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Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 88(2): 204-211, Mar.-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374713


Abstract Introduction: General anesthesia causes pulmonary atelectasis within few minutes of induction. This can have significant impact on postoperative outcome of cancer patients undergoing prolonged reconstructive surgeries. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of sonographically detected perioperative atelectasis on the need for postoperative oxygen supplementation, bronchodilator therapy and assisted chest physiotherapy in patients undergoing free flap surgeries for head and neck carcinoma. Methods: Twenty eight head and neck cancer patients underwent bilateral pulmonary ultrasonographic assessments before and after lung surgery. Lung ultrasound scores, serum lactate, and PaO2/FiO2 ratio were measured both at the beginning and at end of the surgery. Patients were scanned in the supine position and the number of single and confluent B lines was noted. These values were correlated with the need for oxygen therapy, requirement of bronchodilators and total weaning time to predict the postoperative outcome. Other factors affecting weaning were also studied. Results: Among twenty eight patients, seven had mean lung ultrasound score of ≥10.5 which correlated with prolonged weaning time (144.56±33.5min vs. 66.7±15.7min; p = 0.005). The change in lung ultrasound score significantly correlated with change in PaO2/FiO2 ratio (r = −0.56, p = 0.03). Elevated total leukocyte count >8200 ΜL and serum lactate >2.1 mmoL/L also predicted prolonged postoperative mechanical ventilation. Conclusion: This preliminary study detected significant levels of perioperative atelectasis using point of care lung ultrasonography in head and neck cancer patients undergoing long duration surgical reconstructions. Higher lung ultrasound scores highlighted the need for frequent bronchodilator nebulizations as well as assisted chest physiotherapy and were associated with delayed weaning. We propose more frequent point of care lung ultrasonographic evaluations and use of recruitment maneuvers to reduce the impact of perioperative pulmonary atelectasis.

Resumo Introdução: A anestesia geral causa atelectasia pulmonar poucos minutos após sua indução. Isso pode ter um impacto significativo no resultado pós-operatório de pacientes com câncer submetidos a cirurgias reconstrutivas prolongadas. Objetivo: Avaliar o impacto das atelectasias perioperatórias detectadas por ultrassonografia na necessidade de suplementação pós-operatória de oxigênio, terapia broncodilatadora e fisioterapia respiratória assistida em pacientes com carcinoma de cabeça e pescoço submetidos a cirurgias com uso de retalho livre. Método: Foram submetidos a avaliações ultrassonográficas pulmonares bilaterais antes e após a cirurgia 28 pacientes com câncer de cabeça e pescoço. Os escores de ultrassonografia pulmonar, lactato sérico, razão PaO2/FiO2 foram medidos no início e no fim da cirurgia. Os pacientes foram avaliados na posição supina e o número de linhas B confluentes e únicas foi observado. Esses valores foram correlacionados com a necessidade de oxigenoterapia, necessidade de broncodilatadores e tempo total de desmame para predizer o resultado pós-operatório. Outros fatores que afetam o desmame também foram estudados. Resultados: Entre os 28 pacientes, sete apresentaram escore médio de ultrassonografia pulmonar ≥ 10,5, que se correlacionou com o tempo de desmame prolongado (144,56 ± 33,5 minutos vs. 66,7 ± 15,7 minutos; p = 0,005). A mudança no escore de ultrassonografia pulmonar correlacionou-se significantemente com a mudança na razão PaO2/FiO2 (r = −0,56, p = 0,03). A contagem total elevada de leucócitos > 8200 uLe o nível de lactato sérico >2,1 mmoL/L também previram ventilação mecânica pós-operatória prolongada. Conclusão: Este estudo preliminar detectou um nível significante de atelectasia perioperatória com ultrassonografia pulmonar no local de atendimento em pacientes com câncer de cabeça e pescoço submetidos a reconstruções cirúrgicas de longa duração. Escores mais altos de ultrassonografia pulmonar enfatizaram a necessidade de nebulizações broncodilatadoras frequentes e fisioterapia respiratória assistida e foram associados a desmame tardio. Propomos avaliações ultrassonográficas pulmonares mais frequentes no local de atendimento e o uso de manobras de recrutamento para reduzir o impacto das atelectasias pulmonares perioperatórias.

Humans , Pulmonary Atelectasis/etiology , Pulmonary Atelectasis/therapy , Pulmonary Atelectasis/diagnostic imaging , Plastic Surgery Procedures/adverse effects , Free Tissue Flaps , Head and Neck Neoplasms/surgery , Head and Neck Neoplasms/complications , Head and Neck Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Postoperative Complications , Bronchodilator Agents , Ultrasonography/adverse effects , Lactates , Lung
Rev. colomb. neumol ; 34(1): 56-60, 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1412674


Se presenta el caso de una paciente de 56 años, quien consulta por dolor torácico lateral izquierdo de dos días de evolución y en su radiografía de tórax tomada en preoperatorio de nódulo tiroideo aparece una pequeña banda de atelectasia plana basal izquierda. Por persistencia del dolor en el posoperatorio tardío, se realizan estudios de ultrasonido, gammagrafía ósea, TAC de tórax y RNM de tórax, encontrándose finalmente un elastofibroma dorsi como causa del dolor a partir de los estudios realizados. El elastofibroma dorsi es una entidad relativamente rara, de patogénesis desconocida, que requiere de sospecha clínica para su diagnóstico. Las imágenes pueden comprobar el diagnóstico sin requerir biopsia. La resección es necesaria por crecimiento de la lesión o dolor persistente. Se revisa la literatura pertinente.

Here we present a case of a 56-year-old female patient, who consulted for presenting left lateral chest pain of 2 days of evolution, and in her chest X-ray taken preoperatively for a thyroid nodule, a small band of flat left basal atelectasis appears. Due to persistent pain in the late postoperative period, thoracic ultrasound, bone scan, chest CT, and chest MRI studies were performed, finally finding an elastofibroma dorsi as the cause of the pain. The studies carried out are shown. Elastofibroma dorsi is a relatively rare entity of unknown pathogenesis that requires clinical suspicion for its diagnosis. Imaging can confirm the diagnosis without requiring a biopsy. Resection is necessary due to growth of the lesion or persistent pain. Relevant literature is reviewed.

Humans , Thorax , Chest Pain , Pulmonary Atelectasis , Ultrasonics , Radiography , Pathogenesis, Homeopathic
S. Afr. med. j ; 112(11): 879-881, 2022. tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1399384


The anatomical pathology autopsy serves several purposes, notably as a quality management tool for evaluation of accuracy in clinical diagnosis. Despite its value, for various reasons there has been an international decline in autopsies conducted. In the modern medical era, with all its advances in technology, diagnostic techniques and interventions, there is still a high discrepancy between clinical diagnoses and postmortem findings.Objectives. To establish the discrepancies between clinical diagnoses and postmortem findings in anatomical pathology autopsies.Methods. A retrospective, descriptive study was conducted over the 4-year-period 2014 - 2017. The clinical diagnoses and postmortem findings of cases referred to the Department of Anatomical Pathology at the University of Pretoria, South Africa, were evaluated and compared using the modified Goldman criteria.Results. A total of 288 cases qualified for the study and were evaluated. The gender distribution was 155 (53.8%) male and 133 (48.2%) female, with the majority of cases in the age group 19 - 60 years (mean 36.4). The majority of the cases were referred by internal medicine, followed by paediatrics. The most common cause of death in major missed diagnoses was pulmonary conditions. Of the cases, 115 (39.3%) had a major discrepancy and 62 (21.5%) a minor discrepancy.Conclusion. This study showed that there is still a high discrepancy between clinical diagnoses and postmortem findings, similar to studies conducted globally. The current COVID-19 pandemic may be a driver for revival of the anatomical pathology autopsy, and future studies are recommended to evaluate whether the decline can be reversed

Humans , Pulmonary Atelectasis , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Pathology , Autopsy , Comparative Study
Fisioter. Bras ; 22(1): 37-48, Mar 19, 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284015


Evaluating the impact of lung re-expansion methods on the postoperative pulmonary function and respiratory complications such as atelectasis, pneumonia and hypoxemia in videolaparoscopy-based bariatric surgery. Prospective clinical study conducted with 105 patients randomly divided into three groups: control (conventional postoperative physical therapy), recruitment (intraoperative alveolar recruitment) and decompression (postoperative chest compression and decompression maneuver). Spirometry, respiratory and hemodynamic variables were analyzed. All groups have presented worsened values in spirometry measurements within the postoperative period (p < 0.00) and there was significant decrease in respiratory rates in comparison to the immediate preoperative period (p = 0,01). Mean end-expiratory carbon dioxide pressure in the recruitment group was higher than in the control in all assessed time intervals (p = 0.03). Chest compression and decompression maneuver and alveolar recruitment were beneficial to pulmonary function recovery. There were no differences in postoperative pulmonary complications and function in the three assessed groups, except for significant decrease in respiratory rates and in the end-expiratory carbon dioxide pressure level in the recruitment group. (AU)

Avaliar o impacto de métodos de re-expansão pulmonar na função pulmonar e incidência de complicações respiratórias como as atelectasias, pneumonias e hipoxemia no pós-operatório de cirurgia bariátrica por videolaparoscopia. Estudo clínico, prospectivo realizado com 105 pacientes, randomizado em três grupos: grupo controle (fisioterapia convencional no pós-operatório), grupo recrutamento (recrutamento alveolar no intraoperatório) e grupo descompressão (manobra de compressão e descompressão torácica no pós-operatório). Foram analisadas variáveis espirométricas, respiratórias e hemodinâmicas. No pós-operatório todos os grupos apresentaram piora nas medidas espirométricas (p < 0,00) e redução significativa da frequência respiratória quando comparado o período pré e pós-operatório imediato em todos os grupos (p = 0,01). As médias de pressão expiratória final de gás carbônico no grupo recrutamento foram maiores que no grupo controle em todos os intervalos de tempos avaliados (p = 0,03). A manobra de compressão e descompressão torácica e o recrutamento alveolar foram benéficos para a recuperação da função pulmonar. Nos três grupos avaliados não houve diferença nas complicações e função pulmonar no pós-operatório, exceto redução significativa da frequência respiratória e da pressão expiratória final de dióxido de carbono no grupo recrutamento alveolar. (AU)

Humans , Pulmonary Atelectasis , Physical Therapy Modalities , Postoperative Period , Recovery of Function , Bariatric Surgery
Rev. Pesqui. Fisioter ; 11(1): 222-226, Fev. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1253406


INTRODUÇÃO: A atelectasia pulmonar é comum em pacientes internados em unidades de terapia intensiva neonatais, principalmente pela anatomia do recém-nascido e pelas condições clínicas e patológicas a que estão expostos. OBJETIVO: Descrever a eficácia da técnica de fisioterapia respiratória de insuflação seletiva para reverter atelectasia em um único atendimento. RELATO DE CASO: Prematuro de 35 semanas de idade gestacional no sétimo dia de ventilação mecânica invasiva, apresentando quadro de atelectasia pulmonar em lobo superior direito, recebia atendimentos diários de fisioterapia respiratória. CONCLUSÃO: A reversão total da atelectasia em apenas um atendimento foi comprovada por meio radiografia de tórax imediatamente antes e depois da manobra. A paciente foi acompanhada até a alta hospitalar, não ocorrendo nenhum evento posterior de atelectasia, mesmo após a extubação.

INTRODUCTION: Pulmonary atelectasis is common among neonatal intensive care patients, mainly due to the anatomy of the newborn and the clinical and pathological conditions that are being exposed. OBJECTIVE: Describing the effectiveness of the selective insufflation technique to reverse atelectasis in a single visit. CASE REPORT: Premature, who present pulmonary atelectasis in the upper right lobe, with a gestational age of 35 weeks, on the seventh day of invasive mechanical ventilation received daily respiratory therapy. CONCLUSION: The total reversal of atelectasis in one single visit was confirmed utilizing a chest X-ray immediately before and after the maneuver. The patient was followed up until hospital discharge, with no subsequent atelectasis event, even after extubation.

Pulmonary Atelectasis , Infant, Premature , Physical Therapy Modalities
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 683-689, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922246


BACKGROUND@#Computed tomography (CT) three-dimensional reconstruction technology is increasingly used in preoperative planning of patients with ground glass nodule (GGN), but how to accurately locate the nodule and ensure the safe resection edge is still a difficult problem for clinicians. The purpose of this study was to investigate the accuracy, convenience and safety of CT three-dimensional reconstruction combined with intraoperative natural collapse localization in total thoracoscopic segmental pneumonectomy.@*METHODS@#A total of 45 patients with radiographic findings of pulmonary GGN admitted from July 2019 to December 2019 were selected as the study group. All patients received thin-slice CT scan and underwent preoperative three-dimensional reconstruction. After anesthesia, the small thoracic operation opening and the airway of the patients were quickly opened, and the lung was rapidly and naturally collapsed by pressure difference. GGN were positioned according to the natural marker line, and marked with 3-0 prolene line. After specimen removal, the distance between the GGN and the suture mark, the distance between the GGN and the incision margin were measured, and the incision margin was routinely examined. The general clinical data, pathological data and postoperative complications were counted and compared with 45 consecutive patients who were located with hookwire positioning needle in the same period.@*RESULTS@#The average localization time of non-invasive GGN with natural lung collapse during operation was 6.9 min, and the localization accuracy was 90.6%. There were 2 cases of extensive pleural adhesion and 1 case of emphysema. Postoperative pathology was confirmed as lung adenocarcinoma, and the examination of incision margin was negative. No GGNs were scanned again after surgery, and the precise resection rate of lung segment was 100.0%.@*CONCLUSIONS@#CT three-dimensional reconstruction combined with GGN localization of natural lung collapse during operation can shorten the time of searching for GGN during operation and guarantee the safety of the incision margin. It is a more economical and convenient localization method and makes pulmonary segment resection more accurate.

Humans , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Lung/surgery , Lung Neoplasms/surgery , Pulmonary Atelectasis , Retrospective Studies , Solitary Pulmonary Nodule , Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828633


OBJECTIVE@#To study the influencing factors for the clinical effect of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in children with Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP) and atelectasis.@*METHODS@#A total of 75 children with MPP and atelectasis were divided into a good response group with 51 children and a poor response group with 24 children according to the clinical effect of BAL treatment. LASSO logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the factors influencing the clinical effect of BAL treatment. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and restricted cubic spline model analysis were used to evaluate the value of the course of the disease at the time of BAL treatment in predicting the clinical effect of BAL treatment.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the good response group, the poor response group had a significantly lower percentage of lymphocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, a significantly higher proportion of children with atelectasis of two or more lung lobes or stenosis of the bronchial cavity or opening caused by inflammation, and a significantly longer course of the disease at the time of BAL treatment and azithromycin treatment (P<0.05). The LASSO logistic regression analysis showed that a prolonged course of the disease at the time of BAL treatment (OR=1.23), atelectasis of two or more lung lobes (OR=11.99), and stenosis of the bronchial cavity or opening caused by inflammation (OR=5.31) were independent risk factors for poor clinical effect of BAL treatment (P<0.05). The ROC curve analysis showed that the course of disease of ≥11.5 days at the time of BAL treatment suggested a poor clinical effect of BAL treatment, with a sensitivity of 91.7% and a specificity of 54.9%. The restricted cubic spline model analysis showed that there was a non-linear dose-response relationship between the course of disease at the time of BAL treatment and the clinical effect of BAL treatment (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Early BAL treatment may have a good clinical effect in children with MPP and atelectasis. Atelectasis of two or more lung lobes and inflammation-induced stenosis of the bronchial cavity or opening shown under bronchoscope may indicate a poor clinical effect of BAL treatment.

Child , Humans , Bronchoalveolar Lavage , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma , Pulmonary Atelectasis
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 139-144, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827845


PURPOSE@#Injury continues to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality in both developed and developing countries. Globally, it is responsible for approximately 5.8 million deaths per year and 91% of these deaths occur in developing countries. Road traffic collision, suicides and homicides are the leading cause of traumatic deaths. Despite the fact that traumatic chest injury is being responsible for 10% of all trauma-related hospital admissions and 25% of trauma-related deaths across the world including in Ethiopia, only few published studies showed the burden of traumatic chest injury in Ethiopia. So, this study aims at assessing the characteristics and outcome of traumatic chest injury patients visited Tikur Anbesa Specialized Hospital (TASH) over one year period.@*METHODS@#A single center based retrospective study was done. We collected data from patients' records to assess characteristics and outcome of traumatic chest injury at TASH over one year period. All patients diagnosed with traumatic chest injury and received treatment at the hospital from January 1 to December 31, 2016 regardless of its types and severity levels were included in the study. Patients with incomplete medical records for at least 20% of the study variables and without detailed medical history, or patients died before receiving any health care were excluded from the study. The collected data were cleaned and entered into Epidata version 3.1 and exported to SPSS Version 21.0 for analysis. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine factors associated with outcome of traumatic chest injury patients.@*RESULTS@#A total of 192 chest injury patients were included in the study and about one-fourth of chest injury victims were died during treatment period in TASH. Road traffic collision (RTC) was the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among traumatic chest injury victims. Age of the victims (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 8.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.51-53.24), time elapsed between the occurrence of traumatic chest injury and admission to health care facilities (AOR 4.6, 95% CI 1.19-18.00), length of stay in hospital (AOR 0.12, 95% CI 0.02-0.58), presence of multiple extra-thoracic injury (AOR 25, 95% CI 4.18-150.02) and development of complications (AOR 23, 95% CI 10-550) were factors associated with death among traumatic chest injury patients in this study.@*CONCLUSION@#RTC contributed for a considerable number of traumatic chest injuries in this study. Old age, delay in delivering the victim to health care facilities, length of stay in hospital, and development of atelectasis and pneumonia were associated with death among traumatic chest injury patients. Road safety interventions, establishment of organized pre-hospital services, and early recognition and prompt management of traumatic chest injury related complications are urgently needed to overcome the underlying problems in the study setting.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Accidents, Traffic , Age Factors , Ethiopia , Epidemiology , Hospitals, Special , Length of Stay , Pneumonia , Mortality , Pulmonary Atelectasis , Mortality , Retrospective Studies , Thoracic Injuries , Epidemiology , Mortality , Time Factors , Transportation of Patients
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(9): 1161-1167, Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041080


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE To investigate the use of Bilevel Positive Airway Pressure (BiPAP) in morbidly obese individuals in two moments following bariatric surgery (Roux-en-Y gastric bypass): post-anesthetic recovery (PAR) and first postoperative day (1PO). DESIGN Randomized and blinded clinical trial. METHODS We studied 40 morbidly obese individuals aged between 25 and 55 years who underwent pulmonary function test and chest X-ray preoperatively, and on the day of discharge (2nd day after surgery). They were randomly allocated into two groups: PAR-G (BiPAP in PAR for one hour), and 1PO-G (BIPAP for one hour on the 1PO). RESULTS In the PAR-G and 1PO-G, respectively there were significant reductions in slow vital capacity (SVC) (p=0.0007 vs. p<0.0001), inspiratory reserve volume (IRV) (p=0.0016 vs. p=0.0026), and forced vital capacity (FVC) (p=0.0013 vs. p<0.0001) and expiratory reserve volume (ERV) was maintained only for the PAR-G (p=0.4446 vs. p=0.0191). Comparing the groups, the SVC (p=0.0027) and FVC (p=0.0028) showed a significant difference between the treatments, while the PAR-G showed smaller declines in these capacities. The prevalence of atelectasis was 10% for the PAR-G and 30% for the 1PO-G (p=0.0027). CONCLUSION Thus, the use of BiPAP in PAR can promote restoration of ERV and contribute to the reduction of atelectasis.

RESUMO OBJETIVO Investigar o uso da pressão positiva em dois níveis nas vias aéreas (BiPAP) em obesos mórbidos em dois momentos após a cirurgia bariátrica (bypass gástrico em Y-de-Roux): recuperação pós-anestésica (RPA) e primeiro dia de pós-operatório (1PO). DESENHO Ensaio clínico randomizado e cego. MÉTODO Foram estudados 40 obesos mórbidos, com idade entre 25 e 55 anos, submetidos à prova de função pulmonar e radiografia de tórax no pré-operatório e no dia da alta (segundo dia de pós-operatório). Eles foram alocados aleatoriamente em dois grupos: G-RPA (BiPAP na RPA por uma hora) e G-1PO (BiPAP por uma hora no 1PO). RESULTADOS No G-RPA e G-1PO, respectivamente, houve reduções significativas na capacidade vital lenta (CVL) (p=0,0007 vs p<0,0001), volume de reserva inspiratório (VRI) (p=0,0016 vs p=0,0026) e capacidade vital forçada (CVF) (p=0,0013 vs p<0,0001). O volume de reserva expiratório (VRE) foi mantido apenas para o G-RPA (p=0,4446 vs p=0,0191). Comparando os grupos, a CVL (p=0,0027) e a CVF (p=0,0028) apresentaram diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos e o G-RPA apresentou menores declínios nessas capacidades. A prevalência de atelectasia foi de 10% para o G-RPA e 30% para o 1PO-G (p=0,0027). CONCLUSÃO O uso de BiPAP na RPA pode promover uma restauração do VRE e contribuir para a redução de atelectasias.

Humans , Female , Adult , Pulmonary Atelectasis/epidemiology , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Bariatric Surgery/rehabilitation , Postoperative Period , Pulmonary Atelectasis/prevention & control , Spirometry , Obesity, Morbid/surgery , Single-Blind Method , Vital Capacity , Expiratory Reserve Volume , Prevalence , Lung/physiopathology , Middle Aged
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 31(3): 347-353, jul.-set. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042583


RESUMO Objetivo: Verificar a ocorrência e as características de atelectasias, opacidades, hipotransparências e infiltrados pulmonares evidenciados ao raio X de tórax dos recém-nascidos prematuros, de uma unidade de terapia intensiva neonatal. Métodos: Trata-se de estudo observacional transversal. No período de agosto a dezembro de 2017 foram analisadas todas as radiografias de tórax de recém-nascidos. Foram incluídas no estudo as radiografias de tórax de recém-nascidos prematuros com idade gestacional até 36 semanas, no período neonatal que apresentassem alterações evidentes na imagem ou suspeita de alterações, que fossem confirmadas após laudo do médico radiologista. As alterações radiológicas foram associadas com possíveis fatores predisponentes. Resultados: No período, foram realizadas 450 radiografias nos recém-nascidos prematuros, sendo que, em 37, foram descritas quatro alterações: 12 (2,66%) descritas como opacidades, 11 (2,44%) como atelectasias, 10 (2,22%) como infiltrados pulmonares e 4 (0,88%) como hipotransparências. Observou-se maior ocorrência das atelectasias no pulmão direito (81,8%). Dentre as radiografias com alterações, 25 (67,6%) recém-nascidos estavam sob o uso da ventilação mecânica invasiva. Conclusão: Considerando o laudo radiológico, as alterações observadas têm ocorrências sem diferença estatisticamente significante. A atelectasia não foi a alteração mais encontrada. Os fatores que podem ter predisposto ao aparecimento das alterações foram a prematuridade extrema, o baixo peso, o sexo masculino, o mal posicionamento da cânula endotraqueal e o uso de ventilação mecânica invasiva.

ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the occurrence and characteristics of atelectasis, opacities, hypolucency and pulmonary infiltrates observed on chest X-rays of preterm infants in a neonatal intensive care unit. Methods: This was a cross-sectional observational study. From August to December 2017, all chest radiographs of newborn infants were analyzed. The study included the chest radiographs of preterm neonates with gestational ages up to 36 weeks in the neonatal period that showed clear changes or suspected changes, which were confirmed after a radiologist's report. Radiological changes were associated with possible predisposing factors. Results: During the study period, 450 radiographs were performed on preterm neonates, and 37 lung changes were identified and classified into 4 types: 12 (2.66%) changes were described as opacities, 11 (2.44%) were described as atelectasis, 10 (2.22%) were described as pulmonary infiltrate, and 4 (0.88%) were described as hypolucency. A higher occurrence of atelectasis was noted in the right lung (81.8%). Among the abnormal radiographs, 25 (67.6%) newborn infants were receiving invasive mechanical ventilation. Conclusion: Considering the radiological report, no significance was found for the observed changes. Atelectasis was not the most frequently observed change. The predisposing factors for these changes were extreme prematurity, low weight, male sex, a poorly positioned endotracheal tube and the use of invasive mechanical ventilation.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Pulmonary Atelectasis/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Infant, Premature , Radiography, Thoracic , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 31(1): 106-110, jan.-mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003625


RESUMO Relatamos o caso de um paciente que evoluiu com suspeita de morte encefálica associada à atelectasia e à hipoxemia moderada a grave, apesar de instituídos ventilação protetora, sistema de aspiração traqueal fechado, pressão positiva ao final da expiração moderada e manobra de recrutamento. Diante da não obtenção de pressão parcial de oxigênio adequada para o teste de apneia, optamos por pronar o paciente, utilizar pressão positiva expiratória final mais elevada, realizar nova manobra de recrutamento e ventilar com volume corrente mais elevado (8mL/kg), sem ultrapassar pressão de platô de 30cmH2O. O teste de apneia foi realizado em posição prona, com válvula de pressão positiva contínua nas vias aéreas acoplada em tubo T. O atraso no diagnóstico foi de 10 horas; a doação de órgãos não foi possível devido à parada circulatória. Este relato demonstra as dificuldades para obtenção de níveis de pressão parcial de oxigênio mais altos para a realização do teste de apneia. Os atrasos que isso pode acarretar ao diagnóstico de morte encefálica e ao processo de doação de órgãos são discutidos, além de potenciais estratégias de otimização da pressão parcial de oxigênio para realização do teste, conforme as recomendações atuais.

ABSTRACT We report the case of a patient in whom brain death was suspected and associated with atelectasis and moderate to severe hypoxemia even though the patient was subjected to protective ventilation, a closed tracheal suction system, positive end-expiratory pressure, and recruitment maneuvers. Faced with the failure to obtain an adequate partial pressure of oxygen for the apnea test, we elected to place the patient in a prone position, use higher positive end-expiratory pressure, perform a new recruitment maneuver, and ventilate with a higher tidal volume (8mL/kg) without exceeding the plateau pressure of 30cmH2O. The apnea test was performed with the patient in a prone position, with continuous positive airway pressure coupled with a T-piece. The delay in diagnosis was 10 hours, and organ donation was not possible due to circulatory arrest. This report demonstrates the difficulties in obtaining higher levels of the partial pressure of oxygen for the apnea test. The delays in the diagnosis of brain death and in the organ donation process are discussed, as well as potential strategies to optimize the partial pressure of oxygen to perform the apnea test according to the current recommendations.

Humans , Male , Apnea/diagnosis , Pulmonary Atelectasis/complications , Brain Death/diagnosis , Hypoxia/complications , Oxygen/blood , Partial Pressure , Tidal Volume , Prone Position , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Delayed Diagnosis , Middle Aged
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 34(1): 85-92, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-985239


Abstract Sclerosing mediastinitis (SM), previously named chronic fibrosing mediastinitis, is an inflammatory process that in its end-stage results to sclerosis around the mediastinal structures. SM is quite rare and has been correlated with inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, as well as malignancy. SM may either present in a mild form, with minor symptoms and a benign course or in a more aggressive form with severe pulmonary hypertension and subsequent higher morbidity and mortality. The diagnosis of SM may be difficult and quite challenging, as symptoms depend on the mediastinal structure that is mainly involved; quite often the superior vena cava. However, practically any mediastinal structure may be involved by the fibrotic process, such as the central airways, as well as the pulmonary arteries and veins, leading to obstruction or total occlusion. The latter may be impossible to undergo proper surgical excision of the lesion, and is considered to be a real challenge to the surgeon. We herein report a case of SM that presented with arterial and venous compression. The imaging appearance was that of unilateral pulmonary edema, associated with lung collapse. The case is supplemented by a non-systematic review of the relevant literature.

Humans , Female , Adult , Pulmonary Edema/etiology , Pulmonary Atelectasis/etiology , Sclerosis/complications , Mediastinitis/complications , Pulmonary Edema/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Atelectasis/pathology , Pulmonary Atelectasis/diagnostic imaging , Biopsy , Radiography, Thoracic , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Constriction, Pathologic/pathology , Constriction, Pathologic/diagnostic imaging , Heart Atria/pathology , Heart Atria/diagnostic imaging , Mediastinitis/pathology , Mediastinitis/diagnostic imaging
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774411


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the risk factors of postoperative pulmonary infection (PPI) in patients over 60 years of age with gastric cancer after radical gastrectomy.@*METHODS@#Clinicopathological data of 373 patients over 60 years of age who underwent radical gastrectomy at Department IV of Gastrointestinal Cancer Center, Peking University Cancer Hospital, from April 2009 to December 2016 were retrospectively collected in this case-control study. The clinicopathological characteristics of patients with postoperative pulmonary infection (including postoperative atelectasis) and those without pulmonary infection were compared. A Student t-test (reported as Mean±SD if data matching normal distribution) or Mann-Whitney U test [reported as median (quartile) if data did not conform to normal distribution] was used to analyze continuous variables. A χ² test or Fisher exact tests (reported as number and percentage) was used for categorical variables. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyze the risk factors for pulmonary infection after operation of gastric cancer.PPI was defined as postoperative patients with elevated body temperature (>38.0 degrees centigrade) for more than 24 hours; cough and expectoration; positive sputum bacteria culture;recent infiltration, consolidation or atelectasis confirmed by chest imaging examination.@*RESULTS@#Among 373 patients, 50 cases had PPI(13.4%, PPI group), 323 cases had no PPI(86.6%, non-PPI group). There were 39 (78.0%) and 178(55.1%) patients with comorbidities (including hypertension, diabetes and cardiopulmonary disease) preoperatively in PPI and non-PPI group, respectively. The difference between two groups was statistically significant (χ²=9.325,P=0.002). The incidence of preoperative hypoalbuminemia in PPI group was also significantly higher than that in non-PPI group [10.0%(5/50) vs. 3.1% (10/323),χ²=4.098, P=0.048]. Compared to non-PPI group, the rate of total gastrectomy [54.0%(27/50) vs. 34.4% (111/323), χ²=12.501, P=0.002], postoperative wound pain [34.0%(17/50) vs. 11.8% (38/323),χ²=16.928, P<0.001], secondary operation [6.0%(3/50) vs. 0.6% (2/323), χ²=6.032, P=0.014] and the rate of gastric tube removal later than 7 days postoperatively [96.0%(48/50) vs. 84.5%(273/323),χ²=4.811, P=0.028] were significantly higher in PPI group, respectively. The postoperative hospital stay was also prolonged in PPI group [16.0(9.5) days vs. 12.0(5.0) days, U=4 275.0, P<0.001]. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that preoperative comorbidities (OR=4.008, 95%CI:1.768-9.086, P=0.001), abdominal infection (OR=3.164, 95%CI:1.075-9.313, P=0.037), and wound pain (OR=3.428, 95%CI:1.557-7.548, P=0.002) were independent risk factors for PPI in patients over 60 years of age with gastric cancer. Furthermore, 50 patients with pulmonary infection were classified according to the length of latency and the type of infection. The patients with PPI latency ≤ 3 days were classified as early onset (34 cases, 68.0%), and those with latency ≥ 4 days as delayed onset (16 cases, 32.0%); PPI combined with surgical infection (including anastomotic leakage, abdominal infection, duodenal stump leakage, wound infection, etc.) was classified into mixed infection group (13 cases, 26.0%), with non-surgical infection as simple infection group (37 cases, 74.0%). The results showed that the pulmonary infection occurred 0 to 12 days (median 3 days) before surgical infection in mix infection group. The incidence of previous chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in patients with early onset was significantly higher than that in patients with delayed onset [17.6%(6/34) vs. 0, χ²=5.005, P=0.025], and the incidence of mixed infection in patients with delayed onset was significantly higher than that in patients with early onset [50%(8/16) vs. 14.7%(5/34), χ²=6.730, P=0.009],but there was no significant difference in postoperative hospital stay between the two groups[17.0(9.8) days vs. 14.0(9.5) days, U=224.0, P=0.317].@*CONCLUSIONS@#Postoperative pulmonary infection is common in gastric cancer patients over 60 years of age. Preoperative comorbidities, abdominal infection and wound pain are independent risk factors for postoperative pulmonary infection. Pulmonary infection within 3 days after operation is associated with preoperative COPD. For patients suffering from PPI after the 4th day,attentions should be paid to abdominal infection and anastomotic leakage.

Humans , Middle Aged , Age Factors , Anastomotic Leak , Case-Control Studies , Gastrectomy , Methods , Intraabdominal Infections , Pneumonia , Pulmonary Atelectasis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Stomach Neoplasms , General Surgery
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765780


PURPOSE: To compare the prophylactic effects of postoperative continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy plus conventional postoperatively pulmonary physiotherapy (CPP) and postoperative CPP alone on the development of pulmonary atelectasis after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LGBP) in obese patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with BMIs>27.5 kg/m2 aged between 20 and 65 years were enrolled in the present study. All subjects received LGBP and were divided into 2 groups. Patients in the CPAP group received both CPAP and CPP therapy postoperatively, and patients in the conventional group received CPP alone. The primary outcome was the incidence of postoperative pulmonary atelectasis as determined by chest X-ray after LGBP, and the secondary outcome was duration of postoperative hospital stay (HS). RESULTS: Seventy-three patients were enrolled in this study. Fifty-seven patients received CPAP plus CPP, and 16 patients received CPP. The CPAP group had an atelectasis incidence of 40.4% (23/57) and the conventional group an incidence of 62.5% (10/16). Multivariate analysis showed the incidence of atelectasis after LGBP was significantly lower in the CPAP group (OR 0.198, 95% CI 0.045–0.874; P=0.033) and that HS was significantly correlated with the developments of atelectasis, pneumonia, and complications (partial correlation coefficients 0.271, 0.444 and 0.382; P-values 0.025, <0.05 and <0.05, respectively). CONCLUSION: Patients that received continuous positive airway pressure therapy plus conventional pulmonary physiotherapy postoperatively were at significantly less risk of developing pulmonary atelectasis after LGBP than patients that received conventional pulmonary physiotherapy postoperatively.

Humans , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Gastric Bypass , Incidence , Length of Stay , Multivariate Analysis , Pneumonia , Postoperative Care , Postoperative Complications , Pulmonary Atelectasis , Thorax
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762295


PURPOSE: Despite the use of different surgical methods, surgical site infection is still an important cause of mortality and morbidity in patients and imposes a considerable cost on the healthcare system. Administration of supplemental oxygen during surgery has been reported to reduce surgical site infection (SSI); however, that result is still controversial. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of hyperoxygenation during colorectal surgery on the incidence of wound infection. METHODS: This study was a prospective double-blind case-control study. The main aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of hyperoxygenation during colorectal surgery on the incidence of SSI. Also, secondary outcomes, such as atelectasis, pneumonia, respiratory failure, length of hospital stay, and required hospitalization in the intensive care unit were evaluated. RESULTS: SSI was recorded in 2 patients (2 of 40, 5%) in the hyperoxygenation group (FiO2 80%) and 6 patients (6 of 40, 15%) in the control group (FiO2 30%) (P < 0.05). Time of hospitalization was 6 ± 6.4 days in the hyperoxygenation group and 9.2 ± 2.4 days in the control group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: This study showed a positive effect of hyperoxygenation in reducing SSI in colorectal surgery, especially surgery in an emergency setting. When the low risk, low cost, and effectiveness of this method in patients undergoing a laparotomy are considered, it is recommended for all patients undergoing colorectal surgery.

Humans , Anesthesia , Case-Control Studies , Colorectal Surgery , Delivery of Health Care , Emergencies , Hospitalization , Incidence , Intensive Care Units , Laparotomy , Length of Stay , Methods , Mortality , Oxygen , Pneumonia , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Atelectasis , Respiratory Insufficiency , Surgical Wound Infection , Wound Infection
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762253


BACKGROUND: Aeration of the lungs must be monitored during general anesthesia because of the possibility of postsurgical pulmonary complications. The aim of this study was to compare PaO₂/FiO₂ and the number of regions with B-line on transthoracic lung ultrasonography (TLU) between the postinduction and postsurgical periods. METHODS: Twenty-six adult patients undergoing major abdominal surgery were enrolled. Arterial blood gas analysis and TLU were performed 30 min after the induction of anesthesia (postinduction) and after skin closure (postsurgical period) while patients were under mechanical ventilation. TLU was performed in 12 regions (anterior, lateral, and posterior in the upper and lower regions of both lungs). The number of regions with B-line was counted. RESULTS: Compared with postinduction values, the number of regions with B-line on TLU was increased in the postsurgical period (0.3 ± 0.5 to 1.3 ± 1.2, P < 0.001); however, PaO₂/FiO₂ did not significantly differ (421.3 ± 95.8 to 425.2 ± 86.0, P = 0.765). The change in PaO₂/FiO₂ (postinduction-postsurgical period) was significantly higher in Group B than in Group A (P = 0.028). CONCLUSIONS: Although the number of regions with B-line on TLU was increased in the postsurgical period, lung oxygenation did not differ, based on the main assessment in this study. In contrast, patients with an increased number of regions with B-line tended to show a reduction in PaO₂/FiO₂ during the postsurgical period. Further study seems necessary to establish the number of regions with B-line on TLU as a tool for evaluation of perioperative oxygenation.

Adult , Humans , Anesthesia , Anesthesia, General , Anesthesiology , Blood Gas Analysis , Lung , Observational Study , Oxygen , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Atelectasis , Pulmonary Ventilation , Respiration, Artificial , Skin , Ultrasonography
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719466


Patients undergoing thoracic surgery show various lesions such as chronic obstructive lung diseases, pleural adhesion, pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, atelectasis, pleural effusion, pulmonary edema, and pneumothorax throughout preoperative, operative, and recovery periods. Therefore, lung ultrasonography has potential for perioperative use in thoracic surgery. Benefits of lung ultrasonography over conventional chest X-ray are convincing. First, ultrasonography has higher sensitivity than X-ray in various lesions. Second, it can be performed at bed side to obtain diagnosis immediately. Third, it does not expose patients to radiologic hazard. If anesthesiologists can obtain necessary skills and perform lung ultrasonography as a routine evaluation process for patients, territory of anesthesia would become broader and patients would obtain more benefit.

Humans , Anesthesia , Diagnosis , Lung Diseases, Obstructive , Lung , Pleural Effusion , Pneumonia , Pneumothorax , Pulmonary Atelectasis , Pulmonary Edema , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Thoracic Surgery , Thorax , Ultrasonography
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739586


PURPOSE: Our aim for this study was to evaluate early and late complications and outcomes of primary sleeve gastrectomy (PSG) versus conversion sleeve gastrectomy (CSG). METHODS: From February 2013 to December 2016, a total of 180 patients underwent sleeve gastrectomy (150 PSG and 30 CSG). All patients received a metal clipping at the end of the stapling line and a continuous seromuscular suture at the resection margin, for reinforcement. RESULTS: There were no differences in the percentages among males and females or age between the 2 groups, but the body mass index (BMI) of the PSG group was higher at 36.8 ± 4.7 than that of the CSG group (32.4 ± 5.7, P < 0.001). Three early postoperative complications were noted in the PSG group; 1 patient underwent repeat laparoscopic exploration due to pancreatic injury, and 2 other patients developed pulmonary atelectasis. On the contrary, 2 early minor complications were noted in the CSG group. Thirty-eight patients (25.3%) in the PSG group developed 43 late, minor complications, while 9 patients (30.0%) developed 11 late minor and 1 major complication in the CSG group. However, there was no difference in complication rate between PSG and CSG. Percentage excess BMI loss at 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery was comparable between the groups. CONCLUSION: PSG and CSG were comparable in terms of postoperative complications and loss of weight. Therefore, CSG could be used for failed primary restrictive bariatric surgery. However, the durability of these outcomes remains unknown.

Female , Humans , Male , Bariatric Surgery , Body Mass Index , Gastrectomy , Postoperative Complications , Pulmonary Atelectasis , Reoperation , Sutures
Rev. colomb. radiol ; 30(1): 5102-5104, 2019. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1008295


Las atelectasias, como consecuencia del proceso anestésico, son un hallazgo frecuente en los estudios imaginológicos obtenidos en la población pediátrica. La correcta identificación de las atelectasias y su asociación causal con la anestesia evita el sobrediagnóstico y la exposición innecesaria a radiación en estos pacientes. Se presentan dos casos de atelectasias asociadas a anestesia con intubación orotraqueal en imágenes de pacientes pediátricos del Hospital Universitario San Ignacio durante el último año, comparadas con imágenes de tórax de los mismos pacientes bajo sedación o despiertos.

Atelectasis, as a consequence of the anaesthetic process, is a frequent finding in imaging studies obtained in the paediatric population. The correct identification of atelectasis and its causal association with anesthesia avoids overdiagnosis and unnecessary exposure to radiation in these patients. We present two cases of atelectasis associated with anesthesia with endotracheal intubation, found in chest images of pediatric patients at the Hospital Universitario San Ignacio during the last year, and compare them with their images obtained under sedation or awake.

Humans , Pulmonary Atelectasis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Anesthesia
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(7): e8585, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011588


Atelectasis and inadequate oxygenation in lung donors is a common problem during the retrieval of these organs. Nevertheless, the use of high positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is not habitual during procedures of lung retrieval. Twenty-one Sprague-Dawley male consanguineous rats were used in the study. The animals were divided into 3 groups according to the level of PEEP used: low (2 cmH2O), moderate (5 cmH2O), and high (10 cmH2O). Animals were ventilated with a tidal volume of 6 mL/kg. Before lung removal, the lungs were inspected for the presence of atelectasis. When atelectasis was detected, alveolar recruitment maneuvers were performed. Blood gasometric analysis was performed immediately. Finally, the lungs were retrieved, weighed, and submitted to histological analysis. The animals submitted to higher PEEP showed higher levels of oxygenation with the same tidal volumes PO2=262.14 (PEEP 2), 382.4 (PEEP 5), and 477.0 (PEEP 10). The occurrence of atelectasis was rare in animals with a PEEP of 10 cmH2O, which therefore required less frequent recruitment maneuvers (need for recruitment: PEEP 2=100%, PEEP 5 =100%, and PEEP 10=14.3%). There was no change in hemodynamic stability, occurrence of pulmonary edema, or other histological injuries with the use of high PEEP. The use of high PEEP (10 cmH2O) was feasible and probably a beneficial strategy for the prevention of atelectasis and the optimization of oxygenation during lung retrieval. Clinical studies should be performed to confirm this hypothesis.

Animals , Male , Rats , Pulmonary Atelectasis/rehabilitation , Pulmonary Gas Exchange/physiology , Tidal Volume/physiology , Positive-Pressure Respiration/methods , Lung Transplantation/methods , Pulmonary Atelectasis/physiopathology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Models, Animal