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1.
Cambios rev. méd ; 20(1): 44-52, 30 junio 2021. tabs.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292808

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN. La depresión es frecuente y variada en el adulto mayor. Se asocia a varias condiciones sociales, económicas y físicas. OBJETIVO. Determinar la asociación e interacción entre la depresión y las condiciones sociales, familiares y dependencia física en adultos ma-yores. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, transversal. Población de 474 adultos mayores deprimidos y muestra de 390 que acudieron a la consulta externa del Hospital de Especialidades Carlos Andrade Marín de Quito en el año 2018. Se utilizó la MINI Entrevista Neuropsiquiátrica Internacional para el diagnóstico de depresión y las escalas de Katz, Socio-familiar de Gijón y datos demográficos. La asociación se estableció mediante chi cuadrado de homogeneidad, cálculo de Odds de prevalencia y, para la interacción de variables, modelos de regresión logística binaria. Los cálculos estadísticos se realizaron en el programa estadístico International Business Machines Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. RE-SULTADOS. La prevalencia de depresión fue de 26,4% (103; 390) con 58,0% (60; 103) de episodio depresivo leve. La depresión guardó relación con la pertenencia a grupos sociales, dependencia y situación de riesgo social. En la regresión logística binomial con las variables socio-familiares el mayor peso cayó sobre las malas relaciones sociales (Exp B: 1,8); en el modelo con las variables significativas, en la dependencia (Exp B: 2,6). Los modelos clasifica-ron de manera correcta a los deprimidos. Las variables se tornaron significativas (p<0,05) al interactuar con riesgo y problema social. CONCLUSIÓN. Existió asociación entre depresión y dependencia, riesgo social y pertenencia a grupos sociales. El perfil de las personas deprimidas fue de personas dependientes, en riesgo social y que no pertenecían a grupos sociales.


INTRODUCTION. Depression is frequent and diverse in the elderly. It is associated with se-veral social, economic and physical conditions. OBJECTIVE. Determine the association and interaction between depression, social and family conditions and physical dependence in the elderly. MATERIALS AND METHODS. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out. Population of 474 depressed older adults and a sample of 390 who attended the outpatient clinic of the Hospital de Especialidades Carlos Andrade Marín de Quito in 2018. The MINI was used International Neuropsychiatric Interview for the diagnosis of depression and the scales of Katz, Socio-familiar of Gijón and demographic data. The association was established using chi square of homogeneity, calculation of prevalence Odds and, for the interaction of variables, binary logistic regression models. Statistical calculations were performed in the program Statis-tical International Business Machines Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. RESULTS. The prevalence of depression was 26.4% (103; 390) with 58.0% (60; 103) of mild depressive episode. Depression was related to belonging to social groups, dependency and social risk situation. In the binomial logistic regression with the variables socio-family, the greatest weight fell on bad social relationships (Exp B: 1.8); at model with significant variables, in dependence (Exp B: 2.6). The models correctly classified the depressed. The variables became significant (p <0.05) when interact with risk and social problem. CONCLUSION. There was an association between depression and dependency; social risk and belonging to social groups. The profile of depressed people was of dependent people, at social risk who did not belong to social groups.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Social Conditions , Activities of Daily Living , Depression , Functional Status , Interpersonal Relations , Aged , Aging , Dementia , Family Relations , Loneliness
2.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 157(3): 228-233, may.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346101

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La pandemia de COVID-19 también ha afectado la salud mental. Objetivo: Evaluar la salud mental de la población mexicana durante la pandemia de COVID-19 mediante la medición de síntomas de estrés, depresión, ansiedad, insomnio y resiliencia. Métodos: Estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal. Con una encuesta se recabaron datos sociodemográficos y se aplicaron la Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale 21 (DASS 21), la Escala Atenas de Insomnio y la Escala de Resiliencia 14 Ítems (RS-14). Se obtuvieron medidas de tendencia central y de dispersión en las variables cuantitativas, así como frecuencias en las cualitativas. En el análisis bivariado se utilizó la prueba de χ2; el nivel alpha fue 0.05. Resultados: Se analizaron 1667 individuos con edad media de 33.78 ± 10.79 años. En la DASS 21 se encontró una media de 9.7 puntos (normal), 7.10 para ansiedad (normal) y 6.73 para depresión (normal). La Escala Atenas de Insomnio presentó una media de 9.33 puntos (alteración moderada) y la RS-14, 69.13 (resiliencia alta). Conclusiones: La intensidad de la sintomatología fue menor a la esperada en comparación con la registrada en otras poblaciones, probablemente por la alta resiliencia de la población mexicana.


Abstract Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic has also affected mental health. Objective: To evaluate Mexican population mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic by measuring symptoms of stress, depression, anxiety and insomnia, as well as resilience. Methods: Cross-sectional, descriptive, observational study. A survey was carried out to collect sociodemographic data, and the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale 21 (DASS 21), Athens Insomnia Scale and the 14-item Resilience Scale (RS-14) were applied. Central tendency and dispersion measures were obtained for quantitative variables and frequencies for qualitative variables. The chi-square test was used for bivariate analysis; alpha level was 0.05. Results: 1,667 individuals with a mean age of 33.78 ± 10.79 years were analyzed. On DASS 21, a mean of 9.7 points (normal) was found, as well as 7.10 for anxiety (normal) and 6.73 for depression (normal). In the Athens Insomnia Scale, a mean of 9.33 points (moderate alteration), and in the RS-14 scale, 69.13 points (high resilience) were obtained. Conclusions: Symptoms' intensity was lower than expected in comparison with that recorded in other populations, probably due to the high levels of resilience of the Mexican population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Mental Health , Resilience, Psychological , COVID-19/psychology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Depression/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Mexico/epidemiology
3.
Investig. enferm ; 23(1)2021. b: 5Tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1371678

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la escala Zung para depresión ha sido previamente utilizada en pacientes con falla cardíaca; sin embargo, en nuestro conocimiento no se encuentra evidencia de su validez para la versión en español, ni su uso en población adulta con falla cardíaca en Colombia. Objetivo: determinar la validez de constructo de la escala Zung para depresión en su versión original y proponer una versión abreviada para pacientes adultos con falla cardíaca. Método: estudio de corte transversal, realizado en 200 pacientes de una clínica de falla y trasplante cardiaco, a quienes se aplicó la Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale. Se evaluó la consistencia interna por medio del alfa de Cronbach, y el análisis factorial fue utilizado para identificar las dimensiones del instrumento. Resultados: la consistencia interna de la versión original de la escala (20 ítems) fue de α = 0,811. El análisis de factores mostró una estructura compuesta por tres de ellos que explican el 51,59 % de la varianza total. La nueva versión abreviada (13 ítems) obtuvo un α = 0,819, y los ítems correlacionaron con un único factor que explicó el 33,54 % de la varianza total. Discusión: Nuestros hallazgos son similares a los encontrados por otros autores en diferentes poblaciones a la estudiada. Conclusiones: se evidenció validez de constructo tanto para la escala Zung, para depresión, en su versión original, como para la abreviada, creada en la población estudiada. Sin embargo, se requieren estudios adicionales que verifiquen estos hallazgos en una muestra representativa, y que otros aspectos de la psicometría sean evaluados.


Introduction: the Zung scale for depression has previously been used in patients with heart failure; However, to our knowledge, there is no evidence of its validity for the Spanish version, nor its use in the adult population with heart failure in Colombia. Objective: to determine the construct validity of the Zung scale for depression in its original version and propose an abbreviated version for adult patients with heart failure. Method: A cross sectional study was carried out in 200 patients from a heart failure and transplant clinic to whom the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale was applied. Internal consistency was evaluated using Cronbach's alpha, and factor analysis was used to identify the instrument's dimensions. Results: the internal consistency of the original version of the scale (20 items) was α = 0.811. The factor analysis showed a structure composed of three that explains 51.59% of the total variance. The new abbreviated version (13 items) obtained α = 0.819, and the items correlated with a single factor that explained 33.54% of the total variance. Discussion: Our findings are similar to those found by other authors in different populations from the one studied. Conclusions: construct validity was evidenced for both the Zung scale for depression, in its original version, and the abbreviated version created in the studied population.


Introdução: a escala de Zung para depressão foi usada anteriormente em pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca. No entanto, até onde sabemos, não há evidências de sua validade para a versão em espanhol, nem seu uso na população adulta com insuficiência cardíaca na Colômbia. Objetivo: determinar a validade de construto da escala de Zung para depressão em sua versão original e propor uma versão abreviada para pacientes adultos com insuficiência cardíaca. Método: estudo transversal, realizado com 200 pacientes de uma clínica de insuciência cardíaca e transplante, aos quais foi aplicada a Zung Self Rating Depression Scale. A consistência interna foi avaliada por meio do alfa de Cronbach e a análise fatorial foi utilizada para identificar as dimensões do instrumento. Resultados: a consistência interna da versão original da escala (20 itens) foi α = 0,811. A análise fatorial mostrou uma estrutura composta por três deles que explicam 51,59% da variância total. A nova versão abreviada (13 itens) obteve α = 0,819, e os itens se correlacionaram com um único fator que explicou 33,54% da variância total. Discussão: Nossos achados são semelhantes aos encontrados por outros autores em populações diferentes da estudada. Conclusões: a validade de construto foi evidenciada tanto para a escala de Zung, para depressão, em sua versão original, quanto para a versão abreviada, elaborada na população estudada. No entanto, estudos adicionais são necessários para verificar esses achados em uma amostra representativa e que forem avaliados outros aspectos da psicometria


Subject(s)
Humans , Validation Study , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Depression , Heart Failure
4.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(12): 772-777, Dec. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142375

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: We aimed to identify sleep disorders in patients with epilepsy and compare this group with a healthy population. We also analyzed the features of sleep disorders in patients with epilepsy to demonstrate the effect of seizures and seizure types on sleep. Methods: Our study assessed 43 patients with epilepsy and 53 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. The demographic and clinical data of all participants were recorded. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group Rating Scale, Berlin Questionnaire, and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were administered to all study subjects. The interview used to evaluate insomnia is based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition - DSM-5 diagnostic criteria. Results: Twenty-four patients (55.8%) and 26 controls (49.1%) are women. The mean age of patients and controls was 34.2±11.37 (16-71) and 34.6±11.28 (16-77), respectively. Patients with epilepsy had depression more often than controls, a result that was statistically significant (p<0.0001). We found no statistically significant difference between sleep parameters of patients and controls with normal BDI scores (p>0.05). Patients with depression had worse results on the Berlin Questionnaire and PSQI total score, with statistical significance (p=0.002). Nocturnal seizures, seizure type, and drug treatment had no effect on sleep (p>0.05). Conclusion: We concluded that depression rather than epilepsy negatively affects sleep, suggesting that all patients should be asked about their mood and sleep complaints.


RESUMO Introdução: O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar distúrbios do sono em pacientes com epilepsia e compará-los com uma população saudável. Também foram examinadas as características dos distúrbios do sono em pacientes com epilepsia para demonstrar o efeito e os tipos de convulsões no sono. Métodos: O estudo consistiu em 43 pacientes com epilepsia e 53 controles saudáveis ​​pareados por idade e sexo. Os dados demográficos e clínicos de todos os participantes foram registrados. Todos os participantes do estudo receberam a Escala de Sonolência de Epworth, o Índice de Qualidade do Sono de Pittsburgh (Pittsburch Sleep QUality Index - PSQI), o Questionário do Grupo Internacional de Estudos das Pernas Inquietas, o Questionário de Berlim e o Inventário de Depressão de Beck. A entrevista usada para avaliar a insônia é baseada nos critérios do DSM-V. Resultados: Vinte e quatro pacientes (55,8%) são do sexo feminino e vinte e seis do grupo controle (49,1%) são do sexo feminino. A média de idade dos pacientes e do grupo controle é de 34,2±11,37 (16-71) e 34,6±11,28 (16-77), respectivamente. Pacientes com epilepsia sofrem mais de depressão do que os controles e esse resultado é estatisticamente significativo (p<0,0001). Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os parâmetros do sono dos pacientes e dos controles que apresentaram escores de Beck normais (p>0,05). Pacientes com depressão apresentam resultados piores no escore total do PSQI de Berlim, o que é estatisticamente significativo (p=0,002). As convulsões noturnas, o tipo de convulsão e o tratamento medicamentoso não afetaram o sono (p>0,05). Conclusão: Determinamos que a depressão, e não a epilepsia, afeta negativamente o sono dos pacientes, sugerindo que todos os pacientes devem ser questionados sobre seu humor e queixas de sono.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Sleep Wake Disorders/etiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Epilepsy/complications , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Sleep , Surveys and Questionnaires , Depression/epidemiology
5.
Acta pediátr. hondu ; 11(2): 1197-1198, oct. 2020-mar. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283079

ABSTRACT

Nuestro interés para el reporte de este caso surge a raíz de la poca atención a la salud mental de los niños y adolescentes en nuestro medio durante la pandemia. A pesar, de estar expuestos a diferentes estresores, ni los padres, maestros, médicos o enfermeras identificamos estos problemas y tampoco los referimos a clínicas de salud mental de manera oportuna. La pandemia actual por COVID-19 y el confinamiento son una amenaza para exacerbar los síntomas de los niños y jóvenes con un trastorno psiquiátrico previo. Esto se produce dentro de una dinámica familiar afectada por una crisis económica y social. No tenemos una evidencia exacta de los efectos de la pandemia, los niños y adolescentes con trastornos psiquiátricos son una población vulnerable que requiere vigilancia e intervenciones de personal especializado. (1) Los niños sobrellevan mejor estas situaciones si tienen a un adulto estable y tranquilo a su lado. Sin embargo, además de los factores del entorno familiar, se deben tener presentes los factores individuales: características del niño (como el temperamento), los antecedentes de adversidad, afrontamiento y resiliencia, que en conjunto modularan la respuesta a la amenaza (1). Existen reportes que los hijos de padres con trastornos psiquiátricos sufren cambios en su salud y aprendizaje, y tienen mayor riesgo para síntomas de ansiedad y reducción del sueño. (2) Los síntomas de depresión en niños varían, se infradiagnostican y no se tratan adecuadamente, porque se confunden sus síntomas con los cambios habituales durante el desarrollo (3). El pediatra es clave para detectar síntomas diana de depresión (miedo, tristeza, irritabilidad), para garantizar su correcto tratamiento. (4) La pandemia trae consigo una sensación de pérdida muy importante, que está afectando a los niños, no solo por familiares fallecidos, sino también por la pérdida del entorno social. Los estudios sobre niños son escasos, factores como cuarentenas prolongadas, el temor a la infección, la frustración, aburrimiento y la falta de contacto con amigos, generan repercusiones psicológicas en niños y adolescentes. (5)...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Mental Health , COVID-19/psychology , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Depression
6.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 138(4): 282-286, July-Aug. 2020. tab
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1139706

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Very few data are available for evaluating health-related quality of life among people with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and even fewer data are available in relation to anxiety and depression status among these patients. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the quality of life, anxiety and depression status of patients with IBS. DESIGN AND SETTING: Observational cohort study conducted in a tertiary-care university hospital. METHODS: Patients who had recently been diagnosed with IBS and who had been followed up for IBS-specific treatment for at least three months were included. A quality of life (QoL) survey, the Beck Anxiety Index (BAI) and the Hamilton Depression Index (HAM-D) were applied to the patients. RESULTS: In total, 274 patients with IBS were included in the study cohort. These patients presented very high baseline scores for anxiety and depression, and very poor QoL results. CONCLUSION: Our study showed that IBS had a very high impact on these patients, regarding their anxiety and depression levels, alongside very poor results relating to quality of life.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Quality of Life/psychology , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Anxiety/diagnosis , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Psychometrics , Surveys and Questionnaires , Cohort Studies , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/diagnosis , Depression/diagnosis
7.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 156(3): 202-208, may.-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249895

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La depresión posparto es un episodio depresivo no psicótico con repercusiones graves en el vínculo de la madre con su hijo, de ahí la importancia de detectarla oportunamente. Objetivo: Determinar la exactitud de la Escala de Depresión Posnatal de Edimburgo como prueba diagnóstica y analizar las consecuencias del tamizaje y la probabilidad de depresión después de aplicar la prueba. Método: Tamizaje con la Escala de Depresión Posnatal de Edimburgo a 411 mujeres durante el posparto; se utilizó el Inventario de Depresión de Beck como referencia. Resultados: En un punto de corte de 12, con la Escala de Depresión Posnatal de Edimburgo se obtuvo sensibilidad de 70.4 %, especificidad de 72.2 %, valor predictivo positivo de 36.9 % y valor predictivo negativo de 91.4 %, así como un valor del área bajo la curva de 0.729 y p = 0.0003. De 49 mujeres sin atención para depresión posparto, en cinco se identificó que la necesitaban. Conclusiones: La Escala de Depresión Posnatal de Edimburgo tiene una exactitud moderada; su aplicación es sencilla, accesible y debería ser rutinaria. Es necesario que en México se implementen estrategias para detectar y tratar la depresión posparto.


Abstract Introduction Postpartum depression is a non-psychotic depressive episode with serious repercussions on the bond between the mother and her child, hence the importance of detecting it in a timely manner. Objective: To determine the accuracy of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale as a diagnostic test and to analyze the consequences of screening and the probability of depression after applying the test. Method: Screening of 411 women with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale during the postpartum period; Beck's Depression Inventory was used as reference. Results: At a cutoff point of 12, a sensitivity of 70.4 %, specificity of 72.2 %, positive predictive value of 36.9 % and negative predictive value of 91.4 % were obtained with Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, as well as an area under the curve of 0.729 and a p-value of 0.0003. Out of 49 women without treatment for postpartum depression, five were identified to require it. Conclusions: The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale has moderate accuracy; its application is simple, accessible and should be routine. It is necessary for strategies to detect and treat postpartum depression to be implemented in Mexico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Mass Screening/methods , Depression, Postpartum/diagnosis , Predictive Value of Tests , Sensitivity and Specificity , Mexico
8.
Rev. colomb. psiquiatr ; 49(2): 68-75, abr.-jun. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1115646

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: El Trastorno depresivo mayor (TDM) es una enfermedad multifactorial en la que, por interacción con diversas variables, se incrementa la vulnerabilidad a padecerla. Diversos modelos han explicado las interacciones, como el de diátesis-estrés. Vivir eventos estresantes no siempre lleva a la aparición del TDM, y se ha planteado que la atribución y la valoración de los eventos estresantes podrían ser un mejor predictor de la aparición de los síntomas. Objetivo: Determinar la asociación y el poder predictivo de la frecuencia y la valoración de eventos vitales estresantes en la presencia de sintomatología del TDM. Métodos: Estudio de casos y controles con 120 pacientes psiquiátricos y 120 personas de la población general. Se utilizó una entrevista clínica estructurada y el Cuestionario de Sucesos Vitales de Sandín y Chorot. Los datos se analizaron con pruebas no paramétricas y regresión logística binaria. Resultados: El grupo de casos obtuvo significativamente más altos en afecto negativo, frecuencia de eventos estresantes, nivel de estrés percibido, valoración negativa de la situación y percepción de no control. El modelo de regresión logística binaria indicó que la baja percepción de control frente al evento estresante es el factor más determinante, seguido por la evaluación negativa del evento. Conclusiones: Las atribuciones realizadas sobre los eventos estresantes son determinantes en la presentación del TDM, en especial la valoración del control percibido frente a los sucesos vitales, en concordancia con los modelos etiológicos del TDM de diátesis cognitiva al estrés.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a multifactorial disease in which, due to the interaction of several variables, the vulnerability of suffering from it increases. Several models, such as the diathesis-stress model, have explained these interactions. However, experiencing stressful events does not always lead to the development of MDD, and the attribution and appraisal of stressful events contributing to further development of depression symptoms has been considered as a possible explanation. Objective: To determinate the association and the predictive power of the frequency and appraisal of stressful life events to predict MDD symptomatology. Methods: Case-control study with 120 psychiatric patients and 120 people from the general population. A structured clinical interview and the life events questionnaire (Sandín and Chorcot) were used to evaluate the sample. The data were analysed with non-parametric tests and binary logistic regression. Results: The psychiatric patients reported significantly higher levels of negative affect, frequency of stressful life events, perceived stress, negative appraisal of the situation and lack of perceived control. The binary logistic regression model indicated that poor perception of control of the stressful event is the most determining factor, followed by negative evaluation of the situation. Conclusions: The attributions that are made regarding a stressful event are variables that predict MDD, specifically the assessment of the perceived control over the situation. These results concur with the aetiological models of MDD, such as the cognitive diathesis-stress model.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Depressive Disorder, Major , Signs and Symptoms , Stress, Psychological , Power, Psychological , Disaster Vulnerability , Depression , Disease Susceptibility
9.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(2): 190-198, abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098891

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Introducción: Un mal control metabólico en pacientes con Diabetes Mellitus tipo 1 (DM1) se asocia a complica ciones a corto y largo plazo. Los adolescentes con Diabetes tipo 1 presentan peor control metabólico comparado con pacientes de otros grupos etarios. Escasos estudios han demostrado una asociación entre síntomas depresivos de las madres con el control metabólico de sus hijos adolescente. Objetivo: Evaluar la asociación entre síntomas depresivos maternos y control metabólico de adolescentes con DM1. Sujetos y Método: Estudio observacional transversal realizado en adolescentes, edades 10 a 18 años, con diagnóstico de DM1 de más de un año de evolución y sus madres. Se aplicó test de Beck II, cuestionario de depresión infantil, cuestionario SALUFAM y cuestionario de datos sociodemográficos. Se realizó hemoglobina glicosilada capilar, como marcador de control metabólico. Resultados: Se estudiaron 86 parejas (madre-hijo adolescente), adolescentes de edad media 14.04 años y 5.95 años de evolución de DM1. El 25.6% (n 22) de las madres presentó síntomas depresivos, asociándose a peor control metabólico en sus hijos (HbA1c: 7.66% y 8.91%, p < 0.001). El 17.9% de adolescentes presentó síntomas depresivos, no asociándose a síntomas depresivos maternos ni a peor control metabólico. Los síntomas depresivos maternos se asociaron a menor nivel educacional materno y pater no, mayor número de hijos en la familia, presencia de otros hermanos con enfermedades crónicas y a mayor vulnerabilidad en salud (SALUFAM). Conclusiones: La presencia de síntomas depresivos maternos se asocia a peor control metabólico en el adolescente con DM1, siendo fundamental un enfoque multidisciplinario familiar para obtener mejores resultados metabólicos en los adolescentes.


Abstract: Introduction: Poor metabolic control in patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) is associated with short- and long-term complications. Adolescents with T1DM present poorer metabolic control than patients of other age groups. Few studies have shown an association between mothers with depressive symptoms and the metabolic control of their adolescent children. Objective: To evaluate the associa tion between maternal depressive symptoms and metabolic control of their adolescents with T1DM. Subjects and Method: Cross-sectional observational study carried out with adolescents aged between 10 and 18 years, with T1DM diagnosis of at least 1 year ago and their mothers. The Beck Depression Inventory-II and the SALUFAM questionnaire were applied, and sociodemographic data were co llected. Glycosylated hemoglobin from capillary blood was used as a marker of metabolic control. Results: 86 couples (mother-adolescent children) were studied. The average age of the adolescents was 14.04 years and the average evolution time of T1DM was 5.95 years. 27.325.6% of mothers had depressive symptoms, which was associated with worse metabolic control of their children (HbA1c of 7.66% and 8.91%, p-value <0.001). 17.9% of adolescents had depressive symptoms, which was not associated with maternal depressive symptoms or worse metabolic control. Maternal depressive symptoms were also associated with lower maternal and paternal educational levels, high number of children in the family, presence of other siblings with chronic illnesses, and high health vulnera bility (SALUFAM). Conclusions: The mother's depressive symptoms can be associated with worst metabolic control in T1MD adolescents. It is fundamental a multidisciplinary family approach to get better metabolic controls in T1DM adolescents.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Glycated Hemoglobin A/metabolism , Depression/psychology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/psychology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/blood , Mother-Child Relations/psychology , Mothers/psychology , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Biomarkers/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis
11.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(2): 146-152, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136177

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY Varenicline is a useful pharmacological option for smoking cessation. Unfortunately, there is a lack of studies on its effectiveness, retention, and side effects in low- and middle-income countries. The present study aimed to investigate gender differences regarding these outcomes in a Brazilian clinical sample (n = 124). The 12-week treatment protocol included six consultations with a psychiatrist and six sessions of cognitive-behavioral therapy. All subjects received varenicline on the first evaluation, following the standard posology for 12 weeks and instructions to stop smoking after the second week of treatment. Both Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) Plus and Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence were applied at baseline. The UKU-Side Effects Rating Scale was administered at weeks 3, 7, and 11, and the Questionnaire of Smoking Urges-Brief at weeks 1, 5, and 9 to ascertain the side effects of the medication and craving, respectively. At the end of the 12-week treatment, abstinence was biochemically assessed. At months 6 and 12 after the treatment, follow-up telephone interviews were conducted to access nicotine abstinence. Short- and long-term abstinence and retention rates did not differ between genders. However, women presented more side effects than men, especially in the second half of the treatment. Increased dream activity, reduced duration of sleep, constipation, and weight loss were the most notable side effects. Despite women reporting more side effects than men, this difference did not influence the treatment success rates.


RESUMO A vareniclina é uma opção farmacológica útil para a cessação do tabagismo. Infelizmente, há uma ausência de estudos sobre a eficácia, retenção e efeitos colaterais para este medicamento em países de baixa e média renda. O presente estudo teve como objetivo investigar diferenças entre gênero em relação a esses desfechos em uma amostra clínica brasileira (n = 124). O protocolo de tratamento de 12 semanas incluiu seis consultas com um psiquiatra e seis sessões de psicoterapia cognitivo-comportamental. Todos os indivíduos receberam vareniclina na primeira avaliação, seguindo a posologia padrão por 12 semanas e instrução para parar de fumar a partir da segunda semana de tratamento. Tanto o Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) Plus quanto o Teste de Fagerstrom para Dependência de Nicotina foram aplicados no início do estudo. A escala de efeitos colaterais (UKU-Side Effects Rating Scale) foi aplicada nas semanas 3, 7 e 11, e o Questionário Breve de Fissura (Questionnaire of Smoking Urges-Brief) nas semanas 1, 5 e 9 para investigar os efeitos colaterais da medicação e fissura, respectivamente. No final do tratamento de 12 semanas, a abstinência foi avaliada bioquimicamente. Aos 6 e 12 meses após o tratamento, foram realizadas entrevistas telefônicas de acompanhamento para acessar a abstinência de nicotina. As taxas de abstinência e retenção de curto e longo prazo não diferiram entre gêneros. No entanto, as mulheres apresentaram mais efeitos colaterais do que os homens, principalmente na segunda metade do tratamento. Aumento da atividade dos sonhos, redução da duração do sono, constipação e perda de peso foram os efeitos colaterais mais notáveis. Apesar de as mulheres relatarem mais efeitos colaterais que os homens, essa diferença não influenciou as taxas de sucesso do tratamento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Smoking Cessation/methods , Varenicline/adverse effects , Smoking Cessation Agents/adverse effects , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Socioeconomic Factors , Time Factors , Brazil , Sex Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric
13.
Arch. Clin. Psychiatry (Impr.) ; 47(1): 1-6, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088742

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a challenging disease in terms of remission rates and treatment approaches. All theoretical approaches are needed for a better understanding. Compared to other theories, it has not been examined sufficiently from the perspective of gestalt theory in the literature. Objective To examine and compare the Gestalt Contact Styles of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and the Control Group and to examine the relationship between Gestalt Contact Styles and OCD symptoms. Methods 50 OCD patients were compared with the healthy control group. All patients were evaluated with the Yale Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), the Padua Inventory (PI), and the Gestalt Contact Styles Scale-Revised Form (GCSS-RF). For the control group, GCSS-RF was applied. Results The scores of the OCD patients for GCSS-RF "Retroflection" and "Deflection" subscales were significantly higher than the Control Group. Statistically significant high scores were found between the subscales of Padua Inventory "contamination obsessions and washing compulsions", "obsessional thoughts", "obsessional impulses" and "checking compulsions" subtypes and Gestalt contact styles in the Patient Group in a symptomatological examined manner. With these findings, in terms of Gestalt Contact Styles, it is seen that the difference between Patient and Control Groups is significantly different. There was no significant relationship between the Yale-Brown total score of the Patient Group and the GCSS-RF subscales. Discussion In conclusion, the findings of the study showed significant differences in terms of Gestalt Contact Styles (Retroflection, Contact, Deflection, Desensitization, Confluence) in Patient and Control Groups and OCD symptoms. These results are important to Gestalt Therapists in terms of shedding light on the therapeutic intervention to be done for an OCD patient and contributing to the literature.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Communication , Gestalt Theory , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/psychology , Personality Inventory , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Statistics, Nonparametric , Defense Mechanisms , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/therapy
14.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 42(1): 68-71, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055368

ABSTRACT

Objective: Circadian dysregulation plays an important role in the etiology of mood disorders. Evening chronotype is frequent in these patients. However, prospective studies about the influence of chronotype on mood symptoms have reached unclear conclusions in patients with bipolar disorder (BD). The objective of this study was to investigate relationship between chronotype and prognostic factors for BD. Methods: At the baseline, 80 euthymic BD patients answered a demographic questionnaire and clinical scales to evaluate anxiety, functioning and chronotype. Circadian preference was measured using the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire, in which lower scores indicate eveningness. Mood episodes and hospitalizations were evaluated monthly for 18 months. Results: Among the BD patients, 14 (17.5%) were definitely morning type, 35 (43.8%), moderately morning, 27 (33.7%) intermediate (neither) and 4 (5%) moderately evening. Eveningness was associated with obesity or overweight (p = 0.03), greater anxiety (p = 0.002) and better functioning (p = 0.01), as well as with mood episodes (p = 0.04), but not with psychiatric hospitalizations (p = 0.82). This group tended toward depressive episodes (p = 0.06), but not (hypo)mania (p = 0.56). Conclusion: This study indicated that evening chronotype predicts a poor prognostic for BD. It reinforces the relevance of treating rhythm disruptions even during euthymia to improve patient quality of life and prevent mood episodes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Anxiety/physiopathology , Bipolar Disorder/physiopathology , Circadian Rhythm/physiology , Prognosis , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Quality of Life , Time Factors , Logistic Models , Prospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Statistics, Nonparametric , Chronobiology Disorders/physiopathology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged
15.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 42(1): 27-32, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055350

ABSTRACT

Objective: Patients with schizophrenia have visual processing impairments. The main findings from the literature indicate that these deficits may be related to differences in paradigms, medications, and illness duration. This study is part of a large-scale study investigating visual sensitivity in schizophrenia. Here we aimed to investigate the combined effects of illness duration and antipsychotic use on contrast sensitivity function. Methods: Data were collected from 50 healthy controls and 50 outpatients with schizophrenia (classified according to illness duration and medication type) aged 20-45 years old. The contrast sensitivity function was measured for spatial frequencies ranging from 0.2 to 20 cycles per degree using linear sine-wave gratings. Results: Patients with an illness duration > 5 years had more pronounced deficits. Differences in the combined effects of illness duration and antipsychotic use were marked in patients on typical antipsychotics who had been ill > 10 years. No significant differences were found between typical and atypical antipsychotics in patients with an illness duration < 5 years. Conclusion: Visual impairment was related to both long illness duration and medication type. These results should be tested in further studies to investigate pharmacological mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Schizophrenia/drug therapy , Antipsychotic Agents/adverse effects , Vision Disorders/chemically induced , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Schizophrenia/complications , Time Factors , Vision, Ocular/drug effects , Contrast Sensitivity/drug effects , Case-Control Studies , Chlorpromazine/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome , Middle Aged
16.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 42(1): 54-62, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055351

ABSTRACT

Objective: Although studies have shown an association between poor sleep and chronotype with psychiatric problems in young adults, few have focused on identifying multiple concomitant risk factors. Methods: We assessed depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory [BDI]), circadian typology (Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire [MEQ]), sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI]), perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale [PSS]), social rhythm (Social Rhythm Metrics [SRM]), and salivary cortisol (morning, evening and night, n=37) in 236 men (all 18 years old). Separate analyses were conducted to understand how each PSQI domain was associated with depressive symptoms. Results: Depressive symptoms were more prevalent in individuals with higher perceived stress (prevalence ratio [PR] = 6.429, p < 0.001), evening types (PR = 2.58, p < 0.001) and poor sleepers (PR = 1.808, p = 0.046). Multivariate modeling showed that these three variables were independently associated with depressive symptoms (all p < 0.05). The PSQI items subjective sleep quality and sleep disturbances were significantly more prevalent in individuals with depressive symptoms (PR = 2.210, p = 0.009 and PR = 2.198, p = 0.008). Lower levels of morning cortisol were significantly associated with higher depressive scores (r = -0.335; p = 0.043). Conclusion: It is important to evaluate multiple factors related to sleep and chronotype in youth depression studies, since this can provide important tools for comprehending and managing mental health problems.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Sleep Wake Disorders/psychology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Hydrocortisone/analysis , Chronobiology Disorders/psychology , Depression/etiology , Military Personnel/psychology , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Reference Values , Saliva/metabolism , Sleep/physiology , Time Factors , Multivariate Analysis , Risk Factors , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Depression/metabolism , Self Report
18.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 42(1): 22-26, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055359

ABSTRACT

Objective: German psychiatrist Kurt Schneider proposed the concept of first-rank symptoms (FRS) of schizophrenia in 1959. However, their relevance for diagnosis and prediction of treatment response are still unclear. Most studies have investigated FRS in chronic or medicated patients. The present study sought to evaluate whether FRS predict remission, response, or improvement in functionality in antipsychotic-naive first-episode psychosis. Methods: Follow-up study of 100 patients at first episode of psychosis (FEP), with no previous treatment, assessed at baseline and after 2 months of treatment. The participants were evaluated with the standardized Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and for presence of FRS. Results: Logistic regression analysis showed that, in this sample, up to three individual FRS predicted remission: voices arguing, voices commenting on one's actions, and thought broadcasting. Conclusion: Specific FRS may predict remission after treatment in FEP patients. This finding could give new importance to Kurt Schneider's classic work by contributing to future updates of diagnostic protocols and improving estimation of prognosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Psychotic Disorders/diagnosis , Psychotic Disorders/drug therapy , Schizophrenia/diagnosis , Schizophrenia/drug therapy , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Reference Values , Remission Induction , Logistic Models , Predictive Value of Tests , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome
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