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3.
Physis (Rio J.) ; 30(2): e300230, 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1135678

ABSTRACT

Resumo O artigo sintetiza um estudo que visou demonstrar as bases legais e socioeconômicas do surgimento do direito universal à saúde na URSS. Utilizando pesquisa bibliográfica, são analisados três trabalhos que apresentam cenários sobre a criação e implantação do sistema de saúde soviético, escritos entre 1933 e 1937. Para a análise dos trabalhos, utilizou-se materialismo histórico dialético, baseado em Marx e Engels, utilizando as categorias de forças produtivas, relações de produção, revolução social e política, mercadorias e salários. Identificaram-se, na análise dos trabalhos, evidências materiais que apontam o surgimento do direito universal à saúde no contexto revolucionário, concluindo que a saúde livre e universal, como nova qualidade de serviço voltado ao atendimento das necessidades de reprodução social foi consequência da transição entre modos de produção, observada na revolução russa.


Abstract This article summarizes a study aimed at demonstrating the legal and socioeconomic basis of the emergence of the universal right to health in the USSR. Using a bibliographic research, three works are presented that show scenarios about the creation and implantation of the Soviet health system, written between 1933 and 1937. For the analysis, it was used dialectical historical materialism, based on Marx and Engels, using the categories of productive forces, relations of production, social and political revolution, commodities and wages. It was identified, in the analysis, material evidence that point to the emergence of the universal right to health in the revolutionary context, concluding that free and universal health, as a new quality of service aimed at meeting the needs of social reproduction, was a consequence of the transition between modes of production observed in the Russian revolution.


Subject(s)
Politics , Health Policy, Planning and Management , Public Health/history , Universal Access to Health Care Services , Health Policy , Universal Health Coverage , USSR , Public Health/economics , Russia , National Health Systems
5.
Actual. osteol ; 15(3): 225-236, Sept-Dic. 2019. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1116171

ABSTRACT

Bone grafting is important to preserve the alveolar bone ridge height and volume for dental implant placement. Even though implant-supported overdentures present highly successful outcomes, it seems that a great number of edentulous individuals have not pursued implant-based rehabilitation. The cost of the treatment is one of the reasons of discrepancy between highly successful therapy and its acceptance. Therefore, the development of biomaterials for bone grafting with comparable characteristics and biological effects than those renowned internationally, is necessary. In addition, domestic manufacture would reduce the high costs in public health arising from the application of these biomaterials in the dental feld. The purpose of this clinical case report is to provide preliminary clinical evidence of the efficacy of a new bovine bone graft in the bone healing process when used for sinus floor elevation. (AU)


El uso de injertos óseos es importante para preservar la altura y el volumen de la cresta alveolar para la colocación de implantes dentales. Si bien las sobredentaduras implanto-soportadas presentan resultados altamente exitosos, la mayoría de las personas desdentadas no han sido rehabilitadas mediante implantes dentales. Uno de los principales motivos por los cuales los pacientes no aceptan este tipo de tratamiento, altamente exitoso, es el elevado costo del mismo. Por ello, es necesario el desarrollo de biomateriales de injerto óseo con características y efectos biológicos comparables a los reconocidos internacionalmente. Asimismo, la fabricación nacional reduciría los altos costos en Salud Pública derivados de la aplicación de estos biomateriales en el campo dental. El objetivo de esta comunicación es presentar un caso clínico a fin de proporcionar evidencia preliminar acerca de la eficacia de un nuevo injerto de hueso bovino en el proceso de cicatrización ósea en el levantamiento del piso del seno maxilar. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Female , Middle Aged , Cattle , Rats , Bone Transplantation/methods , Jaw, Edentulous, Partially/rehabilitation , Sinus Floor Augmentation/methods , Osteogenesis , Argentina , Biocompatible Materials , Cattle/physiology , Carticaine/administration & dosage , Chlorhexidine/administration & dosage , Naproxen/administration & dosage , Public Health/economics , Osseointegration , Dentures , Bone Transplantation/trends , Jaw, Edentulous, Partially/pathology , Jaw, Edentulous, Partially/therapy , Durapatite/therapeutic use , Amoxicillin-Potassium Clavulanate Combination/administration & dosage , Dental Implantation, Endosseous/methods , Sinus Floor Augmentation/trends , Allografts/immunology , Allografts/transplantation
6.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(12): 4375-4384, dez. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055758

ABSTRACT

Abstract Fiscal austerity policies have been used as responses to economic crises and fiscal deficits in both developed and developing countries. While they vary in regard to their content, intensity and implementation, such models recommend reducing public expenses and social investments, retracting the public service and substituting the private sector in lieu of the State to provide certain services tied to social policies. The present article discusses the main effects of the recent economic crisis on public health based on an updated review with consideration for three dimensions: health risks, epidemiological profiles of different populations, and health policies. In Brazil, the combination of economic crisis and fiscal austerity policies is capable of producing a direr situation than those experienced in developed countries. The country is characterized by historically high levels of social inequality, an under-financed health sector, highly prevalent chronic degenerative diseases and persisting preventable infectious diseases. It is imperative to develop alternatives to mitigate the effects of the economic crisis taking into consideration not only the sustainability of public finance but also public well-being.


Resumo Políticas de austeridade fiscal têm sido utilizadas como respostas à crise econômica e deficit fiscal tanto em países desenvolvidos como em desenvolvimento. Embora variem quanto ao conteúdo, intensidade e cronograma de implementação, tais modelos preconizam a redução do gasto público, promovendo também a diminuição do investimento social, a retração da máquina pública e a substituição do Estado pelo setor privado na provisão de determinados serviços vinculados a políticas sociais. Este artigo debate os principais efeitos da crise econômica recente sobre a saúde da população, tendo sido baseado em uma revisão atualizada, considerando-se três dimensões: riscos à saúde, perfil epidemiológico das populações e políticas de saúde. A crise econômica no Brasil, combinada com a política de austeridade fiscal, pode produzir um contexto mais grave do que o vivenciado pelos países desenvolvidos. O país apresenta altos níveis históricos de desigualdade social, subfinanciamento do setor saúde, alta prevalência de doenças crônico-degenerativas e persistência de doenças infeciosas evitáveis. É imperativo que se construam alternativas para se mitigar os efeitos da crise econômica, levando-se em conta não apenas a sustentabilidade das finanças públicas, mas também o bem-estar da população.


Subject(s)
Humans , Health Care Rationing/economics , Public Health/economics , Resource Allocation/economics , Developing Countries/economics , Economic Recession , Health Policy/economics , Research Support as Topic/economics , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Poverty Areas , Developed Countries/economics , Chronic Disease/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Mortality , Health Expenditures , Risk Assessment , Economics , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Infections/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/etiology , Mental Disorders/psychology
7.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(12): 4395-4404, dez. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055753

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo do estudo foi analisar como as crises econômicas afetam a saúde infantil a nível global e entre subgrupos de países com diferentes níveis de renda. Foram utilizados dados do Banco Mundial e da OMS para 127 países entre os anos de 1995 e 2014. Foi utilizado um modelo de efeitos fixos, avaliando o efeito da mudança em indicadores macroeconômicos (PIB per capita, taxa de desemprego e de inflação, e taxa de desconforto) na taxa de mortalidade neonatal, infantil, e de menores de cinco anos. Adicionalmente, avaliou-se a modificação do efeito da associação de acordo com a renda dos países e também a influência do gasto público em saúde nessa relação. As evidências mostraram que piores indicadores econômicos (menor PIB per capita e maiores inflação, taxa de desemprego e taxa de desconforto) estão associados com maiores taxas de mortalidade infantil. Nas subamostras por estrato de renda, observa-se a mesma relação, porém com efeitos de maior magnitude entre os países de renda baixa e média. Verificou-se ainda que um maior percentual nos gastos públicos em saúde ameniza os efeitos dos indicadores econômicos nas taxas de mortalidade infantil. Desta forma, é necessário aumentar a atenção aos efeitos nocivos das crises macroeconômicas para garantir melhorias na saúde infantil.


Abstract The aim of the study was to analyze how economic crises affect child health globally and between subgroups of countries with different levels of income. Data from the World Bank and the World Health Organization were used for 127 countries between 1995 and 2014. A fixed effects model was used, evaluating the effect of the change on macroeconomic indicators (GDP per capita, unemployment and inflation rates and misery index) in neonatal, infant and under-five mortality rates. Moreover, we evaluated whether there was a change in the association effect according to the income of the countries and also analyzed the role of public health expenditure in this association. Evidence has shown that worse economic indicators (lower GDP per capita, higher inflation, unemployment rates and misery index) are associated with higher child mortality rates. In the subsamples by income strata, the same association is observed, but with effects of greater magnitude for low- and middle-income countries. We also verified that a higher percentage in public health expenditures alleviates the effects of economic indicators on child mortality rates. Thus, more attention needs to be paid to the harmful effects of the macroeconomic crises to ensure improvements in child health.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Infant Mortality , Public Health/economics , Global Health/economics , Economic Recession , Poverty/economics , Unemployment/statistics & numerical data , Developed Countries/economics , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Regression Analysis , Health Expenditures , Developing Countries/economics , Gross Domestic Product , Inflation, Economic
8.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(12): 4405-4415, dez. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055746

ABSTRACT

Resumo Este artigo objetiva identificar novas fontes de receitas para a alocação adicional de recursos para o atendimento das necessidades de saúde da população fixadas nas despesas do orçamento federal, no contexto do processo de subfinanciamento do Sistema Único de Saúde e dos efeitos negativos da Emenda Constitucional 95/2016 para esse processo - queda verificada na proporção da receita corrente líquida federal destinada para o SUS. Nessa perspectiva, é preciso enfrentar o problema do subfinanciamento vinculando à busca por recursos adicionais junto a novas fontes de financiamento com as ações e serviços públicos de saúde que serão aprimoradas, ampliadas e criadas, cujos critérios são: quanto às fontes, exclusividade para o SUS, não regressividade tributária e revisão da renúncia de receita; e, quanto aos usos, priorização da atenção básica como ordenadora da rede de atenção à saúde e valorização dos servidores. O resultado calculado para as fontes variou entre R$ 92 bilhões e R$ 100 bilhões, superior aos R$ 30,5 bilhões apurados para os usos nos termos descritos. Foi realizada pesquisa documental para o levantamento de dados junto a fontes secundárias, especialmente nos relatórios encaminhados ao Conselho Nacional de Saúde pelo Ministério da Saúde.


Abstract This paper aims to identify new sources of revenue for the additional allocation of resources to meet the population's health needs fixed in the federal budget expenses, in the context of the Unified Health System (SUS) underfunding process and the negative effects of Constitutional Amendment 95/2016 for this process - verified decrease in the proportion of federal net current revenue destined to SUS. From this perspective, it is necessary to address the problem of underfunding by linking the search for additional resources with new sources of funding with actions and public health services that will be improved, expanded and created, of which criteria are: regarding sources, exclusivity for SUS, non regressive taxing and review of revenue waiver; and, regarding uses, prioritization of primary care as reference of the health care network and appreciation of civil servants in the health area. The result calculated for the sources ranged from R$ 92 billion to R$ 100 billion, higher than the R$ 30.5 billion calculated for uses under the described terms. A documentary research was conducted to collect data from secondary sources, especially in the reports sent to the National Health Council by the Ministry of Health.


Subject(s)
Budgets/legislation & jurisprudence , Public Health/legislation & jurisprudence , Resource Allocation/legislation & jurisprudence , Healthcare Financing , Financing, Government/legislation & jurisprudence , National Health Programs/legislation & jurisprudence , Taxes/economics , Brazil , Public Health/economics , Resource Allocation/economics , Financing, Government/economics , National Health Programs/economics
9.
Saúde debate ; 43(spe5): 71-81, Dez. 2019.
Article in Portuguese | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, CONASS | ID: biblio-1101955

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Este ensaio possui como objetivo refletir sobre as repercussões da financeirização da economia para a proposta de um sistema universal de saúde. A partir de uma abordagem ontológica de cariz materialista histórico, apresenta-se a conjuntura da dinâmica financeira e como ela se expressa em orientações do Banco Mundial para o Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS); decifram-se os mecanismos causais do subfinanciamento do SUS, afastando-o da universalidade plena; e demonstram-se os limites estruturais do fundo público, enquanto mediação importante à efetivação de um sistema universal de saúde.


ABSTRACT This essay aims to reflect on the repercussion of the financialization of the economy for the purpose of establishing a universal health system. From an ontological approach of a historical-materialistic nature, the current situation of the financial dynamics is presented, as well as how it is expressed in the World Bank guidelines for the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS); revealing the causal mechanisms of underfunding of the SUS, moving it away from full universality; and demonstrating the structural limits of the public fund as an important mediation for the implementation of a universal health system.


Subject(s)
Unified Health System/economics , Public Health/economics , Universal Access to Health Care Services , Health Policy , Financial Resources in Health/economics , Healthcare Financing
10.
Saúde debate ; 43(spe5): 145-160, Dez. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, CONASS | ID: biblio-1101948

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Este artigo teve como objetivo mapear a produção da economia da saúde no Brasil e seus principais temas, destacando a relevância da economia política, com o intuito de refletir sobre a sustentabilidade do Sistema Único de Saúde. Para tanto, realizou-se uma pesquisa quantitativa exploratória, por meio de coleta de dados nos currículos de pesquisadores doutores em economia da saúde na Plataforma Lattes (CNPq) em 2018. Recuperaram-se os pesquisadores por meio do termo 'economia da saúde' e 'economia política'. Classificaram-se suas produções nas áreas temáticas de 'financiamento', 'política de saúde', 'gestão em saúde', 'análise de custo-efetividade'. Identificaram-se 471 currículos de doutores associados ao termo 'economia da saúde', dos quais 53,9% (254) foram considerados 'economistas da saúde'. Entre os temas mais trabalhados, 42,5% (108) enfatizam a 'análise de custo-efetividade', 20,9% (53) salientam a 'gestão em saúde' e 20,5% (52) ressaltam o 'financiamento'. Dos 254, apenas 11,0% (28) produzem em 'economia política'. A preponderância da produção em 'gestão em saúde' e 'análise de custo-efetividade' sugere que os pesquisadores da economia da saúde estão majoritariamente alinhados ao pensamento neoclássico. Além disso, a produção de conhecimento pelos paradigmas da 'economia política' é rarefeita.


ABSTRACT This article aims to map the production of health economics in Brazil and its main themes, highlighting the relevance of political economy, with the aim of reflecting on the sustainability of the Unified Health System (SUS). For that purpose, a quantitative exploratory research was carried out, through data collection in curricula of health economics researchers at the Plataforma Lattes (CNPq) in 2018. Researchers were retrieved through the term 'health economics' and 'political economy'. Their productions were classified in the thematic areas of 'financing', 'health policy', 'health management', 'cost-effectiveness analysis'. 471 curricula of doctors associated with the term 'health economics' were identified, of which 53.9% (254) were considered 'health economists'. Among the most addressed topics, 42.5% (108) focus on 'cost-effectiveness analysis', 20.9% (53) on 'health management', and 20.5% (52) on 'financing'. Of the 254, only 11.0% (28) show a production in 'political economy'. The preponderance of productions in 'health management' and 'cost-effectiveness analysis' suggests that health economics researchers are mostly aligned with the neoclassical thinking. Moreover, the production of knowledge by the paradigms of 'political economy' is scarce.


Subject(s)
Health Care Economics and Organizations/legislation & jurisprudence , Health Systems/economics , Public Health/economics , Healthcare Financing , Health Policy/economics
11.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 62(3): 303-308, May-June 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950061

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in Brazil, imposing substantial economic burden on the health care system. Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is known to greatly increase the risk of premature coronary artery disease (CAD). This study aimed to estimate the economic impact of hospitalizations due to CAD attributable to FH in the Brazilian Unified Health Care System (SUS). Subjects and methods: Retrospective, cross-sectional study of data obtained from the Hospital Information System of the SUS (SIHSUS). We selected all adults (≥ 20 years of age) hospitalized from 2012­-2014 with primary diagnoses related to CAD (ICD-10 I20 to I25). Attributable risk methodology estimated the contribution of FH in the outcomes of interest, using international data for prevalence (0.4% and 0.73%) and relative risk for events (RR = 8.56). Results: Assuming an international prevalence of FH of 0.4% and 0.73%, of the 245,981 CAD admissions/year in Brazil, approximately 7,249 and 12,915, respectively, would be attributable to an underlying diagnosis ­­of FH. The total cost due to CAD per year, considering both sexes and all adults, was R$ 985,919,064, of which R$ 29,053,500 and R$ 51,764,175, respectively, were estimated to be attributable to FH. The average cost per FH-related CAD event was R$ 4,008. Conclusion: Based on estimated costs of hospitalization for CAD, we estimated that 2.9-5.3% are directed to FH patients. FH can require early specific therapies to lower risk in families. It is mandatory to determine the prevalence of FH and institute appropriate treatment to minimize the clinical and economic impact of this disease in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Coronary Artery Disease/economics , Public Health/economics , Health Care Costs/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/economics , Hypercholesterolemia/economics , Coronary Artery Disease/etiology , Coronary Artery Disease/therapy , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hypercholesterolemia/complications , Hypercholesterolemia/therapy
12.
Mem. Inst. Invest. Cienc. Salud (Impr.) ; 15(3): 64-72, Dic. 2017. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-907832

ABSTRACT

La protección financiera de la población, con equidad, es un objetivo del sistema de salud. Sin embargo, numerosas personas enfermas incurren en gasto de bolsillo (GBS) para obtener atención, situación que es inequitativa. El objetivo de este artículo fue analizar la composición del GBS, su magnitud y distribución en la población general y pobre. Como metodología se analizó el módulo de salud de la Encuesta Permanente de Hogares del 2014. La población que incurrió en GBS fue el 75,1% de la población enferma, 75,8% para los no pobres, 73,3% para los pobres no extremos y 73,0% para los pobres extremos. El GBS promedio fue de 54,5 USD; 63,3 USD para los no pobres; 26,2 USD para los pobres no extremos y 30,4 USD para los pobres extremos. El 53% del GBS fue por pagos por medicamentos, 22,6% debido a estudios de diagnóstico, 18,7% por hospitalizaciones y 5,7% por consultas. La proporción de GBS por compra de medicamentos fue mayor entre los pobres: 72,3% para los pobres extremos y 68,6% para los pobres no extremos. Si bien el GBS se acumuló 87% entre los no pobres la relación de los precios promedios sobre el ingreso promedio fue más elevado entre los pobres: 95,8% para los pobres extremos, 40,7% para los pobres no extremos y 21,4% para los no pobres, pero los gastos por hospitalizaciones pueden superar el ingreso total. Los resultados señalan inequidad en el financiamiento del sistema de salud paraguayo.


Financial protection with equity for the population is an objective of the health system. However, many sick people incur pocket expenses to obtain care, a situation that is inequitable. The objective of this article is to analyze the composition of pocket expenses, its magnitude and distribution in the general and poor population. As a methodology, the health module of the Permanent Household Survey for 2014 was analyzed. The population that incurred in pocket expenses was 75.1% of the sick population, 75.8% of the non-poor, 73.3% of the non-extreme poor, and 73.0% of the extreme poor. The average pocket expenses was 54.5 USD, 63.3 USD for non-poor, 26.2 USD for non-extreme poor and 30.4 USD for extreme poor. Fifty three percent of the pocket expenses were for payments of medicines, 22.6% due to diagnostic studies, 18.7% for hospitalizations and 5.7% for consultations. The proportion of pocket expenses per drug purchase was higher among the poor: 72.3% for the extreme poor and 68.6% for the non-extreme poor. While pocket expenses accounted for 87.0% of the non-poor incomes, the ratio of average prices to average income was higher among the poor: 95.8% for extreme poor, 40.7% for non-extreme poor, and 21, 4% for non-poor, but hospitalization expenses may exceed total income. These data indicate inequity in the financing of the Paraguayan health system.


Subject(s)
Health Expenditures , Health Systems , Poverty , Public Health/economics
14.
Ciênc. saúde coletiva ; 22(6): 1759-1769, jun. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-840002

ABSTRACT

Resumo Os limites para as despesas com pessoal impostos pela Lei de Responsabilidade Fiscal (LRF) têm sido apontados pelos gestores municipais de saúde como obstáculo à política do setor. O artigo analisa a tendência linear dos indicadores de despesas com pessoal e a correlação deste com o perfil de gastos com pessoal da saúde de 5.356 municípios brasileiros, entre 2004 e 2009. O estudo, de série temporal, recorreu aos dados do Finanças do Brasil (Finbra) e do Sistema de Informações sobre Orçamentos Públicos em Saúde (Siops). Observou-se uma tendência de aumento de 1,3% nas médias anuais da despesa total com pessoal dos municípios, porém as despesas com pessoal da saúde não acompanharam esse crescimento. Não houve correlação entre os indicadores, portanto, esse resultado se opõe aos argumentos dos gestores de saúde, que atribuem à LRF os problemas para contratação de trabalhadores e expansão dos sistemas de saúde. A disponibilidade de dados dos sistemas Finbra e Siops associado à carência de conhecimento sobre o assunto tornam oportunas novas pesquisas.


Abstract The limits for expenditure on personnel that were imposed by the Fiscal Responsibility Act (FRA) have been considered by local health managers as an obstacle to health sector policies. This paper analyzes the linear trend for the personnel expenses indicators and the correlation of this with the profile of spending on health care personnel in 5,356 Brazilian municipalities from 2004 to 2009. The study of the time series used data from the ‘Finanças do Brasil’ (Finbra) and data from the Information System on Public Health Budgets (SIOPS). There was a trend towards an increase of 1.3% in the annual average of total personnel expenditure in the municipalities, but the cost of health care staff did not follow that growth. There were no correlations between the indicators, and this result is contrary to the arguments given by the health managers. They attribute the problems with hiring workers and the expansion of health systems to the FRA. The availability of data from the Finbra and the Siops system is associated with a lack of knowledge on these issues. This makes it an opportune time for conducting new research.


Subject(s)
Humans , Health Expenditures/trends , Health Personnel/economics , Health Policy , Public Health/economics , Brazil , Budgets/trends , Cities , Information Systems
15.
Ciênc. saúde coletiva ; 22(6): 1979-1990, jun. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-840004

ABSTRACT

Resumo O artigo analisa implicações do crescimento da receita orçamentária municipal e da política monetária de metas da inflação na disponibilidade de recursos públicos para a saúde do ente municipal. A pesquisa é descritiva, exploratória, de natureza quantitativa e de corte longitudinal retrospectivo, abrangendo os anos de 2002 a 2011. Analisaram-se variáveis de Financiamento e Gasto em Saúde dos municípios do estado de Pernambuco, descrevendo a evolução e a relação entre elas. Os dados demonstraram crescimento das variáveis e tendência à homogeneidade. A exceção foi a participação das Transferências Intergovernamentais na Despesa Total do Município com Saúde. Constatou-se correlação significativa entre Receita Orçamentária per capita e Despesa com Saúde per capita e correlação negativa significante forte entre Taxa de Inflação, Receita Orçamentária per capita e Despesa com Saúde per capita. Concluiu-se que o incremento da despesa com saúde deve-se mais ao crescimento da arrecadação municipal que ao das transferências. Estas, em termos relativos, não se elevaram. A forte relação inversa entre Taxa de Inflação e variáveis de Financiamento e Gasto comprovam que a política monetária de metas da inflação tem restringido o financiamento da saúde no ente municipal.


Abstract This paper analyzes the implications of municipal budget revenue growth and the monetary policy’s inflation rates goals in the availability of public health resources of municipalities. This is a descriptive, exploratory, quantitative, retrospective and longitudinal cross-sectional study covering the period 2002-2011. We analyzed health financing and expenditure variables in the municipalities of the state of Pernambuco, Brazil, describing the trend and the relationship between them. Data showed the growth of the variables and trend towards homogeneity. The exception was for the participation of Intergovernmental Transfers in the Total Health Expenditure of the Municipality. We found a significant correlation between Budget Revenue per capita and Health Expenditure per capita and a strong significant negative correlation between Inflation Rate, Budget Revenue per capita and Health Expenditure per capita. We concluded that increased health expenditure is due more to higher municipal tax revenue than to increased transfers that, in relative terms, did not increase. The strong inverse relationship between inflation rate and the Financing and Expenditure variables show that the monetary policy’s inflation goals have restricted health financing to municipalities.


Subject(s)
Humans , Budgets/trends , Economic Development/trends , Health Expenditures/trends , Public Health/economics , Brazil , Cities , Cross-Sectional Studies , Healthcare Financing , Inflation, Economic/trends , Longitudinal Studies , Retrospective Studies , Taxes/economics
16.
Salud pública Méx ; 59(2): 176-182, mar.-abr. 2017. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-846073

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Objetivo: Analizar el impacto sanitario y económico del control prenatal (CPN) en mujeres de hogares pobres. Material y métodos: Se tomó una muestra aleatoria de 9 244 mujeres embarazadas (población= 25 000). Se estimó la incidencia de mortalidad materna, los costos directos de atención y la diferencia de medias y proporciones. Los costos fueron estimados en dólares americanos (USD) de 2014, con perspectiva del tercer pagador. Resultados: El 75% de las mujeres viven en zonas urbanas. La media de edad fue de 23 años (IC95%: 23.5-23.8). El 87.5% asistió al menos a una cita de CPN. El costo medio de partos con CPN fue de USD$ 609.1 (IC95%: 581-632.7). Sin CPN fue de USD $857.8 (IC95%: 774.7-923.8). Los costos se incrementan 32% (IC95% 27.1-41) sin CPN. Conclusión: El CPN es una intervención eficiente y efectiva para la gestión del riesgo de la salud materna.


Abstract: Objective: To estimate health care costs of live births and the impact of prenatal care visit (PCV) in women from poor households. Materials and methods: A randomized sample of 9 244 pregnant women (out of total= 25 000). Mean differences and proportions were calculated to compare results in both groups of women. The costs were estimated in American Dollars (USD) 2014, from the payer’s perspective. Results: 75% of women live in urban areas. The mean age was 23 years old (CI95% 23.5-23.8). The average cost with PCV was USD 609.1 (CI95%: 581-632.7) and without PCV was USD 857.8 (CI95%: 774.7-923.8) and 87% of women attended at least one PCV. The health care costs increased in 32% (CI95% 27.1-41) in women who did not attended PCV. Conclusion: The PCV is an efficient and effective intervention for managing the risk of maternal health.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Young Adult , Prenatal Care/economics , Insurance, Health , Poverty , Socioeconomic Factors , Urban Population , Maternal Mortality , Public Health/economics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Sampling Studies , Health Care Costs , Colombia , Cost Control
17.
Ciênc. saúde coletiva ; 22(1): 221-233, jan. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-839908

ABSTRACT

Resumo A fim de esclarecer qual programa de assistência farmacêutica, Rede Farmácia de Minas Gerais RFMG ou Farmácia Popular do Brasil FPB, se apresenta como o mais eficiente sob a perspectiva do financiador público foi realizada uma avaliação econômica. O modelo desenvolvido consiste em um levantamento dos custos incorridos até a dispensação de medicamentos. A análise de Monte Carlo foi utilizada para estimar valores a partir das incertezas. Considerando que a população inicialmente estimada no RFMG fosse atendida em sua totalidade no PFPB, haveria um custo incremental de R$ 139.324.050,19. A análise de Monte Carlo mostrou-se favorável ao RFMG. Foram realizadas 10 mil simulações resultando no valor médio de R$ 114.053.709,99 para RFMG e de R$ 254.106.120,65 para o FPB. O Brasil apresenta uma formulação avançada de políticas públicas na saúde. A Política Nacional de Medicamentos enfatiza a necessidade de fortalecimento da assistência farmacêutica para além da mera aquisição. O modelo público, coerente com princípios e diretrizes do SUS, apresenta-se com condições mais adequadas para garantir assistência integral e universal de qualidade. A avaliação econômica reforça essa afirmativa, pois encontrou maior eficiência na alternativa de aplicação dos recursos diretamente na rede pública.


Abstract We conducted an economic assessment of the Pharmaceutical Assistance - Rede Farmácia de Minas Gerais-RFMG and Farmácia Popular do Brasil-FPB to ascertain which of the two models stands out as the most efficient. To do this, a model, which consisted of a study of incurred costs in both programs, up to the dispensing of medicine to citizens, was developed. The uncertainties of the proposed model were tested using the Monte Carlo method. If the entire population initially estimated in the RFMG were attended in the FPB, there would be an additional cost of R$ 139,324,050.19. The sensitivity analysis appeared to be favorable to the RFMG. A total of 10000 simulations were carried out, resulting in a median value of R$ 114,053,709.99 for the RFMG and R$ 254,106,120.65 for the FPB. The current National Drug Policy emphasizes the need to strengthen pharmaceutical services beyond the mere acquisition and delivery of pharmaceutical products. The public healthcare service model, consistent with the principles and guidelines of the SUS, seems to be more appropriate in ensuring complete and universal quality healthcare services to the citizens. The economic study conducted reinforces this fact, as it appears to be a more efficient alternative of the direct use of resources in the public health network.


Subject(s)
Humans , Models, Economic , Pharmaceutical Preparations/economics , Pharmaceutical Services/economics , Public Health/economics , Brazil , Delivery of Health Care/economics , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Monte Carlo Method , National Health Programs/economics , Pharmaceutical Services/organization & administration
18.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 87(6): 463-467, Dec. 2016. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-844566

ABSTRACT

El óxido nítrico inhalatorio (ONi) es actualmente la terapia de primera línea en la insuficiencia respiratoria hipoxémica grave del recién nacido; la mayor parte de los centros neonatales de regiones en Chile no cuentan con esta alternativa terapéutica. Objetivo: Determinar el costo-efectividad del ONi en el tratamiento de la insuficiencia respiratoria asociada a hipertensión pulmonar del recién nacido, comparado con el cuidado habitual y el traslado a un centro de mayor complejidad. Pacientes y método: Se modeló un árbol de decisiones clínicas desde la perspectiva del sistema de salud público chileno, se calcularon razones de costo-efectividad incremental (ICER), se realizó análisis de sensibilidad determinístico y probabilístico, se estimó el impacto presupuestario, software: TreeAge Health Care Pro 2014. Resultados: La alternativa ONi produce un aumento promedio en los costos de 11,7 millones de pesos por paciente tratado, con una razón de costo-efectividad incremental comparado con el cuidado habitual de 23 millones de pesos por muerte o caso de oxigenación extracorpórea evitada. Al sensibilizar los resultados por incidencia, encontramos que a partir de 7 casos tratados al año resulta menos costoso el óxido nítrico que el traslado a un centro de mayor complejidad. Conclusiones: Desde la perspectiva de un hospital regional chileno incorporar ONi en el manejo de la insuficiencia respiratoria neonatal resulta la alternativa óptima en la mayoría de los escenarios posibles.


Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) is currently the first-line therapy in severe hypoxaemic respiratory failure of the newborn. Most of regional neonatal centres in Chile do not have this therapeutic alternative. Objective: To determine the cost effectiveness of inhaled nitric oxide in the treatment of respiratory failure associated with pulmonary hypertension of the newborn compared to the usual care, including the transfer to a more complex unit. Patients and method: A clinical decision tree was designed from the perspective of Chilean Public Health Service. Incremental cost effectiveness rates (ICER) were calculated, deterministic sensitivity analysis was performed, and probabilistic budget impact was estimated using: TreeAge Pro Healthcare 2014 software. Results: The iNO option leads to an increase in mean cost of $ 11.7 million Chilean pesos (€ 15,000) per patient treated, with an ICER compared with the usual care of $ 23 million pesos (€ 30,000) in case of death or ECMO avoided. By sensitising the results by incidence, it was found that from 7 cases and upwards treated annually, inhaled nitric oxide is less costly than the transfer to a more complex unit. Conclusions: From the perspective of a Chilean regional hospital, incorporating inhaled nitric oxide into the management of neonatal respiratory failure is the optimal alternative in most scenarios.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Respiratory Insufficiency/drug therapy , Bronchodilator Agents/administration & dosage , Hypertension, Pulmonary/complications , Nitric Oxide/administration & dosage , Respiratory Insufficiency/economics , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Administration, Inhalation , Bronchodilator Agents/economics , Budgets , Decision Trees , Chile , Public Health/economics , Patient Transfer/economics , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Hospitalization/economics , Neonatology/economics , Nitric Oxide/economics
19.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 40(1): 64-69, Aug. 2016. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-795375

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo Evaluar el espacio fiscal para la salud en Perú para alcanzar la meta de un gasto público en salud de 6% del producto interno bruto acordada por los Estados Miembros de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud en 2014. Métodos Se han identificado las principales fuentes de espacio fiscal mediante una revisión bibliográfica profunda. Su factibilidad técnica se valoró a través de estadísticas y encuestas nacionales e internacionales y la revisión de documentos y reportes oficiales. Su factibilidad política se evaluó con el análisis de lineamientos de políticas. Resultados Las fuentes con mayor factibilidad técnica y política son el crecimiento económico, el aumento de la base tributaria del impuesto al ingreso de las personas naturales y el aumento de la tributación específica sobre el tabaco. Con menos factibilidad política, pero con un amplio espacio técnico, se considera la reducción de la informalidad en el mercado de trabajo y el aumento de la cobertura contributiva. Conclusiones Existe espacio fiscal para aumentar el gasto público en salud. No obstante, la meta de 6% solo se puede alcanzar con más plazo, mayor recaudación impositiva y menor informalidad en el mercado de trabajo.


ABSTRACT Objective To assess the fiscal space for public health in Peru so as to attain the goal of raising health spending to 6% of gross domestic product, as agreed upon by member countries of the Pan American Health Organization in 2014. Methods The main sources of fiscal space were identified by means of a thorough literature review. Technical feasibility was determined from statistics and national and international surveys and by reviewing various documents and official reports. Political feasibility was ascertained by studying policy guidelines. Results The sources showing the greatest technical and political feasibility are economic growth, a broadening of the personal income tax base, and an increase in tobacco-specific taxes. Decreasing informality in the job market and increasing contributory coverage are considered to be less politically feasible, but there is ample technical space for these measures. Conclusions There is enough fiscal space to allow for an increase in public health spending. Nevertheless, the 6% target will be reached only if the timeline is extended, tax revenues are increased, and informality in the job market is reduced.


Subject(s)
Public Health/economics , Health Facilities/statistics & numerical data , Peru
20.
Rev. cuba. salud pública ; 42(1)ene.-mar. 2016. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: lil-778105

ABSTRACT

Introducción: el valor de los servicios ofrecidos por el sector de la salud pública retribuye el peso sustancial de sus asignaciones presupuestarias y el nivel de inversión en este sector del producto interno bruto, cuestión que repercute en los resultados económicos de la nación. Objetivo: describir la relación entre los resultados de la economía cubana y el aporte del sector de la salud. Métodos: estudio longitudinal de las asignaciones presupuestarias, nivel de inversión del producto interno bruto al sector de la salud y el aporte de la salud a este producto en el período 2004-2013. Resultados: durante el periodo estudiado, la economía cubana mantuvo un discreto crecimiento asociado, entre otros elementos, al aporte del sector de la salud a la formación del producto interno bruto según la metodología de cálculo establecida; de la misma manera, se comportaron los niveles de asignación presupuestaria a ese sector. Conclusiones: la existencia de una estrecha relación entre los resultados del producto interno bruto, el presupuesto total y su asignación al sector de la salud y el aporte de este sector, refleja la complementariedad que existe entre estos aspectos. La brecha entre los niveles de asignación presupuestaria y los aportes del sector de la salud a la economía, pueden explicar la capacidad de incremento de los niveles presupuestarios al sector, de forma tal que le permita perfeccionar los servicios prestados. El sector de la salud es uno de los líderes en la economía cubana actual(AU)


Introduction: the value of services offered by the public health sector repays the substantial weight of the budget allocations and the level of investment from the gross domestic product; this is an issue that affects the economic outcomes of the nation. Objective: to describe the relationship between the results of the Cuban economy and the contribution made by the health care sector in the 2004-2013 period. Methods: a longitudinal study of budgetary allocations, level of investment of the gross domestic product into the health care sector and the contribution of this sector to the said product from 2004 to 2013. Results: during the study period, the Cuban economy kept a modest growth associated, among other elements, to the contribution of the health care sector to the formation of the domestic gross product under the set estimation methodology, whereas the level of budget allocations to health have behaved the same. Conclusions: the close relationship among the results of gross domestic product, the total budget allocation to health and the contribution of the health care sector shows that these aspects complement each other. The gap between the levels of budget allocation and the contributions of the health sector accounts for the increased capacity of budget allocations to the sector in order to improve the rendered services. The health care sector is one of the leading areas in the present Cuban economy(AU)


Subject(s)
Budgets/statistics & numerical data , Public Health/economics , Longitudinal Studies , Resource Allocation , Gross Domestic Product/statistics & numerical data , Cuba
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