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1.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e190158, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040629

ABSTRACT

As phagocytosis is the first line of defense against malaria, we developed a phagocytosis assay with Plasmodium vivax (P. vivax) merozoites that can be applied to evaluate vaccine candidates. Briefly, after leukocyte removal with loosely packed cellulose powder in a syringe, P. vivax trophozoites matured to the merozoite-rich schizont stages in the presence of the E64 protease inhibitor. The Percoll gradient-enriched schizonts were chemically disrupted to release merozoites that were submitted to merozoite opsonin-dependent phagocytosis in two phagocytic lines with human and mouse antibodies against the N- and C-terminus of P. vivax Merozoite Surface Protein-1 (Nterm-PvMSP1 and MSP119). The resulting assay is simple and efficient for use as a routine phagocytic assay for the evaluation of merozoite stage vaccine candidates.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Phagocytosis/physiology , Plasmodium vivax/immunology , Antibodies, Protozoan/immunology , Protozoan Proteins/immunology , Merozoites/immunology , Plasmodium vivax/physiology , Merozoites/cytology , Flow Cytometry , Mice, Inbred BALB C
2.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 26(1): 67-73, Jan.-Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-844125

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of the present study was to evaluate oocyst shedding in cats immunized by nasal route with T. gondii proteins ROP2. Twelve short hair cats (Felis catus) were divided in three groups G1, G2 and G3 (n=4). Animals from G1 received 100 μg of rROP2 proteins plus 20 μg of Quil-A, G2 received 100 μg of BSA plus 20 μg of Quil-A, and the G3 only saline solution (control group). All treatments were done by intranasal route at days 0, 21, 42, and 63. The challenge was performed in all groups on day 70 with ≅ 800 tissue cysts of ME-49 strain by oral route. Animals from G1 shed less oocysts (86.7%) than control groups. ELISA was used to detect anti-rROP2 IgG and IgA, however, there were no correlation between number of oocyst shedding by either IgG or IgA antibody levels. In the present work, in spite of lesser oocysts production in immunized group than control groups, it was not possible to associate the use of rROP2 via nostrils with protection against oocyst shedding. For the future, the use of either other recombinant proteins or DNA vaccine, in combination with rROP2 could be tested to try improving the efficacy of this kind of vaccine.


Resumo O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a eliminação de oocistos de Toxoplasma gondii em gatos imunizados pela via nasal com proteínas ROP2 de T. gondii. Doze gatos sem raça definida (Felis catus) foram divididos em três grupos experimentais G1, G2 e G3 (n = 4). Os animais do G1 receberam 100 μg de proteínas de rROP2 mais 20 μg de Quil-A, G2 recebeu 100 μg de albumina de soro bovino (BSA) junto com 20 μg de Quil-A, e o G3 recebeu apenas solução salina (grupo de controle). Todos os tratamentos foram realizados pela via intranasal nos dias 0, 21, 42 e 63. O desafio foi realizado em todos os grupos no dia 70 com aproximadamente 800 cistos de tecido da cepa ME-49 por via oral. Os animais de todos os grupos tiveram as suas fezes examinadas e o número de oocistos foi determinado durante 20 dias após o desafio. Os animais de G1 eliminaram menos oocistos (86,7%) do que os grupos controles. O ELISA foi utilizado para detectar IgG e IgA anti-rROP2, no entanto, não houve correlação entre o número de eliminhação de oocistos com os níveis de anticorpos IgG ou IgA. No presente trabalho, apesar da menor produção de oocistos no grupo imunizado (G1) em relação aos grupos controles (G2 e G3), não foi possível associar o uso de rROP2 pela via nasal com proteção contra eliminação de oocistos de T. gondii. Para o futuro, a utilização de outras proteínas recombinantes, ou mesmo vacina de DNA, em combinação com rROP2 poderia ser utilizada para tentar melhorar a eficácia deste tipo de vacina.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Cat Diseases/prevention & control , Protozoan Proteins/immunology , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/prevention & control , Protozoan Vaccines/immunology , Membrane Proteins/immunology , Toxoplasma/immunology , Recombinant Proteins/administration & dosage , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , Administration, Intranasal , Antibodies, Protozoan , Cat Diseases/immunology , Protozoan Proteins/administration & dosage , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/immunology , Adjuvants, Immunologic/administration & dosage , Protozoan Vaccines/administration & dosage , Oocysts/immunology , Quillaja Saponins/administration & dosage , Quillaja Saponins/immunology , Membrane Proteins/administration & dosage
3.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 49(4): 398-407, July-Aug. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-792794

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is one of the most important tropical diseases worldwide. Although chemotherapy has been widely used to treat this disease, problems related to the development of parasite resistance and side effects associated with the compounds used have been noted. Hence, alternative approaches for VL control are desirable. Some methods, such as vector control and culling of infected dogs, are insufficiently effective, with the latter not ethically recommended. The development of vaccines to prevent VL is a feasible and desirable measure for disease control; for example, some vaccines designed to protect dogs against VL have recently been brought to market. These vaccines are based on the combination of parasite fractions or recombinant proteins with adjuvants that are able to induce cellular immune responses; however, their partial efficacy and the absence of a vaccine to protect against human leishmaniasis underline the need for characterization of new vaccine candidates. This review presents recent advances in control measures for VL based on vaccine development, describing extensively studied antigens, as well as new antigenic proteins recently identified using immuno-proteomic techniques.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Dogs , Antibodies, Protozoan/immunology , Protozoan Vaccines/immunology , Leishmania/immunology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/prevention & control , Antigens, Protozoan/immunology , Protozoan Proteins/immunology , Leishmania/classification
4.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(6): 732-738, Sept. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-763098

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate an enzyme-linked immunoassay with recombinant rhoptry protein 2 (ELISA-rROP2) for its ability to detectToxoplasma gondii ROP2-specific IgG in samples from pregnant women. The study included 236 samples that were divided into groups according to serological screening profiles for toxoplasmosis: unexposed (n = 65), probable acute infection (n = 48), possible acute infection (n = 58) and exposed to the parasite (n = 65). When an indirect immunofluorescence assay forT. gondii-specific IgG was considered as a reference test, the ELISA-rROP2 had a sensitivity of 61.8%, specificity of 62.8%, predictive positive value of 76.6% and predictive negative value of 45.4% (p = 0.0002). The ELISA-rROP2 reacted with 62.5% of the samples from pregnant women with probable acute infection and 40% of the samples from pregnant women with previous exposure (p = 0.0180). Seropositivity was observed in 50/57 (87.7%) pregnant women with possible infection. The results underscored that T. gondii rROP2 is recognised by specific IgG antibodies in both the acute and chronic phases of toxoplasmosis acquired during pregnancy. However, the sensitivity of the ELISA-rROP2 was higher in the pregnant women with probable and possible acute infections and IgM reactivity.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Antigens, Protozoan/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Membrane Proteins/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic/diagnosis , Protozoan Proteins/immunology , Toxoplasmosis/diagnosis , Antigens, Protozoan/blood , Confidence Intervals , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/standards , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect , Immunoglobulin G/isolation & purification , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Immunoglobulin M/isolation & purification , Inventions/standards , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Predictive Value of Tests , Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic/blood , Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic/immunology , Protozoan Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins , Reference Standards , Sensitivity and Specificity , Toxoplasma/immunology , Toxoplasmosis/blood , Toxoplasmosis/immunology
5.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 24(2): 148-154, Apr-Jun/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-750757

ABSTRACT

Neosporosis is a disease caused by the protozoon Neospora caninum that leads to significant economic losses in many countries. In the present study, we report on use of the recombinant protein NcSRS2 of N. caninum expressed in Pichia pastoris in an indirect immunoenzymatic assay (ELISA) for diagnosing neosporosis infection in sheep and dogs. We observed that the ELISA test yielded specificity of 94.5% and sensitivity of 100% for sheep and specificity of 93.3% and sensitivity of 100% for dogs. We observed that the sensitivity was higher than shown by the indirect fluorescent antibody test, and this was confirmed by means of Western blot. The results from this study suggest that the recombinant protein expressed in P. pastoris is a suitable antigen for use in immunodiagnosis to detect N. caninum in two important species exposed to this parasitosis.


A neosporose é uma doença causada pelo protozoário Neospora caninum que leva a perdas econômicas importantes em muitos países. No presente estudo, é descrita a utilização da proteína recombinante NcSRS2 de N. caninum expressa em Pichia pastoris em um ensaio imunoenzimático indireto (ELISA) para o diagnóstico de infecção por Neospora em ovelhas e cães. Observou-se, que utilizando-se um ELISA, o teste produziu uma especificidade de 94,5% e uma sensibilidade de 100% para ovinos; e uma especificidade de 93,3% e sensibilidade de 100% para cães. Uma maior sensibilidade foi observada em relação à IFI que foi confirmada por Western blot. Os resultados deste estudo sugerem que a proteína recombinante expressa em P. pastoris é bom antígeno para ser utilizado no diagnóstico imunológico para detectar N. caninum em duas espécies importantes expostas a esta parasitose.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Protozoan Infections, Animal/blood , Sheep Diseases/blood , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Protozoan Proteins/blood , Neospora/immunology , Dog Diseases/parasitology , Dog Diseases/blood , Antigens, Protozoan/blood , Antigens, Surface/blood , Pichia/metabolism , Protozoan Infections, Animal/diagnosis , Sheep Diseases/diagnosis , Sheep Diseases/parasitology , Sheep , Protozoan Proteins/biosynthesis , Protozoan Proteins/immunology , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Antigens, Protozoan/biosynthesis , Antigens, Protozoan/immunology , Antigens, Surface/biosynthesis , Antigens, Surface/immunology
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-51161

ABSTRACT

The relationship between anti-Plasmodium vivax circumsporozoite protein (CSP) antibody levels and the prevalence of malaria in epidemic areas of South Korea was evaluated. Blood samples were collected from inhabitants of Gimpo-si (city), Paju-si, and Yeoncheon-gun (county) in Gyeonggi-do (province), as well as Cheorwon-gun in Gangwon-do from November to December 2004. Microscopic examinations were used to identify malaria parasites. ELISA was used to quantitate anti-circumsporozoite protein (CSP) antibodies against P. vivax. A total of 1,774 blood samples were collected. The overall CSP-ELISA-positive rate was 7.7% (n=139). The annual parasite incidences (APIs) in these areas gradually decreased from 2004 to 2005 (1.09 and 0.80, respectively). The positive rate in Gimpo (10.4%, 44/425) was the highest identified by CSP-ELISA. The highest API was found in Yeoncheon, followed by Cheorwon, Paju, and Gimpo in both years. The positive rates of CSP-ELISA were closely related to the APIs in the study areas. These results suggest that seroepidemiological studies based on CSP may be helpful in estimating the malaria prevalence in certain areas. In addition, this assay can be used to establish and evaluate malaria control and eradication programs in affected areas.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Incidence , Malaria, Vivax/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Plasmodium vivax/immunology , Prevalence , Protozoan Proteins/immunology , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Young Adult
7.
J. bras. nefrol ; 36(4): 430-436, Oct-Dec/2014. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-731139

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Atualmente, é descrita elevada prevalência de hipovitaminose D no Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico (LES), a qual se associa a algumas manifestações clínicas e maior atividade inflamatória. Objetivo: Avaliar a associação entre insuficiência de vitamina D com LES e marcadores inflamatórios. Métodos: Estudo transversal, tendo sido avaliados 45 pacientes com LES e 24 controles sem a doença. Níveis de 25-hidroxivitamina D [25(OH)D] menores que 30 ng/mL foram considerados insuficientes. A atividade da doença foi avaliada pelo Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI). Foram avaliados, ainda, proteína C reativa ultrassensível (PCRus) e interleucina-6 (IL-6) para verificação do status inflamatório. Para avaliação do envolvimento renal, foram realizados análise de elementos anormais e sedimentoscopia urinárias (EAS), hematúria e piúria quantitativas, proteinúria e depuração de creatinina em urina de 24 horas e anti-DNA de dupla hélice sérico. Resultados: A prevalência de insuficiência de 25(OH)D foi de 55% nos pacientes lúpicos e 8% nos participantes controles (p = 0,001). A mediana da 25(OH)D foi menor nos pacientes do que no grupo controle. Os pacientes com insuficiência de 25(OH)D apresentaram níveis mais elevados de IL-6 e maior prevalência de hematúria ao EAS. Não houve correlação entre vitamina D, nefrite lúpica e SLEDAI. Conclusão: Em nosso estudo, a insuficiência de vitamina D foi mais prevalente em pacientes com LES e se associou com níveis mais elevados de IL-6 e presença de hematúria. .


Introduction: Nowadays it is described a high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE), which is associated with some clinical manifestations and increased inflammatory activity. Objective: To evaluate the association between vitamin D insufficiency with SLE and inflammatory markers. Methods: Cross-sectional study, in which have been evaluated 45 SLE patients and 24 controls without the disease. Levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH) D] less than 30 ng/mL were considered inadequate. Disease activity was assessed by the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI). High sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were evaluated for verification of the inflammatory status. For assessment of renal involvement, analysis of abnormal elements and urinay sediment (AES), quantitative hematuria and pyuria, proteinuria and creatinine clearance in 24-hour urine and serum anti-double stranded DNA were performed. Results: The prevalence of 25(OH)D insufficiency was 55% in SLE patients and 8% in the controls participants (p = 0.001). The median of 25(OH)D was lower in patients than in controls. Patients with insufficient 25(OH)D had higher levels of IL-6 and higher prevalence of hematuria in the AES. There was no correlation between vitamin D and SLEDAI or lupus nephritis. Conclusion: In our study, vitamin D deficiency was more prevalent in patients with SLE and was associated with higher levels of IL-6 and hematuria. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Antigens, Protozoan/immunology , Membrane Proteins/immunology , Protein Folding , Plasmodium falciparum/immunology , Protozoan Proteins/immunology , Sarcosine/analogs & derivatives , Antibodies, Protozoan/immunology , Antigens, Protozoan/biosynthesis , Antigens, Protozoan/genetics , Antigens, Protozoan/isolation & purification , Cysteine , Chromatography, Affinity/methods , Chromatography, Ion Exchange/methods , Edetic Acid , Endotoxins , Escherichia coli , Fermentation , Gene Expression , Membrane Proteins/biosynthesis , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Membrane Proteins/isolation & purification , Nickel , Protein Structure, Tertiary , Plasmodium falciparum/genetics , Protozoan Proteins/biosynthesis , Protozoan Proteins/genetics , Protozoan Proteins/isolation & purification , Sucrose
8.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(5): 598-601, 19/08/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-720422

ABSTRACT

In the Amazon Region, there is a virtual absence of severe malaria and few fatal cases of naturally occurring Plasmodium falciparum infections; this presents an intriguing and underexplored area of research. In addition to the rapid access of infected persons to effective treatment, one cause of this phenomenon might be the recognition of cytoadherent variant proteins on the infected red blood cell (IRBC) surface, including the var gene encoded P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1. In order to establish a link between cytoadherence, IRBC surface antibody recognition and the presence or absence of malaria symptoms, we phenotype-selected four Amazonian P. falciparum isolates and the laboratory strain 3D7 for their cytoadherence to CD36 and ICAM1 expressed on CHO cells. We then mapped the dominantly expressed var transcripts and tested whether antibodies from symptomatic or asymptomatic infections showed a differential recognition of the IRBC surface. As controls, the 3D7 lineages expressing severe disease-associated phenotypes were used. We showed that there was no profound difference between the frequency and intensity of antibody recognition of the IRBC-exposed P. falciparum proteins in symptomatic vs. asymptomatic infections. The 3D7 lineages, which expressed severe malaria-associated phenotypes, were strongly recognised by most, but not all plasmas, meaning that the recognition of these phenotypes is frequent in asymptomatic carriers, but is not necessarily a prerequisite to staying free of symptoms. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Antibodies, Protozoan/immunology , /immunology , Erythrocytes/parasitology , Malaria, Falciparum/immunology , Plasmodium falciparum/immunology , Protozoan Proteins/immunology , Asymptomatic Infections , CHO Cells , Cricetulus , Cell Adhesion/genetics , Cell Adhesion/immunology , Erythrocytes/immunology , Flow Cytometry , Gene Expression Profiling , Malaria, Falciparum/parasitology , Protozoan Proteins/genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
9.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(5): 608-617, 19/08/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-720427

ABSTRACT

Plasmodium vivax infects human erythrocytes through a major pathway that requires interaction between an apical parasite protein, the Duffy binding protein (PvDBP) and its receptor on reticulocytes, the Duffy antigen/receptor for chemokines (DARC). The importance of the interaction between PvDBP (region II, DBPII) and DARC to P. vivax infection has motivated our malaria research group at Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (state of Minas Gerais, Brazil) to conduct a number of immunoepidemiological studies to characterise the naturally acquired immunity to PvDBP in populations living in the Amazon rainforest. In this review, we provide an update on the immunology and molecular epidemiology of PvDBP in the Brazilian Amazon - an area of markedly unstable malaria transmission - and compare it with data from other parts of Latin America, as well as Asia and Oceania.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antigens, Protozoan/immunology , Malaria Vaccines/immunology , Malaria, Vivax/prevention & control , Plasmodium vivax/immunology , Protozoan Proteins/immunology , Receptors, Cell Surface/immunology , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Antigens, Protozoan/chemistry , Brazil , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Geography, Medical , Protozoan Proteins/chemistry , Receptors, Cell Surface/chemistry
10.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 108(5): 616-622, ago. 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-680767

ABSTRACT

The humoral immune response plays an important role in the clearance of Giardia lamblia. However, our knowledge about the specific antigens of G. lamblia that induce a protective immune response is limited. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterise the immunogenic proteins of G. lamblia in a mouse model. We generated monoclonal antibodies (moAbs) specific to G. lamblia (1B10, 2C9.D11, 3C10.E5, 3D10, 5G8.B5, 5F4, 4C7, 3C5 and 3C6) by fusing splenocytes derived from infected mice. Most of these moAbs recognised a band of ± 71 kDa (5G8 protein) and this protein was also recognised by serum from the infected mice. We found that the moAbs recognised conformational epitopes of the 5G8 protein and that this antigen is expressed on the cell surface and inside trophozoites. Additionally, antibodies specific to the 5G8 protein induced strong agglutination (> 70-90%) of trophozoites. We have thus identified a highly immunogenic antigen of G. lamblia that is recognised by the immune system of infected mice. In summary, this study describes the identification and partial characterisation of an immunogenic protein of G. lamblia. Additionally, we generated a panel of moAbs specific for this protein that will be useful for the biochemical and immunological characterisation of this immunologically interesting Giardia molecule.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Protozoan/immunology , Antigens, Protozoan/immunology , Giardia lamblia/immunology , Protozoan Proteins/immunology , Blotting, Western , Disease Models, Animal , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Giardiasis/immunology , Giardiasis/parasitology
11.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 108(1): 98-105, Feb. 2013. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-666051

ABSTRACT

The PfCLAG9 has been extensively studied because their immunogenicity. Thereby, the gene product is important for therapeutics interventions and a potential vaccine candidate. Antibodies against synthetic peptides corresponding to selected sequences of the Plasmodium falciparum antigen PfCLAG9 were found in sera of falciparum malaria patients from Rondônia, in the Brazilian Amazon. Much higher antibody titres were found in semi-immune and immune asymptomatic parasite carriers than in subjects suffering clinical infections, corroborating original findings in Papua Guinea. However, sera of Plasmodium vivax patients from the same Amazon area, in particular from asymptomatic vivax parasite carriers, reacted strongly with the same peptides. Bioinformatic analyses revealed regions of similarity between P. falciparum Pfclag9 and the P. vivax ortholog Pvclag7. Indirect fluorescent microscopy analysis showed that antibodies against PfCLAG9 peptides elicited in BALB/c mice react with human red blood cells (RBCs) infected with both P. falciparum and P. vivax parasites. The patterns of reactivity on the surface of the parasitised RBCs are very similar. The present observations support previous findings that PfCLAG9 may be a target of protective immune responses and raises the possibility that the cross reactive antibodies to PvCLAG7 in mixed infections play a role in regulate the fate of Plasmodium mixed infections.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Mice , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Antibodies, Protozoan/immunology , Antigens, Protozoan/immunology , Cell Adhesion Molecules/immunology , Malaria, Falciparum/immunology , Malaria, Vivax/immunology , Plasmodium falciparum/immunology , Plasmodium vivax/immunology , Protozoan Proteins/immunology , Brazil , Carrier State , Cross Reactions , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Erythrocytes/parasitology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Malaria, Falciparum/parasitology , Malaria, Vivax/parasitology
12.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 106(supl.1): 34-43, Aug. 2011. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-597242

ABSTRACT

The glutamate-rich protein (GLURP) is an exoantigen expressed in all stages of the Plasmodium falciparum life cycle in humans. Anti-GLURP antibodies can inhibit parasite growth in the presence of monocytes via antibody-dependent cellular inhibition (ADCI), and a major parasite-inhibitory region has been found in the N-terminal R0 region of the protein. Herein, we describe the antiplasmodial activity of anti-GLURP antibodies present in the sera from individuals naturally exposed to malaria in a Brazilian malaria-endemic area. The anti-R0 antibodies showed a potent inhibitory effect on the growth of P. falciparum in vitro, both in the presence (ADCI) and absence (GI) of monocytes. The inhibitory effect on parasite growth was comparable to the effect of IgGs purified from pooled sera from hyperimmune African individuals. Interestingly, in the ADCI test, higher levels of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were observed in the supernatant from cultures with higher parasitemias. Our data suggest that the antibody response induced by GLURP-R0 in naturally exposed individuals may have an important role in controlling parasitemia because these antibodies are able to inhibit the in vitro growth of P. falciparum with or without the cooperation from monocytes. Our results also indicate that TNF-α may not be relevant for the inhibitory effect on P. falciparum in vitro growth.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Humans , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Antibodies, Protozoan/immunology , Malaria, Falciparum , Plasmodium falciparum/growth & development , Protozoan Proteins/immunology , Endemic Diseases , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Malaria, Falciparum/blood , Malaria, Falciparum/immunology , Parasitemia , Plasmodium falciparum/immunology , Protozoan Proteins , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood
13.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 106(supl.1): 167-171, Aug. 2011. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-597258

ABSTRACT

Recently, we described the improved immunogenicity of new malaria vaccine candidates based on the expression of fusion proteins containing immunodominant epitopes of merozoites and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium flagellin (FliC) protein as an innate immune agonist. Here, we tested whether a similar strategy, based on an immunodominant B-cell epitope from malaria sporozoites, could also generate immunogenic fusion polypeptides. A recombinant His6-tagged FliC protein containing the C-terminal repeat regions of the VK210 variant of Plasmodium vivax circumsporozoite (CS) protein was constructed. This recombinant protein was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli as soluble protein and was purified by affinity to Ni-agarose beads followed by ion exchange chromatography. A monoclonal antibody specific for the CS protein of P. vivax sporozoites (VK210) was able to recognise the purified protein. C57BL/6 mice subcutaneously immunised with the recombinant fusion protein in the absence of any conventional adjuvant developed protein-specific systemic antibody responses. However, in mice genetically deficient in expression of TLR5, this immune response was extremely low. These results extend our previous observations concerning the immunogenicity of these recombinant fusion proteins and provide evidence that the main mechanism responsible for this immune activation involves interactions with TLR5, which has not previously been demonstrated for any recombinant FliC fusion protein.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Flagellin/immunology , Immunodominant Epitopes/immunology , Malaria Vaccines/immunology , Malaria, Vivax , Plasmodium falciparum/immunology , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/immunology , Salmonella typhimurium/immunology , Antibodies, Protozoan/immunology , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/immunology , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte , Escherichia coli Proteins/immunology , Flagellin , Immunodominant Epitopes , Malaria Vaccines , Malaria, Vivax/immunology , Protozoan Proteins/immunology , Protozoan Proteins , Recombinant Fusion Proteins , Salmonella typhimurium , /immunology
14.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 106(supl.1): 179-192, Aug. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-597260

ABSTRACT

Plasmodium vivax is the most prevalent malaria parasite on the American continent. It generates a global burden of 80-100 million cases annually and represents a tremendous public health problem, particularly in the American and Asian continents. A malaria vaccine would be considered the most cost-effective measure against this vector-borne disease and it would contribute to a reduction in malaria cases and to eventual eradication. Although significant progress has been achieved in the search for Plasmodium falciparum antigens that could be used in a vaccine, limited progress has been made in the search for P. vivax components that might be eligible for vaccine development. This is primarily due to the lack of in vitro cultures to serve as an antigen source and to inadequate funding. While the most advanced P. falciparum vaccine candidate is currently being tested in Phase III trials in Africa, the most advanced P. vivax candidates have only advanced to Phase I trials. Herein, we describe the overall strategy and progress in P. vivax vaccine research, from antigen discovery to preclinical and clinical development and we discuss the regional potential of Latin America to develop a comprehensive platform for vaccine development.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Antigens, Protozoan/immunology , Malaria Vaccines/immunology , Malaria, Vivax , Plasmodium vivax/immunology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Latin America , Malaria, Vivax/immunology , Protozoan Proteins/immunology , Receptors, Cell Surface/immunology
15.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 106(supl.1): 193-201, Aug. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-597261

ABSTRACT

The lack of immunogenicity of most malaria antigens and the complex immune responses required for achieving protective immunity against this infectious disease have traditionally hampered the development of an efficient human malaria vaccine. The current boom in development of recombinant viral vectors and their use in prime-boost protocols that result in enhanced immune outcomes have increased the number of malaria vaccine candidates that access pre-clinical and clinical trials. In the frontline, adenoviruses and poxviruses seem to be giving the best immunization results in experimental animals and their mutual combination, or their combination with recombinant proteins (formulated in adjuvants and given in sequence or being given as protein/virus admixtures), has been shown to reach unprecedented levels of anti-malaria immunity that predictably will be somehow reproduced in the human setting. However, all this optimism was previously seen in the malaria vaccine development field without many real applicable results to date. We describe here the current state-of-the-art in the field of recombinant adenovirus research for malaria vaccine development, in particular referring to their use in combination with other immunogens in heterologous prime-boost protocols, while trying to simultaneously show our contributions and point of view on this subject.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Adenoviridae , Antibodies, Protozoan/immunology , Antigens, Protozoan/immunology , Genetic Vectors , Malaria Vaccines/immunology , Malaria , Vaccines, DNA/immunology , Adenoviridae/immunology , Plasmodium falciparum/immunology , Protozoan Proteins/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Vaccines, Subunit/immunology
16.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 106(supl.1): 202-211, Aug. 2011. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-597262

ABSTRACT

Malaria is a vector-borne disease that is considered to be one of the most serious public health problems due to its high global mortality and morbidity rates. Although multiple strategies for controlling malaria have been used, many have had limited impact due to the appearance and rapid dissemination of mosquito resistance to insecticides, parasite resistance to multiple antimalarial drug, and the lack of sustainability. Individuals in endemic areas that have been permanently exposed to the parasite develop specific immune responses capable of diminishing parasite burden and the clinical manifestations of the disease, including blocking of parasite transmission to the mosquito vector. This is referred to as transmission blocking (TB) immunity (TBI) and is mediated by specific antibodies and other factors ingested during the blood meal that inhibit parasite development in the mosquito. These antibodies recognize proteins expressed on either gametocytes or parasite stages that develop in the mosquito midgut and are considered to be potential malaria vaccine candidates. Although these candidates, collectively called TB vaccines (TBV), would not directly stop malaria from infecting individuals, but would stop transmission from infected person to non-infected person. Here, we review the progress that has been achieved in TBI studies and the development of TBV and we highlight their potential usefulness in areas of low endemicity such as Latin America.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Antibodies, Protozoan/immunology , Antigens, Protozoan/immunology , Malaria Vaccines/immunology , Malaria, Falciparum , Malaria, Vivax , Latin America , Malaria, Falciparum/immunology , Malaria, Falciparum , Malaria, Vivax/immunology , Malaria, Vivax , Plasmodium falciparum/immunology , Plasmodium vivax/immunology , Protozoan Proteins/immunology
17.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 19(4): 210-216, Oct.-Dec. 2010. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-604673

ABSTRACT

TgROP2 is an intracellular protein associated with rhoptries of Toxoplama gondii and an antigen component of a candidate vaccine for toxoplasmosis. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of rTgROP2 to stimulate humoral and cellular immune responses in BALB/c mice via intranasal injection. TgROP2 partial coding sequence was (196-561) amplified by PCR from genomic T. gondii RH strain DNA and cloned into the pTrcHis expression vector. Escherichia coli Rosetta 2 cells transformed with pTrcHis-TgROP2 showed high levels (~1 mg.mL-1) of recombinant protein after 4 hours of IPTG induction. Recombinant TgROP2 exhibited an apparent Mr equal to 54 kDa. In order to test immunogenicity of the recombinant protein, 10 BALB/c mice received 10 µg of rROP2 protein + 10 µg of Quil-A via intranasal injection. Doses were administered at days 0, 21, and 42. Three animals were euthanized and used to evaluate cell-ular immune response on day 62. Five (50 percent) and two (20 percent) out of ten animals produced IgG (DO mean = 0.307; cut-off = 0.240) and IgA (DO mean = 0.133, cut-off = 0.101), respectively, by ELISA on day 62. The proliferation of splenocytes revealed high stimulation index (SI) when co-cultured with 5, 10 and 15 µg.mL-1 of rTgROP2. These results indicate that intranasal immunization with recombinant protein ROP2 plus Quil-A can elicit both cellular and humoral immune responses in BALB/c mice.


TgROP2 é uma proteína localizada nas roptrias do Toxoplasma gondii, sendo um antígeno candidato a componente de uma vacina contra a toxoplasmose. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a eficácia da TgROP2 recombinante em estimular a resposta imune celular e humoral de camundongos BALB/c após estímulo intranasal. A sequência da TgROP2 foi amplificada pela PCR a partir da cepa RH e clonada em vetor de expressão pTrc-His. Após a transformação em Escherichia coli- Rosetta 2, a pTrcHis-TgROP2 exibiu alto nível de expressão após 4 horas de indução com IPTG. A proteína recombinante apresentou uma massa molecular aparente de aproximadamente 54 kDa. Para avaliar a imunogenicidade dessa proteína recombinante, 10 camundongos receberam, pela via intranasal, 10 µg da rROP2 associado a 10 µg de Quil-A. Três doses foram realizadas nos dias 0, 21 e 42. No dia 62 do experimento, três animais foram eutanasiados para avaliar as respostas imune celular e humoral. Cinco (50 por cento) e dois (20 por cento) dos 10 animais apresentaram níveis de IgG (DO média = 0,307; ponto de corte = 0,240) e IgA (DO média = 0,133; ponto de corte = 0,101) acima do ponto de corte no ELISA no dia 62. A proliferação de esplenócitos revelou altos Índices de Estimulação (SI), quando as células foram cultivadas com 5, 10 e 15 µg.mL-1 de rTgROP2. Os resultados obtidos indicam que a via nasal pode estimular tanto a resposta imune celular como a humoral.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Antibodies, Protozoan/immunology , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral , Membrane Proteins/immunology , Protozoan Proteins/immunology , Protozoan Vaccines/immunology , Toxoplasma/immunology , Mice, Inbred BALB C/immunology
18.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 105(5): 687-691, Aug. 2010. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-557231

ABSTRACT

The potential use of the Trypanosoma cruzi metacyclic trypomastigote (MT) stage-specific molecule glycoprotein-82 (gp82) as a vaccine target has not been fully explored. We show that the opsonization of T. cruzi MT with gp82-specific antibody prior to mucosal challenge significantly reduces parasite infectivity. In addition, we investigated the immune responses as well as the systemic and mucosal protective immunity induced by intranasal CpG-adjuvanted gp82 vaccination. Spleen cells from mice immunized with CpG-gp82 proliferated and secreted IFN-γ in a dose-dependent manner in response to in vitro stimulation with gp82 and parasite lysate. More importantly, these CpG-gp82-immunized mice were significantly protected from a biologically relevant oral parasite challenge.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Chagas Disease , Protozoan Proteins/immunology , Protozoan Vaccines/immunology , Trypanosoma cruzi/immunology , Variant Surface Glycoproteins, Trypanosoma/immunology , Administration, Intranasal , Chagas Disease/immunology , Immunity, Mucosal , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Protozoan Proteins , Protozoan Vaccines , Variant Surface Glycoproteins, Trypanosoma
19.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 19(1): 1-6, jan.-mar. 2010. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-604628

ABSTRACT

Hematological parameters were evaluated in broilers immunized and challenged with Eimeria tenella. Broiler chickens of Hubbard strain, females, coccidian-free, were kept in wire cages and inoculated on the third day. The experiment was designed to include five sorts of treatment with three replicates each. T1 was the negative control group, T2 received 500 attenuated sporulated oocysts by gavage, T3 was the positive control, T4 received 50 µg of sporozoite protein + Quil A vaccine, and T5 received Quil A without sporozoite protein + PBS, the last two through nasal route on days 0, 7, and 21. On the 31st day, all treatments were challenged with homologous virulent strain of E. tenella in the dose of 8.0 × 10(4) oocysts, with the exception of T1. One week later, blood sampling, lesion scores, and cecal oocyst count were carried out. The parasitological parameters showed statistical significance (p < 0.05) and there was no damage to the hematological parameters of birds (p > 0.05) by ANOVA test. The correlations suggest that the blood parameters were impaired by effects of the parasite on tissue, showing levels of hemorrhage and/or hydration.


Foram avaliados os parâmetros hematológicos em frangos de corte imunizados e desafiados com Eimeria tenella. Pintos de corte fêmeas da linhagem Hubbard, livres de coccídios, foram mantidos em baterias metálicas e inoculados no terceiro dia. O experimento foi delineado por cinco tratamentos com três repetições cada, sendo: T1 controle negativo, T2 recebeu 500 oocistos esporulados atenuados via oral, T3 controle positivo, T4 recebeu vacina contendo 50 µg de proteínas de esporozoítos + Quil A e T5 recebeu Quil A + PBS, sendo os dois últimos por via nasal nos dias 0, 7 e 21. No dia 31, todos os tratamentos foram desafiados com cepa virulenta homóloga de E. tenella na dose de 8,0 × 10(4) oocistos, exceto T1. Uma semana depois, foi realizada amostragem de sangue, escore de lesão e contagem de oocistos cecais. Os parâmetros parasitológicos apresentaram significância estatística (p < 0,05), sem que causassem prejuízos aos parâmetros hematológicos das aves (p > 0,05), pelo teste ANOVA. As correlações sugerem que os parâmetros sanguíneos foram afetados pelos efeitos do parasita no tecido, apresentando níveis de hemorragia e/ou hidratação.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Chickens/blood , Chickens/immunology , Eimeria tenella/immunology , Immunization , Protozoan Proteins/immunology , Sporozoites/immunology
20.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 104(7): 998-1002, Nov. 2009. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-534165

ABSTRACT

Babesia bovis is a tick-borne pathogen that remains an important constraint for the development of cattle industries in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Effective control can be achieved by vaccination with live attenuated phenotypes of the parasite. However, these phenotypes have a number of drawbacks, which justifies the search for new, more efficient immunogens based mainly on recombinant protein technology. In the present paper, ribosomal phosphoprotein P0 from a Brazilian isolate of B. bovis was produced and evaluated with regard to conservation and antigenicity. The protein sequence displayed high conservation between different Brazilian isolates of B. bovis and several Apicomplexa parasites such as Theileria, Neospora and Toxoplasma. IgG from cattle experimentally and naturally infected with B. bovisas well as IgG1 and IgG2 from naturally infected cattle reacted with the recombinant protein. IgG from cattle experimentally infected with Babesia bigemina cross-reacted with B. bovis recombinant P0. These characteristics suggest that P0 is a potential antigen for recombinant vaccine preparations against bovine babesiosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Antigens, Protozoan/blood , Babesia bovis/immunology , Protozoan Proteins , Ribosomal Proteins , Amino Acid Sequence , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Brazil , Babesia bovis/isolation & purification , Babesiosis/immunology , Babesiosis/parasitology , Babesiosis/veterinary , Cattle Diseases/immunology , Cattle Diseases/parasitology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Protozoan Proteins/genetics , Protozoan Proteins/immunology , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , Ribosomal Proteins/genetics , Ribosomal Proteins/immunology
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