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1.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 156(6): 604-609, nov.-dic. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249973

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Existe poca información acerca de la efectividad de las combinaciones ceftolozano/tazobactam y ceftazidima/avibactam en cepas clínicamente relevantes aisladas en México. Objetivo: Determinar el perfil antimicrobiano de ambos antibióticos en nuestra comunidad. Método: El presente estudio de investigación fue prospectivo, descriptivo y transversal. Se incluyeron cepas clínicamente relevantes aisladas a partir de cultivos de cepa pura durante el periodo de agosto de 2018 a enero de 2019 en Mexicali, Baja California, México. Resultados: Se analizaron 74 cepas de enterobacterias y 19 cepas de Pseudomonas aeruginosa; el porcentaje de sensibilidad de ceftazidima/avibactam fue de 100 % contra enterobacterias y de 72.7 % contra Pseudomonas aeruginosa; el porcentaje de sensibilidad de ceftolozano/tazobactam fue de 90.5 % para enterobacterias y de 72.7 % para Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Conclusiones: Las combinaciones ceftolozano/tazobactam y ceftazidima/avibactam ofrecen buena sensibilidad antimicrobiana in vitro, tanto contra enterobacterias productoras de betalactamasas de espectro extendido como contra Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Se requieren más datos para valorar la respuesta clínica en pacientes que reciben esas combinaciones de antibióticos.


Abstract Introduction: There is limited information on the effectiveness of ceftolozane/tazobactam and ceftazidime/avibactam combinations on clinically relevant strains isolated in Mexico. Objective: To determine the antimicrobial profile of both antibiotic combinations in our community. Method: The present research study was prospective, descriptive and cross-sectional. Clinically relevant strains isolated from pure-strain cultures were included during the period from August 2018 to January 2019 in Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico. Results: 74 enterobacteriaceae and 19 Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains were analyzed; the percentage of sensitivity of ceftazidime/avibactam was 100 % for enterobacteriaceae and 72.7 % for Pseudomonas aeruginosa; the percentage of sensitivity of ceftolozane/tazobactam for enterobacteriaceae was 90.5 % and 72.7 % for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Conclusions: The ceftolozane/tazobactam and ceftazidime/avibactam combinations offer good antimicrobial sensitivity in vitro, both for ESBL-producing enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. More data are required to assess clinical response in patients receiving these antibiotic combinations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Ceftazidime/therapeutic use , Cephalosporins/therapeutic use , Enterobacteriaceae/drug effects , Azabicyclo Compounds/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolation & purification , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Drug Combinations , Enterobacteriaceae/isolation & purification , Tazobactam/therapeutic use , Mexico
2.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 15(4): 484-490, 2020. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146395

ABSTRACT

Cystic Fibrosis is a multisystemic inherited disease that requires ongoing care by multidisciplinary teams. The objective of this study is to describe changes on nutrition and lung function in a cohort of patients in a Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Care Center at the Hospital Infantil Universitario San José in Bogotá (HIUSJ), between 2010 and 2013.Is a descriptive study in a cohort of CF patients during four years of follow-up. The quantitative variables were described using medians and interquartile ranges, and the qualitative variables with absolute frequencies and percentages. Descriptive statistics was used to summarize the findings. Of the 63 patients in the initial group, 47 (74.6%) completed the follow-up time. The age range was between 3 to 30 years. The median BMI increased as follows: 17.9 (RIQ: 12.5-25.6) in 2010, 18.6 (RIQ: 12.9-24.8) in 2011, 18.9 RIQ (13.6-26.5) in 2012 and 19.0 (RIQ: 13.5-25.8) in 2013, with lower values in men. The forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) at admission was classified as severe (FEV1 <40%) in 7.1%, moderate (FEV1 40-69%) in 35.7%, mild (FEV1 70-79%) in 7.1% and as normal (FEV1> 80%) in 50%. It is concluded that during the 4 years of follow-up at the HIUSJ CF Center there is an improvement in BMI and a deterioration in lung function in the whole group. The importance of establishing more reference centers to improve clinical outcomes and of implement a National registry to follow up over time are highlighted.


La fibrosis quística es una enfermedad hereditaria, multisistémica, cuyo manejo continuo requiere de equipos multidisciplinarios de salud. El objetivo de este trabajo es describir la evolución nutricional y de la función pulmonar en una cohorte de pacientes en el centro de atención integral de la fibrosis quística (FQ), del Hospital Infantil Universitario San José de Bogotá (HIUSJB), entre 2010 y 2013. Estudio descriptivo, en una cohorte de pacientes, en seguimiento durante cuatro años. Las variables cuantitativas fueron descritas mediante medianas y rangos intercuartílicos y las cualitativas con frecuencias absolutas y porcentajes. De los 63 pacientes del grupo inicial, 47 (74.6%), completaron el tiempo de seguimiento. El rango de edad fue de 3 a 30 años. La mediana del IMC (índice de masa corporal) se incrementó así: 17.9 (RIQ:12.5-25.6) en el 2010, 18.6 (RIQ:12.9-24.8) en el 2011, 18.9 ( RIQ(13.6-26.5) en el 2012 y 19.0 (RIQ:13.5-25.8) en el 2013, con menores valores en los hombres. El volumen espiratorio forzado en el primer segundo (VEF1) al ingreso fue clasificado como severo (VEF1<40%) en el 7.1%, moderado (VEF1 40-69%) en el 35.7%, leve (VEF1 70-79%) en el 7.1% y como normal (VEF1>80%) en el 50%. Se concluye que durante los 4 años de seguimiento en el programa de FQ del HIUSJ, ocurre una mejoría del IMC en todo el grupo y un deterioro de la función pulmonar. Se resalta la importancia de constituir más centros de referencia para mejorar los desenlaces clínicos e implementar un registro Nacional para hacer seguimiento a través del tiempo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Respiratory Function Tests , Nutritional Status , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated , Cystic Fibrosis/physiopathology , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolation & purification , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Body Mass Index , Clinical Evolution , Forced Expiratory Volume , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cohort Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Cystic Fibrosis/microbiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data
3.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 15(4): 491-497, 2020. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146396

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: cystic fibrosis (CF) is a chronic, progressive disease with multisystem involvement and high mortality. An early diagnosis and a multidisciplinary approach lead to longer survival and better quality of life. OBJECTIVE: to characterize the patients who died with CF diagnosis in the period between 2011 and 2017 in the Hospital Universitario San Vicente in Colombia. METHODOLOGY: descriptive study of case series, with retrospective data collection. Results: 168 patients with CF were found in follow-up at the institution during the study period, of which 17 died (10,1%). Eleven deaths corresponded to children under 15 years old (64.7%), with equal distribution of gender (women 52.9% and men 47.1%). The median age at diagnosis was 3 years and median death 12 years. The most frequent clinical compromise was sinopulmonary and gastrointestinal. Pulmonary hypertension occurred in 29.4%. All the patients had a severe functional and nutritional compromise and 82.4% were colonized by Pseudomona aeruginosa. None had multidisciplinary management and most had a low socioeconomic level. BiPAP was used as a palliative measure in 6 patients and all died from ventilatory failure. CONCLUSION: CF mortality in our population continues to present at an early age. The diagnosis of the disease is still made late, compared to developed countries. There was a high proportion of bacterial colonization of the airway and the patients presented a severe clinical and functional status before dying.


INTRODUCCIÓN: la fibrosis quística (FQ) es una enfermedad crónica, progresiva, con compromiso multisistémico y de alta mortalidad. Un diagnóstico temprano y un manejo multidisciplinario llevan a una mayor sobrevida y mejor calidad de vida. OBJETIVO: caracterizar los pacientes que fallecieron con diagnóstico de FQ en el periodo comprendido entre 2011 y 2017 en el Hospital Universitario San Vicente Fundación (HUSVF) de Colombia. METODOLOGÍA: estudio descriptivo de series de casos, con recolección de la información de forma retrospectiva. RESULTADOS: Se encontraron 168 pacientes con FQ en seguimiento en la institución durante el periodo del estudio, de los cuales 17 fallecieron (10.1%). Once muertes correspondieron a menores de 15 años (64.7%), hubo una distribución de género equitativa (mujeres 52.9% y hombres 47.1%). La mediana de edad al momento del diagnóstico fue de 3 años y la de muerte 12 años. El compromiso clínico más frecuente fue sinopulmonar y gastrointestinal. La hipertensión pulmonar se presentó en el 29.4%. Todos los pacientes tenían un grave compromiso funcional, nutricional y el 82,4% estaban colonizados por Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Ninguno tuvo manejo multidisciplinario y la mayoría presentaban un bajo nivel socieconómico. En 6 pacientes se utilizó BiPAP como medida paliativa y todos murieron por falla ventilatoria. CONCLUSIÓN: la mortalidad por FQ en nuestra población se sigue presentando a edades tempranas. El diagnóstico de la enfermedad aún se realiza de forma tardía, comparado con países desarrollados. Hubo alta proporción de colonización bacteriana de la vía aérea y los pacientes presentaron un estado clínico y funcional grave antes de morir.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Cystic Fibrosis/mortality , Poverty , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolation & purification , Socioeconomic Factors , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Burkholderia cepacia/isolation & purification , Colombia , Cystic Fibrosis/microbiology , Malnutrition , Hospitals, University/statistics & numerical data
4.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20180498, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057281

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the main pathogens causing infection in intensive care units (ICUs) and usually presents antimicrobial resistance. METHODS: Data were obtained from ICUs between 2010 and 2013. RESULTS: P. aeruginosa had a prevalence of 14.5% of which 48.7% were multidrug resistant. We observed increasing resistance to carbapenems and polymyxin B and growing consumption of aminoglycosides, meropenem, ceftazidime, and polymyxin B. The regression impact between resistance and consumption was significant with respect to amikacin, imipenem, meropenem, and polymyxin B. CONCLUSIONS: Monitoring antimicrobial consumption and resistant microorganisms should be reinforced to combat antimicrobial- and multi-drug resistance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Pseudomonas Infections/microbiology , Cross Infection/microbiology , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolation & purification , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Prevalence , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Intensive Care Units , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
5.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(5): 551-555, oct. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058080

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Pseudomonas aeruginosa es un patógeno oportunista asociado a alta morbi-mortalidad. Para cepas multi-resistentes (MDR), ceftolozano/tazobactam (CTZ) se ha autorizado por la Agencia Europea del Medicamento (EMA) para infecciones del tracto urinario complicadas, pielonefritis aguda e infecciones intra-abdominales complicadas. Objetivo: Determinar la sensibilidad a CTZ de P. aeruginosa MDR en muestras clínicas aisladas en el Hospital Universitario Puerto Real. Material y Métodos: Se estudió la sensibilidad según criterios EUCAST a CTZ de cepas de P. aeruginosa MDR, entre enero de 2015 y agosto de 2017. Los criterios de multi-resistencia fueron definidos por el Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. La sensibilidad antimicrobiana se obtuvo mediante sistema MicroScan® (Beckman Coulter). La sensibilidad a CTZ se determinó mediante tiras de gradiente (Liofilchem®, Werfen). Resultados: De 1253 cepas, 7% fueron MDR. Se estudió la sensibilidad de 78 cepas de P. aeruginosa MDR, de las cuales cinco (6,4%) resultaron resistentes a CTZ según criterios EUCAST. Conclusiones: En nuestro medio la resistencia in vitro a CTZ en cepas de P. aeruginosa MDR es aproximadamente 6%; CTZ es una opción de tratamiento de infecciones por cepas de P. aeruginosa MDR cuando no exista otra alternativa y se haya comprobado su sensibilidad in vitro.


Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen associated with high morbidity and mortality. For multidrug-resistant strains (MDR), ceftolozane/tazobactam (CTZ) has been authorized by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) for complicated urinary tract infections, acute pyelonephritis, and complicated intraabdominal infections. Aim: To determine the susceptibility to CTZ of P. aeruginosa MDR in isolated clinical samples at the University Hospital Puerto Real. Methods: The susceptibility according to the EUCAST to CTZ criteria of strains of P. aeruginosa MDR, between January 2015 and August 2017 has been studied. The multiresistance criteria were those defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The antibiotic susceptibility was obtained by automated MicroScan® system (Beckman Coulter). Susceptibility to CTZ was determined using gradient strips (Liofilchem®, Werfen). Results: Of 1253 strains isolated, 7% presented MDR. We studied the susceptibility of a total of 78 strains of MDR P. aeruginosa, of which 5 (6.4%) were resistant to CTZ according to the EUCAST criteria. Conclusions: In our environment, the in vitro resistance to CTZ in MDR P. aeruginosa strains is approximately 6%. CTZ is an option for the treatment of infections by MDR P. aeruginosa when there is no other alternative and its in-vitro susceptibility has been proven.


Subject(s)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Cephalosporins/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/drug effects , Tazobactam/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolation & purification , Reference Values , Mass Spectrometry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Reproducibility of Results , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
7.
J. bras. pneumol ; 45(3): e20170351, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012549

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Home nebulizers are routinely used in the treatment of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). This study aims to evaluate the contamination of nebulizers used for CF patients, that are chronically colonized by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and the association of nebulizer contamination with cleaning, decontamination and drying practices. Methods: A cross-sectional, observational, multicenter study was conducted in seven CF reference centers in Brazil to obtain data from medical records, structured interviews with patients/caregivers were performed, and nebulizer's parts (interface and cup) were collected for microbiological culture. Results: overall, 77 CF patients were included. The frequency of nebulizer contamination was 71.6%. Candida spp. (52.9%), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (11.9%), non-mucoid P. aeruginosa (4.8%), Staphylococcus aureus (4.8%) and Burkholderia cepacia complex (2.4%) were the most common isolated pathogens. The frequency of nebulizers' hygiene was 97.4%, and 70.3% of patients reported cleaning, disinfection and drying the nebulizers. The use of tap water in cleaning method and outdoor drying of the parts significantly increased (9.10 times) the chance of nebulizers' contamination. Conclusion: Despite the high frequency hygiene of the nebulizers reported, the cleaning and disinfection methods used were often inadequate. A significant proportion of nebulizers was contaminated with potentially pathogenic microorganisms for CF patients. These findings support the need to include patients/caregivers in educational programs and / or new strategies for delivering inhaled antibiotics.


RESUMO Objetivo: Nebulizadores caseiros são usados rotineiramente no tratamento de pacientes com fibrose cística (FC). Este estudo objetiva avaliar a contaminação de nebulizadores utilizados por pacientes de FC que estão cronicamente colonizados por Pseudomonas aeruginosa e a associação da contaminação do nebulizador com a higienização, esterilização e método de secagem. Métodos: Um estudo transversal, observacional, multicêntrico foi conduzido em sete centros de referência de FC no Brasil para obter dados de registros médicos; foram feitas entrevistas estruturadas com os pacientes/cuidadores e partes de nebulizadores (máscara e copo) foram coletados para cultura microbiológica. Resultados: No geral, 77 pacientes com FC foram incluídos. A frequência da contaminação do nebulizador foi de 71,6%. Candida spp. (52,9%), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (11,9%), P. aeruginosa não mucoide (4,8%), Staphylococcus aureus (4,8%) e complexo Burkholderia cepacia (2.4%) foram os patógenos isolados mais comuns. A frequência de higienização dos nebulizadores foi de 97,4%, e 70,3% dos pacientes relata higienização, esterilização e secagem dos aparelhos. A lavagem com água da torneira e secagem das partes no tempo, em espaço aberto, aumentou significativamente (9 a 10 vezes) a chance de contaminação dos nebulizadores. Conclusões: Apesar dos relatos de frequente higienização dos nebulizadores, os métodos de limpeza e esterilização usados eram inadequados. Uma proporção significativa de nebulizadores foi contaminada com microrganismos potencialmente patogênicos para pacientes com FC. Estes resultados apoiam a necessidade de inclusão dos pacientes/cuidadores em programas educacionais e/ou novas estratégias para fornecimento de antibióticos inalatórios.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolation & purification , Nebulizers and Vaporizers/microbiology , Equipment Contamination/statistics & numerical data , Cystic Fibrosis/therapy , Reference Values , Brazil , Colony Count, Microbial , Logistic Models , Decontamination/methods , Decontamination/statistics & numerical data , Disinfection/methods , Disinfection/statistics & numerical data , Equipment Contamination/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies
8.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 77(6): 320-323, nov.-dez. 2018. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-985314

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivos: Avaliar o grau de contaminação por fungos e bactérias e o modo de conservação destes colírios hipotensores por parte dos pacientes no ambulatório de Glaucoma da Santa Casa de Ribeirão Preto. Métodos: Foram selecionados aleatoriamente cinquenta e cinco pacientes, em seguimento no ambulatório, e após consentimento dos mesmos os colírios eram coletados e enviados via correio para análise por microbiologista e patologista em até 72 horas. Foi analisado 0,5ml aproximadamente das medicações e os pacientes respondiam a um questionário simples sobre o método de conservação e se consideravam estes adequados. Resultados: Dos 55 colírios analisados, cinco (9,01%) estavam com seu conteúdo líquido contaminado. Entre os microrganismos isolados haviam 4 bactérias Gram negativas, sendo 1 (1,8%) por Serratia marcescens, 1 (1,8%) Pseudomonas aeruginosa e 2 (3,6%) Stenotrophomas maltophilia. Um colírio estava contaminado pelo fungo Cândida ssp Todos pacientes do estudo julgam seus métodos de armazenamento e instilação adequados. Os pacientes que tiveram os colírios positivados eram convocados para exame clínico e passavam por novo questionário pelo investigador. Conclusão: O tempo de abertura dos frascos e os métodos de conservação influenciam na contaminação dos medicamentos, todos os colírios com crescimento de microrganismos no presente estudo estavam abertos entre 30 e 90 dias. O fato de que a maioria dos pacientes levam seus colírios em tarefas cotidianas, aumenta a exposição dos frascos e podem ser um fator relevante para determinar a contaminação destas medicações.


Abstract Objetives: To assess the degree of fungal and bacterial contamination of hypotensive eye drops and the way these are preserved by the patients at the Glaucoma outpatient clinic of Santa Casa Hospital in Ribeirão Preto. Methods: Fifty-five patients were randomly assigned to follow-up in the outpatient clinic and, after their consent, an eye drop was collected per patient and later sent by mail for analysis by microbiologist and pathologist in up to 72 hours. Approximately 0.5ml of the medications were analyzed and the patients were asked to answer a simple questionnaire on the method of drug conservation and whether they considered it adequate. Results: Of the 55 analysed eye drops, five (9.01%) had their liquid contents contaminated. Among the microorganisms isolated there were 4 Gram negative bacteria, 1 (1.8%) by Serratia marcenses, 1 (1.8%) Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 2 (3.6%) Stenotrophomas maltophilia. An eye drop was contaminated by the fungus Candida ssp. All the patients in the study judged their methods of storage and instillation appropriate. The patients who had the positive coliria were summoned for clinical examination and passed through a new questionnaire by the investigator. Conclusion: The time and methods of preservation influence the contamination of medicinal products. All the eye drops that presented growth of microorganisms in the present study were open between 30 and 90 days. The fact that most patients take their eye drops on daily tasks increases the exposure of the bottles and can be a relevant fact to determine the contamination of these medications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Ophthalmic Solutions/analysis , Ophthalmic Solutions/therapeutic use , Glaucoma/drug therapy , Drug Contamination , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolation & purification , Serratia marcescens/growth & development , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Candida/growth & development , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Stenotrophomonas maltophilia/growth & development , Drug Storage , Slit Lamp Microscopy , Fungi/isolation & purification
9.
Med. infant ; 25(4): 299-302, diciembre 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-970392

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La bacteriemia por Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAE) en niños es infrecuente. Objetivo.Describir las características epidemiológicas, clínicas, microbiológicas y evolutivas en niños con bacteriemia por PAE. Métodos. Estudio de cohorte retrospectivo. Resultados. Se incluyeron 100 pacientes (p). La mediana de edad fue de 27 meses (RIC 6-88).Tenían enfermedad de base: 93 p (93%) y 36 de ellos estaban neutropénicos. Ochenta y cinco p (85%) habían recibido antibióticos en el último mes, 60 (60%) tuvieron procedimientos invasivos previos y 81 (81%) tuvieron internaciones previas. Ingresaron con shock séptico 42 p (42%), 56 p (56%) fueron admitidos en unidad de cuidados intensivos (UCI) y 49 (49%) requirieron ventilación mecánica (VM). La bacteriemia fue primaria en 17 p (17%); asociada a catéter en 15 p (15%) y secundaria en 68 p (68%). El foco más frecuente fue mucocutáneo, 21 p, seguido por el pulmonar, 20 p. El tratamiento empírico fue adecuado en 84 p (84%). La resistencia a uno o más grupos de antibióticos se dio en el 38% de los casos, 11% fueron multirresistentes y 15% fueron resistentes sólo a carbapenemes. Fallecieron 31 p (31%). Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistente a carbapenemes en forma exclusiva o combinada con otros antibióticos se relacionó en esta serie a exposición previa a antibióticos, (p≤0,03), tratamiento empírico inicial inadecuado (p≤0,006) y mayor mortalidad (p≤0,01), prolongación de la internación y del tiempo de tratamiento (p≤0,001)


Introduction. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAE) associated bacteremia is uncommon in children. Objective. To describe the epidemiological, clinical, and microbiological features and outcome in children with PAE-associated bacteremia. Methods. A retrospective cohort study. Results. 100 patients (p) were included. Median age was 27 months (IQR 6-88). Overall 93 p (93%) had an underlying disease, 36 of whom had neutropenia. Eighty-five p (85%) had received antibiotics over the previous month, 60 (60%) had undergone previous invasive procedures, and 81 (81%) had been previously admitted. Forty-two p (42%) were admitted because of septic shock, 56 p (56%) were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU), and 49 (49%) required mechanical ventilation (MV). Seventeen p (17%) had primary bacteremia, 15 p (15%) had catheter-related bacteremia, and 68 p (68%) had secondary bacteremia. The most common focus was mucocutaneous (21 p), followed by pulmonary (20 p). Emperical treatment was adequate in 84 p (84%). Resistance to one or more groups of antibiotics was observed in 38% of the cases; 11% were multiresistant and 15% were only resistant to carbapenems. Thirty-one p (31%) died. In our series, Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistant to carbapenems only or combined with other antibiotics was associated with previous exposition to antibiotics (p≤0.03), inadequate initial emperical treatment (p≤0.006), and higher mortality (p≤0.01), and longer hospital stay and treatment duration (p≤0.001)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolation & purification , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Pseudomonas Infections/diagnosis , Pseudomonas Infections/microbiology , Pseudomonas Infections/epidemiology , Bacteremia/microbiology , Bacteremia/mortality , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/drug effects , Carbapenems/pharmacology , Prospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
10.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 81(4): 339-340, July-Aug. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950464

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Bilateral simultaneous cataract surgery (BSCS) has gained popularity among eye surgeons in many countries. This study examines the case of a 77-year-old patient who developed bilateral Pseudomonas aeruginosa endophthalmitis following bilateral simultaneous cataract surgery. Immediate bilateral vitrectomy and intravitreal antibiotics injection were performed. Ultimately, both eyes were eviscerated due to pain refractory to treatment and no light perception.


RESUMO A cirurgia bilateral simultânea de catarata ganhou popularidade entre cirurgiões oftalmológicos em muitos países. Este estudo examina o caso de um paciente de 77 anos que desenvolveu endoftalmite bilateral por Pseudomonas aeruginosa após uma cirurgia bilateral simultânea de catarata. Vitrectomia bilateral imediata e injeção de antibióticos intravítreos foram realizadas. Em última análise, ambos os olhos foram eviscerados devido à dor refratária ao tratamento e sem percepção de luz.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolation & purification , Pseudomonas Infections/etiology , Cataract Extraction/adverse effects , Endophthalmitis/etiology , Pain, Postoperative/etiology , Pseudomonas Infections/surgery , Pseudomonas Infections/diagnosis , Vitrectomy , Cataract Extraction/methods , Endophthalmitis/surgery , Endophthalmitis/diagnosis , Eye Evisceration
11.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 64(8): 736-742, Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-976843

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY INTRODUCTION Healthcare associated infections (HAI) are the most frequent complication of hospitalized patients. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of critically ill post-surgical patients with a diagnosis of healthcare associated infections, after a pattern of sedoanalgesia of at least 4 days. METHODS All patients over 18 years of age with a unit admission of more than 4 days were consecutively selected. The study population was the one affected by surgical pathology where sedation was based as analgesic the opioid remifentanil for at least 96 hours in continuous perfusion. Patients who died during admission to the unit and those with combined analgesia (peripheral or neuroaxial blocks) were excluded. Data analysis was performed using the statistical package Stata version 7.0. RESULTS The patients admitted to the Post-Surgical Critical Care Unit (PCU) during study were 1789 and the population eligible was comprised of 102 patients. 56.86% of patients suffered IACS. The most frequent IACS was pneumonia associated with mechanical ventilation (30.96 per 1000 days of mechanical ventilation), Pseudomonas aeruginosa being the most frequently isolated germ. The germs with the greatest involvement in multiple drug resistance (MDROs) were enterobacteria, mainly Klebsiella pneumoniae resistant to extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL). CONCLUSIONS Pneumonia associated with mechanical ventilation is the most prevalent HAI and Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the main etiological agent. The groups of antibiotics most frequently used were cephalosporin and aminoglycosides. It is necessary to implement the prevention strategies of the different HAI, since most of them are avoidable.


RESUMO INTRODUCCIÓN Las infecciones asociadas a cuidados de salud (IACS) constituyen la complicación más frecuente de los pacientes hospitalizados. El objetivo de este estudio es describir las características clínicas y epidemiológicas de los pacientes críticos postquirúrgicos con diagnóstico de infección asociada a cuidados de salud, tras una pauta de sedoanalegia de al menos 4 días. MÉTODOS Se seleccionaron de manera consecutiva todos los pacientes mayores de 18 años con un ingreso en la Unidad de Reanimación Postquirúrgica (URP) superior a 4 días. La población de estudio fue aquella afectada por patología quirúrgica de cualquier origen donde la sedación se basó en cualquier hipnótico y como analgésico el opioide remifentanilo durante al menos 96 horas en perfusión continua. Se excluyeron los pacientes que fallecieron durante su ingreso en la unidad y aquellos pacientes con analgesia combinada (bloqueos periféricos o neuroaxiales). El análisis de los datos se realizó con paquete estadístico Stata versión 7.0. RESULTADOS El número de pacientes que ingresaron en la URP durante el periodo de estudio fueron de 1789. Tras aplicar los criterios de inclusión y exclusión, la población elegible quedó constituida por 102 pacientes. Un 56,86% de pacientes padecieron IACS. La IACS más frecuente fue la neumonía asociada a ventilación mecánica (30,96 por 1000 días de ventilación mecánica) siendo Pseudomona aeruginosa el germen más frecuentemente aislado. Los gérmenes con mayor implicación en las multirresistencias (MDROs) fueron las enterobacterias, principalmente Klebsiella pneumoniae resistente a betalactamasas de espectro extendido (BLEE). CONCLUSIONES La neumonía asociada a ventilación mecánica es la IACS más prevalente y Pseudomona aeruginosa es el principal agente etiológico. Los grupos de antibióticos más frecuentemente empleados fueron cefalosporinas y aminoglucósidos. Es necesario implementar las estrategias de prevención de las distintas IACS, ya que la mayoría de ellas son evitables.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Remifentanil/administration & dosage , Analgesics, Opioid/administration & dosage , Postoperative Complications/microbiology , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolation & purification , Spain/epidemiology , Time Factors , Midazolam/administration & dosage , Propofol/administration & dosage , Cross Infection/microbiology , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Critical Illness , APACHE , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/microbiology , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/epidemiology , Deep Sedation/adverse effects , Deep Sedation/methods , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hypnotics and Sedatives/administration & dosage , Anesthesia, Local/adverse effects , Anesthesia, Local/methods , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Middle Aged
12.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(4): 726-733, abr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-955392

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se identificar microrganismos isolados de diferentes tipos de ceratite ulcerativa em cães, juntamente com a sua susceptibilidade a antimicrobianos. O resultado do tratamento médico e cirúrgico também foi correlacionado com o tipo de isolado. Amostras para microbiologia foram obtidas com auxílio de swab estéril em 104 olhos de 72 pacientes sem histórico prévio de tratamento com antibióticos tópicos, atendidos no período de maio de 2012 a março de 2015. Os antibióticos testados foram: neomicina, gentamicina, tobramicina, cloranfenicol, polimixina B, ciprofloxacino, ofloxacino e moxifloxacina. No total, 131 bactérias foram isoladas de 96/104 olhos estudados, sendo o gênero Staphylococcus (48,09%) predominante, seguido por Pseudomonas aeruginosa (16,01%). O Shih Tzu foi a raça mais prevalente (33,33%) e o número de isolados gram-negativos foi significativamente maior nessa raça, comparativamente aos Pinschers (p=0,003), aos Filas, aos Poodles e aos sem raça definida (p=0,046). As bactérias isoladas neste estudo apresentaram maior susceptibilidade ao ofloxacino (84,55%), que foi significativamente mais eficaz em relação a neomicina e a polimixina B (p<0,0001), ao cloranfenicol (p=0,0001), a tobramicina (p=0,0007), a gentamicina (p=0,0021) e as outras fluorquinolonas, ciprofloxacino (p=0,0004) e moxifloxacino (p<0,0001). Os organismos gram-positivos foram isolados de um número significativamente maior de olhos que apresentavam ceratite ulcerativa não complicada, comparativamente àqueles com olhos acometidos por ceratite ulcerativa complicada (p=0,011). Igualmente, o número de bactérias gram-positivas foi maior que o de gram-negativas, tanto nos casos que receberam tratamento médico, como nos que foram operados, sem significativa estatística (p=0,745). Na presente pesquisa, Staphylococcus sp. foi a bactéria mais encontrada nas ceratites ulcerativas não complicadas. Já nos olhos com ceratites complicadas, embora a Pseudomonas aeruginosa tenha sido a bactéria mais predominante, o tratamento clínico foi suficiente para cura da afecção corneal na maior parte dos casos. O ofloxacino e a gentamicina foram os agentes mais eficazes contra a maioria dos isolados, com exceção do Streptococcus sp., onde o cloranfenicol se mostrou o mais eficaz. Ceratites ulcerativas sem complicações que apresentem culturas negativas podem evoluir para ceratites ulcerativas complicadas, salientando a necessidade de tratamento anti-colagenolítico em todos os casos.


The purpose of the present study was to analyze antibiotic susceptibility of bacteria associated with different types of ulcerative keratitis in dogs. The outcome of medical or surgical treatment was also correlated with the type of isolate. Samples for microbiology were obtained by means of sterile swab from 104 eyes of 72 canine patients with ulcerative keratitis without previous history of antibiotic treatment, seen from May 2012 to March 2015. Only patients with no previous treatment with antibiotics were included in the study. Bacterial isolates were identified and the antibiotic susceptibility was tested to neomycin, gentamicin, tobramycin, chloramphenicol, polymyxin B, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin and moxifloxacin. In total, 131 species of bacteria were isolated from 96/104 eyes, and Staphylococcus sp. predominated (48.09%), followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (16.01%). Shih Tzus were over represented (33.33%) and the number of gram-negative isolates were significantly higher in this breed, in comparison to Pinchers (P=0.003), Filas, Poodles, and other mixed-breeds (P=0.046). All species isolated in this study were more sensitive to ofloxacin (84.55%), that was significantly most efficient than neomycin and polymyxin B (P<0.0001), chloramphenicol (P=0.0001), tobramycin (P=0.0007), gentamicin (P=0.0021) and the other fluoroquinolones, ciprofloxacin (P=0.0004) and moxifloxacin (P<0.0001). Gram-positive organisms were isolated in a significant larger number of eyes with uncomplicated ulcerative keratitis, in comparison to those eyes with complicated ulcerative keratitis (P=0.011). Likewise, gram-positive were isolated in a larger number than gram-negatives microorganisms in cases that received either medically or surgical treatment, without statistical significance (P=0.745). In the present research, Staphylococcus sp. was the bacteria most commonly isolated in the eyes with uncomplicated ulcerative keratitis. Although Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most common isolate in the eyes with complicated ulcerative keratitis, the majority of cases managed clinically had a successful outcome. Ofloxacin and gentamicin were found to be effective against the majority of isolates, with the exception of Streptococcus. sp, in which chloramphenicol was the most effective antibiotic. Uncomplicated ulcerative keratitis presenting negative culture may evolve to complicated ulcerative keratitis, warring the necessity of anti-collagenolytic treatment in all cases.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolation & purification , Staphylococcus/isolation & purification , Corneal Ulcer/immunology , Disease Susceptibility/immunology
13.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(2): 155-162, abr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-959425

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Las úlceras crónicas son un problema de salud pública, agravándose por infecciones bacterianas causadas principalmente por agentes resistentes. Objetivo: Estudiar prevalencia y perfil de susceptibilidad en bacterias aisladas de úlceras crónicas en pacientes adultos. Pacientes y Métodos: Pacientes atendidos en la Fundación Instituto Nacional de Heridas entre mayo y julio de 2014, con úlceras crónicas en extremidades inferiores con signos inflamatorios clínicos. Las muestras fueron cultivadas en aerobiosis y anaerobiosis y para la identificación bacteriana se empleó el sistema de galerías API (Biomerieux). La susceptibilidad in vitro se evaluó según el método de Kirby Bauer. Resultados: Se reclutaron 73 pacientes, entre quienes 46 presentaron úlceras infectadas, diagnosticándose 33 úlceras venosas con predominio de infección polimicrobiana y 10 úlceras de pie diabético con predominio de infección monomicrobiana (p ≤ 0,05). Se aislaron 68 cepas de los 46 pacientes con úlcera infectada. Las enterobacterias predominaron en infección monomicrobiana (p ≤ 0,05) y los demás grupos bacterianos fueron levemente más frecuentes en infección polimicrobiana. La especie prevalente fue Staphylococcus aureus (24%) seguida de Pseudomonas aeruginosa (18%). Cincuenta cepas (77%) presentaron resistencia a uno o más antibacterianos. Destacamos resistencia de S. aureus a ciprofloxacina (50%) y cefoxitina (37,5%) identificándose así resistencia a meticilina en la comunidad (SARM-AC), siendo todas sensibles a cotrimoxazol. Las enterobacterias presentaron resistencia a sensibilidad a amikacina (95,5%), P. aeruginosa evidenció resistencia a ciprofloxacina (33,3%) con alta sensibilidad a gentamicina (91,7%) y amikacina (83,3%), mientras Acinetobacter spp presentó resistencia a ciprofloxacina y ceftazidima en 60%, con 100% de sensibilidad a imipenem. Streptococcus β hemolítico presentó 50% de resistencia a clindamicina y penicilina. Conclusión: Estos datos entregan información epidemiológica de infecciones de úlceras crónicas, representando un apoyo al diagnóstico, tratamiento y manejo de esta patología.


Background: Chronic wounds are considered a public health problem that may be complicated by bacterial infections, mainly caused by resistant strains. Aim: To study the bacteria prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility in samples from adult patients with chronic wounds. Methods: Patients treated at National Institute of Wounds Foundation between May and July 2014, with chronic ulcers in lower extremities with clinical inflammatory signs were recluted. Samples were cultured in aerobic and anaerobic atmosphere and species identification was performed by API (Biomerieux) galleries. The in vitro susceptibility was evaluated according to the Kirby Bauer method. Results: From 73 patients, 46 had infected wounds most of them were venous ulcers (33) with prevalence in polymicrobial infections and 10 with foot-diabetes ulcers with prevalence in monomicrobial infections (p ≤ 0.05). Sixty-eight strains were isolated and Enterobacteriaceae were predominant in monomicrobial infection (p ≤ 0.05) and the other groups were slightly higher in polymicrobial infection. The main species were Staphylococcus aureus (24%) followed by P. aeruginosa (18%). Fifty strains (77%) were resistant or multi-resistance. We emphasize resistance of S. aureus to ciprofloxacin (50%) and cefoxitin (37.5%), thus identifying resistance to methicillin in the community (CA-SAMR), all of which are sensitive to cotrimoxazole. Enterobacteria showed sensitivity to amikacin (95.5%), P. aeruginosa showed resistance to ciprofloxacin (33.3%) with high sensitivity to gentamicin (91.7%) and amikacin (83.3%), while Acinetobacter spp showed resistance to ciprofloxacin and ceftazidime in 60%, with 100% sensitivity to imipenem. 50% Streptococcus β hemolytic showed resistance to clindamycin and penicillin. Conclusion: These data provide epidemiological information on chronic wound infections, representing support for diagnosis, treatment and management of this pathology.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolation & purification , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Wound Infection/microbiology , Wound Infection/drug therapy , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/isolation & purification , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacteria/classification , Wound Infection/epidemiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Chile/epidemiology , Chronic Disease , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Gram-Negative Bacteria/classification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/classification
14.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(3): 321-325, 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-959448

ABSTRACT

Resumen El uso de colistina por vía intratecal se ha consolidado como una opción terapéutica para el manejo de infecciones del sistema nervioso central causadas por bacilos gramnegativos multi-resistentes. La evidencia del éxito terapéutico y del perfil de seguridad es creciente, particularmente en infecciones por Acinetobacter baumanii multi-resistente en adultos. La evidencia en niños es escasa. Se presenta el caso clínico de una niña de 11 años de edad, con una ventriculitis post-quirúrgica por Pseudomonas aeruginosa extensamente resistente tratada con colistina intravenosa e intratecal. Se revisa su uso en niños con meningitis nosocomial causada por bacilos gramnegativos multi-resistentes.


Use of Intrathecal colistin has increased in recent years and has become an alternative for the management of infections of the central nervous system caused by multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria. Evidence of therapeutic success and safety profile is increasing, particularly in MDR Acinetobacter baumanii infections in adults. Conversely, evidence in children is limited. We present a case of an 11-year-old female with postsurgical meningitis caused by an extensively resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain and treated with venous and intrathecal colistin. The evidence of its use in children with nosocomial meningitis by MDR Gram negative bacteria is reviewed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Pseudomonas Infections/drug therapy , Colistin/administration & dosage , Cerebral Ventriculitis/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Postoperative Complications , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolation & purification , Injections, Spinal , Brain Neoplasms/surgery , Cerebral Ventriculitis/microbiology
15.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 34(4): 221-225, 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-990840

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La infección crónica por Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) es frecuente en pacientes con bronquiectasias (BQ) y representa un quiebre en la historia natural de la enfermedad, asociándose a mal pronóstico y mayor severidad. Objetivo: Caracterizar la población portadora de BQ no fibrosis quística (BQ no-FQ) del Instituto Nacional del Tórax (INT) infectados crónicamente con PA comparándolos con pacientes que mantienen cultivos de expectoración negativos para este germen. Metodología: Revisión retrospectiva de fichas clínicas de pacientes portadores de BQ del INT entre julio de 2007 y abril de 2017. Se caracterizó la población y se comparó score de FACED y otros índices de gravedad. Resultados: El promedio de edad fue de 55 ± 17,3 años, 81% de los pacientes fue de género femenino. De acuerdo a aislamiento de Pseudomonas en cultivo esputo se clasificaron como infectados crónicamente (BQ con PA; n = 61) y no infectados con PA (BQ sin PA; n = 59). No hubo diferencias entre los grupos en edad y sexo. El VEF1 fue más bajo en el grupo con PA los que tienen más hospitalizaciones. Se calculó el índice de riesgo FACED siendo mayor en los pacientes colonizados. La etiología más frecuente es la postinfecciosa, principalmente secuelas de TBC, con 30,8% de etiología no identificada. Conclusiones: Los pacientes con bronquiectasias con infección crónica por Pseudomonas aeruginosa tienen una enfermedad más severa, con VEF1 más bajo, y con mayor índice de severidad de FACED. Destaca en nuestro grupo la etiología postinfecciosa.


Introduction: Chronic airways infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is a common situation in patients with Bronchiectasis (BQ) and constitutes a breakdown in the natural history of the latter. Moreover, BQ is also associated with a poor prognosis and an increased severity of the disease. Objective: To describe the characteristics of the population diagnosed with non-Cystic Fibrosis Bronchiectasis (non-CFB) who are chronically infected with PA, and to perform a comparison with patients with negative sputum cultures. Methodology: We performed a retrospective analysis of the clinical files of patients diagnosed with non-CFB who were attended at the 'Instituto Nacional del Tórax' (Chile) between July 2007 and April 2017. The characteristics of the population were described and the FACED scores and other severity indexes were compared. Results: The average age of patients was 55 ± 17.3 years-old, and 81% of them were female. According to PA isolation in sputum culture, they were classified as "chronically infected" (non-CFB with PA, n = 61) and "not infected with PA" (non-CFB without PA, n = 59). There were no differences in age and gender between the two groups. On the other hand, FEV1 was lower in the non-CFB PA group. The calculated FACED score was higher in colonized patients. The most frequent etiology was post-infectious, mainly TB sequels, with a 30.8% unidentified etiology. Conclusions: Patients with bronchiectasis chronically infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa show increases in the severity of the disease, with a lower FEV1 and a higher FACED score. The postinfectious etiology is highlighted in our group.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Pseudomonas Infections/complications , Bronchiectasis/microbiology , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolation & purification , Respiratory Function Tests , Severity of Illness Index , Bronchiectasis/etiology , Bronchiectasis/physiopathology , Chronic Disease , Retrospective Studies
16.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 16(3): eRC4254, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-953171

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The aim of this study were to describe the technique of percutaneous drainage of iliopsoas abscess, and to discuss the benefits of using this minimally-invasive tool. A single center study with retrospective analysis of patients with psoas abscess confirmed by imaging scans, sent to the interventional medicine center and submitted to computed tomography and ultrasound-guided percutaneous drainage, from November 2013 to August 2016. Seven patients underwent percutaneous drainage of psoas abscess in this period. The mean initial drained volume was 61.4±50.7mL (ranging from 10 to 130mL), and the mean drainage duration was 8.3±2.8 days (ranging from 4 to 12 days). The success rate of the percutaneous procedures was 71.5%, and two patients required re-intervention. Image-guided percutaneous drainage of iliopsoas abscess is a minimally invasive, efficient and safe procedure, and an extremely valuable technique, especially for patients who are not suitable for surgical repair.


RESUMO Os objetivos deste estudo foram descrever a técnica de drenagem percutânea de abscesso de iliopsoas e discutir os benefícios do uso desta ferramenta minimamente invasiva. Trata-se de estudo unicêntrico com análise retrospectiva de pacientes com abscesso de psoas confirmado por exames de imagem, encaminhados a um centro de medicina intervencionista e submetidos à drenagem percutânea guiada por tomografia computadorizada e ultrassonografia, de novembro de 2013 a agosto de 2016. Sete pacientes foram submetidos à drenagem percutânea de abscesso de psoas no período avaliado. O volume drenado inicial médio foi 61,4±50,7mL (variação de 10 a 130mL), e a duração média da drenagem foi de 8,3±2,8 dias (variação de 4 a 12 dias). A taxa de sucesso dos procedimentos percutâneos foi 71,5%, e dois pacientes necessitaram de reintervenção. A drenagem percutânea guiada por imagem de abscesso de iliopsoas é um procedimento minimamente invasivo, eficiente e seguro, além de ser uma técnica muito valiosa, especialmente em pacientes que não são candidatos à abordagem cirúrgica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Drainage/methods , Psoas Abscess/therapy , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolation & purification , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Drainage/instrumentation , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Psoas Abscess/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography, Interventional , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures/methods , Middle Aged
17.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 21(6): 627-637, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888926

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This study evaluated the in vitro activity of ceftolozane-tazobactam and comparator agents tested against Latin American isolates of Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa from patients with health care-associated infections. Ceftolozane-tazobactam is an antipseudomonal cephalosporin combined with a well-established β-lactamase inhibitor.A total of 2415 Gram-negative organisms (537 P. aeruginosa and 1878 Enterobacteriaceae) were consecutively collected in 12 medical centers located in four Latin American countries. The organisms were tested for susceptibility by broth microdilution methods as described by the CLSI M07-A10 document and the results interpreted according to EUCAST and CLSI breakpoint criteria. Results: Ceftolozane-tazobactam (MIC50/90, 0.25/32 µg/mL; 84.2% susceptible) and meropenem (MIC50/90, ≤0.06/0.12 µg/mL; 92.6% susceptible) were the most active compounds tested against Enterobacteriaceae. Among the Enterobacteriaceae isolates tested, 6.6% were carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and 26.4% exhibited an extended-spectrum β-lactamase non-carbapenem-resistant phenotype. Whereas ceftolozane-tazobactam showed good activity against extended-spectrum beta-lactamase, non-carbapenem-resistant phenotype strains of Enterobacteriaceae (MIC50/90, 0.5/>32 µg/mL), it lacked useful activity against strains with a (MIC50/90, >32/>32 µg/mL; 1.6% S) carbapenem-resistant phenotype. Ceftolozane-tazobactam was the most potent (MIC50//90, 0.5/16 µg/mL) β-lactam agent tested against P. aeruginosa isolates, inhibiting 86.8% at an MIC of ≤4 µg/mL. P. aeruginosa exhibited high rates of resistance to cefepime (16.0%), ceftazidime (23.6%), meropenem (28.3%), and piperacillin-tazobactam (16.4%). Conclusions: Ceftolozane-tazobactam was the most active β-lactam agent tested against P. aeruginosa and demonstrated higher in vitro activity than available cephalosporins and piperacillin-tazobactam when tested against Enterobacteriaceae.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Cephalosporins/pharmacology , Cross Infection/microbiology , Penicillanic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Enterobacteriaceae/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Phenotype , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolation & purification , Penicillanic Acid/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Enterobacteriaceae/isolation & purification , Enterobacteriaceae/classification , Epidemiological Monitoring , Tazobactam , Latin America
18.
An. bras. dermatol ; 92(5): 698-700, Sept.-Oct. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887040

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Ecthyma gangrenosum is a rare skin infection classically associated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We performed a retrospective study of all cases diagnosed with ecthyma gangrenosum from 2004-2010 in a university hospital in Mexico (8 cases, 5 female patients and 3 male patients, ages between 4 months and 2 years). The most common risk factor for ecthyma gangrenosum is neutropenia in immunocompromised patients. In previously healthy patients, immunological evaluation is important to rule out underlying immunodeficiency. Ecthyma gangrenosum in healthy patients has a high mortality rate and early diagnosis and aggressive antibiotic treatment is imperative as it can improve patients' prognosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolation & purification , Pseudomonas Infections/complications , Ecthyma/microbiology , Gangrene/microbiology , Retrospective Studies , Ecthyma/drug therapy , Gangrene/drug therapy
19.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 29(3): 310-316, jul.-set. 2017. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-899522

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar fenotipicamente a produção de biofilme por isolados clínicos de Pseudomonas aeruginosa de pacientes com pneumonia associada à ventilação mecânica. Métodos: Foram analisados 20 isolados clínicos de P. aeruginosa, sendo 19 provenientes de amostras clínicas de aspirado traqueal e uma de lavado broncoalveolar. A avaliação da capacidade de P. aeruginosa em produzir biofilme foi verificada por duas técnicas, sendo uma qualitativa e outra quantitativa. Resultados: A técnica qualitativa mostrou que apenas 15% dos isolados foram considerados produtores de biofilme, enquanto que a quantitativa demonstrou que 75% dos isolados foram produtores de biofilme. Os isolados produtores de biofilme apresentaram o seguinte perfil de suscetibilidade: 53,3% eram multidroga-resistentes e 46,7% eram multidroga-sensíveis. Conclusão: A técnica quantitativa foi mais eficaz para detecção da produção de biofilme em comparação com a qualitativa. Para a população bacteriana analisada, a produção de biofilme independeu do perfil de suscetibilidade das bactérias, demonstrando que a falha terapêutica pode estar relacionada com a produção de biofilme, por impedir a destruição das bactérias presentes nesta estrutura, ocasionando complicações da pneumonia associada à ventilação mecânica, incluindo infecções extrapulmonares, e dificultando o tratamento da infecção.


ABSTRACT Objective: To phenotypically evaluate biofilm production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinically isolated from patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia. Methods: Twenty clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa were analyzed, 19 of which were from clinical samples of tracheal aspirate, and one was from a bronchoalveolar lavage sample. The evaluation of the capacity of P. aeruginosa to produce biofilm was verified using two techniques, one qualitative and the other quantitative. Results: The qualitative technique showed that only 15% of the isolates were considered biofilm producers, while the quantitative technique showed that 75% of the isolates were biofilm producers. The biofilm isolates presented the following susceptibility profile: 53.3% were multidrug-resistant, and 46.7% were multidrug-sensitive. Conclusion: The quantitative technique was more effective than the qualitative technique for the detection of biofilm production. For the bacterial population analyzed, biofilm production was independent of the susceptibility profile of the bacteria, demonstrating that the therapeutic failure could be related to biofilm production, as it prevented the destruction of the bacteria present in this structure, causing complications of pneumonia associated with mechanical ventilation, including extrapulmonary infections, and making it difficult to treat the infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolation & purification , Pseudomonas Infections/epidemiology , Biofilms , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/microbiology , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Pseudomonas Infections/microbiology , Respiration, Artificial , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/microbiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
20.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(2): 211-217, April.-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839365

ABSTRACT

Abstract Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that causes frequently nosocomial infections, currently becoming more difficult to treat due to the various resistance mechanisms and different virulence factors. The purpose of this study was to determine the risk factors independently associated with the development of bacteremia by carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa, the frequency of virulence genes in metallo-β-lactamases producers and to evaluate their ability to produce biofilm. We conducted a case–control study in the Uberlândia Federal University – Hospital Clinic, Brazil. Polymerase Chain Reaction was performed for metallo-β-lactamases and virulence genes. Adhesion and biofilm assays were done by quantitative tests. Among the 157 strains analyzed, 73.9% were multidrug-resistant, 43.9% were resistant to carbapenems, 16.1% were phenotypically positive for metallo-β-lactamases, and of these, 10.7% were positive for blaSPM gene and 5.3% positive for blaVIM. The multivariable analysis showed that mechanical ventilation, enteral/nasogastric tubes, primary bacteremia with unknown focus, and inappropriate therapy were independent risk factors associated with bacteremia. All tested strains were characterized as strongly biofilm producers. A higher mortality was found among patients with bacteremia by carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa strains, associated independently with extrinsic risk factors, however it was not evident the association with the presence of virulence and metallo-β-lactamases genes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genetics , Pseudomonas Infections/epidemiology , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , beta-Lactamases/genetics , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Biofilms/growth & development , beta-Lactam Resistance , Virulence Factors/genetics , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolation & purification , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/enzymology , Pseudomonas Infections/microbiology , Bacterial Proteins/analysis , beta-Lactamases/analysis , Brazil/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Survival Analysis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Risk Factors , Bacteremia/microbiology
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