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1.
Rev. gaúch. enferm ; 42: e20190520, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1156647

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To characterize the temporal trend of epidemiological indicators of leprosy in the State of Amapá. Method Time series study, carried out in the Notifiable Diseases Information System. The indicators analyzed were: annual detection rate of new cases, detection rate of new cases in the population from 0 to 14 years old, rate of new cases with grade 2 of disability, proportion of new cases with grade 2 and proportion of new multibacillary cases, between 2005 and 2018. The analysis of the temporal evolution was made by linear regression. Results The detection rate of new cases and the rate of children under 15 years showed a decreasing trend. The rate of new cases with grade 2 of disability and the proportion of cases with grade 2 showed oscillation. The proportions of multibacillary remained constant. Conclusion The epidemiological indicators analyzed suggest active transmission and late diagnosis, signaling a possible hidden endemic disease.


RESUMEN Objetivo Caracterizar la tendencia temporal de los indicadores epidemiológicos de la lepra en el Estado de Amapá. Métodos Estudio de series temporales realizado en el Sistema de Información de Enfermedades de Notificación. Los indicadores analizados fueron: tasa de detección anual de nuevos casos, tasa de detección de nuevos casos en la población de 0 a 14 años, tasa de nuevos casos com grado 2 de discapacidad, proporción de nuevos casos con grado 2 y proporción de nuevos casos multibacilares, entre 2005 y 2018. El análisis de la evolución temporal se realizó mediante regresión lineal. Resultados La tasa de detección de nuevos casos y la tasa de niños menores de 15 años mostraron una tendencia decreciente. La tasa de casos nuevos con discapacidad de grado 2 y la proporción de casos con grado 2 mostraron oscilación. Las proporciones de multibacilares se mantuvieron constantes. Conclusión Los indicadores epidemiológicos analizados sugieren transmisión activa y diagnóstico tardío, lo que indica una posible lepra oculta.


RESUMO Objetivo Caracterizar a tendência temporal dos indicadores epidemiológicos da hanseníase no Estado do Amapá. Método Estudo de série temporal, realizado no Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação. Os indicadores analisados foram: taxa de detecção anual de casos novos, taxa de detecção de casos novos na população de 0 a 14 anos, taxa de casos novos com grau 2 de incapacidade, proporção de casos novos com grau 2 e proporção de casos novos multibacilares, entre 2005 e 2018. A análise da evolução temporal foi feita por meio de regressão linear. Resultados A taxa de detecção de casos novos e a taxa em menores de 15 anos apresentaram tendência decrescente. A taxa de casos novos com grau 2 de incapacidade e a proporção de casos com grau 2 apresentaram oscilação. As proporções de multibacilares mantiveram-se constantes. Conclusão Os indicadores epidemiológicos analisados sugerem transmissão ativa e diagnóstico tardio, sinalizando uma possível endemia oculta.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Temporal Distribution , Leprosy/epidemiology , Brazil , Epidemiologic Studies , Public Health/statistics & numerical data
2.
Rev. gaúch. enferm ; 42(spe): e20200238, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1180932

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the social isolation index and the speed of new cases of Covid-19 in Brazil. Methods: Quantitative ecological, documentary, descriptive study using secondary data, comparing the period from March 14 to May 1, 2020, carried out with the 27 Brazilian federative units, characterizing the study population. The data were analyzed through descriptive statistics using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences-SPSS® software, evaluating the correlation between the social isolation index and the number of new cases of Covid-19, using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: The increase in Covid-19 cases is exponential. There was a significant, negative correlation regarding the social isolation index and the speed of the number of new cases by Pearson's coefficient, which means that as the first one increases, the second one decreases. Conclusion: Social isolation measures have significant effects on the rate of coronavirus infection in the population.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Evaluar el índice de aislamiento social y la velocidad de los nuevos casos de Covid-19 en Brasil. Metodologia: Estudio ecológico cuantitativo, documental, descriptivo, utilizando datos secundarios, comparando el período del 14 de marzo al 1 de mayo de 2020, realizado con las 27 unidades federativas brasileñas, caracterizando l apoblación de estudio. Los datos se analizaron mediante análisis estadístico descriptivo, utilizando el paquete estadístico para el software Social Sciences® evaluando la correlación entre el índice de aislamiento social y el número de casos nuevos de Covid-19, utilizando el coeficiente de correlación de Pearson. Resultados: El aumento em los casos de Covid-19 es exponencial. Hubo una correlación negativa significativa con respecto al índice de aislamiento social y la velocidad del número de casos nuevos según el coeficiente de Pearson, lo que significa que a medida que el primero aumenta, el segundo disminuye. Conclusión: Las medidas de aislamiento social tienen efectos significativos sobre la tasa de infección por coronavirus en la población.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar o índice de isolamento social e a velocidade de casos novos de Covid-19 no Brasil. Métodos: Ecológico quantitativo, documental, descritivo, utilizando dados secundários, comparando-se o período de 14 de março a 1º de maio de 2020, nas 27 unidades federativas brasileiras, caracterizando a população do estudo. Realizou-se análise estatística descritiva, no software Statistical Package for the Social Sciences®,avaliando-se a correlação entre o índice de isolamento social e o número de novos casos de Covid-19, utilizando o Coeficiente de correlação de Pearson. Resultados: O aumento dos casos de Covid-19 se apresenta de forma exponencial. Houve correlação significativa, negativa quanto ao índice de isolamento social e a velocidade do número de casos novos pelo coeficiente de Pearson, o que significa que, à medida que o primeiro aumenta, o segundo decresce. Conclusão: Medidas de isolamento social têm efeitos significativos sobre a velocidade de infecção por coronavírus na população.


Subject(s)
Humans , Social Isolation , COVID-19/prevention & control , Brazil , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Health Personnel , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control
3.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 40(3): 90-94, sept. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1128958

ABSTRACT

Las afecciones bucodentales constituyen un problema de salud pública por su alta prevalencia y su fuerte impacto individual y colectivo en términos de dolor, malestar y discapacidad social y funcional. El Centro de Medicina Familiar y Comunitaria San Pantaleón, ubicado en la provincia de Buenos Aires, brinda asistencia sanitaria gratuita a la comunidad. Un relevamiento documentó que el 97% de los concurrentes presentaba caries y no se lavaban los dientes por falta de cepillo y pasta dental. Se decidió llevar adelante un programa de promoción de la salud bucodental. El objetivo fue evaluar su implementación; que incluyó: a) rastreo de caries y problemas odontológicos; b) coordinación interinstitucional; c) entrega de cepillos y pasta dental; d) intervención educativa; e) extensión comunitaria. Participaron en forma irregular 120 niñas, niños y adolescentes entre 5 y 18 años del Centro de Apoyo Escolar Fundación Bajo Boulogne. Se realizaron dos encuentros educativos y entrega de cepillos y pasta dental. En la revisión odontológica inicial sobre 60 participantes se detectaron caries en 43 (71,6%), que fueron derivados para tratamiento odontológico, pero concurrieron solo 26 (60,4%). El conocimiento sobre salud bucodental mostró cambios entre los más pequeños luego de las intervenciones educativas. Se logró implementar el programa, cumplimentando las actividades propuestas. Pero surgieron barreras que dificultaron la cobertura. En cuanto a la eficacia de la intervención educativa, no se logró mostrar cambios en el conocimiento. Se consiguió la detección oportuna, la incorporación de hábitos como el cepillado dentro de la institución educativa, la articulación para mejorar el acceso a la atención y la vinculación entre los diferentes actores comunitarios. (AU)


Oral disorders are a public health problem due to their high prevalence and their strong individual and collective impact in terms of pain, discomfort, and social and functional disability. The San Pantaleón Family and Community Medicine Center, located in the province of Buenos Aires, provides free healthcare to the community. A survey documented that 97% of those present had cavities and did not brush their teeth due to a lack of brush and toothpaste. It was decided to carry out an oral health promotion program. The objective was to evaluate its implementation; which included: a) tracking of caries and dental problems; b) inter-institutional coordination; c) delivery of brushes and toothpaste; d) educational intervention; e) community extension. 120 girls and boys and adolescents between 5 and 18 years of age from the Bajo Boulogne Foundation School Support Center irregularly participated. Two educational meetings were held, handing out brushes and toothpaste. In the initial dental review of 60 participants, caries was detected in 43 (71.6%), who were referred for dental treatment, with only 26 (60.4%) concurring. Oral health knowledge showed changes among the youngest after educational interventions. It was possible to implement the program, completing the proposed activities. Barriers arose that made coverage difficult. Regarding the effectiveness of the educational intervention, it was not possible to show changes in knowledge. Timely detection was achieved, the incorporation of habits such as brushing within the educational institution, articulation to improve access to care and the link between the different community actors. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Oral Health/education , Health Education, Dental/statistics & numerical data , Oral Hygiene/statistics & numerical data , Argentina , School Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Toothbrushing/statistics & numerical data , Oral Health/trends , Oral Health/statistics & numerical data , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , Health Education, Dental/methods , Health Education, Dental/trends , Community Dentistry/education , Community Dentistry/statistics & numerical data , Dental Caries/diagnosis , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Treatment Adherence and Compliance , Mouth Diseases/prevention & control
4.
Guatemala; MSPAS; [20 jul 2020]. 1 p.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, LIGCSA | ID: biblio-1150910

ABSTRACT

Como lo indica su nombre, este es un formulario para llevar el control de los contactos de los contagiados por COVID-19


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Diseases Registries/classification , Coronavirus Infections/classification , Form , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/prevention & control , Guatemala/epidemiology
5.
Guatemala; MSPAS; [28 jul 2020]. 1 p.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, LIGCSA | ID: biblio-1150911

ABSTRACT

Como lo indica su nombre, este es un formulario para llevar el control de los contactos de los contagiados por COVID-19, así como el seguimiento en síntomas como fiebre, dificultad para respirar, fatiga, etc.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Diseases Registries/classification , Coronavirus Infections/classification , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , Form , Pandemics/prevention & control , Guatemala/epidemiology
7.
Actual. osteol ; 15(3): 214-224, Sept-Dic. 2019. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1116039

ABSTRACT

En la Argentina, las embarazadas presentan alta prevalencia (80%) de hipovitaminosis D y de sobrepeso u obesidad (27,4%). Ambas condiciones pueden aumentar la morbimortalidad materno-fetal. Bajos niveles de vitamina D se han relacionado con aumento del colesterol total, LDL, triglicéridos (Tg) y descenso de HDL. Objetivo: evaluar los niveles de 25-hidroxivitamina D (25OHD) y su relación con el perfil lipídico en pacientes embarazadas de alto riesgo. Materiales y métodos: estudio de corte transversal entre septiembre de 2016 y abril de 2017. Se excluyeron pacientes que recibieron suplementos de vitamina D, con disfunción tiroidea no compensada, malabsorción, insuficiencia cardíaca, renal o hepática y dislipidemia familiar. Niveles circulantes de 25OHD < 30 ng/ml se consideraron hipovitaminosis. Resultados: se evaluaron 86 embarazadas de 29,3 ± 7,1 años durante la semana 28 ± 6,5. El IMC pregestacional fue 28,3 ± 6,5 kg/m2 y la ganancia de peso 7 ± 4,3 kg. Perfil lipídico: colesterol total 240 ± 54 mg/dl; LDL 156 ± 54 mg/dl; HDL 66 ± 15 mg/dl; Tg 204 ± 80 mg/dl. La media de 25OHD fue de 23,8 ± 9 ng/ml, con una prevalencia de hipovitaminosis D de 77,9 %. Las pacientes con hipovitaminosis D presentaron mayores valores de colesterol total y LDL (p < 0,05), con tendencia no significativa a presentar mayores valores de Tg. Conclusión: en embarazadas de alto riesgo se observó una alta prevalencia de hipovitaminosis D, asociada con mayores concentraciones de colesterol total y LDL. (AU)


In Argentina, pregnant women have a high prevalence (80 %) of hypovitaminosis D and verweight/obesity (27.4%), conditions that can increase maternal-fetal morbidity and mortality. Low levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) have been linked to an increase in total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides (TG) and a decrease in HDL cholesterol. Objective: to evaluate the levels of vitamin D and its relationship with the lipid profile in high risk pregnant patients. Materials and methods: cross-sectional study between September 2016 and April 2017. Patients who received vitamin D supplements or had non-compensated thyroid dysfunction, malabsorption, heart failure, renal or hepatic failure, or familial dyslipidemia were excluded. Hypovitaminosis D was defined as a circulating level of 25OHD < 30 ng/ml. Results: We assessed 86 women of 29.3 ± 7.1 years during pregnancy week 28 ± 6.5. Pre-gestational BMI was 28.3 ± 6.5 kg/m2. Their weight gain was 7 ± 4.3 kg. Lipid profile: total cholesterol 240 ± 54 mg/dl; LDL cholesterol 156 ± 54 mg/dl; HDL cholesterol 66 ± 15 mg/dL; TG 204 ± 80 mg/dl. The mean 25OHD level was 23.8 ± 9 ng/ml, with a 77.9 % prevalence of hypovitaminosis D. Patients with hypovitaminosis D had higher values of total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol (p<0.05), and a non-significant trend toward higher triglyceridemia. Conclusion: A high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D, associated with high total and LDL cholesterol was found in high risk pregnant women. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Young Adult , Avitaminosis/metabolism , Vitamin D/metabolism , Pregnancy, High-Risk/metabolism , Argentina/epidemiology , Avitaminosis/blood , Avitaminosis/epidemiology , Vitamin D/analysis , Vitamin D/blood , Epidemiologic Studies , Body Mass Index , Cholesterol/analysis , Cholesterol/blood , Indicators of Morbidity and Mortality , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies/statistics & numerical data , Diabetes, Gestational/metabolism , Pregnancy, High-Risk/blood , Dyslipidemias/metabolism , Overweight/metabolism , Obstetric Labor, Premature/metabolism , Cholesterol, LDL/analysis , Cholesterol, LDL/blood , Obesity/metabolism
8.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 13(3): 363-366, set. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012437

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: Las enfermedades gastrointestinales inflamatorias se caracterizan por la desarmonía de la flora bacteriana del intestino. Estos cambios se caracterizan como un problema de salud pública que demuestra que las principales causas de las enfermedades están asociadas a la alimentación inadecuada y, como consecuencia de cambios en la mucosa oral. Los países desarrollados están actualmente definiendo estrategias para el control de esas enfermedades, teniendo como una de las estrategias públicas para la promoción de la alimentación sana. En este contexto, el objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la legislación brasileña vigente en cuanto al cuadro de profesional nutricionista para elaborar y acompañar el menú de la alimentación escolar, conforme prevé la Ley Federal nº 8.234, de 17 de septiembre de 1991, y la Resolución del Consejo Federal de Nutricionistas - CFN n ° 380/2005. Se realizó el levantamiento de las Leyes que establecen un cuadro de profesionales nutricionistas en las escuelas públicas de las principales ciudades brasileñas en los órganos competentes. Los resultados muestran que pocos Estados y Municipios abordan ese tema, entre ellos el Estado de Río de Janeiro, el Estado de São Paulo, la ciudad de Ribeirão Preto, la ciudad de Florianópolis, la ciudad de Belém, el Estado de Santa Catarina, El Estado de Paraná, el Distrito Federal y el Estado de Ceará ya regularon la materia, así como la Ley nº 13.666 / 2018 que modifica la Ley nº 9.394 / 16. Los autores concluyen que además de conocer las pecurialidades de las manifestaciones orales de estos pacientes es imprescindible el conocimiento multidisciplinario del cirujano dentista, creando no sólo oportunidades de diagnóstico precoz, sino también la prevención y promoción de la salud oral.


ABSTRACT: Inflammatory intestinal diseases are characterized by disharmony of the bacterial flora of the intestine. These changes are characterized as a public health problem demonstrating that the main causes of diseases are associated with inadequate nutrition and, as a consequence, changes in the oral mucosa. The developed countries are currently defining strategies for the control of these diseases, having as one of the public strategies to promote healthy eating. In this context, the objective of this study was to evaluate the Brazilian legislation in force regarding the professional dietitian to elaborate and follow the menu of school feeding, according to Federal Law No. 8,234, dated September 17, 1991, and the Resolution of the Federal Council of Nutritionists - CFN n ° 380/2005. It was carried out the survey of the Laws that establish a cadre of nutrition professionals in the public schools of the main Brazilian cities in the competent bodies. The results show that few States and Municipalities address this theme, among them the State of Rio de Janeiro, the State of São Paulo, the city of Ribeirão Preto, the city of Florianópolis, the city of Belém, the State of Santa Catarina, State of Paraná, the Federal District and the State of Ceará have already regulated the matter, as well as Law 13,666 / 2018, which amends Law 9,394 / 16. The authors conclude that besides knowing the characteristics of the oral manifestations of these patients, a multidisciplinary knowledge of the dental surgeon is essential, creating opportunities for early diagnosis, as well as the prevention and promotion of oral health.


Subject(s)
Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/pathology , Oral Health/standards , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , Dentistry , Schools , Brazil/epidemiology , Nutritional Sciences , Diet, Healthy/methods , Jurisprudence
9.
Rev. med. Rosario ; 85(2): 64-71, mayo-ago. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1053150

ABSTRACT

El aumento de la resistencia bacteriana a los antibióticos se ha vuelto un problema global de salud. Entre otros factores, incide la actitud del médico a la hora de indicar tratamiento antibacteriano y en qué medida se basa en la evidencia. Para conocer cómo efectúa sus indicaciones en la práctica diaria se analizaron las respuestas a un cuestionario anónimo formulado a 100 médicos. Se encontraron diferencias en el modo de prescripción entre los facultativos, inclusive tratar con antibióticos sin haber realizado estudio etiológico, así como distinta respuesta de clínicos y cirujanos. Esto pone en evidencia la necesidad de que cada institución de salud disponga de un protocolo para la administración de estos medicamentos (AU)


Recently there has been a dramatic global increase in bacterial resistance. Phisician´s attitude affects the indication of antibacterial treatment. In order to know how they make their indications in daily practice we analyzed the answers to an anonymous questionnaire to 100 MD. Differences were found in the way of prescribing among physicians. Some of them administered antibiotics without having carried out etiological studies. There was also different response from clinicians and surgeons. This highlights the need for each health institution to have a protocol for the administration of these drugs (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Drug Prescriptions/statistics & numerical data , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
Infectio ; 23(2): 189-204, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-989951

ABSTRACT

Abstract Tropical protozoan diseases are currently a major public health problem throughout the world and are strongly linked with poverty, this combined with a lack of commercial markets for potential drugs has created a large burden on the health and economic development of low-income and middle-income countries in Africa, Asia, and the Americas. Due to the low research interest and the high increase of resistance against the existing treatments, as well as increasing ineficiency, toxicity, prolonged treatment schedules and costs, there is an urgent need for cost-effective, safe and easy-to-administer, new effective compounds with novel mechanisms of action. Several studies of crude plant extracts have already identifed potential compounds to treat Chagas' disease, Leishmaniasis, Toxoplasmosis, Giardiasis, and Malaria among other protozoan parasites. Natural compounds of medicinal plants have shown lower toxicity together with higher specificity, creating an optimistic view of new treatments for diseases. Out of 1010 new active substances approved as drugs for medical conditions by regulatory agencies during the past 25 years, 490(48.5%) were from a natural origin.


Resumen Las enfermedades tropicales por protozoarios son un problema importante de salud pública en todo el mundo y están ligadas fuertemente con la pobreza. Esto lleva a que falte investigación por las empresas farmacéuticas con ánimo de lucro, que sólo se motivan por posibilidades de mercado. Adicionalmente el aumento en resistencia a los tratamientos disponibles, la toxicidad y la necesidad de largos periodos de tratamiento y los costos de muchos de ellos, hacen que exista una urgente necesidad de nuevos medicamentos costo efectivos, seguros y fáciles de administrar y que tengan mecanismos de acción novedosos. Varios extractos crudos de plantas han mostrado propiedades que permiten ser eficaces para tratar la enfermedad de Chagas, la leishmaniasis, la toxoplasmosis, la giardiasis y la malaria. Los compuestos derivados de plantas han mostrado menor toxicidad con mayor especificidad, mostrando un panorama optimista para encontrar nuevos medicamentos. Esto es evidente al analizar las cifras que muestran entre 1.010 nuevas sustancias activas aprobadas para condiciones médicas por las agencias regulatorias en los últimos 25 años, 490 (48,5%) son de origen natural.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Therapeutics , Tropical Medicine , Antiparasitic Agents , Poverty , Economic Development , Demography , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , Chagas Disease
11.
Actual. osteol ; 15(1): 44-56, ene. abr. 2019. tab.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049134

ABSTRACT

Los pacientes con fracturas por fragilidad presentan elevadas tasas de morbimortalidad, lo que implica además un alto costo para el erario público. Luego de una fractura por osteoporosis, la mayoría de los pacientes no recibe una adecuada evaluación y tratamiento. Para suplir este vacío de atención médica se crearon distintas políticas; la mejor de ellas son los Servicios de Enlace de Pacientes con Fracturas (Fracture Liaison Service, en inglés). Estos programas tienen una vigencia internacional de más de diez años y son patrocinados por organismos internacionales. La finalidad de estos servicios es la prevención secundaria de fracturas. La modalidad de trabajo tiene como objetivo facilitar y asegurar la rápida identificación, el diagnóstico y la terapéutica de esta población en diferentes contextos asistenciales. La experiencia internacional demuestra que estos servicios son exitosos pues logran incrementar el inicio y la adherencia al tratamiento, disminuir las tasas de mortalidad, de morbilidad y de nuevas fracturas, y son costo-efectivos. En nuestro medio, el inicio de los Servicios de Enlace es reciente. El propósito de esta actualización es realizar una revisión de los fundamentos, características, modalidad operativa y los logros obtenidos por dichos programas. Las fracturas por fragilidad ósea constituyen un problema importante para la salud pública. Esta presentación tiene como objetivo alertar y motivar a la comunidad médica a intervenir de manera sistemática y dinámica para mejorar el cuidado habitual en esta población de pacientes. (AU)


Fragility fractures are associated with increased morbidity and mortality rates and higher costs. After a fracture, most patients do not receive adequate assessment and treatment. To fill this gap in medical care, different policies have been created; the best of them being the Fracture Liaison Services. These programs have been in place for over ten years worldwide and are sponsored by international organisms and societies. The purpose of the Fracture Liaison Services is secondary fracture prevention. Their goal is to ensure the rapid identification, diagnosis and treatment of this population in different clinical contexts. They increase treatment adherence and decrease mortality and morbidity rates and the incidence of new fractures. International experience shows that these services are successful and costeffective. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Osteoporotic Fractures/prevention & control , Osteoporotic Fractures/therapy , Osteoporosis , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , Osteoporotic Fractures/mortality , Osteoporotic Fractures/epidemiology , Patient Comfort , Treatment Adherence and Compliance
12.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 39(1): 4-11, mar. 2019. ilus., tab., graf.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1021445

ABSTRACT

El sedentarismo está aumentando en la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (CABA). Es importante estudiar el ambiente construido que promueve la realización de actividad física (AF). Nuestro objetivo fue analizar la distribución del espacio verde (EV) apto para realizar AF, así como la oferta estatal de actividades deportivas gratuitas en la ciudad. Se realizó un estudio ecológico analizando y mapeando datos según fuentes e informes oficiales de CABA para 2015. Hicimos un análisis por número absoluto, superficie, densidad poblacional y valor promedio del metro cuadrado construido por comuna. Además, realizamos un análisis cualitativo según imágenes satelitales de la ciudad. La mediana de espacio verde apto para AF era de 2,6 m2/habitante (rango intercuartílico de 1,0 a 4,6). La menor cantidad estuvo en las comunas céntricas, más densamente pobladas, así como en la mayoría de las de menor valor del terreno (una de estas tenía buena cantidad de EV, pero con un ambiente construido que podría limitar la realización de AF). En cambio, en cuanto a las actividades deportivas gratuitas, a menor valor del terreno había mayor oferta. Estos resultados deben analizarse junto con condiciones ambientales y de seguridad para la planificación integral de la ciudad. (AU)


Sedentary lifestyle is increasing in Buenos Aires City (CABA). It is important to study the built environment that promotes physical activity (PA). Our objective was to analyze the distribution of the green spaces or urban open spaces (GS) suitable for PA, as well as the state offer of free sports activities in the city. We did an ecological study, analyzing and mapping data according to sources and official reports of CABA for 2015. We performed analyses by absolute number, area, population density and average value of the built squared meter for each district (comuna). In addition, we did a qualitative analysis according to satellite images of the city. The median of green space suitable for PA was 2.6 m2 / inhabitant (interquartile range 1.0 to 4.6). The smallest amount was in the central districts, more densely populated, as well as in most of the lower landvalue ones (one of these had a good amount of GS, but with a built environment that could limit the practice of PA). In contrast, regarding free sports activities, the lower the value of the land, the greater the state offer. These results must be analyzed along with environmental and safety conditions for an integral planning of the city. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Regional Health Planning/organization & administration , Sports/trends , Health Equity/statistics & numerical data , Green Areas/statistics & numerical data , Noncommunicable Diseases/prevention & control , Built Environment/statistics & numerical data , Argentina , Quality of Life , Regional Health Planning/trends , Social Class , Sports/statistics & numerical data , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , Health Equity/organization & administration , Ecological Studies , Sedentary Behavior , Sense of Coherence , Healthy Lifestyle , Built Environment/supply & distribution , Built Environment/trends , Health Promotion/organization & administration
13.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 53: 81, jan. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1043324

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the most-cited articles in public health scientific journals edited in Brazil. METHODS Articles published between 2008 and 2010 by public health journals edited in Brazil and indexed in the Scopus database were included, and citations received up to five years after publication were ranked. We studied a total of 105 articles, as the last seven articles shared the same number of citations and so were given the same rank. RESULTS The most-cited articles received a median of 28 citations, and the distribution ranged from 22 to 95 citations. These articles describe advances in the areas of Epidemiology (74%), Health Policies, Planning and Administration (19%), and Social and Human Sciences in Health (7%). Only half mentioned that they have received funding. About 75% of the articles were written by three or more authors and 90%, by authors affiliated to public institutions such as universities and government organizations. Fifteen individuals were responsible for authoring or coauthoring three or more of the 105 articles studied. The journals Cadernos de Saúde Pública, Revista de Saúde Pública, and Ciência & Saúde Coletiva have published the vast majority of the most-cited articles in the area (94%). CONCLUSIONS In Brazil, the most-cited articles in public health mainly report Epidemiology research, are written by groups of authors and by researchers affiliated to public institutions and are published in journals with a greater impact. Periodical analyses of these data can show potential changes in the characteristics of articles that most attract public health scientists.


Subject(s)
Humans , Periodicals as Topic/statistics & numerical data , Bibliometrics , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , Brazil
14.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 35(5): e00070018, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001667

ABSTRACT

Abstract: This study aimed to assess the level of therapeutic innovation of new drugs approved in Brazil over 13 years and whether they met public health needs. Comparative descriptive analysis of therapeutic value assessments performed by the Brazilian Chamber of Drug Market Regulation (CMED) and the French drug bulletin Prescrire for new drugs licensed in Brazil, from January 1st 2004 to December 31st 2016. The extent to which new drugs met public health needs was examined by: checking inclusions into government-funded drug lists and/or clinical guidelines; comparing Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification (ATC) codes and drug indications with the list of conditions contributing the most to the national disease burden; and assessing new medicines aimed to treat neglected diseases. 253 new drugs were approved. Antineoplastics, immunossupressants, antidiabetics and antivirals were the most frequent. Thirty-three (14%) out of 236 drugs assessed by the Brazilian chamber and sixteen (8.2%) out of 195 assessed by the French bulletin Prescrire were considered innovative. Thirty-six drugs (14.2%) were selected for coverage by the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS), seven of which were therapeutically innovative, and none were aimed to treat neglected disease. About 1/3 of the drugs approved aimed to treat conditions among the top contributors to Brazil's disease burden. Few therapeutically innovative drugs entered the Brazilian market, from which only a small proportion was approved to be covered by the SUS. Our findings suggest a divergence between public health needs, research & development (R&D) and drug licensing procedures.


Resumo: O objetivo foi avaliar o nível de inovação terapêutica de novos medicamentos aprovados no Brasil ao longo de 13 anos e se eles atendem a necessidades de saúde pública. Foi feita uma análise comparativa descritiva da avaliação de valor terapêutico realizada pela Câmara de Regulação do Mercado de Medicamentos (CMED) e pelo boletim de medicamentos francês Prescrire para novos medicamentos licenciados no Brasil entre 1º de janeiro de 2004 e 31 de dezembro de 2016. Examinamos em que medida os novos medicamentos atendem a necessidade de saúde pública por meio de: checagem da inclusão em listas de medicamentos financiados pelo governo e/ou diretrizes clínicas; comparação de códigos da Classificação Anatômica Terapêutica Química (ATC, em inglês) e indicações de medicamentos com a lista de condições que mais contribuem para a carga de doença nacional; e avaliação de se os novos medicamentos tinham por objetivo tratar doenças negligenciadas. Foram aprovados 253 novos medicamentos. Antineoplásicos, imunossupressores, antidiabéticos e antivirais foram os mais frequentes. Trinta e três (14%) dos 236 medicamentos avaliados pela Câmara brasileira e 16 (8,2%) dos 195 avaliados pelo boletim francês Prescrire foram considerados inovadores. Trinta e seis medicamentos (14,2%) foram selecionados para cobertura no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS), sete dos quais eram inovadores do ponto de vista terapêutico e nenhum dos quais tinha por objetivo tratar uma doença negligenciada. Em torno de 1/3 dos medicamentos aprovados tinha por objetivo o tratamento de doenças que figuram entre as principais contribuidoras da carga de doença no Brasil. Poucos medicamentos inovadores do ponto de vista terapêutico entraram no mercado brasileiro, dos quais apenas uma pequena proporção foi aprovada para ser coberta pelo SUS. Nossos resultados sugerem uma divergência entre necessidades de saúde pública, pesquisa e desenvolvimento (P&D) e procedimentos de licenciamento de medicamentos.


Resumen: El objetivo fue evaluar el nivel de innovación terapéutica de los nuevos medicamentos aprobados en Brasil durante 13 años y si cumplen con las necesidades sanitarias. Llevamos a cabo un análisis comparativo descriptivo acerca del valor terapéutico presente en las evaluaciones realizadas por la Cámara de Regulación del Mercado de Medicamentos (CMED) y la revista francesa Prescrire sobre los nuevos medicamentos autorizados en Brasil, desde el 1º de enero 2004 hasta el 31de diciembre de 2016. Su alcance, es decir, hasta qué punto los nuevos medicamentos cumplían con las necesidades de salud pública se comprobaron revisando las inclusiones en listas de medicamentos subvencionados por el gobierno y/o directrices clínicas; comparando los códigos de la Classificación Anatómicos Terapéuticos Químicos (ATC por sus siglas en inglés) y las indicaciones de los medicamentos respecto a la lista de enfermedades que contribuían a la mayor carga de morbilidad nacional; y asesorando si los nuevos medicamentos tenían como objetivo tratar enfermedades desatendidas. Se aprobaron 253 nuevos medicamentos. Los antineoplásicos, inmunosupresores, antidiabéticos y antivirales fueron los más frecuentes. Treinta y tres (14%), aparte de los 236 medicamentos evaluados por la Cámara Brasileña, y 16 (8,2%), aparte de los 195 evaluados por la revista francesa Prescrire, se consideraron innovadores. Treinta y seis medicamentos (14,2%) se seleccionaron para que tuvieran cobertura por el Sistema Único de Salud (SUS), siete de ellos eran terapéuticamente innovadores, y ninguno tenía como meta tratar enfermedades desatendidas. Alrededor de 1/3 de las medicinas aprobadas tenían como meta tratar problemas de salud entre las enfermedades con mayor carga de morbilidad en Brasil. Pocos medicamentos terapéuticamente innovadores accedieron al mercado brasileño y de éstos sólo una pequeña parte fueron aprobados para que fueran cubiertos por el SUS. Nuestros resultados sugieren una divergencia entre las necesidades públicas de salud, investigación & desarrollo (I&D) y los procedimientos para la autorización de medicamentos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pharmaceutical Preparations/supply & distribution , Drugs, Essential/supply & distribution , Diffusion of Innovation , Brazil , Pharmaceutical Preparations/classification , Pharmaceutical Preparations/standards , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , Drugs, Essential/classification , Drugs, Essential/standards , Drug Evaluation
15.
Arch. Health Sci. (Online) ; 25(3): 18-21, 21/12/2018.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1046351

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O câncer de estômago é um dos tipos de neoplasias mais graves no mundo, apresentando alta incidência e mortalidade. Objetivo: Analisar a taxa de mortalidade por câncer de estômago entre os anos de 2000 e 2015 na Paraíba,Brasil. Material e Método: Trata-se de um estudo de delineamento de correlação, no qual os dados foram obtidos no Atlas On-line de Mortalidade por Câncer. Foram coletados o número de óbitos por câncer de estômago na Paraíba entre 2000 e 2015. Além disso, foram coletadas as taxas de mortalidade específica bruta e ajustada por idade para o sexo masculino e feminino. Para avaliar a significância da tendência temporal utilizou-se o teste de regressão linear simples. O modelo estimado serviu para calcular a Variação Percentual Anual Estimada. Resultados: A taxa de mortalidade por câncer de estômago, padronizada pela idade no sexo masculino, foi maior em todos os anos, em comparação com os valores apresentados pela população geral e o sexo feminino. Além disso, no período analisado, o aumento da mortalidade foi de 0,027 óbitos por 100 mil habitantes, 0,029 por 100 mil homens e 0,026 por 100 mil mulheres. Tanto na população geral quanto na população masculina e feminina, especificamente, observou-se aumento significativo (p<0,001) da mortalidade. O sexo masculino foi o que apresentou a maior acréscimo anual no número de óbitos, com uma variação percentual média anual estimada de 2,94%. Conclusão: A taxa de mortalidade por câncer de estômago na população em geral, principalmente nos homens, aumentou de forma considerável na Paraíba entre os anos de 2000 e 2015.


Introduction:Worldwide, gastric cancer is one of the most severe neoplasms. It presents a high incidence and mortality rates. Objective: Analyze the mortality rate due to gastric cancer. Material and Methods: This is a correlation delinaetion study, in which the data were obtained from the Online Atlas of Cancer Mortality. We collected the number of deaths from gastric cancer in the State of Paraíba from 2000 to 2015. We also collected male and female crude and age specific mortality rates for gastric cancer. We used simple linear regression test to evaluate the significance of temporal trend. The estimated model was used to calculate the Average Estimated Annual Percent Change. Results: Age-standardized mortality rate of gastric cancer among males was higher in every year when compared to that presented by both general population and female population. In the study period, the increase in the mortality rate was 0.027 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants. Mortality rate was 0.029 deaths per 100,000 men and 0.026 deaths per 100,000 women. We observed a significant increase mortality rate in the general population, and specifically, in male and female populations (p <0.001). Males presented the highest annual increase in the number of deaths with an estimated annual percentage change of 2.94%. Conclusion:Mortality rate for gastric cancer in the general population increased considerably in Paraíba from 2000 to 2015, especially in men


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Stomach Neoplasms/ethnology , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , Mortality/ethnology
16.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 16(2): 94-98, 20180000. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-913366

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Descrever o perfil clínico-epidemiológico dos pacientes acometidos por sífilis, bem como o impacto da doença, quando associada à transmissão vertical. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo observacional descritivo retrospectivo, analisando o perfil epidemiológico dos casos de sífilis notificados no município de Macaé (RJ), no período de 2013 a 2016, por meio de dados fornecidos pela Vigilância Epidemiológica municipal, por informações contidas no Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN). RESULTADOS: A frequência da sífilis no município apresentou tendência crescente. Sociodemograficamente, a faixa etária de 20 a 39 anos foi a mais suscetível ao acometimento pela enfermidade, fato que corroborou os achados nacionais da infecção. CONCLUSÃO: A detecção tardia da sífilis gestacional e a frequência da transmissão vertical da doença, apesar do acesso ao pré-natal, sugerem maior integração dos serviços envolvidos.(AU)


OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical and epidemiological profile of patients affected by syphilis, as well as the impact of the disease when it is associated with vertical transmission. METHODS: This is a retrospective descriptive observational study analyzing the epidemiological profile of syphilis cases reported in the municipality of Macaé, state of Rio de Janeiro, from 2013 to 2016, through data provided by the municipal Epidemiological Surveillance, through information contained in the Brazilian Information System for Notifiable Disease (SINAN). RESULTS: The frequency of syphilis in the municipality showed an increasing trend. Socially and demographically, the age group of 20 to 39 years is the most susceptible to disease affection, a fact that corroborates the national findings of the infection. CONCLUSION: Late detection of gestational syphilis, and the frequency of vertical transmission of the disease, despite the access to prenatal care, suggest a greater integration of the services involved.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Syphilis/epidemiology , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology , Disease Notification , Brazil/epidemiology , Public Health/statistics & numerical data
18.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(4): 317-322, July-Aug. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974227

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is one of the major causes of cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and liver transplantation. Treatment using direct-acting antivirals has revolutionized the treatment of hepatitis C virus, increasing long-term prognosis after cure. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of direct-acting antivirals in a Public Health System in southern Brazil. Methods A retrospective study evaluated all patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection who underwent treatment at one center of the Public Health Department of the State of Rio Grande do Sul - Brazil, according to the Brazilian Clinical Protocol and Therapeutic Guidelines. The effectiveness was assessed in terms sustained virological response 12 weeks after the end of treatment. Results A total of 1002 patients who were treated for chronic hepatitis C virus infection were evaluated. The mean age was 58.6 years, 557 patients (55.6%) were male and 550 (54.9%) were cirrhotic. Overall sustained virological response was observed in 936 (93.4%) patients. There was a difference in sustained virological response rate varied according to sex, 91.6% in men and 95.7% in women (p= 0.009), length of treatment in genotype 1, 92.7% with 12 weeks and 99.1 with 24 weeks (p= 0.040), and genotype, 94.7% in genotype 1, 91.7% in genotype 2, and 91.4% in genotype 3 (p= 0.047). Conclusion The treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection for genotypes 1, 2 or 3 with the therapeutic regimens established by the Brazilian guidelines showed high rates of SVR, even in cirrhotic patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Sustained Virologic Response , Ribavirin/therapeutic use , Brazil , Retrospective Studies , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Hepacivirus/genetics , Viral Load , Hepatitis C, Chronic/genetics , Drug Therapy, Combination , Simeprevir/therapeutic use , Sofosbuvir/therapeutic use , Genotype , Imidazoles/therapeutic use , Liver Cirrhosis
19.
Gastroenterol. latinoam ; 29(3): 104-122, 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1117110

ABSTRACT

At the 67° World Health Assembly (WHA67.6), member states are encouraged to undertake measures to ensure and strengthen surveillance, prevention, access to treatment and control of viral hepatitis in all countries. In this context- and although in Chile hepatitis C is considered a low endemic pathology- efforts have been made to improve the lives of people infected by this virus. In the process of inclusion of new direct-action therapies such as Explicit Guarantees in Health (GES), it was necessary to know the real demand, as well as some important variables for decision-making. Methodology: In 2016, the Ministry of Health requested to the centers of hepatitis C of the public health system of the country, to report in Excel spreadsheets the list of patients under control, including variables of clinical-epidemiological interest. Sensitive data from these cases guaranteed throughout the process. Descriptive analysis of the profile of the patient, genotype, comorbidities, as well as liver transplantation, the result of previous treatment and candidates for new therapies according to prioritization criteria, established in GES regulation. In the results the characterization of the patients is described: the age is concentrated between 45 and 69 years old, without greater difference by sex, the most common genotype is 1 with 60% and 18% for genotype 3, 35% has cirrhosis, 21% has esophageal varicose veins, 6% HCV/HIV co-infection, 0.8% HCV/HBV co-infection, 7% with hemophilia.


En la 67ª Asamblea Mundial de la Salud (WHA67.6) se recomienda a los estados miembros emprender medidas para garantizar y fortalecer la vigilancia, prevención, acceso al tratamiento y control de las hepatitis virales en todos los países. En este contexto, y pese a que en Chile se considera la hepatitis C como una patología de baja endemia, se han realizado esfuerzos para mejorar la vida de las personas infectadas por este virus. En el proceso de inclusión de las nuevas terapias de acción directa como garantías explícitas en Salud (GES), se requirió conocer la demanda real, así como algunas variables importantes para la toma de decisiones. Metodología: El año 2016 desde el Ministerio de Salud se solicitó a los centros tratantes de hepatitis C del sistema público de salud del país, informar el listado de pacientes bajo control, incluyendo variables de interés clínico epidemiológico requeridas en planillas Excel. Se garantizó en todo el proceso los datos sensibles de estos casos. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo del perfil del paciente, genotipo, comorbilidades, así como trasplante hepático, resultado de tratamiento anterior y candidatos a nuevas terapias según criterios de priorización, establecidos en la norma GES. En los resultados se describe la caracterización de los pacientes: la edad se concentra entre los 45 y 69 años, sin mayor diferencia por sexo, el genotipo más común es el 1 con 60% y 18% para el genotipo 3, 35% presenta cirrosis, 21% presenta várices esofágicas, 6% coinfección VHC/VIH, 0,8% coinfección VHC/VHB, 7% con hemofilia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , Hepatitis C/prevention & control , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Chile/epidemiology , Hepatitis C/complications , Hepatitis C/genetics , Hepatitis C/therapy , Hepatitis C/transmission , Coinfection
20.
Univ. med ; 59(1)20180000. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-994832

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La anemia es frecuente en los niños y, con frecuencia, no se diagnostica. El objetivo del estudio es determinar su prevalencia y la interpretación de las concentraciones de hemoglobina (Hb) de la población estudiada. Métodos: Se evaluaron todas las historias clínicas de pacientes de 6 meses a 5 años de edad hospitalizados y a quienes se les realizó hemograma (cuadro hemático), desde el 1 de enero hasta el 31 de diciembre de 2015. Se caracterizó la población, se determinó la prevalencia de anemia y la correcta interpretación de los niveles de Hb. Resultados: Se analizaron 502 registros. La prevalencia de anemia fue del 54,3 % y en 197 (39 %) había adecuada interpretación. Conclusiones: La anemia es frecuente y se debe optimizar el diagnóstico en los niños para mejorar los desenlaces asociados con la enfermedad.


Introduction: Anemia is common in children and is often not diagnosed. The aim of the study is to determine the prevalence and interpretation of hemoglobin levels (Hb) in the population studied. Methods: All clinical histories of patients from 6 months to 5 years of age hospitalized and who underwent hemogram on HUSI, from January 1 to December 31, 2015, were evaluated. The population was characterized, the prevalence of anemia and the correct interpretation of Hb levels. Results: We analyzed 502 records. The prevalence of anemia was 54.3% and in 197 (39%) there was adequate interpretation. Conclusions: Anemia is frequent; the diagnosis should be optimized in children to improve the outcomes associated with the disease.


Subject(s)
Child , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , Colombia , Anemia/diagnosis
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