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1.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 111(12): 721-730, Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-829257

ABSTRACT

The main challenge in the control of malaria has been the emergence of drug-resistant parasites. The presence of drug-resistant Plasmodium sp. has raised the need for new antimalarial drugs. Molecular modelling techniques have been used as tools to develop new drugs. In this study, we employed virtual screening of a pyrazol derivative (Tx001) against four malaria targets: plasmepsin-IV, plasmepsin-II, falcipain-II, and PfATP6. The receiver operating characteristic curves and area under the curve (AUC) were established for each molecular target. The AUC values obtained for plasmepsin-IV, plasmepsin-II, and falcipain-II were 0.64, 0.92, and 0.94, respectively. All docking simulations were carried out using AutoDock Vina software. The ligand Tx001 exhibited a better interaction with PfATP6 than with the reference compound (-12.2 versus -6.8 Kcal/mol). The Tx001-PfATP6 complex was submitted to molecular dynamics simulations in vacuum implemented on an NAMD program. The ligand Tx001 docked at the same binding site as thapsigargin, which is a natural inhibitor of PfATP6. Compound TX001 was evaluated in vitro with a P. falciparum strain (W2) and a human cell line (WI-26VA4). Tx001 was discovered to be active against P. falciparum (IC50 = 8.2 µM) and inactive against WI-26VA4 (IC50 > 200 µM). Further ligand optimisation cycles generated new prospects for docking and biological assays.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antimalarials/chemistry , Aspartic Acid Endopeptidases/chemistry , Cysteine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protozoan Proteins/chemistry , Thapsigargin/chemistry , Computational Biology/methods , Molecular Targeted Therapy/methods
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-83625

ABSTRACT

Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite of the phylum Apicomplexa, can infect all warm-blooded vertebrates, including humans, livestock, and marine mammals. The aim of this study was to investigate whether superoxide dismutase (SOD) of T. gondii can be used as a new marker for genetic study or a potential vaccine candidate. The partial genome region of the SOD gene was amplified and sequenced from 10 different T. gondii isolates from different parts of the world, and all the sequences were examined by PCR-RFLP, sequence analysis, and phylogenetic reconstruction. The results showed that partial SOD gene sequences ranged from 1,702 bp to 1,712 bp and A + T contents varied from 50.1% to 51.1% among all examined isolates. Sequence alignment analysis identified total 43 variable nucleotide positions, and these results showed that 97.5% sequence similarity of SOD gene among all examined isolates. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these SOD sequences were not an effective molecular marker for differential identification of T. gondii strains. The research demonstrated existence of low sequence variation in the SOD gene among T. gondii strains of different genotypes from different hosts and geographical regions.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Base Sequence , Cats , Genetic Variation , Goats , Humans , Molecular Sequence Data , Phylogeny , Protozoan Proteins/chemistry , Sequence Alignment , Sheep , Superoxide Dismutase/chemistry , Toxoplasma/classification , Toxoplasmosis/parasitology , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/parasitology
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-19167

ABSTRACT

Cryptosporidium andersoni ATP-binding cassette (CaABC) is an important membrane protein involved in substrate transport across the membrane. In this research, the nucleotide binding domain (NBD) of CaABC gene was amplified by PCR, and the eukaryotic expression vector of pEGFP-C1-CaNBD was reconstructed. Then, the recombinant plasmid of pEGFP-C1-CaNBD was transformed into the mouse intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) to study the iron transportation function of CaABC. The results indicated that NBD region of CaABC gene can significantly elevate the transport efficiency of Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, and HCO3 - in IECs (P<0.05). The significance of this study is to find the ATPase inhibitors for NBD region of CaABC gene and to inhibit ATP binding and nutrient transport of CaABC transporter. Thus, C. andersoni will be killed by inhibition of nutrient uptake. This will open up a new way for treatment of cryptosporidiosis.


Subject(s)
ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters/chemistry , Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Calcium/metabolism , Cloning, Molecular , Cryptosporidiosis/parasitology , Cryptosporidium/chemistry , Humans , Iron/metabolism , Mice , Molecular Sequence Data , Protein Structure, Tertiary , Protozoan Proteins/chemistry , Sequence Alignment
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-19166

ABSTRACT

Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunistic protozoan parasite that can infect almost all warm-blooded animals including humans with a worldwide distribution. Micronemes play an important role in invasion process of T. gondii, associated with the attachment, motility, and host cell recognition. In this research, sequence diversity in microneme protein 6 (MIC6) gene among 16 T. gondii isolates from different hosts and geographical regions and 1 reference strain was examined. The results showed that the sequence of all the examined T. gondii strains was 1,050 bp in length, and their A + T content was between 45.7% and 46.1%. Sequence analysis presented 33 nucleotide mutation positions (0-1.1%), resulting in 23 amino acid substitutions (0-2.3%) aligned with T. gondii RH strain. Moreover, T. gondii strains representing the 3 classical genotypes (Type I, II, and III) were separated into different clusters based on the locus of MIC6 using phylogenetic analyses by Bayesian inference (BI), maximum parsimony (MP), and maximum likelihood (ML), but T. gondii strains belonging to ToxoDB #9 were separated into different clusters. Our results suggested that MIC6 gene is not a suitable marker for T. gondii population genetic studies.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Base Sequence , Cats , Cell Adhesion Molecules/chemistry , Deer , Genetic Variation , Genotype , Goats , Humans , Molecular Sequence Data , Phylogeny , Protozoan Proteins/chemistry , Sequence Alignment , Sheep , Swine , Toxoplasma/classification , Toxoplasmosis/parasitology , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/parasitology
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-9589

ABSTRACT

After invasion of red blood cells, malaria matures within the cell by degrading hemoglobin avidly. For enormous protein breakdown in trophozoite stage, many efficient and ordered proteolysis networks have been postulated and exploited. In this study, a potential interaction of a 60-kDa Plasmodium falciparum (Pf)-heat shock protein (Hsp60) and Pf-calpain, a cysteine protease, was explored. Pf-infected RBC was isolated and the endogenous Pf-Hsp60 and Pf-calpain were determined by western blot analysis and similar antigenicity of GroEL and Pf-Hsp60 was determined with anti-Pf-Hsp60. Potential interaction of Pf-calpain and Pf-Hsp60 was determined by immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence assay. Mizoribine, a well-known inhibitor of Hsp60, attenuated both Pf-calpain enzyme activity as well as P. falciparum growth. The presented data suggest that the Pf-Hsp60 may function on Pf-calpain in a part of networks during malaria growth.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Calpain/genetics , Chaperonin 60/chemistry , Erythrocytes/parasitology , Humans , Malaria, Falciparum/parasitology , Molecular Sequence Data , Plasmodium falciparum/chemistry , Protein Binding , Protozoan Proteins/chemistry , Sequence Alignment
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-225157

ABSTRACT

Plasmodium falciparum can invade all stages of red blood cells, while Plasmodium vivax can invade only reticulocytes. Although many P. vivax proteins have been discovered, their functions are largely unknown. Among them, P. vivax reticulocyte binding proteins (PvRBP1 and PvRBP2) recognize and bind to reticulocytes. Both proteins possess a C-terminal hydrophobic transmembrane domain, which drives adhesion to reticulocytes. PvRBP1 and PvRBP2 are large (> 326 kDa), which hinders identification of the functional domains. In this study, the complete genome information of the P. vivax RBP family was thoroughly analyzed using a prediction server with bioinformatics data to predict B-cell epitope domains. Eleven pvrbp family genes that included 2 pseudogenes and 9 full or partial length genes were selected and used to express recombinant proteins in a wheat germ cell-free system. The expressed proteins were used to evaluate the humoral immune response with vivax malaria patients and healthy individual serum samples by protein microarray. The recombinant fragments of 9 PvRBP proteins were successfully expressed; the soluble proteins ranged in molecular weight from 16 to 34 kDa. Evaluation of the humoral immune response to each recombinant PvRBP protein indicated a high antigenicity, with 38-88% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Of them, N-terminal parts of PvRBP2c (PVX_090325-1) and PvRBP2 like partial A (PVX_090330-1) elicited high antigenicity. In addition, the PvRBP2-like homologue B (PVX_116930) fragment was newly identified as high antigenicity and may be exploited as a potential antigenic candidate among the PvRBP family. The functional activity of the PvRBP family on merozoite invasion remains unknown.


Subject(s)
Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/chemistry , Female , Humans , Immunodominant Epitopes/chemistry , Malaria, Vivax/immunology , Middle Aged , Plasmodium vivax/chemistry , Protein Structure, Tertiary , Protozoan Proteins/chemistry , Reticulocytes/parasitology
7.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 34(4): 556-566, oct.-dic. 2014. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-730939

ABSTRACT

Introducción. No existen reportes sobre las variaciones en la secuencia de los genes blanco de los medicamentos anti- Toxoplasma en aislamientos provenientes de Suramérica. Objetivo. Clonar y secuenciar los genes de la dihidrofolato-reductasa ( dhfr ) y la dihidropteroato-sintetasa ( dhps ) de la cepa de referencia RH y de dos aislamientos colombianos de Toxoplasma gondii. Materiales y métodos. Se obtuvieron dos aislamientos de T. gondii en líquido céfalorraquídeo de pacientes colombianos positivos para HIV con toxoplasmosis cerebral. Se extrajo el ADN de los genes dhfr y dhps y se amplificaron mediante reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR). Los productos fueron clonados en el vector pGEM-T y secuenciados. Resultados. Se encontró un cambio de adenina por guanina (A « G) en la posición 235 del exón 2 del gen dhps , dos cambios de guanina por citocina (G « C) en las posiciones 259 y 260 y un cambio de timina por guanina (T « G) en la posición 371 del exón 4 del gen dhps. Por análisis bioinformático, en este último exón se identificó un polimorfismo no sinónimo en la región codificante, que podría llevar al cambio de una Glu (CAA o CAG) por una His (codificada por los codones AAU o AAC). Se calculó el modelo estructural de la enzima dihidropteroato-sintetasa (DHPS) de T. gondii y se identificaron las modificaciones en la estructura secundaria ocasionadas por las mutaciones. Conclusiones. La metodología estandarizada puede servir como base para la búsqueda de polimorfismos en muestras de pacientes con diferentes manifestaciones clínicas de toxoplasmosis y para establecer su posible relación con los cambios en la sensibilidad a los antifolatos y la reacción al tratamiento.


Introduction: There are no reports describing polymorphisms in target genes of anti- Toxoplasma drugs in South American isolates. Objective: This study sought to perform cloning and sequencing of the dihydrofolate reductase ( dhfr ) and dihydropteroate-synthase ( dhps ) genes of the reference Rh strain and two Colombian isolates of Toxoplasma gondii . Materials and methods: Two isolates were obtained from the cerebrospinal fluid of HIV-infected patients with cerebral toxoplasmosis. A DNA extraction technique and PCR assay for the dhfr and dhps genes were standardized, and the products of amplification were cloned into Escherichia coli and sequenced. Results: One polymorphism (A « G) was found at position 235 of exon 2 in the dhps gene. In addition, two polymorphisms (G « C) at positions 259 and 260 and one polymorphism (T « G) at position 371 within exon 4 of the dhps gene were detected. In this last exon, a bioinformatic analysis revealed a non-synonymous polymorphism in the coding region that could lead to the substitution of Glu (CAA or CAG) for His (encoded by codons AAU or AAC). A structural model of the T. gondii DHPS protein was calculated, and the results revealed modifications in secondary structure due to mutations. Conclusions: The methods described in this study can be used as a tool to search for polymorphisms in samples from patients with different clinical manifestations of toxoplasmosis and to examine their relationship with the therapeutic response.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Male , Mice , Dihydropteroate Synthase/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Protozoan Proteins/genetics , Tetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase/genetics , Toxoplasma/enzymology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/cerebrospinal fluid , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/parasitology , Amino Acid Substitution , Base Sequence , Cloning, Molecular , Colombia , Cerebrospinal Fluid/parasitology , DNA, Protozoan/genetics , DNA, Recombinant/genetics , Dihydropteroate Synthase/chemistry , Exons/genetics , Models, Molecular , Molecular Sequence Data , Protein Conformation , Protozoan Proteins/chemistry , Sequence Alignment , Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid , Toxoplasma/genetics , Toxoplasma/isolation & purification , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/parasitology , Toxoplasmosis, Cerebral/cerebrospinal fluid , Toxoplasmosis, Cerebral/parasitology
8.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 34(4): 631-641, oct.-dic. 2014. ilus, mapas, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-730947

ABSTRACT

Durante la última década se han reportado numerosos casos de infección por Trypanosoma cruzi por vía oral, debidos a la contaminación de alimentos con heces de triatominos silvestres o con secreciones de reservorios en áreas donde los vectores domiciliados han sido controlados o no hay antecedentes de domiciliación. Con base en criterios epidemiológicos, clínicos y socioeconómicos, la Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Agricultura y la Alimentación (FAO) y la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) establecieron una clasificación de los parásitos transmitidos por contaminación de alimentos en diferentes regiones del mundo, en la cual T. cruzi ocupó el décimo lugar de importancia en un grupo de 24 parásitos. Los cambios ambientales, como la deforestación y el calentamiento global, han afectado los ecotopos y el comportamiento de los vectores y de los reservorios de T. cruzi , de manera que estos se han desplazado a nuevas zonas, generando una nueva forma de transmisión por contaminación de alimentos que requiere su evaluación en el país. La presente revisión aborda la transmisión oral de la enfermedad de Chagas con énfasis en los estudios orientados a identificar los factores de riesgo, las especies de triatominos involucrados, la fisiopatología de la infección oral y los genotipos del parásito que están implicados en esta forma de transmisión en Colombia y en otras regiones de América Latina, así como la necesidad de adoptar políticas para su control y vigilancia epidemiológica.


Many cases of infection caused by the oral transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi have been reported during the last decade. These have been due to the contamination of food by faeces from sylvatic triatomines or by leakage from reservoirs in areas where domiciliated vectors have been controlled or where there has been no prior background of domiciliation. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have used epidemiological, clinical and socioeconomic criteria for ranking parasites transmitted by the contamination of food in different areas of the world; T. cruzi was placed tenth in importance amongst a group of 24 parasites in such ranking. Environmental changes such as deforestation and global warming have affected ecotopes and the behaviour of T. cruzi vectors and reservoirs so that these have become displaced to new areas, thereby leading to such new transmission scenario caused by the contamination of food, which requires evaluation in Colombia. The current review deals with the oral transmission of Chagas´ disease, emphasising studies aimed at identifying the pertinent risk factors, the triatomine species involved, the physiopathology of oral infection, the parasite´s genotypes implicated in this type of transmission in Colombia and other Latin American regions, as well as the need for ongoing epidemiological surveillance and control policies.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Chagas Disease/transmission , Food Parasitology , Feces/parasitology , Fruit/parasitology , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Meat/parasitology , Rhodnius/parasitology , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolation & purification , Vegetables/parasitology , Animals, Wild/parasitology , Armadillos/parasitology , Blood Donors , Beverages/parasitology , Blood Transfusion/adverse effects , Colombia , Chagas Disease/congenital , Chagas Disease/epidemiology , Chagas Disease/parasitology , Disease Reservoirs/parasitology , Genotype , Gastric Mucosa/parasitology , Housing , Mouth Mucosa/parasitology , Parasitemia/parasitology , Parasitemia/transmission , Peptide Hydrolases/physiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/parasitology , Protozoan Proteins/chemistry , Protozoan Proteins/physiology , Risk Factors , Trypanosoma cruzi/genetics , Trypanosoma cruzi/pathogenicity , Trypanosoma cruzi/physiology , Variant Surface Glycoproteins, Trypanosoma/chemistry , Variant Surface Glycoproteins, Trypanosoma/physiology
9.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(5): 608-617, 19/08/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-720427

ABSTRACT

Plasmodium vivax infects human erythrocytes through a major pathway that requires interaction between an apical parasite protein, the Duffy binding protein (PvDBP) and its receptor on reticulocytes, the Duffy antigen/receptor for chemokines (DARC). The importance of the interaction between PvDBP (region II, DBPII) and DARC to P. vivax infection has motivated our malaria research group at Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (state of Minas Gerais, Brazil) to conduct a number of immunoepidemiological studies to characterise the naturally acquired immunity to PvDBP in populations living in the Amazon rainforest. In this review, we provide an update on the immunology and molecular epidemiology of PvDBP in the Brazilian Amazon - an area of markedly unstable malaria transmission - and compare it with data from other parts of Latin America, as well as Asia and Oceania.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antigens, Protozoan/immunology , Malaria Vaccines/immunology , Malaria, Vivax/prevention & control , Plasmodium vivax/immunology , Protozoan Proteins/immunology , Receptors, Cell Surface/immunology , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Antigens, Protozoan/chemistry , Brazil , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Geography, Medical , Protozoan Proteins/chemistry , Receptors, Cell Surface/chemistry
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-46702

ABSTRACT

We studied on the proteomic characteristics of Toxoplasma gondii KI-1 tachyzoites which were originally isolated from a Korean patient, and compared with those of the well-known virulent RH strain using 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), mass spectrometry, and quantitative real-time PCR. Two-dimensional separation of the total proteins isolated from KI-1 tachyzoites revealed up to 150 spots, of which 121 were consistent with those of RH tachyzoites. Of the remaining 29 spots, 14 showed greater than 5-fold difference in density between the KI-1 and RH tachyzoites at a pH of 5.0-8.0. Among the 14 spots, 5 from the KI-1 isolate and 7 from the RH strain were identified using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and database searches. The spots from the KI-1 tachyzoites were dense granule proteins (GRA 2, 3, 6, and 7), hypoxanthine-guanine-xanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGRPTase), and uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRTase). The spots from the RH strain were surface antigen 1 (SAG 1), L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), actin, chorismate synthase, peroximal catalase, hexokinase, bifunctional dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (DHTR-TS), and nucleoside-triphosphatases (NTPases). Quantitative real-time PCR supported our mass spectrometric results by showing the elevated expression of the genes encoding GRA 2, 3, and 6 and UPRTase in the KI-1 tachyzoites and those encoding GRA 7, SAG 1, NTPase, and chorismate synthase in the RH tachyzoites. These observations demonstrate that the protein compositions of KI-1 and RH tachyzoites are similar but differential protein expression is involved in virulence.


Subject(s)
Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional , Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental , Humans , Molecular Sequence Data , Proteomics , Protozoan Proteins/chemistry , Toxoplasma/chemistry , Toxoplasmosis/parasitology
11.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 104(5): 706-709, Aug. 2009. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-528077

ABSTRACT

The association of the pellicle with cytoskeletal elements in Toxoplasma gondii allows this parasite to maintain its mechanical integrity and makes possible its gliding motility and cell invasion. The inner membrane complex (IMC) resembles the flattened membrane sacs observed in free-living protozoa and these sacs have been found to associate with cytoskeletal proteins such as articulins. We used immunofluorescence microscopy to characterise the presence and distribution of plateins, a sub-family of articulins, in T. gondii tachyzoites. A dispersed labelling of the whole protozoan body was observed. Electron microscopy of detergent-extracted cells revealed the presence of a network of 10 nm filaments distributed throughout the parasite. These filaments were labelled with anti-platein antibodies. Screening the sequenced T. gondii genome, we obtained the sequence of an IMC predicted protein with 25 percent identity and 42 percent similarity to the platein isoform alpha 1 present in Euplotes aediculatus, but with 42 percent identity and 55 percent similarity to that found in Euglena gracilis, suggesting strong resemblance to articulins.


Subject(s)
Cytoskeletal Proteins , Cytoskeleton , Protozoan Proteins , Toxoplasma , Base Sequence , Cytoskeletal Proteins/chemistry , Cytoskeletal Proteins/genetics , Cytoskeleton/chemistry , Cytoskeleton/ultrastructure , Microscopy, Electron , Microscopy, Immunoelectron , Molecular Sequence Data , Protozoan Proteins/chemistry , Protozoan Proteins/genetics , Sequence Alignment , Toxoplasma/genetics , Toxoplasma/metabolism , Toxoplasma/ultrastructure
12.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 104(supl.1): 295-300, July 2009. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-520892

ABSTRACT

Trypanosoma cruzi proline racemases (TcPRAC) are homodimeric enzymes that interconvert the L and D-enantiomers of proline. At least two paralogous copies of proline racemase (PR) genes are present per parasite haploid genome and they are differentially expressed during T. cruzi development. Non-infective epimastigote forms that overexpress PR genes differentiate more readily into metacyclic infective forms that are more invasive to host cells, indicating that PR participates in mechanisms of virulence acquisition. Using a combination of biochemical and enzymatic methods, we show here that, in addition to free D-amino acids, non-infective epimastigote and infective metacyclic parasite extracts possess peptides composed notably of D-proline. The relative contribution of TcPRAC to D-proline availability and its further assembly into peptides was estimated through the use of wild-type parasites and parasites over-expressing TcPRAC genes. Our data suggest that D-proline-bearing peptides, similarly to the mucopeptide layer of bacterial cell walls, may be of benefit to T. cruzi by providing resistance against host proteolytic mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Isomerases/genetics , Protozoan Proteins/chemistry , Trypanosoma cruzi/chemistry , Amino Acid Isomerases/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation , Protozoan Proteins/genetics , Protozoan Proteins/metabolism , Trypanosoma cruzi/genetics , Trypanosoma cruzi/metabolism
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-191535

ABSTRACT

A 57-year old man who was admitted to an emergency room of a tertiary hospital with hemoptysis developed malarial fever 19 days later and then died from severe falciparum malaria 2 days later. He had not traveled outside of Korea for over 30 years. Through intensive interviews and epidemiological surveys, we found that a foreign patient with a recent history of travel to Africa was transferred to the same hospital with severe falciparum malaria. We confirmed through molecular genotyping of the MSP-1 gene that Plasmodium falciparum genotypes of the 2 patients were identical. It is suggested that a breach of standard infection control precautions resulted in this P. falciparum transmission between 2 patients in a hospital environment. This is the first report of a nosocomial transmission of falciparum malaria in Korea.


Subject(s)
Africa , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Cross Infection/parasitology , Fatal Outcome , Humans , Korea , Malaria, Falciparum/parasitology , Male , Merozoite Surface Protein 1/chemistry , Middle Aged , Molecular Sequence Data , Plasmodium falciparum/chemistry , Protozoan Proteins/chemistry , Sequence Alignment , Travel
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-14770

ABSTRACT

Plasmodium vivax, a protozoan malaria parasite of humans, represents a major public health concern in the Republic of Korea (= South Korea). However, little is known about the genetic properties and population structures of the P. vivax isolates circulating in South Korea. This article reviews known polymorphic genetic markers in South Korean isolates of P. vivax and briefly summarizes the current issues surrounding the gene and population structures of this parasite. The critical genetic characteristics of major antigens of the parasite, such as circumsporozoite protein (CSP), merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP-1) and MSP-3, Duffy binding protein (DBP), apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA-1), and GAM-1, are also discussed.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Antigens, Protozoan/chemistry , Base Sequence , Humans , Malaria, Vivax/parasitology , Molecular Sequence Data , Plasmodium vivax/chemistry , Polymorphism, Genetic , Protozoan Proteins/chemistry , Republic of Korea , Sequence Alignment
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-163956

ABSTRACT

A monoclonal antibody against Toxoplasma gondii of Tg556 clone (Tg556) blotted a 29 kDa protein, which was localized in the dense granules of tachyzoites and secreted into the parasitophorous vacuolar membrane (PVM) after infection to host cells. A cDNA fragment encoding the protein was obtained by screening a T. gondii cDNA expression library with Tg556, and the full-length was completed by 5'-RACE of 2,086 bp containing an open reading frame (ORF) of 669 bp. The ORF encoded a polypeptide of 222 amino acids homologous to the revised GRA3 but not to the first reported one. The polypeptide has 3 hydrophobic moieties of an N-terminal stop transfer sequence and 2 transmembrane domains (TMD) in posterior half of the sequence, a cytoplasmic localization motif after the second TMD and an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retrival motif in the C-terminal end, which suggests GRA3 as a type III transmembrane protein. With the ORF of GRA3, yeast two-hybrid assay was performed in HeLa cDNA expression library, which resulted in the interaction of GRA3 with calcium modulating ligand (CAMLG), a type II transmembrane protein of ER. The specific binding of GRA3 and CAMLG was confirmed by glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down and immunoprecipitation assays. The localities of fluorescence transfectionally expressed from GRA3 and CAMLG plasmids were overlapped completely in HeLa cell cytoplasm. In immunofluorescence assay, GRA3 and CAMLG were shown to be co-localized in the PVM of host cells. Structural binding of PVM-inserted GRA3 to CAMLG of ER suggested the receptor-ligand of ER recruitment to PVM during the parasitism of T. gondii.


Subject(s)
Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Endoplasmic Reticulum/metabolism , HeLa Cells , Host-Parasite Interactions , Humans , Molecular Sequence Data , Protozoan Proteins/chemistry , Toxoplasma/physiology , Toxoplasmosis/metabolism
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-19944

ABSTRACT

The diagnosis of cryptosporidiosis has been carried out using coprologic techniques in the Republic of Korea. However, antibody responses to Cryptosporidium have rarely been studied. Serum antibodies from HIV-positive/oocyst-positive Korean patients recognized significantly 31 and 27 kDa antigens, and HIV-negative/oocyst-positive individuals clearly reacted to 15/17 kDa antigens. Compared with oocyst-positive cases, 18.7% and 75.8% of sera from HIV-positive patients reacted to 31 and 27 kDa antigens. Only 11.1% of HIV-negative individuals reacted to 15/17 kDa. Based on these findings, serum antibody responses were different between HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals infected with Cryptosporidium, and it is suggested that HIV-positive patients are more frequently exposed to C. parvum compared to HIV-negative individuals.


Subject(s)
AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/blood , Adult , Aged , Animals , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Antibody Formation , Antigens, Protozoan/chemistry , Blotting, Western/methods , Cryptosporidiosis/blood , Feces/parasitology , Female , Humans , Korea , Male , Middle Aged , Protozoan Proteins/chemistry
17.
Biocell ; 30(3): 479-490, dec. 2006. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-491547

ABSTRACT

Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite causing Chagas disease, contains a number of proteolytic enzymes. The recent completion of the genome sequence of the T. cruzi CL Brener clone suggests the presence of 70 cysteine peptidases, 40 serine peptidases (none of them from the chymotrypsin family), about 250 metallopeptidases (most leishmanolysin homologues), 25 threonine peptidases, and only two aspartyl peptidases, none of them from the pepsin family. The cysteine peptidases belong to 7 families of Clan CA, 3 families of Clan CD, and one each of Clans CE and CF In Clan CA, the C1 family is represented by cruzipains 1 and 2, biochemically well characterized, as well as cathepsin B and two other cathepsins. There are a number of homologues to calpains (family C2), probably non-functional, lacking the Ca-binding domain. Family C54 includes the Atg4 proteinases (autophagins), which seem to be involved in the autophagic process. Clan CD includes family C14, the metacaspases. We have expressed the metacaspases TcMCA3 and TcMCA5, and obtained indirect evidence of their participation in programmed cell death induced by fresh human serum in the parasite. More experiments are required to better define their role in apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Amino Acid Sequence , Cysteine Endopeptidases/genetics , Cysteine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Cysteine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Trypanosoma cruzi/growth & development , Trypanosoma cruzi/enzymology , Trypanosoma cruzi/genetics , Apoptosis , Cell-Free System , Genome, Protozoan , Life Cycle Stages , Molecular Sequence Data , Protozoan Proteins/genetics , Protozoan Proteins/metabolism , Protozoan Proteins/chemistry , Sequence Alignment , Transfection
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-72556

ABSTRACT

Toxoplasma gondii is a persistent protozoan parasite capable of infecting almost any warm-blooded vertebrates. SAG1 (p30) is the prototypic member of a superfamily of surface antigens called SRS (SAG1-related sequence). It constitutes the most abundant and predominant antigen. In this paper the primary structure of mature SAG1 gene of an Indonesian T. gondii isolate is described and sequence comparison is made with published sequence data of 7 other strains or isolates. Sequence comparison indicated that SAG1 is highly conserved through evolution and despite parasite spreading world-wide. Sequences may be divided into two major families, independent of the strain/isolate geographic origin. Variations were mainly localized at the C-terminal half or domain 2 and some clustered in restricted areas. Sequence comparison allowed us to define the Indonesian isolate as genuine virulent RH strain. A phylogenetic tree of Toxoplasma strains/isolates was constructed based on SAG1.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Antigens, Protozoan/chemistry , Base Sequence , Cloning, Molecular , DNA, Protozoan/chemistry , Goat Diseases/parasitology , Goats , Indonesia , Molecular Sequence Data , Phylogeny , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Protozoan Proteins/chemistry , Sequence Alignment , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Toxoplasma/genetics , Toxoplasmosis/parasitology , Zoonoses/parasitology
19.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-30706

ABSTRACT

The human malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum secretes various intra-and extra-cellular proteins during its asexual life cycle in human RBC. Histidine rich protein-II (HRP-II) is one of the most prominent proteins, found to be secreted by P. falciparum throughout the asexual cycle with the peak during mature schizont stage of the parasite development in human IRBC. The high histidine content (35% of the total amino acids in protein) of this protein suggested the potential to bind divalent metal ions. We have demonstrated by metal chelate chromatography, an extraordinary capacity of HRP-II to bind nickel ions (Ni++) and employed this characteristic to purify the extra-cellular HRP-II protein secreted by P. falciparum from culture supernatant. The identity of the purified protein was verified by the relative molecular weight on SDS-PAGE, by reacting with polyclonal antibodies directed against it using Western blot technique.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antigens, Protozoan/chemistry , Chelating Agents/chemistry , Chromatography, Affinity , Humans , Nickel/chemistry , Peptides/chemistry , Plasmodium falciparum/immunology , Protozoan Proteins/chemistry
20.
Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health ; 2002 ; 33 Suppl 3(): 8-13
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-32031

ABSTRACT

The adhesion of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes to vascular endothelium and to uninfected red blood cells (RBCs) plays a key role in the pathology of severe malaria. Adhesion is known to be mediated in part by the antigenically-variant erythrocyte membrane protein-1 (PfEMP-1), which is encoded by the var-gene family of P. falciparum. It has recently been reported that in vitro a single parasite simultaneously transcribes multiple var-genes but that, through a developmentally regulated process, the parasite selects only one PfEMP-1 that will to reach the surface of the host RBC. Were this to be true in vivo, one would expect a correlation between the type of var/PfEMP-1 that is expressed on the parasite-infected RBC and the severity of clinical disease. In order to test this assumption, we determined the sequence of the var-gene that was expressed by the parasites in patients' blood samples. Seven blood samples were collected from patients with or without severe clinical symptoms (cerebral malaria): two samples were from patients diagnosed as having imported falciparum malaria at the International Medical Center of Japan (IMCJ); the five others were from patients of the Davao Regional Hospital in Davao, the Philippines. The parasites (ring stage) in the blood samples were cultured for 24 hours; the matured trophozoites, in which the var-gene selection had taken place, served as material for mRNA isolation. The cDNA corresponding to the Duffy-binding-like (DBL)-1 domain of the var-gene was amplified by RT-PCR, using a region-specific primer set. The amplified cDNAs were cloned into the plasmid vector; the resultant clones (32) were sequenced on both strands. The results indicated that there was considerable diversity in the sequence of the DBL-1 domain among the clones, even among those from a single patient. In conclusion, it was difficult to demonstrate the correlation between the type of var-gene transcripts found in the RBCs of malaria patients and the severity of their symptoms.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Base Sequence , DNA Primers , Humans , Malaria, Falciparum/blood , Molecular Sequence Data , Philippines , Protozoan Proteins/chemistry , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
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