the prevalence of this infection has been observed in all age groups, in particular in pediatric population and elderly patients over 60 years old. The evolution of the infection depends on bacterial factors (virulence and toxins) and host immune response. People infected mainly develop gastrointestinal diseases such as gastritis, peptic ulcer and MALT lymphoma. H. pylori infection is the main risk factor of gastric cancer and for that reason, the eradication is recommended if H. pylori has been detected through invasive or non-invasive tests. Among children, eradication is not recommended unless there is a clinical manifestation that merits. H. pylori eradication is recommended in symptomatic adults and there is a controversy about massive eradication in asymptomatic population due to the risk of development of antibiotic resistance. Treatment is based on the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPI) associated to antibiotics, that should be chosen taking into account the increasing antibiotic resistance, and local availability. Clarithromycin (CLA) and levofloxacin resistance is increasingly high, and CLA-free quadruple therapy schemes are currently recommended for first-line therapy. H. pylori eradication must be confirmed with invasive or non-invasive tests. Second-line therapy based on antibiotics not previously used, PPI high doses and bismuth is recommended.


Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) es una bacteria gramnegativa que sobrevive en el medio ácido gástrico. La infección se adquiere principalmente en la niñez. Un 50 a 70% de la población adulta es portadora, pero en los últimos 10 años, se ha observado una disminución en la prevalencia de infección en todos los grupos etarios, en particular en población pediátrica y mayores de 60 años. La evolución de la infección depende de factores propios de la bacteria (virulencia, toxinas) y de la respuesta inmune del huésped. Los individuos infectados desarrollan principalmente patologías gastrointestinales como gastritis, úlcera péptica y linfoma MALT. La infección por H. pylori es el principal factor de riesgo del cáncer gástrico por lo que se recomienda su erradicación en caso de haberse detectado mediante test invasivo o no invasivo. En niños, no es recomendable la erradicación a menos que exista una manifestación clínica que lo amerite. Se recomienda su erradicación en adultos sintomáticos y existe controversia respecto a la erradicación masiva en población asintomática debido al riesgo de desarrollar resistencia antibiótica. El tratamiento se basa en el uso de inhibidores de la bomba de protones asociado a antibióticos, los cuales deben ser escogidos teniendo en cuenta la tasa de resistencia antimicrobiana y disponibilidad local. La resistencia a claritromicina (CLA) y levofloxacino es creciente, por lo que se recomienda el uso de esquemas de cuadriterapia libre de CLA en esquemas de primera línea. Se recomienda confirmar su erradicación con test no invasivos y retratar con esquema de segunda línea con antibióticos no utilizados previamente, asociado a dosis altas de inhibidores de bomba de protones y sales de bismuto.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adult , Helicobacter Infections/drug therapy , Remission Induction , Helicobacter pylori/drug effects , Helicobacter pylori/pathogenicity , Helicobacter Infections/diagnosis , Helicobacter Infections/physiopathology , Age Factors , Clarithromycin/therapeutic use , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/drug effects , Drug Therapy, Combination , Proton Pump Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Levofloxacin/therapeutic use
15.
Rev. chil. cir ; 70(6): 598-603, dic. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042613

ABSTRACT

Varias publicaciones informan un aumento en la tasa de enfermedad por reflujo gastroesofágico (ERGE) después de la gastrectomía vertical tubular (GVT) o en manga a pesar que no existe aún consenso al respecto. El objetivo de este artículo es mostrar nuestra propia experiencia y de la literatura respecto a los aspectos clínicos de la enfermedad por ERGE después de la gastrectomía vertical tubular. Del análisis de nuestros resultados y de los datos de la literatura, los estudios que evalúan la prevalencia de la enfermedad de reflujo gastroesofágico posoperatorio muestran que la GVT puede provocar síntomas de ERGE de novo o empeoramiento de la ERGE preexistente.


Several publications report an increase in the rate of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) after surgery, although there is still no consensus on this. The aim of this article is to show our own experience and literature regarding the clinical aspects of GERD disease after tubular vertical gastrectomy. From the analysis of our results and data from the literature, studies evaluating the prevalence of postoperative gastro-oesophageal reflux disease show that GVT can cause symptoms of de novo GERD or worsening of pre-existing GERD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Gastroesophageal Reflux/etiology , Gastrectomy/adverse effects , Gastrectomy/methods , Barrett Esophagus/etiology , Gastroesophageal Reflux/drug therapy , Esophagitis/etiology , Proton Pump Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Hernia, Hiatal/etiology
16.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 55(3): 296-305, July-Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973881

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Endoscopic antireflux treatments for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) are still evolving, and most of the published studies address symptom relief in the short-term. Objective - We aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis focused on evaluating the efficacy of the different endoscopic procedures. METHODS: Search was restricted to randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on MedLine, Cochrane, SciELO, and EMBASE for patients with chronic GERD (>6 months), over 18 years old and available follow up of at least 3 months. The main outcome was to evaluate the efficacy of the different endoscopic treatments compared to sham, pharmacological or surgical treatment. Efficacy was measured by different subjective and objective outcomes. RESULTS: We analyzed data from 16 RCT, totaling 1085 patients. The efficacy of endoscopic treatments compared to sham and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) treatment showed a significant difference up to 6 months in favor of endoscopy with no heterogeneity (P<0.00001) (I2: 0%). The subgroup analysis showed a statistically significant difference up to 6 months in favor of endoscopy: endoscopy vs PPI (P<0.00001) (I2: 39%). Endoscopy vs sham (P<0.00001) (I2: 0%). Most subjective and objective outcomes were statistically significant in favor of endoscopy up to 6 and 12 months follow up. CONCLUSION: This systematic review and meta-analysis shows a good short-term efficacy in favor of endoscopic procedures when comparing them to a sham and pharmacological or surgical treatment. Data on long-term follow up is lacking and this should be explored in future studies.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Os tratamentos endoscópicos para a doença do refluxo gastroesofágico (DRGE) ainda estão em evolução e a maioria dos estudos publicados abordam o alívio dos sintomas em curto prazo. OBJETIVO: Pretendemos realizar uma revisão sistemática e meta-análise focada na avaliação da eficácia dos diferentes procedimentos endoscópicos. MÉTODOS: A pesquisa foi restrita a ensaios clínicos randomizados em MedLine, Cochrane, SciELO e EMBASE para pacientes com DRGE crônica (>6 meses), com mais de 18 anos e acompanhamento disponível por pelo menos 3 meses. O principal desfecho foi avaliar a eficácia dos diferentes tratamentos endoscópicos em comparação com o tratamento sham, farmacológico ou cirúrgico. A eficácia foi medida por diferentes resultados subjetivos e objetivos. RESULTADOS: Analisamos dados de 16 ensaios clínicos randomizados, totalizando 1085 pacientes. A eficácia dos tratamentos endoscópicos em comparação com o tratamento com sham e inibidores da bomba de prótons mostrou uma diferença significativa até 6 meses a favor da endoscopia sem heterogeneidade (P<0,00001) (I2: 0%). A análise do subgrupo mostrou diferença estatisticamente significativa até 6 meses a favor da endoscopia: endoscopia vs inibidores da bomba de prótons (P<0,00001) (I2: 39%). Endoscopia vs sham (P<0,00001) (I2: 0%). A maioria dos resultados subjetivos e objetivos foram estatisticamente significativos em favor da endoscopia até 6 e 12 meses de acompanhamento. CONCLUSÃO: Esta revisão sistemática e meta-análise mostrou uma boa eficácia a curto prazo em favor dos procedimentos endoscópicos ao compará-los a tratamento sham, farmacológico ou cirúrgico. Não existem dados sobre o acompanhamento a longo prazo e isso deve ser explorado em estudos futuros.


Subject(s)
Humans , Gastroesophageal Reflux/surgery , Gastroesophageal Reflux/drug therapy , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal/methods , Placebos , Time Factors , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Chronic Disease , Treatment Outcome , Proton Pump Inhibitors/therapeutic use
19.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 54(4): 271-280, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888225

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Proton pump inhibitors and histamine H2 receptor antagonists are two of the most commonly prescribed drug classes for pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease, but their efficacy is controversial. Many patients are treated with these drugs for atypical manifestations attributed to gastroesophageal reflux, even that causal relation is not proven. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the use of proton pump inhibitors and histamine H2 receptor antagonists in pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease through a systematic review. METHODS: A systematic review was performed, using MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases. The search was limited to studies published in English, Portuguese or Spanish. There was no limitation regarding date of publication. Studies were considered eligible if they were randomized-controlled trials, evaluating proton pump inhibitors and/or histamine H2 receptor antagonists for the treatment of pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease. Studies published only as abstracts, studies evaluating only non-clinical outcomes and studies exclusively comparing different doses of the same drug were excluded. Data extraction was performed by independent investigators. The study protocol was registered at PROSPERO platform (CRD42016040156). RESULTS: After analyzing 735 retrieved references, 23 studies (1598 randomized patients) were included in the systematic review. Eight studies demonstrated that both proton pump inhibitors and histamine H2 receptor antagonists were effective against typical manifestations of gastroesophageal reflux disease, and that there was no evidence of benefit in combining the latter to the former or in routinely prescribing long-term maintenance treatments. Three studies evaluated the effect of treatments on children with asthma, and neither proton pump inhibitors nor histamine H2 receptor antagonists proved to be significantly better than placebo. One study compared different combinations of omeprazole, bethanechol and placebo for the treatment of children with cough, and there is no clear definition on the best strategy. Another study demonstrated that omeprazole performed better than ranitidine for the treatment of extraesophageal reflux manifestations. Ten studies failed to demonstrate significant benefits of proton pump inhibitors or histamine H2 receptor antagonists for the treatment of unspecific manifestations attributed to gastroesophageal reflux in infants. CONCLUSION: Proton pump inhibitors or histamine H2 receptor antagonists may be used to treat children with gastroesophageal reflux disease, but not to treat asthma or unspecific symptoms.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Inibidores de bomba de prótons e antagonistas dos receptores H2 da histamina são duas das mais comumente prescritas classes de medicações para a doença do refluxo gastroesofágico pediátrica, mas sua eficácia é controversa. Muitos pacientes são tratados com essas drogas por manifestações atípicas atribuídas ao refluxo gastroesofágico, mesmo que uma relação causal não esteja comprovada. OBJETIVO: Avaliar os inibidores da bomba de prótons e os antagonistas dos receptores H2 da histamina na doença do refluxo gastroesofágico pediátrica através de uma revisão sistemática. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se uma revisão sistemática, utilizando as bases de dados MEDLINE, EMBASE e Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. A pesquisa foi limitada a estudos publicados em inglês, português e espanhol. Não houve limitação quanto à data de publicação. Os estudos foram considerados elegíveis se fossem ensaios controlados randomizados que avaliassem inibidores da bomba de prótons e/ou antagonistas dos receptores H2 da histamina para o tratamento da doença do refluxo gastroesofágico pediátrica. Estudos publicados apenas como resumos, estudos que não avaliassem desfechos clinicamente relevantes e estudos que comparassem exclusivamente diferentes doses do mesmo fármaco foram excluídos. A extração de dados foi realizada por pesquisadores independentes. O protocolo do estudo foi registrado na plataforma PROSPERO (CRD42016040156). RESULTADOS: Após a análise das 735 referências identificadas, 23 estudos (1598 pacientes randomizados) foram incluídos na revisão sistemática. Oito estudos demonstraram que tanto os inibidores da bomba de prótons como os antagonistas dos receptores H2 da histamina eram eficazes contra as manifestações típicas da doença de refluxo gastroesofágico e que não havia evidências de benefício na combinação dessas classes de drogas ou na prescrição rotineira de tratamentos de manutenção de longo prazo. Três estudos avaliaram o efeito dos tratamentos em crianças com asma e, nem os inibidores da bomba de prótons, nem os antagonistas dos receptores H2 da histamina se mostraram significativamente melhores do que o placebo. Um estudo comparou diferentes combinações de omeprazol, betanecol e placebo para o tratamento de crianças com tosse, e não há uma definição clara sobre a melhor estratégia terapêutica. Outro estudo demonstrou que o omeprazol apresentou melhor desempenho do que a ranitidina para o tratamento de manifestações extraesofágicas da doença do refluxo gastroesofágico. Dez estudos não tiveram sucesso em demonstrar benefícios significativos dos inibidores da bomba de prótons ou dos antagonistas dos receptores H2 da histamina para o tratamento de manifestações inespecíficas atribuídas ao refluxo gastroesofágico em crianças menores de 1 ano de idade. CONCLUSÃO: Inibidores da bomba de prótons ou antagonistas dos receptores H2 da histamina podem ser utilizados para tratar crianças com doença de refluxo gastroesofágico, mas não para tratar asma ou sintomas inespecíficos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Gastroesophageal Reflux/drug therapy , Proton Pump Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Histamine H2 Antagonists/therapeutic use , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Proton Pump Inhibitors/adverse effects , Histamine H2 Antagonists/adverse effects
20.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 37(3): 93-97, Sept. 2017. ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087559

ABSTRACT

Introducción: el edema de Reinke es la acumulación de fluidos en la capa externa de la lámina propia de las cuerdas vocales. Produce disfonía y raras veces obstrucción respiratoria. Las etiologías más frecuentes son el tabaquismo, el reflujo gastroesofágico y el mal uso y abuso vocal. Objetivos: determinar, mediante tratamiento quirúrgico, la tasa de resolución de la disnea inspiratoria severa provocada por edema de Reinke bilateral de cuerdas vocales. Diseño: estudio descriptivo y retrospectivo. Material y métodos: revisión de las historias clínicas electrónicas de todos los pacientes que consultaron y fueron tratados por disnea inspiratoria severa provocada por edema de Reinke bilateral de las cuerdas vocales, en el servicio de Otorrinolaringología del Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires, entre febrero de 2007 y abril de 2015. Resultados: fueron tratados 4 pacientes de sexo femenino que consultaron por disnea inspiratoria severa. Fumaban más de 30 cigarrillos por día. La técnica quirúrgica consistió en resecar todo el edema polipoideo en forma bilateral, preservando el borde libre de las cuerdas vocales. Conclusiones: el edema de Reinke obstructivo es una patología infrecuente. La tasa de resolución de la disnea inspiratoria severa en las cuatro enfermas tratadas fue del100%. La resección total del edema y de la mucosa excedente, preservando un pequeño sector para que recubra el borde libre de la cuerda vocal (cordectomía vs. cordotomía), fue la técnica quirúrgica preferida. (AU)


Introduction: the Reinke edema is an accumulation of fluid in the outer layer of the lamina propria of the vocal cords. Causes dysphonia and rarely produces respiratory obstruction. Objectives: to determine the rate of resolution of the severe inspiratory dyspnea caused by bilateral Reinke edema of vocal cords with surgical treatment. Design: descriptive and retrospective study. Material and methods: review of the electronic medical records of all patients who consulted and were treated for severe inspiratory dyspnea caused by bilateral Reinke edema of the vocal chords in the Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires between February 2007 and April 2015. Results: four women were treated, consulted for severe inspiratory dyspnea. Smoked more than 30 cigarettes per day. The surgical technique consisted in to resect all the bilateral polypoid edema, while preserving the free edge of the vocal cords. Conclusions: the obstructive Reinke edema is an infrequent pathology. The rate of resolution of the severe inspiratory dyspnea in the four patients treated was 100%. The total resection of the edema and mucosa excess, preserving a small sector to cover the free edge of the vocal cord (cordectomy vs cordotomy) was the preferred surgical technique. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Laryngeal Edema/surgery , Laryngeal Edema/pathology , Signs and Symptoms, Respiratory , Tobacco Use Disorder/complications , Gastroesophageal Reflux/complications , Laryngeal Edema/etiology , Laryngeal Edema/physiopathology , Laryngeal Edema/diagnostic imaging , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Dyspnea/surgery , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Proton Pump Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Dysphonia , Vocal Cord Dysfunction/complications , Vocal Cord Dysfunction/therapy
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL