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1.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200067, 2020. graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135224

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Unfortunately, no any vaccine against leishmaniasis has been developed for human use. Therefore, a vaccine based on total Leishmania antigens could be a good and economic approach; and there are different methodologies to obtain these antigens. However, it is unknown whether the method to obtain the antigens affects the integrity and immune response caused by them. OBJECTIVES to compare the protein profile and immune response generated by total L. amazonensis antigens (TLA) produced by different methods, as well as to analyse the immune response and protection by a first-generation vaccine formulated with sonicated TLA (sTLA) and polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid [Poly (I:C)]. METHODS TLA were obtained by four different methodologies and their integrity and immune response were evaluated. Finally, sTLA was formulated with Poly (I:C) and their protective immune response was measured. FINDINGS sTLA presented a conserved protein profile and induced a strong immune response. In addition, Poly (I:C) improved the immune response generated by sTLA. Finally, sTLA + Poly (I:C) formulation provided partial protection against L. amazonensis infection. MAIN CONCLUSIONS The protein profile and immune response depend on the methodology used to obtain the antigens. Also, the formulation sTLA + Poly (I:C) provides partial protection against cutaneous leishmaniasis in mice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Mice , Protozoan Vaccines/immunology , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/immunology , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/prevention & control , Toll-Like Receptor 3/immunology , Leishmaniasis Vaccines , Leishmania , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Antigens, Protozoan/immunology
2.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 26(1): 67-73, Jan.-Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-844125

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of the present study was to evaluate oocyst shedding in cats immunized by nasal route with T. gondii proteins ROP2. Twelve short hair cats (Felis catus) were divided in three groups G1, G2 and G3 (n=4). Animals from G1 received 100 μg of rROP2 proteins plus 20 μg of Quil-A, G2 received 100 μg of BSA plus 20 μg of Quil-A, and the G3 only saline solution (control group). All treatments were done by intranasal route at days 0, 21, 42, and 63. The challenge was performed in all groups on day 70 with ≅ 800 tissue cysts of ME-49 strain by oral route. Animals from G1 shed less oocysts (86.7%) than control groups. ELISA was used to detect anti-rROP2 IgG and IgA, however, there were no correlation between number of oocyst shedding by either IgG or IgA antibody levels. In the present work, in spite of lesser oocysts production in immunized group than control groups, it was not possible to associate the use of rROP2 via nostrils with protection against oocyst shedding. For the future, the use of either other recombinant proteins or DNA vaccine, in combination with rROP2 could be tested to try improving the efficacy of this kind of vaccine.


Resumo O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a eliminação de oocistos de Toxoplasma gondii em gatos imunizados pela via nasal com proteínas ROP2 de T. gondii. Doze gatos sem raça definida (Felis catus) foram divididos em três grupos experimentais G1, G2 e G3 (n = 4). Os animais do G1 receberam 100 μg de proteínas de rROP2 mais 20 μg de Quil-A, G2 recebeu 100 μg de albumina de soro bovino (BSA) junto com 20 μg de Quil-A, e o G3 recebeu apenas solução salina (grupo de controle). Todos os tratamentos foram realizados pela via intranasal nos dias 0, 21, 42 e 63. O desafio foi realizado em todos os grupos no dia 70 com aproximadamente 800 cistos de tecido da cepa ME-49 por via oral. Os animais de todos os grupos tiveram as suas fezes examinadas e o número de oocistos foi determinado durante 20 dias após o desafio. Os animais de G1 eliminaram menos oocistos (86,7%) do que os grupos controles. O ELISA foi utilizado para detectar IgG e IgA anti-rROP2, no entanto, não houve correlação entre o número de eliminhação de oocistos com os níveis de anticorpos IgG ou IgA. No presente trabalho, apesar da menor produção de oocistos no grupo imunizado (G1) em relação aos grupos controles (G2 e G3), não foi possível associar o uso de rROP2 pela via nasal com proteção contra eliminação de oocistos de T. gondii. Para o futuro, a utilização de outras proteínas recombinantes, ou mesmo vacina de DNA, em combinação com rROP2 poderia ser utilizada para tentar melhorar a eficácia deste tipo de vacina.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Cat Diseases/prevention & control , Protozoan Proteins/immunology , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/prevention & control , Protozoan Vaccines/immunology , Membrane Proteins/immunology , Toxoplasma/immunology , Recombinant Proteins/administration & dosage , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , Administration, Intranasal , Antibodies, Protozoan , Cat Diseases/immunology , Protozoan Proteins/administration & dosage , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/immunology , Adjuvants, Immunologic/administration & dosage , Protozoan Vaccines/administration & dosage , Oocysts/immunology , Quillaja Saponins/administration & dosage , Quillaja Saponins/immunology , Membrane Proteins/administration & dosage
4.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 49(4): 398-407, July-Aug. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-792794

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is one of the most important tropical diseases worldwide. Although chemotherapy has been widely used to treat this disease, problems related to the development of parasite resistance and side effects associated with the compounds used have been noted. Hence, alternative approaches for VL control are desirable. Some methods, such as vector control and culling of infected dogs, are insufficiently effective, with the latter not ethically recommended. The development of vaccines to prevent VL is a feasible and desirable measure for disease control; for example, some vaccines designed to protect dogs against VL have recently been brought to market. These vaccines are based on the combination of parasite fractions or recombinant proteins with adjuvants that are able to induce cellular immune responses; however, their partial efficacy and the absence of a vaccine to protect against human leishmaniasis underline the need for characterization of new vaccine candidates. This review presents recent advances in control measures for VL based on vaccine development, describing extensively studied antigens, as well as new antigenic proteins recently identified using immuno-proteomic techniques.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Dogs , Antibodies, Protozoan/immunology , Protozoan Vaccines/immunology , Leishmania/immunology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/prevention & control , Antigens, Protozoan/immunology , Protozoan Proteins/immunology , Leishmania/classification
5.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(3): 445-451, 05/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-745966

ABSTRACT

Prevention of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in mammals likely depends on either prevention of the invading trypomastigotes from infecting host cells or the rapid recognition and killing of the newly infected cells by T. cruzi-specific T cells. We show here that multiple rounds of infection and cure (by drug therapy) fails to protect mice from reinfection, despite the generation of potent T cell responses. This disappointing result is similar to that obtained with many other vaccine protocols used in attempts to protect animals from T. cruzi infection. We have previously shown that immune recognition of T. cruzi infection is significantly delayed both at the systemic level and at the level of the infected host cell. The systemic delay appears to be the result of a stealth infection process that fails to trigger substantial innate recognition mechanisms while the delay at the cellular level is related to the immunodominance of highly variable gene family proteins, in particular those of the trans-sialidase family. Here we discuss how these previous studies and the new findings herein impact our thoughts on the potential of prophylactic vaccination to serve a productive role in the prevention of T. cruzi infection and Chagas disease.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Chagas Disease/immunology , Protozoan Vaccines/immunology , Trypanosoma cruzi/immunology , Antibodies, Protozoan/immunology , Antigens, Protozoan/immunology , Chagas Disease/parasitology , Chagas Disease/prevention & control
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-229079

ABSTRACT

Toxoplasmosis is an opportunistic infection caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. T. gondii is widespread globally and causes severe diseases in individuals with impaired immune defences as well as congenitally infected infants. The high prevalence rate in some parts of the world such as South America and Africa, coupled with the current drug treatments that trigger hypersensitivity reactions, makes the development of immunotherapeutics intervention a highly important research priority. Immunotherapeutics strategies could either be a vaccine which would confer a pre-emptive immunity to infection, or passive immunization in cases of disease recrudescence or recurrent clinical diseases. As the severity of clinical manifestations is often greater in developing nations, the development of well-tolerated and safe immunotherapeutics becomes not only a scientific pursuit, but a humanitarian enterprise. In the last few years, much progress has been made in vaccine research with new antigens, novel adjuvants, and innovative vaccine delivery such as nanoparticles and antigen encapsulations. A literature search over the past 5 years showed that most experimental studies were focused on DNA vaccination at 52%, followed by protein vaccination which formed 36% of the studies, live attenuated vaccinations at 9%, and heterologous vaccination at 3%; while there were few on passive immunization. Recent progress in studies on vaccination, passive immunization, as well as insights gained from these immunotherapeutics is highlighted in this review.


Subject(s)
Drug Discovery/trends , Global Health , Humans , Immunization/methods , Immunotherapy/methods , Protozoan Vaccines/immunology , Toxoplasma/immunology , Toxoplasmosis/therapy
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-70518

ABSTRACT

Babesia gibsoni is an intraerythrocytic apicomplexan parasite that causes piroplasmosis in dogs. B. gibsoni infection is characterized clinically by fever, regenerative anemia, splenomegaly, and sometimes death. Since no vaccine is available, rapid and accurate diagnosis and prompt treatment of infected animals are required to control this disease. Over the past decade, several candidate molecules have been identified using biomolecular techniques in the authors' laboratory for the development of a serodiagnostic method, vaccine, and drug for B. gibsoni. This review article describes newly identified candidate molecules and their applications for diagnosis, vaccine production, and drug development of B. gibsoni.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antigens, Protozoan , Antiprotozoal Agents/isolation & purification , Babesia/drug effects , Babesiosis/diagnosis , Dogs , Drug Discovery/methods , Protozoan Vaccines/immunology
8.
Invest. clín ; 52(4): 365-375, dic. 2011. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-659226

ABSTRACT

A patient with localized cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis infection was treated with an antigen containing heat-killed L. (L.) amazonensis promastigotes plus BCG. Expression of T-cell differentiation, memory and senescence receptors markers were analyzed on T cell subpopulations, in order to establish the correlation between the percentages of expression of these receptors and his clinical status, at different stages of his follow up. The following case reports on the achievement of a successful clinical outcome with complete resolution after receiving immunotherapy. A thorough clinical and immunological follow up supporting the healing process of this patient’s lesion is presented in detail.


Un paciente con leishmaniasis cutánea localizada producida por Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis fue tratado con un antígeno compuesto por promastigotes de L. (L.) amazonensis muertos por calor combinado con BCG. Se analizó la expresión de distintos receptores de diferenciación, de memoria y de senescencia en las subpoblaciones de células T, con el fin de establecer una relación entre los porcentajes de expresión de dichos receptores y la clínica del paciente en diferentes momentos del seguimiento. Se reporta en este caso un resultado exitoso, con resolución completa de la lesión después de recibir la inmunoterapia, y se presenta en detalle un seguimiento clínico e inmunológico completo durante el proceso de curación.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Antigens, Protozoan/therapeutic use , BCG Vaccine/therapeutic use , Immunotherapy, Active , Leishmania mexicana/immunology , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/therapy , Occupational Diseases/therapy , Protozoan Vaccines/therapeutic use , Antigens, Protozoan/administration & dosage , Antigens, Protozoan/immunology , Argentina/epidemiology , BCG Vaccine/administration & dosage , Fisheries , Immunity, Cellular , Immunologic Memory , Injections, Intradermal , Leg Ulcer/etiology , Leg Ulcer/parasitology , Leishmania mexicana/growth & development , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/epidemiology , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/immunology , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/parasitology , Occupational Diseases/immunology , Occupational Diseases/parasitology , Protozoan Vaccines/administration & dosage , Protozoan Vaccines/immunology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Vaccines, Inactivated
9.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 106(1): 32-37, Feb. 2011. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-578813

ABSTRACT

In America, there are two species of Trypanosoma that can infect humans: Trypanosoma cruzi, which is responsible for Chagas disease and Trypanosoma rangeli, which is not pathogenic. We have developed a model of vaccination in mice with T. rangeli epimastigotes that protects against T. cruzi infection. The goal of this work was to study the pattern of specific immunoglobulins in the peritoneum (the site of infection) and in the sera of mice immunized with T. rangeli before and after challenge with T. cruzi. Additionally, we studied the effects triggered by antigen-antibodies binding and the levels of key cytokines involved in the humoral response, such as IL-4, IL-5 and IL-6. The immunization triggered the production of antibodies reactive with T. cruzi in peritoneal fluid (PF) and in serum, mainly IgG1 and, to a lesser magnitude, IgG2. Only immunized mice developed specific IgG3 antibodies in their peritoneal cavities. Antibodies were able to bind to the surface of the parasites and agglutinate them. Among the cytokines studied, IL-6 was elevated in PF during early infection, with higher levels in non-immunized-infected mice. The results indicate that T. rangeli vaccination against T. cruzi infection triggers a high production of specific IgG isotypes in PF and sera before infection and modulates the levels of IL-6 in PF in the early periods of infection.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Antibodies, Protozoan/immunology , Antigens, Protozoan/immunology , Chagas Disease/immunology , Immunoglobulins/immunology , /immunology , Protozoan Vaccines/immunology , Trypanosoma rangeli/immunology , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Disease Models, Animal , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect , Hemagglutination Tests , Interleukins/immunology , Mice, Inbred BALB C
10.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 19(4): 210-216, Oct.-Dec. 2010. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-604673

ABSTRACT

TgROP2 is an intracellular protein associated with rhoptries of Toxoplama gondii and an antigen component of a candidate vaccine for toxoplasmosis. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of rTgROP2 to stimulate humoral and cellular immune responses in BALB/c mice via intranasal injection. TgROP2 partial coding sequence was (196-561) amplified by PCR from genomic T. gondii RH strain DNA and cloned into the pTrcHis expression vector. Escherichia coli Rosetta 2 cells transformed with pTrcHis-TgROP2 showed high levels (~1 mg.mL-1) of recombinant protein after 4 hours of IPTG induction. Recombinant TgROP2 exhibited an apparent Mr equal to 54 kDa. In order to test immunogenicity of the recombinant protein, 10 BALB/c mice received 10 µg of rROP2 protein + 10 µg of Quil-A via intranasal injection. Doses were administered at days 0, 21, and 42. Three animals were euthanized and used to evaluate cell-ular immune response on day 62. Five (50 percent) and two (20 percent) out of ten animals produced IgG (DO mean = 0.307; cut-off = 0.240) and IgA (DO mean = 0.133, cut-off = 0.101), respectively, by ELISA on day 62. The proliferation of splenocytes revealed high stimulation index (SI) when co-cultured with 5, 10 and 15 µg.mL-1 of rTgROP2. These results indicate that intranasal immunization with recombinant protein ROP2 plus Quil-A can elicit both cellular and humoral immune responses in BALB/c mice.


TgROP2 é uma proteína localizada nas roptrias do Toxoplasma gondii, sendo um antígeno candidato a componente de uma vacina contra a toxoplasmose. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a eficácia da TgROP2 recombinante em estimular a resposta imune celular e humoral de camundongos BALB/c após estímulo intranasal. A sequência da TgROP2 foi amplificada pela PCR a partir da cepa RH e clonada em vetor de expressão pTrc-His. Após a transformação em Escherichia coli- Rosetta 2, a pTrcHis-TgROP2 exibiu alto nível de expressão após 4 horas de indução com IPTG. A proteína recombinante apresentou uma massa molecular aparente de aproximadamente 54 kDa. Para avaliar a imunogenicidade dessa proteína recombinante, 10 camundongos receberam, pela via intranasal, 10 µg da rROP2 associado a 10 µg de Quil-A. Três doses foram realizadas nos dias 0, 21 e 42. No dia 62 do experimento, três animais foram eutanasiados para avaliar as respostas imune celular e humoral. Cinco (50 por cento) e dois (20 por cento) dos 10 animais apresentaram níveis de IgG (DO média = 0,307; ponto de corte = 0,240) e IgA (DO média = 0,133; ponto de corte = 0,101) acima do ponto de corte no ELISA no dia 62. A proliferação de esplenócitos revelou altos Índices de Estimulação (SI), quando as células foram cultivadas com 5, 10 e 15 µg.mL-1 de rTgROP2. Os resultados obtidos indicam que a via nasal pode estimular tanto a resposta imune celular como a humoral.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Antibodies, Protozoan/immunology , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral , Membrane Proteins/immunology , Protozoan Proteins/immunology , Protozoan Vaccines/immunology , Toxoplasma/immunology , Mice, Inbred BALB C/immunology
11.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 105(5): 687-691, Aug. 2010. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-557231

ABSTRACT

The potential use of the Trypanosoma cruzi metacyclic trypomastigote (MT) stage-specific molecule glycoprotein-82 (gp82) as a vaccine target has not been fully explored. We show that the opsonization of T. cruzi MT with gp82-specific antibody prior to mucosal challenge significantly reduces parasite infectivity. In addition, we investigated the immune responses as well as the systemic and mucosal protective immunity induced by intranasal CpG-adjuvanted gp82 vaccination. Spleen cells from mice immunized with CpG-gp82 proliferated and secreted IFN-γ in a dose-dependent manner in response to in vitro stimulation with gp82 and parasite lysate. More importantly, these CpG-gp82-immunized mice were significantly protected from a biologically relevant oral parasite challenge.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Chagas Disease , Protozoan Proteins/immunology , Protozoan Vaccines/immunology , Trypanosoma cruzi/immunology , Variant Surface Glycoproteins, Trypanosoma/immunology , Administration, Intranasal , Chagas Disease/immunology , Immunity, Mucosal , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Protozoan Proteins , Protozoan Vaccines , Variant Surface Glycoproteins, Trypanosoma
12.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 104(supl.1): 275-280, July 2009.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-520889

ABSTRACT

The perspectives for a Chagas Disease vaccine 30 years ago and today are compared. Antigens and adjuvants have improved, but logistic problems remain the same. Sterilizing vaccines have not been produced and animal models for chronic Chagas have not been developed. Vector control has been successful and Chagas incidence has come to a halt. We do not have a population candidate to vaccination now in Brazil. And if we had, we would not know how to evaluate the success of vaccination in a short time period. A vaccine may not seem important at the moment. However, scientific reasons and incertitudes about the future recommend that a search for a vaccine be continued.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Chagas Disease/prevention & control , Protozoan Vaccines/immunology , Trypanosoma cruzi/immunology , Vaccines, DNA/immunology , Models, Animal , Recombinant Proteins/immunology
13.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 104(supl.1): 281-287, July 2009. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-520890

ABSTRACT

Vaccines have had an unquestionable impact on public health during the last century. The most likely reason for the success of vaccines is the robust protective properties of specific antibodies. However, antibodies exert a strong selective pressure and many microorganisms, such as the obligatory intracellular parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, have been selected to survive in their presence. Although the host develops a strong immune response to T. cruzi, they do not clear the infection and instead progress to the chronic phase of the disease. Parasite persistence during the chronic phase of infection is now considered the main factor contributing to the chronic symptoms of the disease. Based on this finding, containment of parasite growth and survival may be one method to avoid the immunopathology of the chronic phase. In this context, vaccinologists have looked over the past 20 years for other immune effector mechanisms that could eliminate these antibody-resistant pathogens. We and others have tested the hypothesis that non-antibody-mediated cellular immune responses (CD4+ Th1 and CD8+ Tc1 cells) to specific parasite antigens/genes expressed by T. cruzi could indeed be used for the purpose of vaccination. This hypothesis was confirmed in different mouse models, indicating a possible path for vaccine development.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , /immunology , /immunology , Chagas Disease/immunology , Protozoan Vaccines/immunology , Trypanosoma cruzi/immunology , Antigens, Protozoan/genetics , Antigens, Protozoan/immunology , Chagas Disease/prevention & control , Disease Models, Animal , Immunity, Cellular , Trypanosoma cruzi/genetics
14.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 104(supl.1): 288-294, July 2009. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-520891

ABSTRACT

Upon infection, Trypanosoma cruzi triggers a strong immune response that has both protective and pathological consequences. In this work, several important questions regarding protective immunity are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on recent studies of the important protective role of CD8+ T cells and on previous studies of immunisation of domestic T. cruzi reservoirs that sought to address practical vaccination problems. Research on the maturation of memory cells and studies indicating that the prevalence of T. cruzi-specific T-cell responses and a high frequency of committed CD8+ T cells are associated with better clinical outcomes are also reviewed. Additionally, animal models in which protection was achieved without immunopathological consequences are discussed.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Antibodies, Protozoan/immunology , /immunology , Chagas Disease/immunology , Protozoan Vaccines/immunology , /parasitology , Chagas Disease/parasitology , Chagas Disease/prevention & control , Disease Models, Animal , Immunity, Cellular
15.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 104(2): 246-251, Mar. 2009.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-533514

ABSTRACT

Toxoplasma gondii has a very wide intermediate host range and is thought to be able to infect all warm blooded animals. The parasite causes a spectrum of different diseases and clinical symptoms within the intermediate hosts and following infection most animals develop adaptive humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. The development of protective immunity to T. gondii following natural infection in many host species has led researchers to look at vaccination as a strategy to control disease, parasite multiplication and establishment in animal hosts. A range of different veterinary vaccines are required to help control T. gondii infection which include vaccines to prevent congenital toxoplasmosis, reduce or eliminate tissue cysts in meat producing animals and to prevent oocyst shedding in cats. In this paper we will discuss some of the history, challenges and progress in the development of veterinary vaccines against T. gondii.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies, Protozoan/immunology , Protozoan Vaccines/immunology , Toxoplasma/immunology , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/prevention & control , Host-Parasite Interactions , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/congenital , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/immunology
16.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 104(2): 252-266, Mar. 2009. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-533515

ABSTRACT

Development of vaccines against Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans is of high priority, given the high burden of disease in some areas of the world like South America, and the lack of effective drugs with few adverse effects. Rodent models have been used in research on vaccines against T. gondii over the past decades. However, regardless of the vaccine construct, the vaccines have not been able to induce protective immunity when the organism is challenged with T. gondii, either directly or via a vector. Only a few live, attenuated T. gondii strains used for immunization have been able to confer protective immunity, which is measured by a lack of tissue cysts after challenge. Furthermore, challenge with low virulence strains, especially strains with genotype II, will probably be insufficient to provide protection against the more virulent T. gondii strains, such as those with genotypes I or II, or those genotypes from South America not belonging to genotype I, II or III. Future studies should use animal models besides rodents, and challenges should be performed with at least one genotype II T. gondii and one of the more virulent genotypes. Endpoints like maternal-foetal transmission and prevention of eye disease are important in addition to the traditional endpoint of survival or reduction in numbers of brain cysts after challenge.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Protozoan Vaccines/immunology , Toxoplasma/immunology , Toxoplasmosis/prevention & control , Genotype , Models, Animal , Toxoplasma/genetics , Toxoplasma/pathogenicity , Toxoplasmosis/immunology
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-156343

ABSTRACT

The present study surveyed the prevalence of natural infection of the sheep esphagus muscle with sarcocysts of Sarcocystis ovicanis and examined induction of protective immunity using UV-attenuated sporocysts. The overall prevalence of natural infection of the sheep was 95%. Infectivity of the collected sarcocysts was confirmed by shedding of sporulated oocysts after feeding infected esophageal tissues to dogs. To induce protective immunity, lambs were immunized 3 times (once a week) with 1.5 x 10(4) sporocysts exposed to UV-light for 30 min (UV-30 group) or 60 (UV-60 group) min and then challenged with 1.5 x 10(4) normal sporocysts at the 3rd week post the 1st vaccination. These lambs showed high survival and less clinical signs of sarcocystosis than normal infected lambs. The attenuated sporocysts produced abnormal cysts; small in size and detached from the muscle fiber. These abnormalities were more obvious in UV-60 group than UV-30 group. Also, the IFN-gamma level and lymphocyte percentage were increased while the total leukocyte count was decreased in the UV-60 group compared with other groups. The high level of IFN-gamma may be an evidence for the induction of Th1 responses which may have protective effect against a challenge infection.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Esophagus/parasitology , Feces/parasitology , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Lymphocytes/immunology , Oocysts/immunology , Peptide Fragments/metabolism , Prevalence , Protozoan Vaccines/immunology , Sarcocystis/cytology , Sarcocystosis/epidemiology , Severity of Illness Index , Sheep/immunology , Sheep Diseases/immunology , Survival Analysis , Ultraviolet Rays , Vaccines, Attenuated/immunology
18.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 103(4): 370-374, June 2008. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-486866

ABSTRACT

In our laboratory, we have developed a model of vaccination in mice with Trypanosoma rangeli, a non-pathogenic parasite that shares many antigens with Trypanosoma cruzi. The vaccinated mice were protected against infection with virulent T. cruzi. The goal of the present work was to study the protective activity of strains of T. rangeli of different origin, with the aim of analysing whether this protective capacity is a common feature of T. rangeli. BALB/c mice were vaccinated with live or fixed epimastigotes of two T. rangeli strains, Choachi and SC-58. Vaccinated (VM) and control mice (CM) were infected with virulent T. cruzi, Tulahuen strain. The results showed that the levels of parasitemia of VM, vaccinated with the two strains of T. rangeli were significantly lower than those developed in CM. The survival rate of VM was higher than that CM. Histological studies revealed many amastigote nests and severe inflammatory infiltrates in the heart and skeletal muscles of CM, whereas in the VM only moderate lymphomonocytic infiltrates were detected. Altogether, the results of the present work as well as previous studies show that the antigens involved in the protection induced by T. rangeli are expressed in different strains of this parasite. These findings could prove useful in vaccine preparation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Parasitemia/immunology , Protozoan Vaccines/immunology , Trypanosoma/immunology , Trypanosomiasis/prevention & control , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Time Factors , Trypanosoma cruzi/immunology , Trypanosoma cruzi/pathogenicity , Trypanosoma/pathogenicity , Trypanosomiasis/immunology
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-114847

ABSTRACT

The protective effect of the Synadenium carinatum latex lectin (ScLL), and the possibility of using it as an adjuvant in murine model of vaccination against American cutaneous leishmaniasis, were evaluated. BALB/c mice were immunized with the lectin ScLL (10, 50, 100 microgram/animal) separately or in association with the soluble Leishmania amazonensis antigen (SLA). After a challenge infection with 10(6) promastigotes, the injury progression was monitored weekly by measuring the footpad swelling for 10 weeks. ScLL appeared to be capable of conferring partial protection to the animals, being most evident when ScLL was used in concentrations of 50 and 100 microgram/animal. Also the parasite load in the interior of macrophages showed significant reduction (61.7%) when compared to the control group. With regard to the cellular response, ScLL 50 and 100 microgram/animal stimulated the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction significantly (P < 0.05) higher than SLA or SLA plus ScLL 10 weeks after the challenge infection. The detection of high levels of IgG2a and the expression of mRNA cytokines, such as IFN-gamma, IL-12, and TNF-alpha (Th1 profiles), corroborated the protective role of this lectin against cutaneous leishmaniasis. This is the first report of the ScLL effect on leishmaniasis and shows a promising role for ScLL to be explored in other experimental models for treatment of leishmaniasis.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic , Animals , Antibodies, Protozoan/immunology , Antibody Formation , Antigens, Protozoan/immunology , Cytokines/genetics , Euphorbiaceae/chemistry , Hypersensitivity, Delayed/immunology , Immunization , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Latex/chemistry , Leishmania/immunology , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/immunology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/genetics , Plant Lectins/immunology , Protozoan Vaccines/immunology , Skin/pathology
20.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 101(4): 365-372, June 2006. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-435295

ABSTRACT

The pathogenesis of Schistosoma mansoni infection is largely determined by host T-cell mediated immune responses such as the granulomatous response to tissue deposited eggs and subsequent fibrosis. The major egg antigens have a valuable role in desensitizing the CD4+ Th cells that mediate granuloma formation, which may prevent or ameliorate clinical signs of schistosomiasis.S. mansoni major egg antigen Smp40 was expressed and completely purified. It was found that the expressed Smp40 reacts specifically with anti-Smp40 monoclonal antibody in Western blotting. Three-dimensional structure was elucidated based on the similarity of Smp40 with the small heat shock protein coded in the protein database as 1SHS as a template in the molecular modeling. It was figured out that the C-terminal of the Smp40 protein (residues 130 onward) contains two alpha crystallin domains. The fold consists of eight beta strands sandwiched in two sheets forming Greek key. The purified Smp40 was used for in vitro stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients infected with S. mansoni using phytohemagglutinin mitogen as a positive control. The obtained results showed that there is no statistical difference in interferon-g, interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 levels obtained with Smp40 stimulation compared with the control group (P > 0.05 for each). On the other hand, there were significant differences after Smp40 stimulation in IL-5 (P = 0.006) and IL-10 levels (P < 0.001) compared with the control group. Gaining the knowledge by reviewing the literature, it was found that the overall pattern of cytokine profile obtained with Smp40 stimulation is reported to be associated with reduced collagen deposition, decreased fibrosis, and granuloma formation inhibition. This may reflect its future prospect as a leading anti-pathology schistosomal vaccine candidate.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Male , Antigens, Protozoan/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Models, Molecular , Schistosoma mansoni/immunology , Schistosomiasis mansoni/immunology , Blotting, Western , Case-Control Studies , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Feces/parasitology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Parasite Egg Count , Protozoan Vaccines/immunology
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