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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879848

ABSTRACT

A girl, aged 15 years, was admitted due to sudden convulsion once and multiple pulmonary nodules on lung CT. Acrocyanosis or acropachy/toe deformity was not observed. Laboratory examinations showed an increase in hemoglobin (162 g/L) and a reduction in arterial partial pressure of oxygen (61.5 mm Hg). Lung CT showed irregular slightly high-density nodules in the middle lobe of the right lung, and contrast-enhanced CT scan showed obvious enhancement with thick vascular shadow locally. An investigation of medical history revealed that the girl's mother had a history of epistaxis and resection of pulmonary mass and the girl presented with tongue telangiectasia. The girl was diagnosed with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia and pulmonary arteriovenous malformation. she was given interventional embolization therapy. Transcutaneous oxygen saturation reached 98% without oxygen inhalation on the day after surgery. Pulmonary angiography at 3 months after surgery showed the recurrence of pulmonary vascular malformation, and embolization of pulmonary arterial fistula was not performed since the guide wire could not enter the branch artery. There was still a need for long-term follow-up.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Arteriovenous Fistula , Arteriovenous Malformations , Female , Humans , Multiple Pulmonary Nodules , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Pulmonary Artery/diagnostic imaging , Seizures
2.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 16(1): 48-52, 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284224

ABSTRACT

Unilateral agenesis of the pulmonary artery is a rare malformation, sometimes asymptomatic and underdiagnosed. Right agenesis is usually isolated, while the left agenesis is more frequently associated with cardiovascular malformations. Some patients have recurrent respiratory infections, exercise limitation, hemoptysis, and/or pulmonary hypertension. The diagnosis is suspected by chest radiograph showing a hypoplastic lung ipsilateral to the agenesis. It is confirmed with contrast-enhanced chest computed tomography. In asymptomatic patients, management should be conservative, however, the search for collateral vessels should be started from adolescence, because they can bleed. In symptomatic patients or those with serious complications, the treatment must be interventional. The objective of this article is to present two patients with right and left pulmonary artery agenesis respectively and review the literature.


La agenesia unilateral de la arteria pulmonar es una malformación poco frecuente, en ocasiones asintomática y subdiagnosticada. La agenesia derecha suele ser aislada, en cambio la izquierda se asocia más frecuentemente a malformaciones cardiovasculares. Algunos pacientes presentan infecciones respiratorias recurrentes, limitación al ejercicio, hemoptisis y/o hipertensión pulmonar. El diagnóstico se sospecha al solicitar una radiografía de tórax que muestra un pulmón hipoplásico ipsilateral a la agenesia. Se confirma con tomografía computada de tórax con contraste. En pacientes asintomáticos el manejo debe ser conservador, sin embargo, se debe iniciar la búsqueda de vasos colaterales especialmente durante la adolescencia, los que pueden sangrar. En cambio, en los pacientes sintomáticos o que presentan complicaciones graves, el tratamiento debe ser intervencional. El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar a dos pacientes con agenesia de la arteria pulmonar derecha e izquierda respectivamente y hacer una revisión de la literatura.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Pulmonary Artery/abnormalities , Pulmonary Artery/diagnostic imaging , Radiography, Thoracic , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Hemoptysis/etiology
3.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(6): 640-648, dic. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250286

ABSTRACT

Resumen Se presentan los resultados de 105 pacientes con hemoptisis amenazante tratados mediante embolización arterial por cateterismo percutáneo por vía arterial sistémica y/o arterial pulmonar. Se describe la técnica del procedimiento y los hallazgos angiográficos. Se muestra la utilidad de la fibrobroncoscopía y de la radiografía de tórax para identificar la zona sangrante como diagnóstico previo al procedimiento. Entre mayo 2000 y septiembre 2015 se admitieron en el Servicio de Hemodinamia 105 pacientes con diagnóstico de hemoptisis amenazante, 76 masculinos (72.4%); edad media: 41 (±18.65 DS) años. El 93% (98/105) fue tratado con éxito. En el 90% (88/98) se efectuó embolización por arterias bronquiales y/o no bronquiales sistémicas y en el 10% (10/98) por vía arterial pulmonar. Cuando la afección era bilateral la angiografía sola no posibilitó identificar el sitio de sangrado. Al 60% (63/98) se le hizo fibrobroncoscopía flexible y se pudo ubicar el pulmón sangrante en el 84% (56/63). Cuando la afección era unilateral, la radiografía de tórax previa al procedimiento facilitó la ubicación del área de sangrado en el 47%. No se observaron complicaciones graves ni muertes vinculadas al procedimiento. El tratamiento de la hemoptisis masiva por vía percutánea tiene alto porcentaje de éxito primario con muy baja tasa de complicaciones. El tratamiento por vía arterial pulmonar es un abordaje alternativo. La fibrobroncoscopía flexible es un importante complemento en esta entidad.


Abstract We present the results of 105 patients with life-threatening hemoptysis who were treated with the systemic arterial and/or pulmonary artery routes. We also describe the procedure techniques and the angiographic findings. We show the usefulness of the flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy and chest radiography to identify the bleeding zone previous to the procedure. From May 2000 to September 2015, a total of 105 patients were admitted to the Catheterization Laboratory with a diagnosis of life-threatening hemoptysis; 76 were male (72.4%) and mean age was 41 ± 18.65 years. Treatment was successful in 93% (98/105). In 90% (88/98) the approach was via the bronchial arteries and/or non-bronchial systemic arteries, and in 10% (10/98) the approach was via the pulmonary artery. In bilateral affection angiographic images alone could not identify accurately the site of the lung bleeding. Flexible fibrobronchoscopy was performed in 60% (63/98) and located the bleeding area in 84% (56/63). In unilateral affection, chest radiography previous to the procedure located the bleeding area in 47%. No complications or death were related to the procedure. The treatment of life threatening hemoptysis by a percutaneous way has a high percentage of primary success with a very low incidence of complications. Pulmonary arterial route treatment is an alternative approach. Flexible fibrobronchoscopy is an important complement to this entity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Embolization, Therapeutic , Hemoptysis/etiology , Hemoptysis/therapy , Pulmonary Artery/diagnostic imaging , Bronchial Arteries/diagnostic imaging , Angiography
4.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 115(5): 809-818, nov. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1142259

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento: A embolia pulmonar aguda (EPA) tem desfecho clínico variável. A angiotomografia computadorizada (angio-CT) é considerada o padrão-ouro para o diagnóstico. Objetivo: Avaliar se o volume vascular pulmonar (VVP) quantificado por software automatizado é um preditor de mortalidade após EPA. Métodos: Estudo de coorte retrospectivo no qual a imagem da angio-CT de 61 pacientes com EPA foi reanalisada. O VVP e o volume pulmonar (VP) foram estimados automaticamente pelo software Yacta. Calculamos o VVP ajustado pela razão: VVP(cm3)/VP(litros). Parâmetros prognósticos clássicos da angio-CT (carga embólica; razão do diâmetro do ventrículo direito/ventrículo esquerdo; razão do diâmetro da artéria pulmonar/aorta; desvio do septo interventricular; infarto pulmonar e refluxo de contraste na veia hepática) foram avaliados. A mortalidade em 1 mês foi o desfecho analisado. Consideramos um valor de p <0,05 como estatisticamente significativo. Resultados: Sete mortes (11%) ocorreram entre os 61 pacientes durante 1 mês de seguimento. O VVP ajustado <23cm3/L foi um preditor independente de mortalidade na análise univariada (odds ratio [OR]: 26; intervalo de confiança de 95% [IC95%]: 3-244; p=0,004) e na análise multivariada (OR ajustado: 19 [IC95%: 1,3-270]; p=0,03). Os parâmetros clássicos da angio-CT não foram associados à mortalidade em 1 mês nesta amostra. O VVP ajustado <23cm3/L apresentou sensibilidade de 86%, especificidade de 82%, valor preditivo negativo de 94% e valor preditivo positivo de 64% para identificação dos pacientes que morreram. Conclusão: VVP ajustado <23cm3/L foi um preditor independente de mortalidade após EPA. Esse parâmetro mostrou melhor desempenho prognóstico do que os outros achados clássicos da angio-CT. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 115(5):809-818)


Abstract Background: Acute pulmonary embolism (APE) has a variable clinical outcome. Computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) is the gold standard for this diagnosis. Objective: To evaluate if the pulmonary vascular volume (PVV) quantified by automated software is a mortality predictor after APE. Methods: Retrospective cohort study where the CTPA imaging of 61 patients with APE was reanalyzed. Pulmonary vascular volume (PVV) and pulmonary volume (PV) were automatically estimated using the Yacta software. We calculated the adjusted PVV by the ratio: PVV(cm3)/PV(liters). Classical prognostic CTPA parameters (clot load index, right ventricle/left ventricle diameter ratio, pulmonary artery/aorta diameter ratio, ventricular septal bowing, pulmonary infarction and reflux of contrast into the hepatic vein) were assessed. The outcome assessed was one-month mortality. We considered a p-value <0.05 as statistically significant. Results: Seven deaths (11%) occurred at one month among these 61 patients. PVV<23cm3/L was an independent predictor of one-month mortality in the univariate [odds ratio (OR): 26; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3-244; p=0.004] and multivariate analyses [adjusted OR: 19; 95%CI: 1.3-270; p=0.03]. The classical CTPA parameters were not associated with one-month mortality in this sample. The PVV<23cm3/L showed a sensitivity of 86%, a specificity of 82%, a negative predictive value of 94% and a positive predictive value of 64% to identify the patients who died. Conclusion: PVV<23cm3/L was an independent predictor of one-month mortality after APE. This parameter showed better prognostic performance than other classical CTPA findings. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 115(5):809-818)


Subject(s)
Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Artery/diagnostic imaging , Software , Angiography , Acute Disease , Retrospective Studies
5.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(4): 445-451, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1137300

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To evaluate surgical management and results of patients with pulmonary atresia and ventricular septal defect with major aortopulmonary collateral arteries (PA/VSD/MAPCAs). Methods: We reviewed a consecutive series of patients with PA/VSD/MAPCAs between January 2012 and October 2018. Study patients were separated into Group A, efficient MAPCAs; Group B, hypoplastic MAPCAs; Group C, severe hypoplastic MAPCAs at all divisions; and Group D, distal stenosis at most MAPCAs divisions. Results: Thirty-six patients were included in the study. Median age at operation time was 5.5 months (2-110 months), median weight was 8 kg (2.5-21 kg), and median number of MAPCAs was three (1-6). In Group A, 14 patients underwent single-stage total correction (TC); in Group B, 18 patients underwent unifocalization and central shunting; and in Group C, four patients had aortopulmonary window creation and collateral ligation. No patient was placed in Group D. Seventy percent of patients (n=25) had the TC operation. Early mortality was not seen in Group A, but the other two groups had a 13.6% mortality rate. At the follow-up, three patients had reintervention, two had new conduit replacement, and one had right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction. Conclusion: Evaluating patients with PA/VSD/MAPCAs in detail and subdividing them is quite useful in determining the appropriate surgical approach. With this strategy, TC can be achieved in most patients. Single-stage TC is better than other surgical methods due to its lower mortality and reintervention rates. Care should be taken in terms of early postoperative intensive care complications and reintervention indications during follow-ups.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Pulmonary Atresia/surgery , Heart Septal Defects/surgery , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Pulmonary Artery/surgery , Pulmonary Artery/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , Collateral Circulation
6.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(3): 392-395, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1137260

ABSTRACT

Abstract Coronary fistulas are rare anomalies that can affect approximately 1% of the population, presenting few specific symptoms, and are often found occasionally in coronary angiography. Here we describe the case of a 61-year-old patient with complaints of precordialgia and dyspnea since adolescence, with late diagnosis of coronary fistulas with drainage to the pulmonary artery, and with unsuccessful percutaneous treatment. Therefore, she underwent open surgery for the correction of the already known fistulas, in addition to the hemangioma involving such vessels, which made the understanding and resolution of this case more complex.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Arterio-Arterial Fistula/surgery , Arterio-Arterial Fistula/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Artery/surgery , Pulmonary Artery/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Angiography
7.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(3): 402-405, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1137255

ABSTRACT

Abstract Type II Aortopulmonary window (APW) accounts for only 10% of total cases of APW, which by itself is a rare congenital anomaly. Various cardiac malformations have been reported to be associated with this rare anomaly. We report one such association of origin of left subclavian artery (LSCA) from left pulmonary artery (LPA) via ductus arteriosus that was surgically repaired.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aortopulmonary Septal Defect/surgery , Aortopulmonary Septal Defect/complications , Aortopulmonary Septal Defect/diagnostic imaging , Subclavian Artery/surgery , Subclavian Artery/diagnostic imaging , Aorta, Thoracic/surgery , Aorta, Thoracic/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Artery/surgery , Pulmonary Artery/diagnostic imaging , Lung
9.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(2): e170-e173, abr. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1100428

ABSTRACT

Las fístulas arteriovenosas pulmonares son malformaciones congénitas dadas por la comunicación directa anómala entre arterias y venas, con una incidencia mundial de 2-3 : 100 000 habitantes. La presentación es, en general, única, asintomática, y aparecen en forma incidental como hallazgo imagenológico en la adultez, y su tratamiento de elección es la embolización endovascular.Se describe la inusual presentación clínica en una paciente de 10 años, que ingresó por disnea, tos, cianosis central y cefalea. Se encontró hipoxemia persistente, hipocratismo digital, nódulos parahiliares pulmonares, gases arteriales con gradiente alvéolo-arterial aumentado. La tomografía axial computarizada de tórax de alta resolución confirmó la presencia de una malformación arteriovenosa pulmonar en la región parahiliar derecha, la cual no se asociaba con la enfermedad de Rendu-Osler-Weber. La paciente fue tratada con embolización endovascular transcutánea. Tras 1,5 años de seguimiento, no hubo recaídas. Son pocos los casos reportados de estas fístulas en la edad pediátrica


Pulmonary arteriovenous fistulas are congenital malformations due to anomalous direct communication between arteries and veins; the incidence is 2-3 : 100,000 inhabitants. This condition is usually asymptomatic and incidentally appearing in adult imaging findings. Transcutaneous endovascular embolization is the technique of choice for treatment. The unusual presentation in a 10-year-old patient is described; she was presented to the Emergency Department with dyspnea, cough, central cyanosis and headache. The examination revealed persistent hypoxemia and digital clubbing; chest X-ray with images suggestive of parahilar nodules, arterial blood gases with increased alveolar arterial gradient. The high resolution computed tomography of the thorax revealed pulmonary arteriovenous malformation in the right parahilar region not associated with Rendu-Osler-Weber disease. The patient was treated with transcutaneous endovascular embolization, and after a year and a half of follow-up there were no relapses. There are few reported cases of pulmonary arteriovenous fistulas in the pediatric age.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Pulmonary Artery/abnormalities , Arteriovenous Fistula/diagnostic imaging , Embolization, Therapeutic , Pulmonary Artery/diagnostic imaging , Arteriovenous Fistula/therapy
10.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 34(5): 633-636, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042037

ABSTRACT

Abstract The complete or the partial absence of pericardium is a rare congenital malformation for which the patients are commonly asymptomatic and the diagnosis is incidental. The absence of the left side of the pericardium is the most common anomaly that is reported in the literature while the complete absence of pericardium or the absence of the right side of the pericardium are uncommon and their criteria are still unrecognized given their rare occurrence in clinical practice. This paper aims to report a case of 19-year-old male with the congenital partial absence of both sides of the pericardium and to highlight the symptoms and the different cardiac imaging modalities used to confirm the diagnosis of this defect.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Young Adult , Pericardium/abnormalities , Pericardium/diagnostic imaging , Heart Defects, Congenital/diagnostic imaging , Aorta/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Artery/diagnostic imaging , Radiography, Thoracic , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Incidental Findings , Asymptomatic Diseases
11.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 38(2): 87-95, ago. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042601

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: Antecedentes: La presión media arterial pulmonar (PMAP) es una variable hemodinámica indispensable para el diagnóstico, clasificación y pronóstico de la Hipertensión Pulmonar (HP). Su cuantificación se realiza en forma invasiva por cateterismo cardíaco derecho (CCD) y no invasivamente por ecocardiografía Doppler. Masuyama propuso su medición mediante el gradiente transvalvular pulmonar diastólico derivado de la velocidad máxima inicial de la regurgitación pulmonar (∆RPi2) correspondiendo cercanamente a la medición invasiva. Objetivos: Revalidar 3 métodos ecocardiográficos que estiman la PMAP y valorar la utilidad del método de Chemla en el Test de Reactividad Vascular Pulmonar (TRVP). Métodos: Estudio prospectivo, observacional, doble ciego divido en dos etapas. A) o I) 30 pacientes se realizó ecocardiografía Doppler diagnóstica en nuestro centro. Se midieron regurgitación tricuspídea (RT) y tiempo de aceleración pulmonar (TAP) para derivar las siguientes ecuaciones: 1) 0.61xPSAP+1.95 (Chemla) 2) Gradiente presión media RT (∆PmRT) +PAD (presión-aurícula derecha) (Aduen) y 3) 79-0.45xTAP o 90-0.60xTAP, según sea el valor del TAP. B) o II) 10 pacientes enrolados para realizar el TRVP comparando la medición ecocardiográfica (Chemla) con CCD. Resultados: En la primera parte del estudio se encontró alta correlación entre las 3 ecuaciones: ChemlaAduen, R2=0.91; Chemla-Kitabatake, R2=0.87; Aduen-Kitabatake, R2=0,91. En la segunda parte comparando la PMAP-Chemla y Cateterismo derecho (CD) obtuvimos alta correlación: en tiempo 0, 30 min y recuperación:(R2=0.87, 0.99, 0.98, respectivamente). Ambas partes del estudio mostraron límites de concordancia satisfactoria con valor medio de la diferencia entre los métodos cercano a 1 en el t30 y tR del TRVP. Conclusión: los métodos dependientes de la medición de la RT son efectivos y confiables para estimar la PMAP. El método de Chemla es útil en el TRVP.


ABSTRACTS: Background: Mean Pulmonary arterial pressure (PMAP)is an indispensable hemodynamic variable for the diagnosis, classification and prognosis of Pulmonary Hypertension (PH). Its quantification is performed invasively by cardiac catheterization and non-invasively by Doppler echocardiography. Masuyama proposed its measurement by the transvalvular diastolic pulmonary gradient derived from the initial maximum velocity of pulmonary regurgitation(ΔPRi2) corresponding closely to the invasive measurement. Objectives: to compare 3 known echocardiographic methods to estimate MPAP and demonstrate the usefulness of the Chemla method in the Pulmonary Vascular Reactivity Test (PVRT). Methods: prospective, observational, double-blind study divided into two stages. A) 30 patients underwent diagnostic Doppler echocardiography. Tricuspid regurgitation (TR) and pulmonary acceleration time (PAT) were measured to derive the equations: 1) 0.61xSPAP + 1.95 (Chemla) 2) Gradient mean pressure TR (ΔPmTR) + RAP (right atrium pressure) (Aduen).3) 79-0.45xPAT o 90-0.60xPAT depending on the value of PAT. B) 10 patients enrolled to PVRT comparing the echocardiographic measurement (Chemla) with right catheterization. Results: in the first part of the study a high correlation between the 3 equations was found : ChemlaAduen, R2 = 0.91; Chemla-Kitabatake, R2=0.87; Aduen-Kitabatake, R2=0.91. In the second part comparing the MPAP-Chemla and RHC we obtained a high correlation in time 0, 30 min and recovery: (R2=0.87,0,99,0.98, respectively). Both parts of the study showed satisfactory limits concordance with mean value of the difference between the methods close to 1 in the t30 and tR of the TRVP. Conclusion: the methods dependent on the measurement of the TR are effective and reliable for estimating MPAP. The Chemla method is useful in the PVRT.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pulmonary Artery/diagnostic imaging , Cardiac Catheterization/methods , Echocardiography, Doppler , Hypertension, Pulmonary/diagnostic imaging , Echocardiography/methods , Double-Blind Method , Prospective Studies , Observational Study
14.
J. bras. pneumol ; 45(1): e20170438, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-984618

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the incidence of the reversed halo sign (RHS) in patients with pulmonary infarction (PI) due to acute pulmonary embolism (PE), detected by computed tomography angiography (CTA) of the pulmonary arteries, and to describe the main morphological features of the RHS. Methods: We evaluated 993 CTA scans, stratified by the risk of PE, performed between January of 2010 and December of 2014. Although PE was detected in 164 scans (16.5%), three of those scans were excluded because of respiratory motion artifacts. Of the remaining 161 scans, 75 (46.6%) showed lesions consistent with PI, totaling 86 lesions. Among those lesions, the RHS was seen in 33 (38.4%, in 29 patients). Results: Among the 29 patients with scans showing lesions characteristic of PI with the RHS, 25 (86.2%) had a single lesion and 4 (13.8%) had two, totaling 33 lesions. In all cases, the RHS was in a subpleural location. To standardize the analysis, all images were interpreted in the axial plane. Among those 33 lesions, the RHS was in the right lower lobe in 17 (51.5%), in the left lower lobe in 10 (30.3%), in the lingula in 5 (15.2%), and in the right upper lobe in 1 (3.0%). Among those same 33 lesions, areas of low attenuation were seen in 29 (87.9%). The RHS was oval in 24 (72.7%) of the cases and round in 9 (27.3%). Pleural effusion was seen in 21 (72.4%) of the 29 patients with PI and the RHS. Conclusions: A diagnosis of PE should be considered when there are findings such as those described here, even in patients with nonspecific clinical symptoms.


RESUMO Objetivo: Verificar a incidência do sinal do halo invertido (SHI) associado a infartos pulmonares (IP) relacionados ao tromboembolismo pulmonar (TEP) agudo, identificado por angiotomografia (angio-TC) de artérias pulmonares, e demonstrar as principais características morfológicas do SHI. Métodos: Foram avaliadas 993 angio-TCs, após estratificação de risco clínico para TEP entre janeiro de 2010 e dezembro de 2014. TEP foi encontrado em 164 pacientes (16,5%), sendo que três exames foram descartados devido a artefatos de movimentação respiratória. Dos 161 exames restantes, em 75 (46,6%) foram identificadas imagens compatíveis com IP, totalizando 86 lesões; o SHI foi observado em 33 (38,4% dos pacientes) dessas lesões. Resultados: Dos 29 pacientes com lesões características de IP com o SHI, 25 pacientes (86,2%) apresentavam lesão única e 4 (13,8%), lesão dupla. Todas as imagens compatíveis com SHI eram de localização subpleural. Para padronizar a análise, todas as imagens foram interpretadas no plano axial. Em relação à distribuição lobar das 33 lesões, o SHI estava localizado no lobo inferior direito, em 17 (51,5%); no lobo inferior esquerdo, em 10 (30,3%); na língula, em 5 (15,2%) e no lobo superior direito, em 1 (3,0%). Áreas de baixa atenuação no interior dos IPs com o SHI foram observadas em 29 das 33 lesões (87,9%). O SHI apresentava formato ovalado em 24 (72,7%) dos casos e formato arredondado, em 9 (27,3%). Derrame pleural foi encontrado associado aos IP com o SHI em 21 pacientes (72,4%). Conclusões: O achado de imagens com essas características, mesmo em pacientes com sintomatologia inespecífica, deve alertar para a possibilidade do diagnóstico de TEP.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Pulmonary Artery/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Infarction/epidemiology , Pulmonary Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Computed Tomography Angiography/methods , Pleural Effusion/epidemiology , Pulmonary Artery/pathology , Pulmonary Embolism/pathology , Brazil/epidemiology , Acute Disease , Incidence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Pulmonary Infarction/pathology , Lung/pathology , Lung/diagnostic imaging
15.
J. bras. pneumol ; 45(4): e20180137, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012569

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To present a case series of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs), describing the main clinical findings, the number/location of pulmonary vascular abnormalities, the clinical complications, and the treatment administered. Methods: This was a retrospective observational study evaluating patients with PAVM divided into two groups: hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT); and idiopathic PAVM (iPAVM). Results: A total of 41 patients were selected for inclusion, but only 33 had PAVMs. After clinical evaluation, 27 and 6 were diagnosed with HHT and iPAVM, respectively. In the HHT group, the mean age was 49.6 years and 88.9% were female. In that group, 4 patients had an SpO2 of < 90% and the most common clinical finding was epistaxis. In the iPAVM group, the mean age was 48.1 years and 83.3% were female. In that group, 3 patients had an SpO2 of < 90%. Computed tomographic pulmonary angiography showed that most of the PAVMs were in the lower lobes: 56.4% in the HHT group and 85.7% in the iPAVM group. Embolization was performed in 23 patients (in both groups). At this writing, 10 patients are scheduled to undergo the procedure. One of the patients who underwent embolization was subsequently referred for pulmonary resection. Conclusions: In both of the PAVM groups, there was a predominance of women and of fistulas located in the lower lobes. Few of the patients had respiratory symptoms, and most had an SpO2 > 90%. The treatment chosen for all patients was percutaneous transcatheter embolization.


RESUMO Objetivo: Apresentar uma série de casos de malformações arteriovenosas pulmonares (MAVP) e descrever os principais achados clínicos, a quantidade e localização das MAVP, as complicações clínicas e os tratamentos realizados. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo observacional que avaliou pacientes com MAVP divididos em dois grupos: telangiectasia hemorrágica hereditária (THH) e MAVP idiopática (MAVPi). Resultados: Foram avaliados 41 pacientes, sendo 33 pacientes portadores de MAVP. Após a avaliação clínica, 27 e 6 foram diagnosticados com THH e MAVPi, respectivamente. No grupo THH a média de idade foi de 49,6 anos e 88,9% eram do sexo feminino. Desses pacientes, 4 tinham SpO2 < 90% e o achado clínico mais frequente era epistaxe. No grupo MAVPi a média de idade foi de 48,1 anos, sendo que 83,3% eram do sexo feminino. Desses, 3 tinham SpO2 < 90%. Após a realização de angiotomografia de tórax observou-se que a maior parte das MAVP se situava nos lobos inferiores, totalizando 56,4% e 85,7% nos grupos THH e MAVPi, respectivamente. O tratamento por embolização foi realizado em 23 pacientes nos dois grupos, enquanto 10 aguardavam o procedimento até o momento da escrita deste estudo. Um paciente submetido à embolização foi encaminhado para ressecção pulmonar. Conclusões: Em ambos os grupos de pacientes com MAVP observou-se uma predominância de mulheres e de fístulas localizadas nos lobos inferiores. A maioria era assintomático respiratório com SpO2 > 90%. O tratamento de escolha para todos foi a embolização percutânea por cateter.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Arteriovenous Malformations/etiology , Arteriovenous Malformations/therapy , Arteriovenous Malformations/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Artery/abnormalities , Pulmonary Artery/diagnostic imaging , Telangiectasia, Hereditary Hemorrhagic/complications , Catheterization/methods , Angiography/methods , Echocardiography , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Embolization, Therapeutic/methods , Septal Occluder Device , Computed Tomography Angiography
16.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 33(4): 424-427, July-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-958434

ABSTRACT

Abstract Aortopulmonary septal defect, also known as the aortopulmonary window, is a rare congenital macrovascular malformation. This case involves a 9-year-old boy with aortopulmonary septal defect (type I combined with type IV). Before surgery, milrinone and alprostadil were used to counteract high lung pressure. Surgery was performed under cardiopulmonary bypass, following which the pulmonary pressure decreased. The aorta was cut, and the right pulmonary artery opening was connected with the main pulmonary artery septal defect using polyester patch. An internal tunnel was made, and the deformity correction was completed. The child exhibited normal postoperative recovery with no discomfort. A complex aortopulmonary window is a rare condition that can be treated successfully with appropriate preoperative and surgical management.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Aortopulmonary Septal Defect/surgery , Aorta/surgery , Aorta/diagnostic imaging , Aortopulmonary Septal Defect/physiopathology , Aortopulmonary Septal Defect/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Artery/surgery , Pulmonary Artery/diagnostic imaging , Blood Pressure , Echocardiography , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome , Rare Diseases
17.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 136(3): 262-265, May-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-962720

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT CONTEXT: Obstruction of the right ventricular outflow tract due to metastatic disease is rare. Clinical recognition of cardiac metastatic tumors is rare and continues to present a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. CASE REPORT: We present the case of a patient who had severe respiratory insufficiency and whose clinical examinations revealed a giant tumor mass extending from the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery. We discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic options. CONCLUSION: In patients presenting with acute right heart failure, right ventricular masses should be kept in mind. Transthoracic echocardiography appears to be the most easily available, noninvasive, cost-effective and useful technique in making the differential diagnosis.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A obstrução da via de saída do ventrículo direito devido a doença metastática é rara. O reconhecimento clínico de tumores cardíacos metastáticos é raro e continua a apresentar um desafio diagnóstico e terapêutico. RELATO DO CASO: Apresentamos o caso de um paciente com insuficiência respiratória grave e cujos exames clínicos revelaram massa de tumor gigante, estendendo-se desde o ventrículo direito até a artéria pulmonar. Discutimos as opções diagnósticas e terapêuticas. CONCLUSÃO: Em pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca direita aguda, massas do ventrículo direito devem ser mantidas em mente. Ecocardiografia transtorácica parece ser a técnica mais facilmente disponível, não invasiva, custo-efetiva e útil no diagnóstico diferencial.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Pulmonary Artery/pathology , Adenocarcinoma/secondary , Heart Failure/etiology , Heart Neoplasms/secondary , Pulmonary Artery/diagnostic imaging , Echocardiography , Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Adenocarcinoma/diagnostic imaging , Fatal Outcome , Heart Neoplasms/pathology , Heart Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Heart Ventricles
18.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 146(4): 528-533, abr. 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-961425

ABSTRACT

Arterial involvement in Behçet's disease (BD) is less common than venous lesions. The most commonly affected arteries are: the aorta, lower extremity arteries, mesenteric, femoral, coronary, renal, subclavian and pulmonary arteries. The rupture of pulmonary arteries is the main cause of death of patients with EB and the presence of aneurysms is a bad prognostic factor. We report two patients with arterial involvement in BD. A 14 years old male presenting with hemoptysis lasting three days. A chest computed tomography showed an aneurismal dilatation of the right interlobar artery, bilateral intramural thrombi and alveolar hemorrhage. A right lobar pulmonary resection was performed but hemoptysis recurred. Suspecting a BD, prednisone was started and hemoptysis subsided. A 42 years old male presenting with chest pain and hemoptysis. A chest CT scan showed thrombi in pulmonary veins and anticoagulant therapy was started. Two months later he was admitted again due to a massive hemoptysis. The CT scan showed aneurisms in pulmonary arteries, mural thrombi and pulmonary infarction. With the diagnosis of BD, methylprednisolone, followed by prednisone and cyclophosphamide were used, with a good clinical response.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Pulmonary Artery/diagnostic imaging , Behcet Syndrome/complications , Hemoptysis/etiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Behcet Syndrome/drug therapy , Behcet Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use
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