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1.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 46(2): 224-233, Mar.-Apr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090583

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction Considering the lack of data on BC trends in Brazilian population, mainly as a result of the difficulty on gathering data, the present manuscript provides an overview of bladder cancer incidence, hospitalization, mortality patterns and trends using the Brazilian Data Center for The Public Health System (DATASUS). Materials and Methods All hospital admissions associated with BC diagnosis (ICD-10 C67) between 2008 and 2017 were analyzed. Distributions according to year, gender, age group, ethnicity, death, length of hospital stay, and costs were evaluated. Demographic data was obtained from the last Brazilian national census. Results From 2008 to 2017 there were 119,058 public hospital admissions related to BC. Patients were mostly white males aged 60 to 79 years-old. Mortality rates for patients who have undergone surgery was 6.75% on average, being 7.38% for women and 6.49% for men. Mortality rates were higher when open surgeries were performed compared to endoscopic procedures (4.98% vs 1.18%). Considering only endoscopic procedures, mortality rates were three times higher after urgent surgeries compared to elective ones (2.6% vs 0.6%). Over the years the cystectomy/transurethral bladder resection (C/T) ratio significantly decreased in all Brazilian Regions. In 2008, the C/T ratio was 0.19, while in 2017 it reduced to 0.08. Conclusions Despite BC relatively low incidence, it still represents a significant social economic burden in Brazil, as it presents with recurrent episodes that might require multiple hospitalizations and surgical treatment. The set of data collected might suggest that population access to health care has improved between 2008-2017.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/mortality , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence , Public Sector/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged
2.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 36(6): e00115320, 2020. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1100969

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo é analisar a pressão sobre o sistema de saúde no Brasil decorrente da demanda adicional gerada pela COVID-19. Para tanto, foi realizado um conjunto de simulações para estimar a demanda de leitos gerais (microrregiões de saúde), leitos de UTI e equipamentos de ventilação assistida (macrorregiões de saúde) em diferentes cenários, para intensidade (taxas de infecção equivalentes a 0,01, 0,1 e 1 caso por 100 habitantes) e horizontes temporais (1, 3 e 6 meses). Os resultados evidenciam uma situação crítica do sistema para atender essa demanda potencial, uma vez que diversas microrregiões e macrorregiões de saúde operariam além de sua capacidade, comprometendo o atendimento a pacientes principalmente aqueles com sintomas mais severos. O estudo apresenta três mensagens relevantes. Em primeiro lugar, é necessário reduzir a velocidade de propagação da COVID-19 na população brasileira, permitindo um tempo maior para a reorganização da oferta e aliviando a pressão sobre o sistema de saúde. Segundo, é necessário expandir o número de leitos disponíveis. Ainda que o setor privado contribua para amortecer o déficit de demanda, a oferta conjunta dos dois setores não seria suficiente em várias macrorregiões. A construção de hospitais de campanha é importante, tanto em locais onde historicamente há vazios assistenciais como também naqueles onde já se observa uma pressão do lado da demanda. A terceira mensagem diz respeito à organização regionalizada dos serviços de saúde que, apesar de adequada em situações de demanda usual, em momentos de pandemia este desenho implica desafios adicionais, especialmente se a distância que o paciente tiver de percorrer for muito grande.


El objetivo de este estudio es analizar la presión sobre el sistema de salud brasileño, ocasionada por la demanda adicional de camas hospitalarias y equipos de ventilación mecánica, generada por el COVID-19. Para tal fin, se realizó un conjunto de simulaciones, con el fin de estimar la demanda de camas generales (microrregiones de salud), camas de UTI y equipamientos de ventilación asistida (macrorregiones de salud) en diferentes escenarios, según la intensidad (tasas de infección equivalentes a 0,01, 0,1 y 1 caso por 100 habitantes) y horizontes temporales (1, 3 y 6 meses). Los resultados evidencian una situación crítica del sistema para atender esa demanda potencial, ya que diversas microrregiones y macrorregiones de salud operarían más allá de su capacidad, comprometiendo la atención a pacientes principalmente aquellos con los síntomas más graves. El estudio presenta tres mensajes relevantes. En primer lugar, es necesario reducir la velocidad de propagación del COVID-19 en la población brasileña, permitiendo un tiempo mayor para la reorganización de la oferta y aliviando la presión sobre el sistema de salud. En segundo lugar, es necesario expandir el número de camas disponibles. A pesar de que el sector privado contribuya a amortiguar el déficit de demanda, la oferta conjunta de los dos sectores no sería suficiente en varias macrorregiones. La construcción de hospitales de campaña es importante, tanto en lugares donde históricamente existen lagunas asistenciales, como también en aquellos donde ya se observa una presión por parte de la demanda. El tercer mensaje se refiere a la organización por regiones de los servicios de salud que, a pesar de ser adecuada en situaciones de demanda habitual, en momentos de pandemia, este diseño implica desafíos adicionales, especialmente si la distancia que el paciente tuviera que recorrer fuera muy lejana.


This study aims to analyze the pressure on the Brazilian health system from the additional demand created by COVID-19. The authors performed a series of simulations to estimate the demand for hospital beds (health micro-regions) as well as to ICU beds, and mechanical ventilators (health macro-regions) under different scenarios of intensity (infection rates equivalent to 0.01, 0.1, and 1 case por 100 inhabitants) and time horizons (1, 3, and 6 months). The results reveal a critical situation in the system for meeting this potential demand, with numerous health micro-regions and macro-regions operating beyond their capacity, compromising the care for patients, especially those with more severe symptoms. The study presents three relevant messages. First, it is necessary to slow the spread of COVID-19 in the Brazilian population, allowing more time for the reorganization of the supply and relieve the pressure on the health system. Second, the expansion of the number of available beds will be the key. Even if the private sector helps offset the deficit, the combined supply from the two sectors (public and private) would be insufficient in various macro-regions. The construction of field hospitals is important, both in places with a history of "hospital deserts" and in those already pressured by demand. The third message involves the regionalized organization of health services, whose design may be adequate in situations of routine demand, but which suffer additional challenges during pandemics, especially if patients have to travel long distances to receive care.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Ventilators, Mechanical/supply & distribution , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , Health Services Needs and Demand/statistics & numerical data , Hospital Bed Capacity/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/supply & distribution , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Brazil/epidemiology , Public Sector/statistics & numerical data , Private Sector/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19
3.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(6): 461-467, dic. 2019. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056754

ABSTRACT

El tratamiento del síndrome coronario agudo (SCA) puede diferir segó;ºn la cobertura de salud. El objetivo fue comparar características demográficas de pacientes con SCA atendidos en instituciones del sector pó;ºblico, o en el no-pó;ºblico de Argentina, las terapó;©uticas y su relació;n con los recursos de cada sector. Analizamos internaciones en instituciones de un registro nacional, voluntario, prospectivo y multicó;©ntrico. Entre marzo 2006 y mayo 2016 ingresaron 11 072 SCA en 64 instituciones, 39% pó;ºblicas (44% con laboratorio de hemodinamia) y 61% no pó;ºblicas (82% con hemodinamia). Los centros pó;ºblicos presentaron menos estructura y atendieron mayor proporció;n de SCA con elevació;n del segmento ST (SCACEST) (52.5% vs. 36.1%, p < 0.001). Los pacientes del sector pó;ºblico fueron más jó;venes, más frecuentemente hombres, fumadores, y menos dislipó;©micos. La proporció;n de reperfundidos entre SCA con elevació;n del ST (SCACEST) fue similar en ambos sectores. La utilizació;n de coronariografía en SCA sin elevació;n del ST (SCASEST) fue mayor en el sector pó;ºblico, cuyos pacientes presentaron más frecuentemente cambios electrocardiográficos y biomarcadores elevados. Un 80.2% de los SCA en instituciones pó;ºblicas y 90.1% en las no pó;ºblicas fueron incorporados por centros con hemodinamia. La disponibilidad de hemodinamia fue la variable más asociada a reperfusió;n entre SCACEST y al tratamiento invasivo entre SCASEST. Se demuestra la complejidad del análisis comparativo de sectores de salud, por la relevancia que adquieren los recursos instalados y las diferencias demográficas de la població;n, por encima de la simple diferencia de pertenecer al sistema pó;ºblico o al no pó;ºblico.


Treatment of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) may differ according to the health system coverage. The objective of this study was to evaluate demographic characteristics of patients with ACS assisted in public sector institutions compared to the non-public sector of Argentina, as well as the therapeutic and its relationship with the resources of each sector. We analyzed patients hospitalized in institutions of a national, voluntary, prospective and multicenter registry. Between March 2006 and May 2016, 11 072 ACSs were registered in 64 institutions, 39% public (44% have hemodynamic laboratory) and 61% non-public (82% with hemodynamic). Public centers presented less structure and assisted a higher proportion of ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (STE-ACS). (52.5% vs. 36.1%, p < 0.001). Public sector patients were younger, more frequently men, smokers, and less dyslipemics. The proportion of patients reperfused in the STE-ACS was similar in both sectors. The use of coronary angiography in non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) was higher in the public sector, whose patients presented more frequently electrocardiographic changes and biomarker elevation. Considering all ACS, 80.2% of patients in public and 90.1% in non-public institutions were incorporated by haemodynamic centers. The availability of hemodynamics was the variable most associated with reperfusion in NSTE-ACS, and invasive treatment in NSTE-ACS. This research demonstrates the complexity of a comparative analysis of health sectors, due to the relevance acquired by the level of resources installed and the demographic differences of the inpatient population, above the simple difference of belonging to the public or non-public system.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Public Sector/statistics & numerical data , Private Sector/statistics & numerical data , Acute Coronary Syndrome/epidemiology , Health Facilities/statistics & numerical data , Argentina/epidemiology , Smoking/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Coronary Angiography/methods , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Statistics, Nonparametric , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Dyslipidemias/epidemiology , Acute Coronary Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Hemodynamics , Hypertension/epidemiology , Laboratories/statistics & numerical data
4.
Salud pública Méx ; 61(5): 637-647, sep.-oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1127327

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Objectives: This study aimed to compare the performance in the National Assessment for Applicants for Medical Residency (ENARM in spanish) of private versus public medical schools, geographic regions and socioeconomic levels by using three different statistical methods (summary measurements, the rate of change and the area under the receiver operator characteristics [AUROC]). These methods have not been previously used for the ENARM; however, some variations of the summary measurements have been reported in some USA assessments of medical school graduates. Materials and methods: Cross-sectional study based on historical data (2001-2017). We use summary measures and colour-filled map. The statistical analysis included Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis, Spearman correlation coefficient (Rs), and linear regression. Results: A total of 113 medical schools were included in our analysis; 60 were public and 53 private. We found difference in the median of total scores for type of schools, MD= 54.07 vs. MD= 57.36,p= 0.011. There were also significant differences among geographic and socioeconomic regions (p<0.05). Conclusions: Differences exist in the total scores and percentage of selected test-takers between type of schools, geographic and socioeconomic regions. Higher scores are prevalent in the Northeast and Norwest regions. Additional research is required to identify factors that contribute to these differences. Unsuspected differences in examination scores can be unveiled using summary measures.


Resumen: Objetivo: Comparar el desempeño en el Examen Nacional de Aspirantes a Residencias Médicas (ENARM) de escuelas de medicina privadas y públicas, regiones geográficas y niveles socioeconómicos mediante el uso de tres métodos estadísticos diferentes (medidas de resumen, tasa de cambio y el área bajo las características del operador receptor [AUROC en inglés]). Estos métodos no han sido utilizados previamente para el ENARM; sin embargo, se han informado algunas variaciones de las mediciones de resumen en algunas evaluaciones de graduados de medicina de Estados Unidos. Material y métodos: Estudio transversal basado en datos históricos (2001-2017). Se usaron medidas de resumen y un mapa lleno de color. El análisis estadístico incluyó Mann Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis y coeficiente de correlación de Spearman (Rs). Resultados: Se incluyeron 113 escuelas de medicina en el análisis; 60 eran públicas y 53 privadas. Se encontraron diferencias en la mediana de las puntuaciones totales para el tipo de escuelas, MD= 54.07 vs. MD= 57.36,p= 0.011. También hubo diferencias significativas entre las regiones geográficas y socioeconómicas (p<0.05). Conclusiones: Existen diferencias en los puntajes totales y el porcentaje de examinados seleccionados entre el tipo de escuelas, regiones geográficas y socioeconómicas. Las puntuaciones más altas prevalecen en las regiones noreste y noroeste. Se requieren investigaciones adicionales para identificar los factores que contribuyen a estas diferencias. Las diferencias insospechadas en los puntajes de los exámenes se pueden revelar usando medidas de resumen.


Subject(s)
Humans , Schools, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Public Sector/statistics & numerical data , Private Sector/statistics & numerical data , Educational Measurement/statistics & numerical data , Internship and Residency/statistics & numerical data , Schools, Medical/supply & distribution , Socioeconomic Factors , ROC Curve , Statistics, Nonparametric , Area Under Curve , Mexico
5.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(10): 1239-1246, oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058590

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Immunoglobulin light chain (AL) amyloidosis is a rare and underdiagnosed entity. Aim: To characterize patients with AL amyloidosis in Chilean public health centers. Material and Methods: We conducted a retrospective, multicenter study. Public centers of the Chilean Monoclonal Gammopathies Cooperative Group were asked to search for patients with AL amyloidosis in their databases. Epidemiological, clinical and laboratory characteristics were evaluated. Results: Forty-two patients aged 22 to 84 years were found. Twenty four percent had localized AL amyloidosis; 64% had a lambda light chain clone; 47% were associated with multiple myeloma and 9% with non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The most commonly involved organ was the kidney (76%). Serum free light chains were measured in 31% and an echocardiogram was performed in 74% of patients. Seventeen percent of patients received only palliative care, 17% were treated with bortezomib, 21% with thalidomide, and 40% with melphalan. No patient was transplanted. The mean overall survival (OS) of the group was 19 months. The 5-year OS was 28%. Conclusions: It is important to obtain these realistic, national data to initiate strategies to improve early diagnosis and proper management of this disease.


La amiloidosis AL es una entidad poco frecuente y subdiagnosticada. Mientras todo el mundo discute sobre las nuevas herramientas diagnósticas y terapéuticas, en Chile y en América Latina en general, estamos lejos de esa realidad. El objetivo del presente estudio fue caracterizar a los pacientes con amiloidosis AL en centros del sistema público de nuestro país. Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo, multicéntrico, descriptivo. Los centros públicos del grupo cooperativo hematológico chileno buscaron en sus bases de datos pacientes diagnosticados con amiloidosis AL. Se evaluaron las características epidemiológicas, clínicas y de laboratorio. La edad media fue de 65 años. A 24% de los pacientes se les diagnosticó amiloidosis AL localizada; 64% tuvo paraproteína con cadena ligera lambda; 47% se asoció con mieloma múltiple y 9% con linfoma no Hodgkin. El órgano afectado con mayor frecuencia fue el riñón (76%). Las cadenas ligeras libres de suero se realizaron en 31% y ecocardiograma en 74%. El 17% recibió solo cuidados paliativos, 17% recibió tratamiento con bortezomib, 21% con talidomida y 40% con melfalán. Ningún paciente fue trasplantado. La media de sobrevida global (SG) del grupo fue de 19 meses. La SG a 5 años fue de 28%. Es importante reportar estos resultados nacionales para iniciar estrategias que mejoren tanto el diagnóstico temprano como el tratamiento de esta patología. Por lo tanto, mejorar la sospecha diagnóstica es crucial.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Public Sector/statistics & numerical data , Immunoglobulin Light-chain Amyloidosis/epidemiology , Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Time Factors , Blood Protein Electrophoresis , Chile/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Immunoglobulin lambda-Chains , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Immunoglobulin Light-chain Amyloidosis/physiopathology
6.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 112(5): 564-570, May 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011185

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Primary angioplasty (PA) with placement of either bare metal or drug-eluting stents (DES) represents the main strategy in the treatment of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Diabetic patients, however, represent a special population in STEMI, with high rates of restenosis and unfavorable clinical outcomes, and with the use of DES, level of evidence A and indication class II, being indicated to reduce these damages. Objectives: To evaluate the DES rate of use in patients with STEMI and in the subgroup of diabetics assisted in the public versus private health network in Sergipe. Methods: This is a population-based, cross-sectional study with a quantitative approach using the data from the VICTIM Register. These were collected in the only four hospitals with capacity to perform PA in Sergipe, from December 2014 to March 2017. Results: A total of 707 patients diagnosed with STEMI were evaluated, of which 589 were attended at SUS and 118 at the private network. The use of DES in PA was lower in SUS compared to the private network in both the total sample (10.5% vs 82.4%, p<0.001) and in subgroup diabetic patients (8.7% vs 90.6%, p < 0.001), respectively. In all hypotheses tested, the level of significance was 5% (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The study reveals a disparity in the use of DES during the performance of PA between the public and private network, both in the total sample and the subgroup for diabetics, with lower rates for SUS users, demonstrating the challenges that need to be overcome in order to achieve quality improvements of the services provided.


Resumo Fundamento: A angioplastia primária (AP) com colocação de stent, seja ele convencional ou farmacológico, representa a principal estratégia no tratamento do infarto agudo do miocárdio com supradesnivelamento do segmento ST (IAMCSST). Os pacientes diabéticos, entretanto, representam população especial no IAMCSST, com altas taxas de reestenose e desfechos clínicos desfavoráveis, devendo-se indicar o uso de stents farmacológicos (SF), nível de evidência A e classe de indicação II, para redução destes danos. Objetivo: Avaliar a taxa de uso de SF em pacientes com IAMCSST e no subgrupo dos diabéticos assistidos na rede pública versus privada de saúde em Sergipe. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo populacional, transversal, com abordagem quantitativa, que utilizou os dados do Registro VICTIM. Estes foram coletados nos quatro únicos hospitais com capacidade para realizar AP em Sergipe, no período de dezembro de 2014 a março de 2017. Em todas as hipóteses testadas, o nível de significância adotado foi de 5% (p < 0,05). Resultados: Foram avaliados 707 pacientes diagnosticados com IAMCSST, dos quais 589 foram atendidos pelo SUS e 118 pela rede privada. O uso de SF na AP foi menor no SUS em comparação com a rede privada, tanto no total da amostra (10,5% vs 82,4%; p < 0,001) quanto no subgrupo dos pacientes diabéticos (8,7% vs 90,6%; p < 0,001), respectivamente. Conclusões: O estudo revela disparidade no uso de SF durante a realização de AP entre a rede pública e privada, tanto na amostra total quanto no subgrupo dos diabéticos, com menores taxas para usuários do SUS, demonstrando os desafios que necessitam ser vencidos para se atingir melhorias na qualidade dos serviços prestados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary/methods , Public Sector/statistics & numerical data , Private Sector/statistics & numerical data , Diabetes Complications/prevention & control , Drug-Eluting Stents/statistics & numerical data , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Socioeconomic Factors , Time Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Treatment Outcome
7.
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 37(2): 173-180, Apr.-June 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013294

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To compare and analyze the consumption of minimally processed and ultra-processed foods among students from public and private schools. Methods: Study conducted in Uberlândia, MG, with fifth-grade students from three private and six public schools, selected by stratified cluster sampling. We collected data on food consumption using the 24-hour recall. Foods were classified into four groups (G) according to extent and purpose of processing: fresh/minimally processed foods (G1) culinary ingredients (G2), processed foods (G3), and ultra-processed foods (G4). Total energy intake (kcal) of each group, amount of sugar (g), sodium (mg), and fiber (g) were quantified and compared according to administrative affiliation (private or public). Results: Percentage of total energy intake was: G1 - 52%; G2 - 12%; G3 - 5%; e G4 - 31%. Energy intake from G1 (53 vs. 47%), G2 (12 vs. 9%), and G3 (6.0 vs. 0.1%), and amount of sodium (3,293 vs. 2,724 mg) and fiber (23 vs. 18 g) were higher among students from public schools. Energy intake from G4 (36 vs. 28%) and amount of sugar (20 vs. 14%) were higher among students from private schools. The consumption of foods from G1 in the school environment was higher among students from public schools (40 vs. 9%). Conclusions: Foods from G1 represent the highest percentage of total energy intake, while those from G4 constitute a third of calories consumed. Processed juice, sandwich cookie, processed cake, and breakfast cereals are more frequent among private school students; snacks and juice powder are more common for students from public schools.


RESUMO Objetivo: Comparar e analisar o consumo de alimentos minimamente processados e ultraprocessados entre escolares das redes pública e privada. Métodos: Estudo realizado em Uberlândia, MG, com escolares do quinto ano do ensino fundamental em nove escolas (três privadas e seis públicas), selecionados por amostragem estratificada por conglomerado. O consumo alimentar foi analisado utilizando recordatório de 24 horas. Os alimentos foram classificados segundo extensão e propósito do seu processamento em quatro grupos (G): alimentos in natura/minimamente processados (G1), ingredientes culinários (G2), alimentos processados (G3) e ultraprocessados (G4). Os valores energéticos totais (kcal) provenientes de cada grupo, quantidade de açúcar (g), sódio (mg) e fibras (g) foram quantificados e comparados segundo dependência administrativa. Resultados: O consumo de energia foi: G1, 52%; G2, 12%; G3, 5%; e G4, 31%. Os valores energéticos provenientes de G1 (53 vs. 47%), G2 (12 vs. 9%) e G3 (6,0 vs. 0,1%), a quantidade de sódio (3.293 vs. 2.724 mg) e a de fibras (23 vs. 18 g) foram superiores em escolares da rede pública. O valor percentual energético do G4 (36 vs. 28%) e a quantidade de açúcar (20 vs. 14%) foram superiores em escolares da rede privada. O consumo do G1 na escola foi superior nos escolares da rede pública (40 vs. 9%). Conclusões: Alimentos do G1 representam o maior percentual do valor energético total e do G4, um terço das calorias ingeridas. Suco pronto, biscoito recheado, bolo industrializado, cereais matinais são mais frequentes em escolares da rede privada e salgadinhos e suco em pó nos da rede pública.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Energy Intake , Public Sector/statistics & numerical data , Private Sector/statistics & numerical data , Feeding Behavior/classification , Fast Foods , Raw Foods , Schools/classification , Schools/statistics & numerical data , Students/psychology , Students/statistics & numerical data , Brazil , Diet Surveys , Nutritive Value
8.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(3): 1223-1232, mar. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-989580

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a adequação do cuidado pré-natal no Brasil associado a determinantes sociodemográficos. A pesquisa consistiu em uma análise dos dados da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde realizada no Brasil em 2013. Foram avaliados dois desfechos sobre a adequação do pré-natal, o índice de Kessner modificado por Takeda que, além de levar em consideração esse índice, avaliou se houve aferição da pressão arterial e do peso em todas as consultas, realização de algum exame de sangue e urina e ultrassom. Ambos indicadores de qualidade foram avaliados para o Brasil e também pelas macrorregiões do país. De acordo com o desfecho 1, 80,6% das mulheres realizaram o pré-natal adequado. Ao adicionarmos a realização de exames (Desfecho 2) o percentual foi 71,4%. O pré-natal adequado foi mais frequente entre as mulheres de cor branca e que realizaram o pré-natal na rede privada. A região norte apresentou as menores frequências de pré-natal adequado, enquanto a região sudeste as maiores. Apesar da ampla cobertura, o pré-natal no Brasil ainda apresenta iniquidades e baixa qualidade no atendimento, especialmente entre mulheres das regiões mais pobre do país.


Abstract This study aimed to assess the adequacy of prenatal care in Brazil associated with sociodemographic determinants. The study included a data analysis from the National Health Research performed in Brazil in 2013. Two outcomes on the adequacy of prenatal care were assessed: the Kessner index modified by Takeda index that, in addition to the former, assessed whether blood pressure and weight were measured in all appointments, as well as the performance of blood and urine tests and ultrasound. Both quality indicators were assessed for Brazil and for its macro-regions. According to Outcome 1, 80.6% of women received adequate prenatal care. When adding the performance of tests (Outcome 2), the rate dropped to 71.4%. Adequate prenatal care was more frequent among white women who performed prenatal care in the private health sector. The northern region had the lowest rate of adequate prenatal care, while the southeast region showed the highest rates. Despite the extensive coverage, prenatal care in Brazil still presents inequities and low service quality, especially for women from the poorest regions of the country.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Prenatal Care/standards , Quality of Health Care , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil , Poverty Areas , Public Sector/statistics & numerical data , Private Sector/statistics & numerical data
9.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(3): 410-418, Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003046

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY INTRODUCTION: There is a worldwide increase in the number of invasive aesthetic procedures, and there is a general apprehension in medical societies towards the assurance of patient safety, that is dependent on the quality and certification of providers, of the materials and substances used, and where they take place. It is the main objective of this study to determine the perception of the gravity of non-authorized substances for clinical use in invasive aesthetic procedures among Portuguese plastic surgeons and its variation by the clinical sector of practice. METHODS: We proceeded to an inquiry by using a questionnaire, measured in a Linkert scale, and the collected data were statistically treated with a non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test. RESULTS: We obtained a 41,4% answer rate and a global perception that this is a serious problem - a median of 8,00 and mean of 7,45 points on a 1 to 10 scale. 70% of the plastic surgeons that answered the questionnaire work both in the private and public sector, 19% exclusively in the public sector and 11% only in private practice. The perception of the problem was most serious among those that work exclusively in the private sector (statistically significant difference). CONCLUSION: The causes of the observed difference may reside in various reasons: the higher number of patients submitted to invasive aesthetic procedures exclusively in private practice; the higher perception of regulatory deficits in the private sector; scarce specific health politics for procedures outside the traditional boundaries of medicine; the difficulty for independent regulatory agencies to adopt effective measures.


RESUMO INTRODUÇÃO: Os procedimentos estéticos invasivos estão a aumentar globalmente, e são acompanhados por uma apreensão das sociedades médicas sobre a segurança desses procedimentos, dependentes da qualidade e certificação dos prestadores, dos dispositivos e substâncias utilizados e do local onde são efetuados. O presente estudo procura aferir a percepção dos cirurgiões plásticos portugueses sobre a gravidade da utilização de substâncias não autorizadas para uso clínico em procedimentos estéticos, e a sua variação consoante o setor em que exercem a atividade clínica. MÉTODOS: Foi utilizado um inquérito sob a forma de questionário, medido numa escala de Likert, e os dados foram tratados estatisticamente pelo teste não paramétrico de Kruskal-Wallis. RESULTADOS: Obteve-se uma taxa de resposta de 41,4% e a perceção global é a de que o problema é grave — mediana de 8,00 e média de 7,45 numa escala de 1 a 10. Setenta por cento dos cirurgiões plásticos que responderam ao inquérito trabalham num regime misto, 19% exclusivamente no setor público e 11% apenas no setor privado. A percepção do problema como mais grave (diferença estatisticamente significativa) foi observada na atividade exclusiva no setor privado. CONCLUSÕES: A diferença observada pode dever-se a vários fatores: à maior observação de pacientes submetidos a esses procedimentos exclusivamente no setor privado; à maior percepção de déficits de regulação no setor privado; ao déficit de políticas de saúde específicas a técnicas utilizadas fora do contexto tradicional da medicina; à dificuldade de as agências administrativas reguladoras independentes adotarem práticas efetivas no setor privado da saúde.


Subject(s)
Humans , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/statistics & numerical data , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Surgeons/statistics & numerical data , Substandard Drugs/adverse effects , Portugal , Surgery, Plastic/adverse effects , Surgery, Plastic/statistics & numerical data , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/legislation & jurisprudence , Surveys and Questionnaires , Public Sector/statistics & numerical data , Private Sector/statistics & numerical data , Statistics, Nonparametric , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/instrumentation , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Government Regulation , Medical Device Legislation
10.
Medwave ; 19(1): e7576, 2019.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-980823

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La Sociedad Europea de Medicina de Cuidados Intensivos recomienda la presencia de un Kinesiólogo con formación especializada, disponible cada cinco camas de alta complejidad, los 7 días de la semana en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI). En Chile se desconoce la adherencia de las UCI adulto a esta recomendación. OBJETIVO: Describir las características administrativas y de cobertura kinésica en las UCI adulto chilenas, y de acuerdo con la adherencia a las recomendaciones internacionales, informar a los tomadores de decisión en salud. MÉTODOS: Estudio observacional transversal, basado en encuesta telefónica. Se incluyeron las UCI adultos de establecimientos de mayor complejidad, clínicas privadas y centros asociados a universidades (n = 74). La proporción de instituciones con disponibilidad de kinesiólogos las 24 horas del día, los siete días de la semana (kinesiólogo 24/7), con un número máximo de cinco pacientes por kinesiólogo y presencia de un kinesiólogo especialista fueron reportados. RESULTADOS: La tasa de respuesta fue del 86,5% (n = 64), principalmente públicas (59%) y de nivel III (83%). El 70% (n = 45) de las UCI adulto chilenas cuentan con kinesiólogo 24/7; correspondiendo el 87% al sector público y el 46% al privado. El 41% de los centros posee un máximo de 5 pacientes por kinesiólogo en día hábil diurno, disminuyendo en fines de semana y horarios nocturnos. Un 23% de las UCIs cuenta con kinesiólogo especialista en intensivo, siendo mayor en el sector privado (31%). CONCLUSIONES: En UCI adulto chilenas, la disponibilidad de kinesiólogos 24/7 es alta, y la prevalencia de especialistas es baja. Estrategias de creación de programas de formación de especialidad podrían contribuir a disminuir la brecha de especialistas.


INTRODUCTION: The European Society of Intensive Care Medicine recommends the presence of a specialist physiotherapist, available every five beds, seven days a week in the high complexity Intensive Care Unit. However, in Chile the adherence of adult Intensive Care Units to this recommendation is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To describe the organizational characteristics and the physiotherapist availability in adult Intensive Care Units in Chile, and according to the adherence to international recommendations, inform health decision-makers. METHODS: Observational study based on a telephone survey. All adult Intensive Care Units institutions of high complexity, private hospitals and teaching health centers in Chile were eligible (n = 74). The primary outcome measures were the proportion of institutions with physiotherapist availability 24 hours a day and seven days a week (24/7 physiotherapist), a maximum caseload per physiotherapist of five patients and the presence of a specialist physiotherapist. RESULTS: Response rate was 86.5%, with 59% of responding units being public and 83% offering level III care. 70% of the adult Intensive Care Units in Chile have 24/7 physiotherapist (87% of the public and 46% of the private sector). 41% of the centers had a maximum caseload per physiotherapist of five patients during the day on weekdays. This number decreased on weekends and during night shifts. 23% of the Intensive Care Units had a specialist physiotherapist, being more common in the private sector (31%). CONCLUSIONS: In Chilean adult ICU, 24/7 physiotherapist availability is high, the prevalence of physiotherapists with specialist training is low. Future efforts should focus on promoting the uptake of specialist training.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Physical Therapy Modalities/organization & administration , Physical Therapists/organization & administration , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Personnel Staffing and Scheduling , Chile , Cross-Sectional Studies , Public Sector/statistics & numerical data , Private Sector/statistics & numerical data , Health Care Surveys
11.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e124, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1100930

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aimed to assess the association of demographic conditions, socioeconomic status, clinical variables, and psychosocial factors with the number of filled teeth in adolescents from public schools. This cohort study comprised 1,134 12-year-old adolescents enrolled in public schools in Santa Maria, Brazil, in 2012. They were followed-up in 2014, where 743 individuals were reassessed (follow-up rate of 65.52%) for the number of filled teeth. Data were collected via dental examinations and structured interviews. Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics were collected from parents or legal guardians. The psychosocial factor comprised students' subjective measurement of happiness (Brazilian version of the Subjective Happiness Scale - SHS). Dental examinations were performed to assess the number of filled teeth through decay, missing, and filled teeth index (DMF-T). Unadjusted and adjusted Poisson regression analyses were performed to assess the association between baseline variables and filled teeth at follow-up. The number of filled teeth in 2012 and 2014 were 193 (17.02%) and 235 (31.63%), respectively. The incidence of filled teeth in 2014 was 42 (5.65%). Adolescents with untreated dental caries, those who visited the dentist in the last 6 months, those that exhibited being happier, and those who had filled teeth at baseline were associated with a higher number of filled teeth at follow-up. We conclude that the number of filled teeth in adolescents was influenced by clinical and psychosocial factors, emphasizing the need to focus on oral health policies in individuals with higher disease burden and those who feel psychologically inferior.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Schools/statistics & numerical data , Students/statistics & numerical data , Dental Health Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Public Sector/statistics & numerical data , Dental Restoration, Permanent/statistics & numerical data , Socioeconomic Factors , Students/psychology , Brazil , Regression Analysis , Cohort Studies , Dental Caries/therapy , Dental Caries/epidemiology , Dental Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Dental Restoration, Permanent/psychology , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data
12.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 72(supl.3): 204-211, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1057683

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the prenatal follow-up of high-risk pregnancy in the public service. Method: an analytical cross-sectional study carried out in a public maternity hospital in the South of Brazil, during the hospitalization of 319 postpartum women using a semi-structured tool for transcription of the prenatal card records and interview. The data were analyzed using the Chi-Square test (p≤0.05). Results: the adequacy of prenatal care was high (74%); 22.6% intermediate; 3.4% inefficient. Prenatal care had high coverage (100%), early onset (81.5%) and six or more visits (92.4%), but (77.4%) did not receive information about gestational disease and examinations (69.3%). There was statistical significance between the quality of prenatal care and the place of prenatal care (p=0.005). Conclusion: the need to implement a specific protocol for high-risk gestation and continuous education to the teams was evidenced.


RESUMEN Objetivo: analizar el seguimiento prenatal de la gestación de alto riesgo en el servicio público. Método: el estudio transversal analítico, realizado en una maternidad pública en el Sur de Brasil, durante la internación de 319 puérperas, por medio de un instrumento semiestructurado para la transcripción de los registros de la tarjeta prenatal y la entrevista. Se realizó análisis de los datos por medio del Test Qui-Cuadrado (p≤0,05). Resultados: la adecuación del prenatal fue alta (74%); 22,6% intermedio; 3,4% ineficiente. El prenatal tuvo alta cobertura (100%), inicio precoz (81,5%) y realización de seis o más consultas (92,4%), pero (77,4%) no recibieron información sobre enfermedad gestacional y resultados de exámenes (69,3%). Se observó una significativa estadística entre la calidad del prenatal y el lugar de la realización del prenatal (p=0,005). Conclusión: se evidenció la necesidad de implementación de protocolo específico a la gestación de alto riesgo y educación continuada a los equipos.


RESUMO Objetivo: analisar o acompanhamento pré-natal da gestação de alto risco no serviço público. Método: estudo transversal analítico, realizado em uma maternidade pública no Sul do Brasil, durante internação de 319 puérperas, por meio de instrumento semiestruturado para transcrição dos registros do cartão pré-natal e entrevista. Realizou-se análise dos dados por meio do Teste Qui-Quadrado (p≤0,05). Resultados: a adequação do pré-natal foi alta (74%); 22,6% intermediária; 3,4% ineficiente. O pré-natal teve alta cobertura (100%), início precoce (81,5%) e realização de seis ou mais consultas (92,4%), porém (77,4%) não receberam informação sobre doença gestacional e resultados de exames (69,3%). Houve significância estatística entre a qualidade do pré-natal e o local da realização do pré-natal (p=0,005). Conclusão: evidenciou-se a necessidade de implementação de protocolo específico à gestação de alto risco e educação continuada às equipes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Prenatal Care/trends , Aftercare/trends , Pregnancy, High-Risk/psychology , Prenatal Care/methods , Prenatal Care/psychology , Brazil , Chi-Square Distribution , Cross-Sectional Studies , Public Sector/statistics & numerical data , Aftercare/methods , Aftercare/psychology , Hospitals, Maternity/organization & administration , Hospitals, Maternity/statistics & numerical data
13.
An. bras. dermatol ; 93(4): 507-512, July-Aug. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-949925

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Background: Cutaneous melanoma accounts for up to 80% of deaths caused by skin cancer. Diagnostic suspicion and access to medical care and early intervention in suspected cases is vital to the patient's prognosis. Objectives: To compare demographic and histopathological characteristics of primary cutaneous melanoma diagnosed in the public healthcare system (Sistema Único de Saúde SUS) and the private system in Joinville, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Methods: This cross-sectional retrospective study analyzed primary cutaneous melanoma cases recorded from 2003 to 2014 in the resident population of Joinville. Ethical approval was obtained from the local Research Ethics Committee. Results: 893 cases of primary cutaneous melanoma were identified. Patients in the private system were mostly younger, while there were more elderly patients in the public healthcare system (p <0.001). There was no statistically significant association between type of care (public/private) and gender or presence of multiple primary cutaneous melanomas. Histological diagnosis of superficial spreading melanoma was more common in patients treated in private healthcare, while nodular melanoma was more frequent in patients in the public healthcare system (p <0.001). Mean Breslow depth in patients treated in private healthcare was 1.35mm, compared to 2.72mm in the public system (p <0.001). Study limitations: This was a retrospective study using secondary databases. Conclusions: thin cutaneous melanoma (in situ cutaneous melanoma and Breslow T1) showed the strongest association with the private healthcare system, while thick cutaneous melanoma was more frequent in the public system (Breslow category T3 and T4) (p <0.001).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Skin Neoplasms/diagnosis , Melanoma/diagnosis , Prognosis , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Skin Neoplasms/therapy , Skin Neoplasms/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Public Sector/statistics & numerical data , Private Sector/statistics & numerical data , Melanoma/pathology , Melanoma/therapy , Melanoma/epidemiology , Neoplasm Staging
14.
Clinics ; 73: e438, 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974925

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of overweight and obesity in school children and adolescents in a medium-sized Brazilian city. METHODS: In total, 1,125 children and adolescents between the ages of 5.6 and 18 years from public and private schools participated in the study. The sample included 681 girls and 444 boys. Each subject's weight and height were obtained according to Brazilian guidelines (SISVAN). The triceps (TSF), subscapular (SSF), biceps, suprailiac, femoral and calf skinfolds were measured in triplicate. Body mass index (BMI) was classified as the BMI percentile (BMIP) according to the World Health Organization (WHO) 2007 criteria. The percentage body fat (%BF) was obtained using the equations by Slaughter et al., 1998. Categorical variables were analyzed using the chi-squared test. RESULTS: Overall, 364 participants with excess weight were identified: 17.3% were overweight, and 15.0% were obese. Among the girls, 18.0% were overweight, and 12.5% were obese; among the boys, 15.3% were overweight, and 18.0% were obese. These prevalence rates were higher when the time spent watching TV or participating in media-related activities surpassed 5 hrs/day, when individuals belonged to a higher economic class and when the head of the family had a higher education level (≥12 years). CONCLUSION: It is important to emphasize the need to increase our understanding of factors associated with overweight and obesity, and it is essential to implement measures and policies aimed at reversing this trend, such as stimulating healthy eating habits and physical activity and reducing time spent watching TV and participating in other media activities, including video games and social networking.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Overweight/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Schools/statistics & numerical data , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Exercise , Anthropometry , Nutritional Status , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Public Sector/statistics & numerical data , Private Sector/statistics & numerical data , Age Distribution , Overweight/etiology , Sedentary Behavior , Pediatric Obesity/etiology
15.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 80(6): 350-354, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888156

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To compare perceptions of the quality of ophthalmological services offered to outpatients from the public healthcare system to those from the private healthcare system, and to determine which measures are seen as necessary and a priority for improving the quality of care. Methods: This was a prospective observational study on 200 patients, 101 and 99 of whom were from the public and private healthcare systems, respectively. All patients underwent an ophthalmological examination at an ophthalmology hospital in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Personal interviews were conducted using two structured questionnaires adapted from the modified SERVQUAL scale. Results: Overall, patients from the private healthcare system were significantly more dissatisfied than those from the public healthcare system. In both systems, reliability was considered to be the most important determinant of quality, and it presented the highest level of dissatisfaction. Satisfaction with the public healthcare system was significantly greater than that with the private healthcare system in terms of the tangibles, reliability, responsiveness, and assurance determinants of the SERVQUAL scale. Conclusions: Institutions must plan, execute, evaluate, and monitor measures that seek to improve the overall patient satisfaction with the quality of services provided, particularly in the private healthcare system, and special attention must be paid to reliability in both healthcare systems. The identification and monitoring of the quality of healthcare services through the periodic use of the SERVQUAL scale may provide healthcare managers with information so that they can identify, plan, and monitor necessary and priority measures. This could be a key strategy for improving the quality of outpatient health services in the public and private systems.


RESUMO Objetivo: Comparar a percepção da qualidade dos serviços oftalmológicos prestado aos pacientes ambulatoriais do sistema público com a do sistema privado e detectar quais ações são percebidas como necessárias e prioritárias para melhorar a qualidade do atendimento. Métodos: Foi realizado estudo prospectivo observacional de 200 pacientes sendo 101 do sistema público de saúde e 99 do sistema privado submetidos a exame oftalmológico em Hospital Especializado em Oftalmologia (HEO) - Belo Horizonte - MG - Brasil. Realizaram-se entrevistas pessoais, mediante a aplicação de dois questionários estruturados adaptados da escala SERVQUAL modificada. Resultados: No geral, detectou-se que pacientes do sistema de saúde privado, estão significativamente mais insatisfeitos que aqueles do sistema público de saúde. Em ambos os sistemas a confiabilidade foi considerada o determinante de qualidade mais importante e o que apresentou o maior índice de insatisfação. No sistema público a satisfação foi significativamente superior à do sistema privado a nível dos determinantes da escala SERVQUAL: tangibilidade, confiabilidade, atendimento e segurança. Conclusões: A instituição deve planejar, executar, avaliar e monitorar ações que busquem melhorar a satisfação geral dos pacientes com a qualidade do serviço recebido, principalmente do sistema privado, com atenção especial à confiabilidade nos dois sistemas. A identificação e monitorização da qualidade dos serviços de saúde, empregando periodicamente a escala SERVQUAL, poderá fornecer informações à administração dos serviços de saúde para que possam detectar, planejar e monitorizar as ações necessárias e prioritárias, podendo funcionar como chave estratégica para o aprimoramento da qualidade dos serviços de saúde ambulatoriais públicos e privados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Ophthalmology/standards , Quality of Health Care/standards , Patient Satisfaction/statistics & numerical data , Public Sector/standards , Private Sector/standards , Delivery of Health Care/standards , Ophthalmology/statistics & numerical data , Outpatients/statistics & numerical data , Brazil , Prospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Public Sector/statistics & numerical data , Private Sector/statistics & numerical data
16.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 63(4): 361-365, Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-842552

ABSTRACT

Summary Objective: To evaluate burnout syndrome in its three aspects, jointly as well as independently, in physiotherapists from the Extremadura region (Spain). Method: Analytic descriptive epidemiological transversal trial in primary care and institutional practice, with physiotherapists practicing in Extremadura who met the inclusion criteria, after having signed an informed consent form. Emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and low professional accomplishment were the outcomes measured. Results: Physiotherapists from Extremadura show a 65.23 point level of burnout syndrome, according to the Maslach Burnout Inventory questionnaire. Therefore, they are positioned in the middle of the rating scale for the syndrome, and very near to the high level at starting score of 66 points. Conclusion: Physiotherapists in Extremadura present moderate scores for the three dimensions of burnout syndrome, namely, emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and low professional accomplishment. For this reason, they are in the moderate level of the syndrome and very near to the high level, which starts at a score of 66 points. No relation between burnout syndrome and age has been found in our study.


Subject(s)
Humans , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Physical Therapists/psychology , Spain/epidemiology , Time Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Burnout, Professional , Prevalence , Surveys and Questionnaires , Analysis of Variance , Workload , Public Sector/statistics & numerical data , Private Sector/statistics & numerical data , Depersonalization/psychology , Depersonalization/epidemiology , Mental Fatigue/psychology , Mental Fatigue/epidemiology , Physical Therapists/statistics & numerical data
17.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 33(6): e00014316, 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889686

ABSTRACT

Abstract: The Less Salt, More Life program was the first voluntary salt reduction initiative in Argentina. This article analyzes the perspectives of the stakeholders involved in this voluntary agreement between the Ministry of Health and the food industry to gradually reduce sodium content in processed foods. This exploratory case study used a qualitative approach including 29 in-depth interviews with stakeholders from the public and private sectors and identified the role of the different stakeholders and their perceptions regarding the challenges encountered in the policy process that contribute to the debate on public-private partnerships in health policies. The article also discusses the initiative's main challenges and controversies.


El programa Menos Sal, Más Vida fue la primera iniciativa voluntaria para la reducción de la sal en Argentina. Este artículo analiza las perspectivas de los representantes del sector público y privado involucrados en este acuerdo voluntario, entre el Ministerio de Salud y la industria alimentaria, para reducir gradualmente el contenido de sodio en las comidas procesadas. Este estudio de caso se basó en una aproximación cualitativa, incluyendo 29 entrevistas en profundidad, con las partes interesadas del sector público y privado e identificó el papel de los mismos y sus percepciones respecto a los desafíos enfrentados durante el proceso, con el fin de contribuir al debate de las colaboraciones público-privadas en políticas de salud. El artículo también discute los principales desafíos y controversias.


O programa Menos Sal, Mais Vida foi a primeira iniciativa voluntária para reduzir o teor de sal em produtos alimentícios na Argentina. O artigo analisa as perspectivas dos atores envolvidos nesse acordo voluntário entre o Ministério da Saúde e a indústria alimentícia para reduzir gradualmente o teor de sódio nos alimentos processados. O estudo de caso exploratório utilizou uma abordagem qualitativa com 29 entrevistas em profundidade com representantes dos setores público e privado, e identificou o papel dos diversos atores e suas percepções quanto aos desafios enfrentados no processo político, contribuindo para o debate sobre parcerias público-privadas em políticas de saúde. O artigo também discute os principais desafios e controvérsias dessa iniciativa.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sodium Chloride, Dietary/administration & dosage , Voluntary Programs/statistics & numerical data , Food-Processing Industry/standards , Argentina , Public Sector/statistics & numerical data , Private Sector/statistics & numerical data , Sodium Chloride, Dietary/standards , Food-Processing Industry/statistics & numerical data
18.
CoDAS ; 29(3): e20160044, 2017. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039585

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Purpose Investigar a capacidade de automonitoramento da compreensão leitora de escolares brasileiros do Ensino Fundamental. Método Avaliaram-se 53 alunos do 5º e 9º anos do Ensino Fundamental de escolas da rede pública de São Paulo, selecionados pelo valor de taxa de leitura oral de texto e agrupados a partir de seu desempenho em compreensão leitora em: Grupo de melhor compreensão: escolares com taxa e acurácia adequadas, sem dificuldades na compreensão leitora; Grupo de pior compreensão: escolares com taxa e acurácia adequadas e dificuldades na compreensão leitora. Dois textos narrativos acompanhados de oito questões para avaliar a compreensão leitora foram apresentados. Duas sentenças e duas palavras foram substituídas por elementos agramaticais, pseudopalavras. Na condição de monitoramento espontâneo, os escolares leram o texto oralmente e responderam a questões. A análise considerou o cômputo de hesitações, autocorreções, repetições e erros. Na condição de monitoramento dirigido, leram o texto, informados de que algumas partes poderiam não fazer sentido e que as sublinhassem. A análise se deu pelo cômputo dos itens sublinhados. Os grupos foram comparados pelo Teste de Mann-Whitney. Resultados Observou-se diferença entre os grupos em nível frasal no 9º ano, na condição de monitoramento espontâneo, e no 5º ano, na condição de monitoramento dirigido. Conclusão Escolares de pior compreensão leitora apresentaram desempenho inferior ao monitorar a presença de sentenças agramaticais.


ABSTRACT Purpose To investigate the capacity for self-monitoring reading comprehension in Brazilian Elementary School students. Methods Fifty-three Elementary students in the 5th and 9th grades from two Public Schools in the city of São Paulo were assessed. They were selected based on their oral reading rate and grouped according to their performance in reading comprehension in the following categories: Group with best comprehension: students with adequate rate and accuracy, without difficulties in reading comprehension; Group with worst comprehension: students with adequate rate and accuracy but with difficulties in reading comprehension. Two narrative texts followed by eight questions to assess reading comprehension were presented. Two sentences and two words were replaced by ungrammatical elements and pseudo-words. Under the condition of spontaneous monitoring, students read the text aloud and answered the questions. The analysis considered the calculation of hesitation, self-correction, repetitions and mistakes. Under the condition of directed monitoring, students were instructed to read the text, either aloud or silently, after being told that certain parts of the text could not make sense, and they were oriented to underline such parts. The analysis was carried out by counting of underlined items. The comparisons were made with the Mann-Whitney test. Results A difference was observed between the groups only at the sentence level among the 9th grade schoolchildren under the spontaneous monitoring and among the 5th grade schoolchildren under directed monitoring. Conclusion Students with worst comprehension had a poorer performance to monitor the presence of ungrammatical sentences than their peers with best comprehension.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Reading , Students/statistics & numerical data , Comprehension/physiology , Schools/statistics & numerical data , Self Concept , Brazil , Public Sector/statistics & numerical data , Educational Measurement , Language Tests
19.
Rev. saúde pública ; 51: 54, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-845879

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE Evaluate the level of access to physical rehabilitation for survivors of traffic accidents and the associated factors. METHODS A cross-sectional study performed in Natal, Northeastern Brazil, through a telephone survey of 155 victims of traffic accidents admitted to an emergency hospital between January and August of 2013, with a diagnosis of fracture, traumatic brain injury or amputation. Participants were identified in the database of the reference hospital for care of traffic accident victims. We calculated point estimates and confidence interval (95%CI) for the frequency of subjects who had access, in addition to multivariate analysis (logistic regression) between access (dependent variable) and sociodemographic, clinical, and assistance variables. RESULTS Among the 155 respondents, the majority were adolescents and adults between 15–29 years of age (47.7%), men (82.6%), education up to high school (92.3%), income of up to two minimum wages (78.0%) and bikers (75.5%). Although 85.8% of traffic accident survivors reported the need for physical rehabilitation, there was little access (51.6%; 95%CI 43.7–59.4) and a delay to start the physical rehabilitation (average = 67 days). We classified factors associated with access to physical rehabilitation as: (i) unmodifiable individuals in the short term – family income greater than two minimum wages (OR = 3.7), informal worker (OR = 0.11) or unemployed (OR = 0.15) and possession of a private health care plan (OR = 0.07); and (ii) assistance modifiable by service management – written referral for physical rehabilitation (OR = 27.5) and perceived need of physical rehabilitation (OR = 10). CONCLUSIONS This study found a low and slow access to physical rehabilitation for individuals potentially in need. The associated factors were the organizational processes of health care (health information and referral) and social determinants (income, occupation and private health care plan).


RESUMO OBJETIVO Avaliar o nível de acesso à reabilitação física para sobreviventes de acidentes de trânsito e seus fatores associados. MÉTODOS Estudo transversal realizado em Natal, Nordeste do Brasil, com inquérito telefônico a 155 vítimas de acidentes de trânsito atendidos no hospital de emergência, entre janeiro e agosto de 2013, com diagnóstico de fratura, traumatismo cranioencefálico ou amputação. Os participantes foram identificados no banco de dados do hospital referência para atendimentos de acidentes de trânsito. Calculou-se a estimativa pontual e o intervalo de confiança (IC95%) da porcentagem de acesso e tempo para acesso, além de análise multivariada (regressão logística) entre o acesso (variável dependente) e as variáveis sociodemográficas, clínicas e assistenciais. RESULTADOS Entre os 155 entrevistados, predominaram jovens e adultos de 15–29 anos (47,7%), sexo masculino (82,6%), escolaridade até o ensino médio (92,3%), renda de até dois salários mínimos (78,0%) e motociclistas (75,5%). Embora 85,8% dos sobreviventes de acidentes de trânsito tivessem relatado a necessidade de reabilitação física, houve baixo acesso geral (51,6%; IC95% 43,7–59,4) e demora para início da reabilitação física (média = 67 dias). Os fatores associados ao acesso à reabilitação física classificaram-se em: (i) individuais não modificáveis em curto prazo – renda familiar maior que dois salários mínimos (OR = 3,7), ser trabalhador informal (OR = 0,11) ou desempregado (OR = 0,15) e ter plano privado de saúde (OR = 0,07); e (ii) assistenciais modificáveis pela gestão do serviço – encaminhamento escrito para reabilitação física (OR = 27,5) e necessidade percebida de reabilitação física (OR = 10). CONCLUSÕES Este estudo encontrou um baixo e demorado acesso à reabilitação física para indivíduos potencialmente necessitados. Os fatores associados foram os processos organizativos dos cuidados em saúde (encaminhamento e informação em saúde) e os determinantes sociais (renda, ocupação e plano privado de saúde).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Accidents, Traffic/statistics & numerical data , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Physical Therapy Modalities/statistics & numerical data , Age Distribution , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Logistic Models , Private Sector/statistics & numerical data , Public Sector/statistics & numerical data , Sex Distribution , Socioeconomic Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Time Factors
20.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 75(4): 286-289, July-Aug. 2016. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-794876

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivos: Verificar a prevalência da baixa visual numa fração dos estudantes matriculados na rede pública municipal de Caratinga, Minas Gerais, bem como mostrar a importância da realização de ações precoces no cuidado com a acuidade visual (AV) em crianças de até 7 anos de idade. Métodos: Estudo transversal realizado em alunos, com idade entre 4 e 7 anos, matriculados no primeiro e segundo ano do Ensino Fundamental da Escola Municipal Geraldo Marques Cevidanes, do município de Caratinga, Minas Gerais. A AV foi avaliada com base na aplicação do Teste de Snellen e considerada normal quando superior a 0,7. Os alunos que apresentaram dificuldade no exame igual ou inferior a 0,7 foram encaminhados a consultas oftalmológicas. Resultados: Foram avaliadas 118 crianças. Quanto à AV, 5% da amostra apresentou alteração da AV, sendo 16,6% com alteração visual apenas no olho esquerdo; 33,3%, somente no olho direito; e 50%, bilateral. Necessitaram da prescrição de órteses 66,6% dos estudantes com baixa visual. Conclusão: Este estudo vai ao encontro de pesquisas nacionais no que tange à prevalência de baixa AV, entretanto discorda de trabalhos que encontraram prevalências destoantes. Sugere-se o desenvolvimento de projetos em saúde preventiva que abranjam a idade escolar não apenas de forma médica, mas também social.


ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the prevalence of low vision in a fraction of the students in public schools at Caratinga, Minas Gerais. Moreover, show the relevance of preventive measuresto evaluate Visual Acuity (VA) in children up to 7 years old. Methods: A transversal study was made in students, between 4 and 7 years old, enrolled in first and second year of elementary school of Geraldo Marques Cevidanes Municipal School, in the city of Caratinga, Minas Gerais.VA was evaluated using Snellen optometric chart and considered normal when higher than 0,7. Students who had difficulty in being evaluated or had presented VA less than 0,7 were referred to an ophthalmologist. Results: One hundred-eighteen children were evaluated. Five percent (5%) of the sample had low VA, being 16,6% only in the left eye, 33,3% in the right eye and 50% bilateral. 66,6% of students with visual impairment required the prescription glasses. Conclusion: This study meets national research regarding the prevalence of low VA, however, doesn´t match with others studies. It is suggested that projects to prevent eye health in children are important not only medically, but also socially.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Vision Disorders/diagnosis , Vision Disorders/epidemiology , Visual Acuity , Schools/statistics & numerical data , Students , Cross-Sectional Studies , Public Sector/statistics & numerical data , Early Diagnosis
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