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1.
Niger. J. Dent. Res. (Online) ; 7(1): 35-44, 2022.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1354437

ABSTRACT

Objective: There was a lot of panic when the COVID-19 pandemic started because a lot was not known about it. However, as the disease unfolded, proven scientific universal precautions are recommended to curb its spread. Methods: This was a cross-sectional online survey of people living in Nigeria. Questionnaires were distributed to consenting participants using the SurveyMonkey and data was collected on sociodemographic knowledge of the aetiology and prevention of COVID-19. Analysis was done with the SPSS version 25. Results: Eighty-five participants with age ranging from 18 to 60 years took part in the study. The mean age was 37.35 ± 11.7years. Forty-seven (47%) had knowledge that COVID-19 infection is from a virus. 29.4% thought it is caused by biological weapons, 1.2% from 5G internet, 7.1% as government's ploy to embezzle money and 9.4% conspiracy theory from the world leaders to reduce world's population. All participants knew that hand washing is a preventive measure against the spread of COVID-19 and majority agreed to the use of sanitizers, social distancing and disinfection of surfaces. Only 30.6% agreed that wearing of facemasks will serve as a preventive measure. Over 90% of the participants agreed that dissemination of appropriate information, use of universal precautions, isolation and intensive treatment of those infected can help prevent the spread of COVID-19. 11.8% of participants knew that additional precautions are needed for aerosol generating procedures. Conclusion: The knowledge of COVID-19 aetiology is poor among the populace and the need to wear face masks as a preventive measure in curtailing the spread of COVID-19 needs to be emphasized.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Public Opinion , Knowledge , Personal Protective Equipment , COVID-19 , Public Health , Disease Management
2.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362510

ABSTRACT

O estudo objetiva dialogar com docentes de Educação Física sobre o poder que o discurso midiático exerce sobre a formação de opinião do público, considerando os temas "corpo e saúde", e identificar espaços dedicados ao assunto nas aulas ministradas à Educação Básica, evidenciando possibilidades e desafios de sua abordagem. A produção de dados ocorreu através de uma Roda de Conversa efetivada junto a docentes que cursaram uma especialização em Educação Física Escolar. Desse diálogo, emergiram alternativas que contribuem para a decolonização de subjetividades ligadas às noções de corpo e saúde, além da superação do pensamento abissal na produção de conhecimentos, indo ao encontro do pensamento de Boaventura de Sousa Santos (AU).


The study aims to dialogue with Physical Education teachers about the power that the media discourse exerts on the formation of public opinion, considering the themes "body and health" and identify spaces dedicated to the subject in classes taught to basic education, highlighting the possibilities and challenges of its approach. The production of data occurred through a Conversation Wheel carried out with teachers who attended a specialization in School Physical Education. From the dialogue, alternatives emerged that contribute to the decolonization of subjectivities linked to the notions of body and health and overcoming the abyssal thinking in the production of knowledge, in line with the thinking of Boaventura de Sousa Santos (AU)


El estudio tiene como objetivo dialogar con los docentes de Educación Física sobre el poder que ejerce el discurso mediático en la formación de la opinión pública, considerando los temas "cuerpo y salud", identificar espacios dedicados a la asignatura en las clases impartidas a la educación básica, destacando las posibilidades y desafíos de su abordaje. La producción de datos se produjo a través de una Rueda de Conversación realizada con docentes que cursaban una especialización en Educación Física Escolar. Del diálogo surgieron alternativas que contribuyan a la descolonización de subjetividades vinculadas a las nociones de cuerpo y salud y a la superación del pensamiento abismal en la producción de conocimiento, en línea con el pensamiento de Boaventura de Sousa Santos (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Physical Education and Training , Schools , Health , Communications Media , Public Opinion , Power, Psychological , Human Body
3.
Aval. psicol ; 20(2): 127-138, abr.-jun. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1285430

ABSTRACT

O presente estudo teve como objetivo desenvolver a Escala de Crenças Gerais Conspiratórias (ECGC), reunindo evidências de sua validade fatorial e consistência interna. Para tal, foram realizados dois estudos. No Estudo 1 (n =229), uma análise de componentes principais permitiu identificar uma estrutura com cinco componentes, cada um reunindo três itens: manipulação farmacêutica (α = 0,74), conspirações globais (α = 0,80), manipulação de grupos secretos (α = 0,80), encobrimento de contato extraterrestre (α = 0,92) e controle de informações (α = 0,60). No Estudo 2 (n = 229), a análise fatorial confirmatória indicou que o modelo que melhor se ajustou aos dados foi o bifator (CFI = 0,96, TLI = 0,94, RMSEA = 0,06). Conclui-se que a versão final da ECGC, formada por 15 itens, apresenta evidências psicométricas adequadas para avaliar crenças em teorias conspiratórias, podendo ser utilizada em pesquisas no contexto brasileiro. (AU)


The present study aimed to develop the General Conspiracy Belief Scale (ECGC), seeking evidence of its factorial validity and internal consistency. For this, two studies were carried out. In Study 1 (n=229) an analysis of the main components identified a five factor structure, each composed of three items: pharmaceutical manipulation (α=.74), global conspiracies (α=.80), manipulation by secret groups (α=.80), extraterrestrial contact cover ups (α=.92) and information control (α=.60). In Study 2 (n=229) the confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the bifactor model best fitted the data (CFI=.96, TLI=.94, RMSEA=.06). The final version of the ECGC, composed of 15 items, presents adequate psychometric evidence to evaluate beliefs in conspiracy theories, which can be used in research in the Brazilian context. (AU)


El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo desarrollar la Escala de Creencia Conspiratorias Generales (ECGC), reuniendo evidencias de su validez factorial y consistencia interna. Por lo que, se llevaron a cabo dos estudios. En el Estudio 1 (n = 229), un análisis de los componentes principales permitió identificar una estructura con cinco componentes, cada uno reunió tres elementos: manipulación farmacéutica (α = 0.74), conspiraciones globales (α = 0.80), manipulación de grupos secretos (α = 0.80), encubrimiento de contacto extraterrestre (α = 0.92) y control de información (α = 0.60). En el Estudio 2 (n = 229) el análisis factorial confirmatorio indicó que el modelo que mejor se ajusta a los datos es el bifactor (CFI = 0.96, TLI = 0.94, RMSEA = 0.06). Se concluye que la versión final del ECGC, formada por 15 ítems, presenta evidencias psicométricas adecuadas para evaluar las creencias en las teorías conspiratorias, y puede utilizarse en investigaciones en el contexto brasileño. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Public Opinion , Attitude , Psychometrics , Socioeconomic Factors , Students/psychology , Reproducibility of Results , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Education, Higher
4.
RECIIS (Online) ; 15(2): 505-524, abr.-jun. 2021. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280887

ABSTRACT

A partir do tensionamento de conceitos como objetividade e opinião no jornalismo, polarização espetacularizada e abordagem da saúde pelo jornalismo, o artigo reflete sobre a legitimidade das fontes às quais recorrem os participantes de O Grande Debate, da CNN Brasil. Foram observadas 14 edições do quadro, com o registro das estratégias empregadas pelos comentaristas, a fim de identificar os padrões de legitimidade e de legitimação das fontes. Percebemos que foram acionadas fontes oficiais ou documentais e também fontes falsas ou pseudofontes, contribuindo para a equiparação entre opinião, fato e inverdade nos debates sobre o novo coronavírus.


Based on the tension between concepts such as objectivity and opinion in journalism, spectacular polarization and the approach to health by journalism, this article reflects on the legitimacy of the sources to which participants in O Grande Debate, transmitted by CNN Brazil, resort. Fourteen editions of this panel were observed, recording the strategies employed by commentators in order to identify patterns of legitimacy and legitimation of the sources. We could detect that official or documentary sources were exploited, as well as false or pseudo sources, contributing to the equivalence between opinion, fact and untruth in the debates about the new coronavirus.


A partir de la tensión de conceptos como la objetividad y la opinión en el periodismo, la polarización espectacular y la manera de plantear la salud por parte del periodismo, este artículo reflexiona sobre la legitimidad de las fuentes a que recurren los participantes de O Grande Debate, de la CNN Brasil. Se observaron catorce ediciones del programa y se registraron las estrategias empleadas por los comentaristas para identificar las configuraciones de legitimidad y de legitimación de las fuentes. Notamos que fueron empleadas fuentes oficiales o documentales, así como fuentes falsas o pseudo-fuentes, contribuyendo a la equiparación entre opinión, hecho y falsedad en los debates sobre el nuevo coronavirus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Audiovisual Aids , Journalism , Pandemics , COVID-19 , Public Opinion , Social Control, Formal , Scientific Communication and Diffusion , Video-Audio Media
5.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 41(spe4): e217551, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1340464

ABSTRACT

A proposta de emenda à Constituição Federal (PEC) 171/1993 prevê a redução da maioridade penal no Brasil de 18 para 16 anos. Essa proposta foi votada pela Câmara dos Deputados e está, atualmente, no Senado Federal, contando com intenso apoio do atual presidente. Embora haja evidências de que a idade não se relaciona a indicadores de violência, a opinião pública se manifesta favorável à medida. Diante disso, considera-se primordial escutar a fala dos próprios adolescentes sobre essa questão. Este trabalho objetivou investigar a perspectiva de adolescentes sobre a redução da maioridade penal. Participaram 25 adolescentes provenientes de uma escola pública e cinco que estavam em cumprimento de medida socioeducativa, todos na faixa etária entre 12 e 17 anos. A coleta de dados ocorreu por meio de rodas de conversa com o primeiro grupo e entrevistas com o segundo. Foram escritos relatos em ambos os momentos da coleta. Para a análise, esses relatos foram lidos e discutidos em grupo pelos pesquisadores. Os resultados apontam alguns analisadores que emergiram a partir das rodas e entrevistas: adolescência, raiva, medo, questão social, lei e violência. Observou-se que os participantes foram além de um posicionamento opinativo, produzindo importantes elaborações sobre o tema que foram disparadores capazes de abordar problemáticas próprias da adolescência e da realidade social. Considera-se que é tarefa ímpar da psicologia trazer à luz opiniões como as dos adolescentes objeto desta pesquisa.(AU)


The proposed amendment to the Federal Constitution (PEC 171/1993) of Brazil provides for the lowering of the minimum age of criminal responsibility from 18 to 16 years. This proposal was voted by the House of Representatives and is currently in the Federal Senate, being strongly supported by the elected President. Despite evidence showing that age is unrelated to indicators of violence, public opinion supports the measure, indicating the urge for listening to the opinion of adolescents on this subject. This study aimed to investigate the perspective of adolescents regarding the lowering of the minimum age of criminal responsibility in Brazil. The study sample consisted of 25 adolescents from a public school and five who fulfilled socioeducational measures, all aged from 12 to 17 years. Data on the first group were collected by means of conversation circles, and on the second group by interviews. A written record was kept for both moments of data collection, which was later read and discussed among the researchers involved in the study. The results indicate some common themes emerging from circles and interviews, namely: adolescence, anger, fear, social issues, law, and violence. When sharing their perspectives on the subject, participants went beyond an opinionated position, producing important elaborations. This also triggered the possibility of addressing specific problems of adolescence and social reality. In this scenario, Psychology plays a key role in bringing opinions to light, such as those of adolescents participating in this study - who tend to stay on the sidelines.(AU)


La propuesta de enmienda a la Constitución Federal (PEC 171/1993) prevé la reducción de la edad mínima de responsabilidad penal en Brasil de 18 para 16 años. Esta propuesta fue votada por la Cámara de Diputados y está actualmente en el Senado Federal, contando con intenso apoyo del actual Presidente. Aunque hay evidencias de que la edad no se relaciona con los indicadores de violencia, la opinión pública se manifiesta favorable a la medida. Por lo tanto, se considera esencial escuchar el discurso de los adolescentes sobre este tema. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo investigar la perspectiva de algunos adolescentes sobre la reducción de la edad de responsabilidad penal. Participaron 25 adolescentes provenientes de una escuela pública y cinco que estaban en cumplimiento de medida socioeducativa, todos en el grupo de edad de entre 12 y 17 años. La recopilación de datos se realizó por medio de círculos de conversación con el primer grupo y de entrevistas con el segundo. Los informes fueron escritos en ambas ocasiones. Para el análisis, los investigadores leyeron y discutieron estos informes en grupos. Los resultados muestran algunos analizadores que surgieron de los círculos y las entrevistas: adolescencia, ira, miedo, problemas sociales, derecho y violencia. Se observó que los participantes fueron más allá de una posición de opinión, produciendo elaboraciones importantes sobre el tema; esto también desencadenó la posibilidad de abordar problemas específicos de la adolescencia y la realidad social. Se considera que es una tarea única de la psicología sacar a la luz opiniones, como las de estos adolescentes, que tienden a permanecer al margen.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Psychoanalysis , Speech , Adolescent , Interview , Criminal Liability , Psychology , Public Opinion , Social Problems , Violence , Data Collection , Constitution and Bylaws , Criminals , Jurisprudence , Anger
6.
Medwave ; 21(1): e8103, 2021.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1282817

ABSTRACT

Introducción La migración internacional es un determinante social de la salud que puede influir en los resultados de salud de un individuo y su comunidad. La última década ha experimentado un gran éxodo desde Venezuela a otros países de la región, incluido Chile. En los últimos meses, el mundo se ha enfrentado a la pandemia de coronavirus del SARS-CoV-2 y su enfermedad respiratoria COVID-19. Objetivo Explorar qué factores están asociados con sentirse preparado para enfrentar la pandemia de COVID-19 entre la población venezolana que reside en Chile. Métodos Estudio cuantitativo transversal, siguiendo el diseño de una encuesta de opinión. Encuesta auto-aplicada en línea en español y Creol haitiano, que fue diseñada y puesta a prueba con expertos y migrantes internacionales. Se difundió a varios grupos internacionales de migrantes a través de redes de organizaciones de migrantes y pro-migrantes, así como a través de la red chilena de atención de salud pública en todo el territorio nacional. Tamaño de muestra de 1690 participantes, de los cuales 1008 (60%) eran de Venezuela y se incluyeron en este análisis descriptivo. Se analizó en forma descriptiva la variable principal sentirse preparado para enfrentar la pandemia de COVID-19 (sí/no) así como las variables sexo, nivel educacional, tiempo de estadía en Chile, tipo de previsión de salud, ansiedad o depresión debido a COVID-19, cumplimiento de confinamiento y evaluación de calidad de la información sobre COVID-19 que se ha recibido de autoridades y equipos de salud. Resultados 65% de los participantes venezolanos informaron no sentirse preparados para la pandemia. En comparación con los migrantes venezolanos que se sienten preparados para enfrentar la pandemia de COVID-19, los migrantes venezolanos que reportaron no sentirse preparados eran en mayor proporción mujeres, con nivel de educación secundaria, habían llegado a Chile en el último año, no tienen trabajo pero quieren trabajar, y pertenecer a la prestación sanitaria pública. Discusión Recibir información de buena calidad sobre la pandemia y la salud mental son factores importantes asociados con sentirse preparado para enfrentar COVID-19 en migrantes venezolanos en Chile, lo cual sugiere que se necesita más atención en la salud física y mental de los migrantes venezolanos en Chile y en la región.


Introduction International migration is a social determinant of health. The past decade has seen a large exodus of Venezuelans within Latin America, including Chile. In the past months, the world has been facing the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus pandemic and its respiratory disease COVID-19. Objective To explore what factors are associated with feeling prepared to face the COVID-19 pandemic among the Venezuelan population residing in Chile. Methods Cross-sectional quantitative study with an opinion poll design. An online self-reported survey in Spanish and Creole was designed and piloted with experts and international migrants. It was disseminated to various international migrant groups through networks of migrant and pro-migrant organizations and the Chilean public health care network across the national territory. An effective sample size for analysis of 1690 participants was reached, of which 1008 (60%) were from Venezuela and included in this analysis. Feeling prepared to face the COVID-19 pandemic (yes/no) among Venezuelan migrants was described, as well as relevant variables like sex, level of education, length of stay, healthcare provision, anxiety or depression due to COVID-19, confinement, and evaluation of the quality of the information provided by the COVID-19 government. Results 65% of the Venezuelan participants reported not feeling prepared for the pandemic. Compared to Venezuelan migrants who feel prepared to face the COVID-19 pandemic, migrants who reported not feeling prepared were in a higher proportion female, with secondary education level, had arrived in Chile in the past year, do not have a job but want to work, and belong to the public healthcare provision. Discussion Receiving good quality information on the pandemic and mental health symptoms are important factors associated with feeling prepared to face COVID-19 in Venezuelan migrants in Chile, suggesting that increased attention towards the physical and mental health of Venezuelan migrants in Chile and the region is needed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Transients and Migrants/psychology , Attitude to Health , COVID-19 , Public Opinion , Venezuela/ethnology , Chile , Cross-Sectional Studies
7.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 54: 107, 2020. tab
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, BBO, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1139479

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The participation of the ultra-processed products industry in efforts to reduce obesity and diet-related non-communicable diseases has been questioned, especially because there is evidence of its interference in policy-making processes. This article builds on the Collective Action Theory and the literature of political science to discuss the role of this sector as a special interest group that uses its significant economic power to influence government decisions in its favor. In Brazil, its participation occurs mainly with industry associations. However, it has not yet been established whether their interests prevail in the decision-making process. It has been suggested that research should be carried out to determine the degree of success of their actions, identifying the conditions associated with the convergence of policy results with their interests and indicating to what extent civil society organizations are able to make public interests override private ones.


RESUMO A participação da indústria de produtos ultraprocessados nos esforços para reduzir a obesidade e doenças crônicas associadas à má alimentação tem sido questionada, sobretudo porque há evidências de sua interferência no processo de formulação de políticas públicas. Este artigo se alicerça na teoria da ação coletiva e na literatura de ciência política para discutir o papel desse setor como um grupo de interesse especial que utiliza seu significativo poder econômico para influenciar decisões governamentais em seu favor. No Brasil, sua atuação ocorre principalmente por meio de associações. Ainda não se pode assegurar, todavia, que seus interesses prevaleçam no processo decisório. Sugere-se a realização de pesquisas que determinem o grau de sucesso de suas ações, identifiquem as condições associadas à convergência dos resultados das políticas com seus interesses e apontem em que medida as organizações da sociedade civil são capazes de fazer os interesses públicos se sobreporem aos privados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Public Opinion , Public Policy , Noncommunicable Diseases , Industry , Policy Making , Politics , Brazil , Public-Private Sector Partnerships , Health Policy
8.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eAO5451, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133776

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Specific legislation regulating the use of animals in research in Brazil was introduced in 2008. However, the viewpoint of the Brazilian population regarding the use of animals in research and teaching activities remains largely unknown. Investigation of the public viewpoint on and understanding of the topic is required given the current shifts in the animal ethics scenario in Brazil. The objective of this study was to provide the first insight into the Brazilian population viewpoint on the use of animals in scientific research and teaching activities. Methods: Data collected in a survey involving 2,115 individuals aged 16 years or older and residing in 130 municipalities distributed across the five Brazilian macroregions (North, Northeast, South, Southeast, and Midwest) were analyzed. The margin of error for entire sample was set at 2%, with a 95% confidence interval. Results: This survey revealed that most Brazilian citizens are in favor of the use animals in research, particularly for medical purposes. Different views depending on the nature of research were identified. Approximately 80% of respondents were also in favor of frequent oversight of laboratories and animal facilities. Conclusion: Survey findings indicate that the opinion of the Brazilian population is divided when it comes to the use of animals in scientific research and teaching. Divided opinions expose a limited understanding of the importance of basic sciences and emphasizes the need for improved communication between the scientific community and the general population. Further strategies aimed to promote animal welfare are discussed.


RESUMO Objetivo: A legislação específica que regula o uso de animais em pesquisa no Brasil foi introduzida em 2008. No entanto, a opinião da população brasileira sobre o uso de animais em atividades de pesquisa e ensino ainda é desconhecida. No atual cenário brasileiro em mudança com relação à ética animal, é necessário avaliar as visões e o conhecimento da população sobre o assunto. O objetivo deste destudo foi realizar o primeiro levantamento da opinião da população brasileira sobre o uso de animais em atividades de ensino e pesquisa científica. Métodos: Analisamos os resultados de uma pesquisa com 2.115 indivíduos com 16 anos ou mais de 130 municípios das cinco macrorregiões brasileiras (Norte, Nordeste, Sul, Sudeste e Centro-Oeste). A margem de erro para toda a amostra foi de 2% dentro de um intervalo de confiança de 95%. Resultados: A pesquisa revelou que a maioria da população brasileira era favorável ao uso de animais em pesquisas, principalmente para fins médicos. Diferentes pontos de vista, dependendo da natureza da pesquisa, também foram identificados. Além disso, aproximadamente 80% dos entrevistados eram favoráveis ao monitoramento frequente de laboratórios e instalações de animais. Conclusão: A opinião da população brasileira está dividida com relação ao uso de animais em pesquisa e ensino científicos. Essa divisão expõe um entendimento limitado da importância das ciências básicas e destaca a necessidade de uma melhor comunicação entre a comunidade científica e a população em geral. Outras ações para alcançar as melhorias desejadas no bem-estar animal são discutidas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Public Opinion , Animal Experimentation , Brazil , Surveys and Questionnaires , Cities
9.
Afr. j. disabil. (Online) ; 9: 1-8, 2020. tab
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1256864

ABSTRACT

Background: Physical activity provides long-term health benefits for everyone and it is considered to play an important role in the deterioration of health predictors, such as overweight and the associated increase in cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Objective: To explore the profile and opinion of people with disability in Ethiopia, with respect to physical activity participation. Method: The study comprised a questionnaire survey among male and female participants (N = 334) with visual and limb impairment, aged 15­50 years, living in urban and sub-urban areas of Ethiopia. The analyses entailed descriptive frequencies and percentages, with the chi-square statistic to test for significance between subsets of data at p ≤ 0.05. Results: The profile showed participants were mostly male (n = 221, 66.2%; p ≤ 0.05), had completed secondary school (n = 204, 61.1%; p ≤ 0.05), were not formally employed with some being day-labourers (n = 92, 27.5%) and petty traders (n = 71, 21.3%). The majority (p ≤ 0.05) had limb disabilities (n = 190, 57%) as opposed to vision impairment. Only 10% (n = 34; p ≤ 0.0001) confirmed participation in physical activity. More than half (n = 175, 52.7%; p ≤ 0.0001) were unsure whether exercise improves health but the majority (n = 175, 52.4%; p ≤ 0.0001) did agree that participation in adapted physical activity requires better facilities. Conclusion: Ethiopian persons with disabilities are physically inactive. There is need to raise awareness on the benefits of physical activity amongst people with disabilities and for disability friendly facilities to encourage physical activity


Subject(s)
Disability Evaluation , Disabled Persons , Ethiopia , Exercise , Public Opinion , Social Participation
10.
Psicol. USP ; 31: e190128, 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1143507

ABSTRACT

Resumo Este artigo examinou a metodologia da pesquisa de opinião intitulada "Percepção sobre a violência sexual e atendimento a mulheres vítimas nas instituições policiais", conduzida em 2016 pelo Fórum Brasileiro de Segurança Pública. Os resultados mostraram que a pesquisa possuiu limitações metodológicas quanto à amostragem, análises estatísticas e formulação de seus itens (exemplos: falta de operacionalização de construtos, ambiguidade e expectativa não realista do conhecimento de seus respondentes), que comprometem a legitimidade de seus resultados. Pesquisas de opinião futuras realizadas no Brasil nessa área podem se beneficiar do uso de escalas validadas. O presente artigo não tem o intuito de desacreditar que muitos brasileiros endossam atitudes de tolerância ao estupro. Em vez disso, enfatiza a necessidade de dados confiáveis e válidos que servirão de base para medidas de intervenção.


Abstract This article examined the methodology used in the survey named "Perception of sexual violence and care of female victims by police institutions", conducted in 2016 by the Brazilian Forum of Public Security. The results showed that this research has methodological limitations regarding sampling, statistical analysis, and formulation of items (e.g., lack of operationalization of constructs, ambiguity and unrealistic expectation regarding the knowledge of respondents), which compromise the legitimacy of its results. Future surveys conducted in Brazil in this field may benefit from the use of validated scales. This article does not attempt to discredit the idea that many Brazilians endorse tolerant attitudes toward rape. Instead, it emphasizes the need for reliable and valid data that must be the basis for intervention measures.


Résumé Cet article a analysé la méthodologie utilisée dans l'enquête intitulée "Perception de la violence sexuelle et prise en charge des femmes victimes par les institutions de police", menée en 2016 par le Forum Brésilien de la Sécurité Publique. Les résultats ont montré que cette recherche présente des limites méthodologiques en ce qui concerne l'échantillonnage, l'analyse statistique et la formulation de ses items (par exemple, le manque d'opérationnalisation des concepts, l'ambiguïté et l'attente irréaliste des connaissances des répondants), qui mettent en question la légitimité de ses résultats. Les futurs sondages d'opinion menés au Brésil dans ce domaine pourraient bénéficier de l'utilisation d'échelles validées. Cet article ne vise pas à discréditer l'idée que de nombreux Brésiliens souscrivent à des attitudes de tolérance au viol. Au contraire, il souligne la nécessité de disposer de données fiables et valides qui serviront de base aux mesures d'intervention.


Resumen Este artículo ha examinado la metodología utilizada en la encuesta de opinión titulada "Percepción de la violencia sexual y la atención a mujeres víctimas por parte de instituciones policiales", realizada en 2016 por el Foro Brasileño de Seguridad Pública. Los resultados mostraron que la mencionada encuesta tiene limitaciones metodológicas con respecto al muestreo, análisis estadísticos y la formulación de sus ítems (por ejemplo, falta de operacionalización de constructos, ambigüedad y expectativa poco realista del conocimiento de los encuestados), que comprometen la legitimidad de sus resultados y de sus conclusiones. Las futuras encuestas de opinión realizadas en Brasil en este campo pueden beneficiarse del uso de escalas validadas. Este artículo no intenta desacreditar la idea de que muchos brasileños respaldan actitudes tolerantes hacia la violación. En cambio, enfatiza la necesidad de datos confiables y válidos que serán la base para las medidas de intervención.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Public Opinion , Sex Offenses , Women , Methodology , Brazil , Data Accuracy
11.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 25(supl.1): 2411-2421, Mar. 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101069

ABSTRACT

Resumo O artigo apresenta resultados da pesquisa de opinião realizada no Brasil sobre a percepção do isolamento social durante a pandemia de COVID-19. O questionário foi elaborado no Google Forms, disseminado por redes sociais, com questões sobre o perfil socioeconômico e fatores associados ao isolamento. Obteve-se uma amostra com 16.440 respondentes. Os dados foram analisados no software Stata 13. O convívio social foi o aspecto mais afetado entre pessoas com maior escolaridade e renda 45,8%, para pessoas de baixas renda e escolaridade, problemas financeiros provocam maior impacto 35%. Os que praticam atividade física revelaram menores níveis de estresse 13%, bem como uma maior normalidade no sono 50,3%. Pessoas que referiram residir em piores condições de habitabilidade, informaram disposição a permanecer menos tempo isoladas 73,9%. Dentre as pessoas que não estão isoladas (10,7% do total), 75,8% acredita que o isolamento social reduzirá o número de vítimas da COVID-19. Concluímos, que a percepção das pessoas quanto ao isolamento social como medida de mitigação da pandemia, varia conforme a renda, escolaridade, idade e sexo, porém a maior parte acredita que se trata da medida de controle mais indicada e estão dispostas a esperar o tempo que for necessário para contribuir com o enfrentamento à COVID-19.


Abstract This paper presents the results of an opinion poll conducted in Brazil on the perception of social isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic. The questionnaire was prepared on Google Forms, disseminated through social networks, with questions about the socioeconomic profile and factors associated with isolation. A non-probabilistic sample was obtained with 16,440 respondents. Data were analyzed using the Stata 13 software. Social interaction was the most affected aspect among people with higher education and income (45.8%), and financial problems caused a more significant impact (35%) among people with low income and education. Those who practice some physical activity showed lower levels of stress 13%, as well as greater normality in sleep 50.3%. People who reported living in worse habitability conditions reported willingness to remain isolated for less time, 73.9%. Among non-isolated people (10.7% of the total sample), 75.8% believe that social isolation will reduce the number of victims of COVID-19. We conclude, based on this sample, that the perception about social isolation as a pandemic mitigation action varies by income, education, age, and gender. However, most believe that it is the most appropriate control measure and are willing to wait as long as necessary to contribute to the fight against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Personal Space , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Social Isolation/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics/economics , Pandemics/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus , Pneumonia, Viral/economics , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Public Opinion , Socioeconomic Factors , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Time Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Exercise/psychology , Sex Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , Age Factors , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus Infections/economics , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Educational Status , Income , Interpersonal Relations
13.
RECIIS (Online) ; 13(4): 754-767, out.-dez. 2019. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047537

ABSTRACT

Este artigo objetiva analisar o fomento do debate público promovido pela cobertura jornalística on-line sobre a questão do suicídio de adolescentes e jovens negros no Brasil. Para isso, foram selecionadas três reportagens de três veículos de comunicação: G1 ­ Ciência e Saúde (ligado às Organizações Globo), Nexo (jornal digital independente) e o Alma Preta (agência de jornalismo especializada na temática étnica do Brasil). Com o uso de teorias sobre prática jornalística, opinião pública e silêncio, além do emprego da hermenêutica de profundidade, este estudo concluiu que a mídia não promove integralmente o debate público sobre a questão. O G1 ­ Ciência e Saúde reproduziu o discurso da mídia hegemônica, não dando voz para os negros; o Nexo foi o jornal que tratou o tema de forma mais completa, com uso de dados e fontes, sendo negra uma delas; e o Alma Preta foi o que menos abriu espaço para identificação do público negro, com a ausência de fontes e falta de representação.


This article aims to analyze the public debate at online journalistic coverage on the issue of suicide among black teenagers and young people in Brazil. For this, three news from three media were selected: G1 Ciência e Saúde (linked to Globo Organizations), Nexo (independent digital newspaper) and Alma Preta (journalism agency specializing in ethnic issues in Brazil). Using theories of journalistic practice, public opinion and silence, as well as the use of deep hermeneutics, this study concluded that the media does not fully promote public debate on the issue. G1 ­ Ciência e Saúde reproduced the hegemonic media discourse, giving no voice to blacks; Nexo was the newspaper that dealt with the theme most completely, using data and sources, one of them being black; and Alma Preta was the least open to the identification of the black public, with the absence of sources and lack of representation.


Este artículo tiene como objetivo analizar el debate público a través de la cobertura periodística online sobre el tema del suicidio entre adolescentes y jóvenes negros en Brasil. Para esto se seleccionaron tres medios: G1 ­ Ciência e Saúde (vinculado a Organizaciones Globo), Nexo (periódico digital independiente) y Alma Preta (agencia de periodismo especializada em temas étnicos en Brasil). Utilizando teorías de práctica periodística, opinión pública y silencio, así como el uso de una hermenéutica profunda, este estudio concluyó que los medios no promueven completamente el debate público sobre el tema. G1 ­ Ciência e Saúde reprodujo el discurso de los medios hegemónicos, sin dar voz a los negros; Nexo fue el periódico que trató el tema más completamente, utilizando datos y fuentes; y Alma Preta fue la menos abierta a la identificación del público negro, con la ausencia de fuentes y la falta de representación.


Subject(s)
Humans , Suicide/prevention & control , Adolescent , Journalism , African Continental Ancestry Group , Health of Ethnic Minorities , Health Policy , Public Opinion , Suicide/statistics & numerical data , Brazil , Communications Media , Death , Vulnerable Populations , Disease Prevention , Social Media , Racism , Hermeneutics
14.
RECIIS (Online) ; 13(1): 172-190, jan.-mar. 2019. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-987719

ABSTRACT

Para compreender a tensão entre os conceitos de líder de opinião, desde sua formulação até a noção de influenciador digital na contemporaneidade, parte-se do pressuposto que a midiatização atravessa a vida cotidiana e pode afetar, portanto, suas mediações estruturantes, atravessando pensamentos e consumos sociais, com ênfase na religião. O trabalho que fundamenta este artigo se dividiu em duas etapas: a primeira utilizou como metodologia a revisão bibliográfica, tendo como eixo teórico Lazarsfeld e Sodré, aliada à pesquisa documental; a segunda consistiu em realizar uma análise de abordagem qualitativa no Twitter do pastor Silas Malafaia com o auxílio da ferramenta online WordArt, a fim de compreender a sua atuação como líder de opinião nas mídias digitais no que concerne às questões de gênero. Como resultado, concluímos que o pastor Malafaia influenciou a opinião de seu público ao retransmitir e ressignificar conteúdos sobre as questões de gênero enquanto 'ideologia de gênero' por meio das mídias digitais.


In order to understand the tension between concepts of opinion former from its formulation to the notion of someone who has digital influence in contemporary times, we work on the assumption that the mediatization traverses our everyday life and can therefore affect its structuring mediations, crossing thoughts and social consumption, placing emphasis on religion. The study on which this paper is based was divided into two stages: at first it was developed a theoretical work, using as methodology the literature review taking the axis of Lazarsfeld and Sodré, followed by a documentary research. The second part consisted in carrying out a qualitative analysis of Pastor Silas Malafaia's Twitter helped by the online WordArt tool, in order to understand his opinion former role in digital media with regard to gender issues. The end result shows that Malafaia has influenced his public in retransmitting and re-signifying contents of gender issues as 'gender ideology' by means of digital media.


Para comprender la tensión entre los conceptos de líder de opinión, desde su formulación hasta la noción de influenciador digital en la contemporaneidad, se parte del supuesto que la mediatización atraviesa la vida cotidiana y puede afectar, por lo tanto, sus mediaciones estructurantes, atravesando pensamientos y consumos sociales, poniendo énfasis en la religión. El trabajo que fundamenta este artículo ha sido dividido en dos etapas: la primera fue teórica utilizando una metodología que conjuga la revisión literaria (en torno de Lazarsfeld y Sodré) y la investigación documental. En la segunda etapa, para comprender su actuación como líder de opinión en los medios digitales sobre las cuestiones de género, se realizó un análisis de enfoque cualitativo en el Twitter de Silas Malafaia con el auxilio de la herramienta online WordArt. Como resultado, hemos concluido que Malafaia ha influenciado a su público en la retransmisión y resignificación de contenido sobre temas de género como 'ideología de género' a través de los medios digitales.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Religion , Social Media , Gender Identity , Leadership , Mass Media , Public Opinion , Communication , Qualitative Research , Peer Influence
15.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 26(2): 556-572, abr.-jun. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012197

ABSTRACT

Resumen El objetivo de este artículo es documentar la recepción temprana de los rayos X en la cultura científica de la ciudad de Buenos Aires. Haciendo uso de fuentes periódicas de diversa índole, el texto explora las diferentes reacciones despertadas por la novedad en distintos actores del mundo letrado. Los periódicos y semanarios generales difundieron rápidamente el hallazgo y se encargaron de subrayar su naturaleza maravillosa o prodigiosa. Por su parte, los médicos de la ciudad asumieron posiciones contrastantes que iban desde el recelo hasta el entusiasmo. Por último, los espiritistas de la ciudad escribieron numerosos textos sobre la innovación, y la reinterpretaron en función de sus estrategias de auto-legitimación.


Abstract The goal of this article is to document early attitudes to X-rays in scientific culture in the city of Buenos Aires. Using various types of periodical sources, the text explores the different reactions to the novelty among different actors in the literary world. Newspapers and weekly magazines for the general public quickly broadcast the discovery, stressing its marvelous or prodigious nature. Meanwhile, physicians in the city took contrasting positions, ranging from mistrust to enthusiasm. Lastly, spiritualists in the city wrote numerous texts about the innovation, and reinterpreted it in accordance with their strategies for self-legitimation.


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 19th Century , Public Opinion/history , X-Rays , Radiography/history , Attitude of Health Personnel , Journalism, Medical/history , Argentina , Physicians/history , Spiritualism/history
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766617

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to suggest the justification for a self-regulatory body for medical licenses in Korea by reviewing recent cases of physician arrests for medical accidents in Korea. A number of recent cases of medical mistakes have been criminalized by courts in Korea, leading to widespread concern and fear throughout the healthcare community. Without a profession-led self-regulation system ever having been introduced in Korea, there is no alternative method for disciplining doctors other than through criminal tort law. It is expected that the volume of malpractice lawsuits will increase rapidly in Korea as the government ambitiously expands its plans for universal health coverage. Instead of facing criminal charges, however, doctors must put forth an effort to introduce a contemporary form of medical regulation, with more advanced disciplinary measures against substandard practice. The Korean Medical Association has undertaken the challenging mandate of establishing a new professional regulatory body to provide a tribunal and disciplinary system for the medical profession. It has proven difficult to persuade doctors of its purpose and value, as the majority do not yet fully grasp the very foreign concept of self-regulation. Moving forward, however, it will eventually become the responsibility of doctors to persuade society, lawmakers, government, and patient interest groups of the necessity and viability of self-regulation, which may also prove challenging. Despite these predictable challenges, it is imperative that Korean doctors solve the issue of creating a new, modern regulatory body capable of effective self-regulation and acceptable disciplinary measures, within the near future.


Subject(s)
Criminals , Delivery of Health Care , Hand Strength , Humans , Jurisprudence , Korea , Liability, Legal , Licensure , Malpractice , Medical Errors , Methods , Public Opinion , Self-Control
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762641

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study factors associated to the quality of life in a North African sample of lower limbs amputees. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study in the Department Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University Hospital of Monastit, Tunisia. A consecutive sample of patients with amputations of the lower limbs was included. The evaluated parameters were quality of life using the Short-Form quality-of-life questionnaire (SF-36), pain using a visual analog scale, function using, the perimeter of walking (PW), the Special Interest Group of the Amputee Medicine (SIGAM) and the Locomotion Capacities Index of the Prosthetic Profile of the Amputee (LCI), and psychological status thanks to the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale. In the study, the patients were evaluated at the first consultation (T0) and again at 12 months (T1). RESULTS: We included 85 patients (age, 59.3±16.7 years) with a sex ratio of 3. The patient quality of life was positively correlated to distal type of amputation, traumatic origin, better LCI (p≤0.001, r=0.349), SIGAM (p=0.046) and PW. A negative correlation was noted with age (p=0.012, r=−0.483) and higher psychological scores (p=0.002, r=−0.321). CONCLUSION: In our sample of North African lower limbs amputees the age and the functional status were the most important predictors of the quality of life.


Subject(s)
Amputation , Amputation, Traumatic , Amputees , Anxiety , Depression , Humans , Locomotion , Lower Extremity , Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine , Prospective Studies , Prostheses and Implants , Public Opinion , Quality of Life , Sex Ratio , Tunisia , Visual Analog Scale , Walking
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740235

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study analyzed the health technology trends and sentiments of users using Twitter data in an attempt to examine the public's opinions and identify their needs. METHODS: Twitter data related to health technology, from January 2010 to October 2016, were collected. An ontology related to health technology was developed. Frequently occurring keywords were analyzed and visualized with the word cloud technique. The keywords were then reclassified and analyzed using the developed ontology and sentiment dictionary. Python and the R program were used for crawling, natural language processing, and sentiment analysis. RESULTS: In the developed ontology, the keywords are divided into ‘health technology‘ and ‘health information‘. Under health technology, there are are six subcategories, namely, health technology, wearable technology, biotechnology, mobile health, medical technology, and telemedicine. Under health information, there are four subcategories, namely, health information, privacy, clinical informatics, and consumer health informatics. The number of tweets about health technology has consistently increased since 2010; the number of posts in 2014 was double that in 2010, which was about 150 thousand posts. Posts about mHealth accounted for the majority, and the dominant words were ‘care‘, ‘new‘, ‘mental‘, and ‘fitness‘. Sentiment analysis by subcategory showed that most of the posts in nearly all subcategories had a positive tone with a positive score. CONCLUSIONS: Interests in mHealth have risen recently, and consequently, posts about mHealth were the most frequent. Examining social media users' responses to new health technology can be a useful method to understand the trends in rapidly evolving fields.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Technology , Biotechnology , Boidae , Data Mining , Informatics , Medical Informatics , Methods , Natural Language Processing , Privacy , Public Opinion , Social Media , Telemedicine
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786010

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to explore public opinion on workplace bullying in the nursing field, by analyzing the keywords and topics of online news comments.METHODS: This was a text-mining study that collected, processed, and analyzed text data. A total of 89,951 comments on 650 online news articles, reported between January 1, 2013 and July 31, 2018, were collected via web crawling. The collected unstructured text data were preprocessed and keyword analysis and topic modeling were performed using R programming.RESULTS: The 10 most important keywords were “work” (37121.7), “hospital” (25286.0), “patients” (24600.8), “woman” (24015.6), “physician” (20840.6), “trouble” (18539.4), “time” (17896.3), “money” (16379.9), “new nurses” (14056.8), and “salary” (13084.1). The 22,572 preprocessed key words were categorized into four topics: “poor working environment”, “culture among women”, “unfair oppression”, and “society-level solutions”.CONCLUSION: Public interest in workplace bullying among nurses has continued to increase. The public agreed that negative work environment and nursing shortage could cause workplace bullying. They also considered nurse bullying as a problem that should be resolved at a societal level. It is necessary to conduct further research through gender discrimination perspectives on nurse workplace bullying and the social value of nursing work.


Subject(s)
Bullying , Data Mining , Discrimination, Psychological , Nursing , Public Opinion , Sexism
20.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 463-470, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786310

ABSTRACT

Health insurance big data not only provide real-world evidence of unmet needs in actual clinical practice but also of breakthroughs in the medical industry which will shape the future of health care. Big data are also expected to transform the existing medical paradigm and provide a truly personalized medical age. However, questions about research through the collection and utilization of various big data in various fields have also been raised because quality limitations cannot be overlooked. Therefore, many challenges remain to be overcome in the use of big data research as a basis for changing medical practice. Intervention and interpretation by clinical medical experts are required in judging the scientific trustworthiness of the big data analysis process and the validity of the results. Therefore, healthcare big data research cannot achieve its goal by the efforts of researchers alone. Teams of data analysis scientists, epidemiologists, statistics experts, and clinical researchers are required to collaborate closely with team members, from the design phase to expert consultation, through regular meetings. In addition, it is necessary, in the creation of a healthier community, to cooperate with government agencies that provide data based on the whole nation or the world's population, as well as interest groups representing the people, and policy-making organizations. In this paper, we describe the knowledge, practical clinical applications, and future research directions and prospects for the next phase of health care, from the design of clinical research using health insurance big data to report writing.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care , Government Agencies , Humans , Insurance, Health , Public Opinion , Statistics as Topic , Writing
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