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1.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(7): 929-935, Nov. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-764583

ABSTRACT

We present a set of data on human and chicken Toxoplasma gondiiseroprevalence that was investigated and analysed in light of groundwater vulnerability information in an area endemic for waterborne toxoplasmosis in Brazil. Hydrogeological assessment was undertaken to select sites for water collection from wells for T. gondiioocyst testing and for collecting blood from free-range chickens and humans for anti-T. gondiiserologic testing. Serologic testing of human specimens was done using conventional commercial tests and a sporozoite-specific embryogenesis-related protein (TgERP), which is able to differentiate whether infection resulted from tissue cysts or oocysts. Water specimens were negative for the presence of viable T. gondiioocysts. However, seroprevalence in free-range chickens was significantly associated with vulnerability of groundwater to surface contamination (p < 0.0001; odds ratio: 4.73, 95% confidence interval: 2.18-10.2). Surprisingly, a high prevalence of antibodies against TgERP was detected in human specimens, suggesting the possibility of a continuous contamination of drinking water with T. gondiioocysts in this endemic setting. These findings and the new proposed approach to investigate and analyse endemic toxoplasmosis in light of groundwater vulnerability information associated with prevalence in humans estimated by oocyst antigens recognition have implications for the potential role of hydrogeological assessment in researching waterborne toxoplasmosis at a global scale.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Animals , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Chickens/parasitology , Fresh Water/parasitology , Oocysts , Toxoplasma/immunology , Toxoplasmosis/epidemiology , Waterborne Diseases/epidemiology , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Antigens, Protozoan/analysis , Brazil/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Protozoan Proteins/analysis , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Toxoplasma/isolation & purification , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/diagnosis , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/epidemiology , Toxoplasmosis/diagnosis , Toxoplasmosis/transmission , Waterborne Diseases/diagnosis , Waterborne Diseases/transmission
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-169638

ABSTRACT

Despite the development of new technologies, new challenges still remain for large scale proteomic profiling when dealing with complex biological mixtures. Fractionation prior to liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis is usually the preferred method to reduce the complexity of any biological sample. In this study, a gel LC-MS/MS approach was used to explore the stage specific proteome of Cryptosporidium (C.) parvum. To accomplish this, the sporozoite protein of C. parvum was first fractionated using SDS-PAGE with subsequent LC-MS/MS analysis. A total of 135 protein hits were recorded from 20 gel slices (from same gel lane), with many hits occurring in more than one band. Excluding all non-Cryptosporidium entries and proteins with multiple hits, 33 separate C. parvum entries were identified during the study. The overall goal of this study was to reduce sample complexity by protein fractionation and increase the possibility of detecting proteins present in lower abundance in a complex protein mixture.


Subject(s)
Chemical Fractionation/methods , Chromatography, Liquid/methods , Cryptosporidium parvum/chemistry , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel/methods , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Proteome/analysis , Proteomics/methods , Protozoan Proteins/analysis , Sporozoites/chemistry , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods
3.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 32(3): 418-429, jul.-set. 2012. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-663712

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Los mecanismos de resistencia al antimonio pentavalente conocidos hasta el momento, se han descrito ampliamente en cepas del subgénero Leishmania, pero poco se sabe sobre las proteínas involucradas en los mecanismos de resistencia presentes en cepas del subgénero Viannia, como Leishmania panamensis. Objetivo. Identificar proteínas diferencialmente expresadas entre las cepas de L. panamensis (UA140), sensible y resistente al antimonio pentavalente, y analizar el posible papel de estas proteínas en mecanismos de resistencia. Materiales y métodos. Las proteínas de las cepas, sensible y resistente al antimonio pentavalente, se compararon usando electroforesis bidimensional. Las proteínas con aumento de la expresión fueron aisladas e identificadas por espectrometría de masas mediante MALDI-TOF/TOF (Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization/Time of Flight). La expresión del ARNm de cinco de estas proteínas se cuantificó mediante PCR en tiempo real. Resultados. Los geles bidimensionales de las cepas sensible y resistente detectaron 532±39 y 541±43 manchas proteicas. Se encontraron 10 manchas con aumento de la expresión en la cepa resistente, identificadas como proteínas de choque térmico (Hsp60 mitocondrial, Hsp70 mitocondrial y citosólica), isomerasa de disulfuro, proteasa de cisteína, enolasa, factor de elongación 5-α, la subunidad 5-α del proteasoma y dos proteínas hipotéticas nombradas como Sp(2) y Sp(25). Conclusión. Este es el primer estudio llevado a cabo con una cepa resistente al antimonio pentavalente en L. panamensis, en el cual se han identificado proteínas que están relacionadas con el mecanismo de resistencia del parásito frente al medicamento, abriendo el camino para futuros estudios de estas proteínas como blancos terapéuticos.


Introduction. The well-known drug resistance mechanisms to pentavalent antimony have been widely described in strains of the Leishmania subgenus, but little is known about the mechanisms of resistance and the proteins associated with it in strains of the Viannia subgenus such as Leishmania panamensis. Objective. Differentially expressed proteins were identified between pentavalent antimonial sensitive and resistant L. panamensis (UA140) strains, and the role of these proteins was analyzed as possible resistance mechanisms. Materials and methods. The protein lysates of pentavalent antimony sensitive and resistant strains were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis,and the protein patterns compared. The proteins identified as overexpressed were separated and analyzed using MALDI-TOF/TOF (Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization/Time of Flight). The level of mRNA expression of five of these proteins was quantified using real-time PCR. Results. On the 2-dimensional gels, 532 ± 39 protein spots were identified for the sensitive strains, and 541 ± 43 spots for the resistant strains. Ten spots were overexpressed in the resistant strain and identified as heat shock protein (Hsp60 mitochondrial, Hsp70 cytosolic and mitochondrial), disulfide isomerase, cysteine protease, enolase, elongation factor 5-alpha, the proteasome alpha-5 subunit and two hypothetical proteins named as Sp(2) and Sp(25). Conclusion. This is the first proteomic study conducted with a L. panamensis resistant strain where several proteins were identified and related with the parasite resistance mechanism to pentavalent antimony. This opens the way for future studies aimed at modulating the drug resistance or at evaluating these proteins as therapeutic targets.


Subject(s)
Antiprotozoal Agents/pharmacology , In Vitro Techniques , Leishmania guyanensis/metabolism , Meglumine/pharmacology , Organometallic Compounds/pharmacology , Protozoan Proteins/biosynthesis , Drug Resistance , Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional , Gene Expression Regulation , Leishmania guyanensis/drug effects , Leishmania guyanensis/genetics , Proteomics , Protozoan Proteins/analysis , Protozoan Proteins/genetics , Protozoan Proteins/physiology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger/biosynthesis , RNA, Protozoan/biosynthesis , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization , Subtraction Technique
4.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 107(3): 429-432, May 2012. mapas, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-624028

ABSTRACT

Anopheles darlingi Root is the major vector of human malaria in the Neotropics and has been considered to be the sole malaria vector in French Guiana. The presence of other potential vectors suggests that malaria may be transmitted by other species under certain conditions. From 2006-2011, all anopheline specimens collected from 11 localities were assayed to determine if the Plasmodium circumsporozoite protein was present. In addition to An. darlingi, we found Anopheles oswaldoi, Anopheles intermedius and Anopheles nuneztovari specimens that were infected with Plasmodium sp. Further investigations on the behaviour and ecology of An. oswaldoi, An. intermedius and An. nuneztovari are necessary to determine their role in malaria transmission in French Guiana.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Anopheles/parasitology , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Plasmodium falciparum/chemistry , Plasmodium malariae/chemistry , Plasmodium vivax/chemistry , Protozoan Proteins/analysis , Anopheles/classification , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , French Guiana , Insect Vectors/classification , Malaria/transmission , Population Density , Plasmodium falciparum/isolation & purification , Plasmodium malariae/isolation & purification , Plasmodium vivax/isolation & purification , Seasons
5.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 106(8): 957-967, Dec. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-610970

ABSTRACT

Chagas disease (CD) causes the highest burden of parasitic diseases in the Western Hemisphere and is therefore a priority for drug research and development. Platelet-activating factor (PAF) causes the CD parasite Trypanosoma cruzi to differentiate, which suggests that the parasite may express PAF receptors. Here, we explored the T. cruzi proteome for PAF receptor-like proteins. From a total of 23,000 protein sequences, we identified 29 hypothetical proteins that are predicted to have seven transmembrane domains (TMDs), which is the main characteristic of the G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), including the PAF receptor. The TMDs of these sequences were independently aligned with domains from 25 animal PAF receptors and the sequences were analysed for conserved residues. The conservation score mean values for the TMDs of the hypothetical proteins ranged from 31.7-44.1 percent, which suggests that if the putative T. cruzi PAF receptor is among the sequences identified, the TMDs are not highly conserved. These results suggest that T. cruzi contains several GPCR-like proteins and that one of these GPCRs may be a PAF receptor. Future studies may further validate the PAF receptor as a target for CD chemotherapy.


Subject(s)
Platelet Membrane Glycoproteins/analysis , Proteome/chemistry , Protozoan Proteins/analysis , Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled/analysis , Trypanosoma cruzi/chemistry , Computational Biology , Chagas Disease/drug therapy , Databases, Protein , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Phylogeny , Sequence Analysis, Protein
6.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 20(1): 54-60, jan.-mar. 2011. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-608255

ABSTRACT

The erythrocytic-stage surface protein, Equi Merozoite Antigen 1 (EMA-1), is a major candidate for the development of a diagnostic antigen for equine piroplasmosis. In order to establish an effective diagnostic method for practical use, the gene encoding the entire EMA-1 of Theileria equi Jaboticabal strain was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli as a histidine-tagged protein (His6-EMA1). The expressed EMA-1 reacted with specific antibodies in Western blot and had an apparent molecular mass of 34 kDa which was largely consistent with its theoretical value. The nucleotide sequence of the EMA-1 gene of Jaboticabal strain was comparatively analyzed with other published sequences. The results indicated a high degree of homology with EMA-1 genes of all other strains isolated from various countries. The recombinant purified His6-EMA1 protein was tested in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of antibodies anti-T. equi in horses. The ELISA clearly differentiated T. equi-infected from Babesia caballi-infected horse sera or normal horse sera. Field serum samples collected from horses in the State of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, were examined for the diagnosis of T. equi infection by ELISA. Of 170 samples analyzed, 95.88 percent (163/170) were positive for T. equi infection. These results suggest that the His6-EMA1 protein expressed in E. coli could be a reliable immunodiagnostic antigen for ELISA test and that T. equi infection is a serious concern in the State of São Paulo, Brazil.


A proteína de superfície eritrocitária, Antígeno 1 do Merozoíta de Theileria equi (EMA-1), é um potencial candidato para o desenvolvimento de antígenos de valor diagnóstico para a piroplasmose equina. Com o objetivo de estabelecer um método de diagnóstico efetivo e prático, o gene EMA-1 da amostra Jaboticabal - SP de T. equi foi clonado e expresso em Escherichia coli contendo uma cauda de poli-histidina (His6-EMA1). O EMA-1 expresso reagiu com anticorpos específicos no Western blot e apresentou peso molecular aparente de 34 kDa, sendo altamente consistente com seu valor teórico. A sequência nucleotídica do gene EMA-1 da amostra Jaboticabal foi analisado comparativamente com outras sequências públicas, e os resultados indicam elevado grau de homologia com amostras de diversos países. A proteína recombinante purificada His6-EMA1 foi testada no ensaio imunoenzimático (ELISA) para a detecção de anticorpos anti-T. equi em equinos. O teste de ELISA diferenciou-se claramente entre soros de equinos infectados por T. equi, soros de animais infectados por Babesia caballi e soro normal de equino. Amostras de soros coletadas de equinos do Estado de São Paulo, sudeste do Brasil, foram examinadas para o diagnóstico da infecção por T. equi pelo ELISA. Das 170 amostras analisadas, 95,88 por cento (163/170) foram positivas para T. equi. Os resultados sugerem que a proteína His6-EMA1 expressa em E. coli pode ser um antígeno confiável para diagnóstico imunológico pelo teste de ELISA, e que T. equi merece grande atenção no Estado de São Paulo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Horse Diseases/diagnosis , Protozoan Proteins/analysis , Protozoan Proteins/biosynthesis , Recombinant Proteins/analysis , Recombinant Proteins/biosynthesis , Theileriasis/diagnosis , Brazil , Horses , Horse Diseases/immunology , Immunoenzyme Techniques , Theileriasis/immunology
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-47192

ABSTRACT

This study assessed the toxicity of melamine against the unicellular eukaryotic system of Tetrahymena (T.) pyriformis exposed to 0, 0.05, 0.25, 0.5, 2.5, and 5 mg/mL of melamine. Cell growth curves of different cultures, the half maximum inhibition concentration (IC50) value of melamine, and morphological changes in cells were obtained via optical and transmission electron microscopic observation. The effects of eleven melamine concentrations, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, 4.5 and 5 mg/mL, on protein expression levels of T. pyriformis were examined using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). The results showed an obvious inhibitory effect of melamine on the growth of eukaryotic cells. Cell growth dynamics indicated that the IC50 value of melamine on T. pyriformis was 0.82 mg/mL. The cellular morphology was also affected in a concentration-dependent manner, with characteristics of atrophy or cell damage developing in the presence of melamine. The relative contents of the top four main proteins corresponding to peak mass-to-charge ratios (m/z) of 4466, m/z 6455, m/z 6514, and m/z 7772 in the MALDI-TOF-MS spectra were all found to be closely correlated with the melamine concentrations. In conclusion, exposure of eukaryotic cells to melamine could inhibit cell growth, cause changes in cytomorphology and even disturb the expression of proteins in a concentration-dependent manner. The described method of examining four sensitive proteins affected by melamine was also proposed to be used in a preliminary study to identify protein biomarkers in T. pyriformis.


Subject(s)
Animal Feed/analysis , Biomarkers/analysis , Food Additives/analysis , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Protozoan Proteins/analysis , Tetrahymena pyriformis/cytology , Triazines/toxicity
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-62043

ABSTRACT

A family of calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) is a unique enzyme which plays crucial roles in intracellular calcium signaling in plants, algae, and protozoa. CDPKs of malaria parasites are known to be key regulators for stage-specific cellular responses to calcium, a widespread secondary messenger that controls the progression of the parasite. In our study, we identified a gene encoding Plasmodium vivax CDPK4 (PvCDPK4) and characterized its molecular property and cellular localization. PvCDPK4 was a typical CDPK which had well-conserved N-terminal kinase domain and C-terminal calmodulin-like structure with 4 EF hand motifs for calcium-binding. The recombinant protein of EF hand domain of PvCDPK4 was expressed in E. coli and a 34 kDa product was obtained. Immunofluorescence assay by confocal laser microscopy revealed that the protein was expressed at the mature schizont of P. vivax. The expression of PvCDPK4-EF in schizont suggests that it may participate in the proliferation or egress process in the life cycle of this parasite.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Cloning, Molecular , Conserved Sequence , Escherichia coli/genetics , Gene Expression , Gene Expression Profiling , Microscopy, Confocal , Microscopy, Fluorescence , Molecular Sequence Data , Molecular Weight , Plasmodium vivax/chemistry , Protein Kinases/analysis , Protein Structure, Tertiary , Protozoan Proteins/analysis , Sequence Alignment
10.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 101(supl.1): 205-212, Oct. 2006. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-441248

ABSTRACT

The tegument surface of the adult schistosome, bounded by a normal plasma membrane overlain by a secreted membranocalyx, holds the key to understanding how schistosomes evade host immune responses. Recent advances in mass spectrometry (MS), and the sequencing of the Schistosoma mansoni transcriptome/genome, have facilitated schistosome proteomics. We detached the tegument from the worm body and enriched its surface membranes by differential extraction, before subjecting the preparation to liquid chromatography-based proteomics to identify its constituents. The most exposed proteins on live worms were labelled with impearmeant biotinylation reagents, and we also developed methods to isolate the membranocalyx for analysis. We identified transporters for sugars, amino acids, inorganic ions and water, which confirm the importance of the tegument plasma membrane in nutrient acquisition and solute balance. Enzymes, including phosphohydrolases, esterases and carbonic anhydrase were located with their catalytic domains external to the plasma membrane, while five tetraspanins, annexin and dysferlin were implicated in membrane architecture. In contrast, few parasite proteins could be assigned to the membranocalyx but mouse immune response proteins, including three immunoglobulins and two complement factors, were detected, plus host membrane proteins such as CD44, integrin and a complement regulatory protein, testifying to the acquisitive properties of the secreted bilayer.


Subject(s)
Animals , Membrane Proteins/analysis , Proteome/analysis , Protozoan Proteins/analysis , Schistosoma mansoni/chemistry , Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional , Mass Spectrometry , Molecular Sequence Data , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Membrane Proteins/isolation & purification , Proteome/genetics , Protozoan Proteins/genetics , Protozoan Proteins/isolation & purification , Schistosoma mansoni/genetics
11.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 10(1): 1-6, Feb. 2006. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-428707

ABSTRACT

The outcome of Leishmania infections is determined by both the parasite species and the host genetic makeup. While much has been learned regarding immune responses to this parasite, our knowledge on parasite-derived factors is limited. The recent completion of the L. major and L. infantum genome sequence projects and concurrent advancement in proteomics technology would greatly accelerate the search for novel Leishmania proteins. Using a proteomics-based approach to study species-specific Leishmania proteins, we developed high-resolution, broad pH (3-10) two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) separations to determine protein-expression profiles between highly infectious forms of the parasitic species L. amazonensis (New World) and L. major (Old World). Approximately 1,650 and 1,530 distinct protein spots were detected in the L. amazonensis and L. major gels, respectively. While a vast majority of the spots had similar distribution and intensity, a few were computationally defined as preferentially expressed in L. amazonensis in comparison to L. major, or vice versa. These data attest to the feasibility of establishing a 2-DE-based protein array for inter-species profiling of Leishmania proteins and provide the framework for future design of proteome studies of Leishmania.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional/methods , Leishmania major/chemistry , Leishmania mexicana/chemistry , Proteome/analysis , Protozoan Proteins/analysis , Feasibility Studies , Gene Expression Regulation , Leishmania major/genetics , Leishmania mexicana/genetics , Mass Spectrometry , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Proteomics/methods
12.
Parasitol. latinoam ; 59(3/4): 142-147, jul. 2004. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-396127

ABSTRACT

Trypanosoma cruzi, is a protozoan parasite, which has a close phylogenetic relationship with Trypanosoma rangeli that is not pathogenic for the vertebrate host. Both parasites have antigenic similarity, they have different and complex total protein profiles according to their morphological and physiological stage epimastigotes or trypomastigotes, showing a differential gene expression during the life cycle. There are also differences according to T. cruzi populations used, which were isolated from different geographical areas and were harvested from different sources. This study clearly showed the Colombian SA strain that is highly virulent, has differences in its protein profile when as compared with Dm28c clone, Tulahuen strain and Colombian Astec strain which is not virulent. The proteins were separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Specie-specific proteins were found which allow us to identify them, just as it occurs with T. rangeli (Choachí-2V strain), which has three protein bands. However, two of them are not only present in epimastigotes but also in trypomastigotes, but the other is exclusive of epimastigote forms.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Protozoan Proteins/analysis , Trypanosoma/isolation & purification , Blotting, Western , Colombia , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Species Specificity
13.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-35599

ABSTRACT

In recent years, several rapid diagnostic tests for falciparum malaria have been developed. KAT test results were compared with microscopy on 90 consecutive patients hospitalized at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Bangkok, Thailand. Fifty-one patients had P. falciparum infections while 49 had malaria due to other plasmodium species. For a geometric mean +/-SD (Min;Max;range) parasitemia of 11,481 +/- 5.0 (88;713,838;713,750), the sensitivity of the KAT test was 96% (95% CI = 86-99.5), the specificity was 92% (95% CI = 80-99), the accuracy was 94% and the reliability was 85%. These findings suggest that the KAT test is of potential interest in the diagnosis of falciparum malaria in Thailand.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies, Protozoan/analysis , Confidence Intervals , Humans , Malaria, Falciparum/diagnosis , Microscopy/methods , Plasmodium falciparum/isolation & purification , Protozoan Proteins/analysis , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , Sensitivity and Specificity , Serologic Tests/methods , Thailand
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-128640

ABSTRACT

Identification of expressed protein profiles and antigenic determination are some of the most challenging aspects of proteomics. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) combined with immunoblot analysis were employed to study the N. caninum proteome. Protein sample preparation was carried out by first conducting sonication, followed by adding lysis buffer containing 7M urea plus 2M thiourea to the purified tachyzoites in order to complete disruption. A total of 335 differentially expressed protein spots were detected using pH 4-7 IPG strip (7 cm) that were run in a 56 kVh isoelectric focusing (IEF) system. Of the spots analyzed, 64 were identified as antigenic spots on immunoblot profile. Major antigenic spots appeared at 65 kDa (pI 5.2-5.3), 51 kDa (pI 5.5), 38 kDa (pI 5.1), 33 kDa (pI 4.4), 29 kDa (pI 5.6) and 15.5 kDa (pI 5.0) were observed to be significantly distinct compared to the rest of the antigenic spots. The results indicate that combination of 2-DE and immunoblotting methods were thought as very useful tools in defining both proteins and antigens of N. caninum tachyzoites. Additionally, present 2-DE profiles may be valuable in further proteomic approaches and study of the pathogen.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibody Formation , Antigens, Protozoan/analysis , Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional/methods , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Epitopes/analysis , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Immunoblotting/methods , Isoelectric Focusing , Neospora/chemistry , Proteome/analysis , Proteomics , Protozoan Proteins/analysis
15.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-86916

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The present study compared the diagnostic and prognostic utility of two rapid tests the (Paracheck and OptiMal) versus conventional smear microscopy. METHODS: Using two independent microscopists we carried out the three tests in 31 adult cases of smear positive, acute, uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. All three tests were done pretreatment, and on Days 8, 15 and 29. RESULTS: Compared to microscopy, the Paracheck had a sensitivity of 100%, while the OptiMal had a sensitivity of 83.7%. The lower sensitivity of OptiMal resulted from misidentification by both microscopists of 6/31 cases as Plasmodium vivax. As a follow up tool, the OptiMal was better than Paracheck, due to the earlier disappearance of the parasite LDH. Also in the Paracheck, between microscopists, there was a significant difference in reading the tests, on Days 8 and 15. CONCLUSION: Our study reiterates, the continued utility of conventional smear microscopy.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Animals , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/analysis , Malaria, Falciparum/diagnosis , Male , Mass Screening/methods , Middle Aged , Plasmodium falciparum/enzymology , Predictive Value of Tests , Proteins/analysis , Protozoan Proteins/analysis , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , Sensitivity and Specificity , Serologic Tests/methods
17.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-90035

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: A firm diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) requires demonstration of the parasite in splenic or bone marrow aspirate. The aim of this prospective study was to assess the usefulness of K39 strip test as a noninvasive method of diagnosing visceral leishmaniasis under field conditions by testing serum antibody to the leishmanial antigen K39. MATERIAL AND METHODS: One drop of serum/blood was applied to the sample application pad on the test strip, which was diluted with 2 drops of chase buffer solution. The development of two visible red lines indicates the presence of IgG anti-K39. In the first phase of the study (2001), a total of 200 patients (Active VL-70, ex-VL-30, healthy endemic control-20 and patients with other tropical diseases-80) were tested with the K39 strip test at the School of Tropical Medicine, Kolkata. In the second phase of the study (2002), the test was applied in a remote tribal area of West Bengal where an epidemic of VL had occurred. Thirty-two patients were identified in 207 villagers of the affected area; all of them were tested with the K39 strip test. RESULTS: In the first phase, all VL and ex-VL cases gave positive results (100%). Ten percent of the healthy endemic controls were positive. The test results were negative in all other prevalent tropical diseases (100%). The estimated sensitivity of the test was 100% and the specificity was 98.18%. In the second phase of the study, all 32 patients of the epidemic were shown to be positive. All patients were treated with sodium stibogluconate injections and they recovered uneventfully. CONCLUSIONS: K39 strip test is ideal for rapid reliable field diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis. The test has high sensitivity and specificity but it remains positive long after treatment (up to 3 years).


Subject(s)
Agglutination Tests , Animals , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Antigens, Protozoan/analysis , Case-Control Studies , Costs and Cost Analysis , Female , Humans , India , Leishmania/immunology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Male , Protozoan Proteins/analysis , Reagent Strips/economics , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Serologic Tests/instrumentation
18.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 22(3): 253-262, sep. 2002.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-330483

ABSTRACT

The reconstruction of Giardia lamblia life cycle in vitro is an excellent tool for the study of the parasite's molecular biology. The present work describes techniques developed that better define parasite differentiation. An encystation protocol is presented along with a method for isolation and purification of the produced cysts. The cyst morphology at the light microscopy level is identical to that of in vivo cysts. A two-dimension protein map obtained by high-resolution electrophoresis indicated that most of the parasite's proteins are acid. Based on this result, the two dimension gel electrophoresis used a pH 4-7 gradient in the first, isoelectric focusing dimension. Differences in protein expression during the stages of encystation were clearly discerned, as well as images of the parasite obtained by light and by transmission electron microscopy that describe the morphological and the ultrastructural changes that occur as the cysts are produced in vitro.


Subject(s)
Animals , Giardia lamblia , Protozoan Proteins/analysis , Protozoan Proteins/biosynthesis , Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional , Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-58167

ABSTRACT

The antigenic domain of the major surface protein (Nc-p43) of Neospora caninum was examined by polymerase chain reaction of its gene fragments and recombinant expression as GST fusion proteins. The fragments of Nc-p43 were as follow: a total open reading frame (OFR), T; OFR without signal sequence and C-terminal hydrophobic sequence, S; N-terminal 2/3 parts of S, A; C-terminal 2/3 parts, P; N-terminal 1/3 part, X; middle 1/3 part, Y; and C-terminal 1/3 part, Z, respectively. The DNA fragments were cloned into pGEX-4T vector. Recombinant plasmids transformed into Escherichia coli of BL21 pLysS (DE3) strain were induced to express GST or GST fused fragments of Nc-p43 such as 69 kDa protein for T, 66 kDa for S, 52 kDa for A, 53 kDa for P, and 40 kDa proteins for X, Y, and Z, respectively in SDS-PAGE. The Nc-p43 fragments of T, S, and P reacted with a bovine serum of neosporosis while those of A, X, Y, and Z together with GST did not in the western blot. These findings suggest that the antigenic domain of Nc-p43 of N. caninum may be localized in the C-terminal 2/3 parts. Together with A19 clone in SAG1 of Toxoplasma gondii (Nam et al., 1996), the P fragment of Nc-p43 could be used as efficient antigens to diagnose and differentiate those infections with both species.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Base Sequence , Biomarkers/analysis , Blotting, Western , Cells, Cultured , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coccidiosis/diagnosis , Neospora/immunology , Protozoan Proteins/analysis , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Vero Cells/parasitology
20.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 95(4): 591-4, July-Aug. 2000.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-264236

ABSTRACT

Another additional peculiarity in Leishmania will be discussed about of the amino acid divergence rate of three structural proteins: acidic ribosomal P1 and P2b proteins, and histone H3 by using multiple sequence alignment and dendrograms. These structural proteins present a high rate of divergence regarding to their homologous protein in Trypanosoma cruzi. At this regard, L. (V.) peruviana P1 and T. cruzi P1 showed 57.4 per cent of divergence rate. Likewise, L. (V.) braziliensis histone H3 and acidic ribosomal P2 protein exhibited 31.8 per cent and 41.7 per cent respectively of rate of divergence in comparison with their homologous in T. cruzi.


Subject(s)
Animals , Histones/analysis , Leishmania/chemistry , Protozoan Proteins/analysis , Ribosomal Proteins/analysis , Amino Acid Sequence , Amino Acids/analysis , Leishmania/genetics , Phylogeny
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