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1.
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 50(3): e1284, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1357315

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El síndrome respiratorio agudo grave (por la COVID-19) es en la actualidad la primera causa de muerte en el Perú, por lo que se requiere de fármacos eficaces y seguros para mitigar la enfermedad. Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica en SciELO y PubMed/ Medline; se seleccionaron 37 de 58 artículos sobre el tema. Objetivos: Revisar e integrar la información sobre las interacciones farmacocinéticas de la azitromicina que se prescriben en el tratamiento ambulatorio de la COVID-19 en el Perú, y evaluar su implicación clínica. Desarrollo: La azitromicina es usada en la COVID-19, por su actividad antiinflamatoria, al inhibir a las interleucinas (IL1, 6, 8 y TNF-α), y a las moléculas de adhesión intracelular 1 (ICAM1); y por inducir la producción de interferón tipo I (IFN-α, IFN-β) y III (IFN-λ) en células de pacientes con enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica. Los estudios de tres brazos, aleatorizado y abierto, indican que la azitromicina no genera cambios en los parámetros farmacocinéticos de la ivermectina, sildenafilo, rupatadina y desloratadina; los estudios de un solo centro, abierto, sin ayuno y de dos períodos, evidencian que la azitromicina influye en los parámetros farmacocinéticos de venetoclax y de los psicotrópicos. Conclusiones: Basado en la evidencia de los estudios clínicos revisados e integrados, se concluye que estas son limitadas y de poca relevancia clínica, sin embargo, se propone usar el antibiótico bajo el criterio científico del médico, para evitar las interacciones farmacocinéticas y las reacciones adversas de los fármacos(AU)


Introduction: The severe acute respiratory syndrome (due to COVID-19) is currently the leading cause of death in Peru, so effective and safe drugs are required to mitigate the disease. A bibliographic search was carried out in SciELO and PubMed/Medline; 37 of 58 articles on the topic were selected. Objectives: Review and integrate the information on the pharmacokinetic interactions of azithromycin that are prescribed in the outpatient treatment of COVID-19 in Peru, and evaluate their clinical implication. Development: Azithromycin is used in COVID-19, due to its anti-inflammatory activity, by inhibiting interleukins (IL1, 6, 8 and TNF-α), and intracellular adhesion molecules 1 (ICAM1); and by inducing the production of type I interferon (IFN-α, IFN-β) and III (IFN-λ) in cells of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The three-arm, randomized and open-label studies indicate that azithromycin does not cause changes in the pharmacokinetic parameters of ivermectin, sildenafil, rupatadine, and desloratadine; single-center, open-label, non-fasting, and two-period studies show that azithromycin influences the pharmacokinetic parameters of venetoclax and psychotropics. Conclusions: Based on the evidence from the reviewed and integrated clinical studies, it is concluded that these are limited and of little clinical relevance, however, it is proposed to use the antibiotic under the scientific criteria of the doctor, to avoid pharmacokinetic interactions and adverse reactions of drugs(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/prevention & control , COVID-19/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Cause of Death
2.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(3): 323-328, jun. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346466

ABSTRACT

Resumen La presencia de sarcopenia (pérdida de masa y función muscular) implica peor pronóstico. Sin embargo, su diagnóstico es complejo y no se realiza en la atención clínica habitual. Se ha propuesto un biomarcador como estimador subrogado de la masa muscular esquelética, el denominado índice de sarcopenia ([creatinina sérica/cistatina C] x100) que se asocia a características pronósticas en diversas enfermedades incluyendo pacientes con enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica (EPOC) estable. El objetivo de nuestro estudio ha sido evaluar de forma prospectiva la potencial información clínica y pronóstica de este biomarcador en agudización de la EPOC. Se trata de un estudio prospectivo, durante un año, de los pacientes consecutivos que ingresan por agudización de su EPOC. Se incluyeron 89 pacientes, 70 varones (79%) y 19 mujeres (21%). Aquellos con valores disminuidos del índice de sarcopenia tenían más disnea y requerían una internación más prolongada. En el análisis de correlación se obtuvo valores con significación estadística del índice con FEV1 (r = 0.23), PaCO (r = -0.30) y bicarbonato (r = -0.31), y con la disnea (r = -0.25) y la duración del ingreso (r =0.30). En los ingresados por agudización de la EPOC el índice de sarcopenia se relacionó con características pronósticas, de modo que los valores inferiores se asociaron a mayor duración de la internación, más disnea y mayor afectación funcional. Al tratarse de un índice asociado a la masa muscular, su determinación podría identificar a pacientes a incluir en un plan terapéutico diferenciado.


Abstract Sarcopenia (loss of muscle mass and function) implies a worse prognosis. However, its diagnosis is complex and is not made in routine clinical care. A biomarker has been proposed as a surrogate estimator of skeletal muscle mass, the so-called sarcopenia index ([serum creatinine/cystatine C] x100) which is associated with prognostic features in various diseases including patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of our study was to prospectively evaluate the potential clinical and prognostic information of this biomarker in COPD exacerbation. This is a one-year prospective study of consecutive patients admitted for COPD exacerbation. A total of 89 patients, 70 men (79%) and 19 women (21%) were included. Those with lower values of the sarcopenia index had a higher level of dyspnoea and a longer hospitalization. In the correlation analysis, the index had statistically significant values with FEV1 (r = 0.23), PaCO (r = -0.30), bicarbonate (r = -0.31), dyspnoea (r = -0.25) and length of admission (r = -0.30). In patients admitted for COPD exacerbation, the sarcopenia index was related to prognostic characteristics, so that lower values were associated with longer duration of hospital admission, more dyspnoea and greater functional impairment. As this is an index associated with muscle mass, its determination may identify patients who could be the subject of a differentiated therapeutic plan.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Sarcopenia/diagnosis , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Disease Progression , Hospitalization
4.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 116(2): 259-265, fev. 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152999

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento A dispneia por esforço é uma queixa comum de pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca com fração de ejeção preservada (ICFEP) e doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica (DPOC). A ICFEP é comum na DPOC e é um fator de risco independente para a progressão e exacerbação da doença. A detecção precoce, portanto, tem grande relevância clínica. Objetivos O objetivo deste estudo foi detectar a frequência de ICFEP mascarada em pacientes com DPOC não grave com dispneia aos esforços, sem doença cardiovascular manifesta, e analisar a correlação entre ICFEP mascarada e os parâmetros do teste cardiopulmonar de exercício (TCPE). Métodos Aplicamos o TCPE em 104 pacientes com DPOC não grave com dispneia aos esforços, sem doença cardiovascular evidente. A ecocardiografia foi realizada antes e no pico do TCPE. Os valores de corte para disfunção diastólica ventricular esquerda e direita induzida por estresse (DDVE/DDVD) foram E/e' >15; E/e' >6, respectivamente. A análise de correlação foi feita entre os parâmetros do TCPE e o estresse E/d'. Valor de p<0,05 foi considerado significativo. Resultados 64% dos pacientes tinham DDVE induzida por estresse; 78% tinham DDVD induzida por estresse. Ambos os grupos com estresse DDVE e DDVD obtiveram carga menor, V'O2 e pulso de O2 mais baixos, além de apresentarem redução na eficiência ventilatória (maiores inclinações de VE/VCO2). Nenhum dos parâmetros do TCPE foram correlacionados com E/e' DDVE/DDVD induzida por estresse. Conclusão Há uma alta prevalência de disfunção diastólica induzida por estresse em pacientes com DPOC não grave com dispneia aos esforços, sem doença cardiovascular evidente. Nenhum dos parâmetros do TCPE se correlaciona com E/e' induzida por estresse. Isso demanda a realização de Ecocardiografia sob estresse por exercício (EES) e TCPE para detecção precoce e manejo adequado da ICFEP mascarada nesta população. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2021; 116(2):259-265)


Abstract Background Exertional dyspnea is a common complaint of patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). HFpEF is common in COPD and is an independent risk factor for disease progression and exacerbation. Early detection, therefore, has great clinical relevance. Objectives The aim of the study is to detect the frequency of masked HFpEF in non-severe COPD patients with exertional dyspnea, free of overt cardiovascular disease, and to analyze the correlation between masked HFpEF and the cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) parameters. Methods We applied the CPET in 104 non-severe COPD patients with exertional dyspnea, free of overt cardiovascular disease. Echocardiography was performed before and at peak CPET. Cut-off values for stress-induced left and right ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD/ RVDD) were E/e'>15; E/e'>6, respectively. Correlation analysis was done between CPET parameters and stress E/e'. A p-value <0.05 was considered significant. Results 64% of the patients had stress-induced LVDD; 78% had stress-induced RVDD. Both groups with stress LVDD and RVDD achieved lower load, lower V'O2 and O2-pulse, besides showing reduced ventilatory efficiency (higher VE/VCO2 slopes). None of the CPET parameters were correlated to stress-induced left or right E/e'. Conclusion There is a high prevalence of stress-induced diastolic dysfunction in non-severe COPD patients with exertional dyspnea, free of overt cardiovascular disease. None of the CPET parameters correlates to stress-induced E/e'. This demands the performance of Exercise stress echocardiography (ESE) and CPET for the early detection and proper management of masked HFpEF in this population. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2021; 116(2):259-265)


Subject(s)
Humans , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnostic imaging , Heart Failure/diagnostic imaging , Stroke Volume , Exercise Tolerance , Echocardiography, Stress
5.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(2): e9542, 2021. tab
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1142580

ABSTRACT

Influenza viruses exacerbate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with considerable morbidity and mortality. Zanamivir and oseltamivir are effective in treating influenza. However, their efficacy in relieving influenza symptoms in COPD patients remains unknown, with the lack of controlled trials in this subject. Therefore, we conducted this randomized controlled trial to investigate the clinical efficacy of both interventions in this population. Patients were allocated to two groups (80 patients each): oseltamivir (OSELTA) and zanamivir (ZANA) groups. Oseltamivir (75 mg) was orally administered twice daily for 5 days, while zanamivir (10 mg) was inhaled twice daily for 5 days. Clinical parameters including body temperature, influenza symptoms (i.e., sore throat, cough, etc.), and serial blood tests were recorded on days 1, 3, and 7. We analyzed primary (changes in body temperature) and secondary outcomes (changes in non-specific symptoms) using the pre-protocol and intention-to-treat analyses. Differences between groups were assessed using t-test. Oseltamivir and zanamivir significantly reduced body temperature on the 3rd day after treatment; however, the number of patients who reported clinical improvement in influenza-like symptoms was significantly higher in the OSELTA group compared to the ZANA group on days 3 (85 vs 68.8%, P=0.015) and 7 (97.5 vs 83.8%, P=0.003). However, no significant changes in hematological (white blood cells and its subtypes) and inflammatory (C-reactive protein) parameters were noted (P>0.05). Our results suggested that oseltamivir and zanamivir are effective in reducing body temperature, while oseltamivir led to better clinical improvement regarding influenza-like symptoms in patients with COPD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Oseltamivir/therapeutic use , Zanamivir/therapeutic use , Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Neuraminidase
6.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(2): e10084, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1142577

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)-heart failure (HF) coexistence on linear and nonlinear dynamics of heart rate variability (HRV). Forty-one patients (14 with COPD-HF and 27 HF) were enrolled and underwent pulmonary function and echocardiography evaluation to confirm the clinical diagnosis. Heart rate (HR) and R-R intervals (iRR) were collected during active postural maneuver (APM) [supine (10 min) to orthostasis (10 min)], respiratory sinus arrhythmia maneuver (RSA-M) (4 min), and analysis of frequency domain, time domain, and nonlinear HRV. We found expected autonomic response during orthostatic changes with reduction of mean iRR, root mean square of successive differences between heart beats (RMSSD), RR tri index, and high-frequency [HF (nu)] and an increased mean HR, low-frequency [LF (nu)], and LF/HF (nu) compared with supine only in HF patients (P<0.05). Patients with COPD-HF coexistence did not respond to postural change. In addition, in the orthostatic position, higher HF nu and lower LF nu and LF/HF (nu) were observed in COPD-HF compared with HF patients. HF patients showed an opposite response during RSA-M, with increased sympathetic modulation (LF nu) and reduced parasympathetic modulation (HF nu) (P<0.05) compared with COPD-HF patients. COPD-HF directly influenced cardiac autonomic modulation during active postural change and controlled breathing, demonstrating an autonomic imbalance during sympathetic and parasympathetic maneuvers compared with isolated HF.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Heart Failure/complications , Heart Rate , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Function, Left , Nonlinear Dynamics
7.
In. Manzanares Castro, William; Aramendi Epstein, Ignacio; Pico, José Luis do. Disionías en el paciente grave: historias clínicas comentadas. Montevideo, Cuadrado, 2021. p.393-406.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1344748
8.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1254149

ABSTRACT

Tumores cardíacos primários consistem em patologia rara, sendo encontrados em até 0,03% das autópsias e a maioria benigna. Dentre os benignos, os lipomas apresentam incidência de 8,5%, localizando-se mais frequentemente no septo interatrial. Quando localizado no septo interventricular, é considerado patologia ainda mais incomum, com prevalência real desconhecida. Na maioria dos casos, o diagnóstico ocorre de forma incidental, por exame de imagem cardiovascular, e pode ser confirmado por exame histopatológico. Apresentam-se mais comumente de forma assintomática ou com sintomas inespecíficos, mas podem evoluir com arritmias, disfunção valvar, insuficiência cardíaca e óbito, o que ressalta a importância dos métodos de imagem cardiovascular no diagnóstico diferencial e na orientação da terapêutica adequada. O presente trabalho relata o caso de um paciente com achado ecocardiográfico incidental de massa cardíaca localizada no septo interventricular, seguindo da realização de ressonância magnética cardíaca, para melhor caracterização da lesão e demonstração de características compatíveis com lipoma.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Ventricular Septum/pathology , Heart Ventricles/pathology , Lipoma/etiology , Lipoma/diagnostic imaging , X-Rays , Biopsy/methods , Echocardiography/methods , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods , Comorbidity , Electrocardiography
9.
J. bras. pneumol ; 47(6): e20210124, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356421

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: The identification of persistent airway obstruction is key to making a diagnosis of COPD. The GOLD guidelines suggest a fixed criterion-a post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC ratio < 70%-to define obstruction, although other guidelines suggest that a post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC ratio < the lower limit of normal (LLN) is the most accurate criterion. Methods: This was an observational study of individuals ≥ 40 years of age with risk factors for COPD who were referred to our pulmonary function laboratory for spirometry. Respiratory symptoms were also recorded. We calculated the prevalence of airway obstruction and of no airway obstruction, according to the GOLD criterion (GOLD+ and GOLD−, respectively) and according to the LLN criterion (LLN+ and LLN−, respectively). We also evaluated the level of agreement between the two criteria. Results: A total of 241 individuals were included. Airway obstruction was identified according to the GOLD criterion in 42 individuals (17.4%) and according to the LLN criterion in 23 (9.5%). The overall level of agreement between the two criteria was good (k = 0.67; 95% CI: 0.52-0.81), although it was lower among the individuals ≥ 70 years of age (k = 0.42; 95% CI: 0.12-0.72). The proportion of obese individuals was lower in the GOLD+/LLN+ category than in the GOLD+/LLN− category (p = 0.03), as was the median DLCO (p = 0.04). Conclusions: The use of the GOLD criterion appears to be associated with a higher prevalence of COPD. The agreement between the GOLD and LLN criteria also appears to be good, albeit weaker in older individuals. The use of different criteria to define airway obstruction seems to identify individuals with different characteristics. It is essential to understand the clinical meaning of discordance between such criteria. Until more data are available, we recommend a holistic, individualized approach to, as well as close follow-up of, patients with discordant results for airway obstruction.


RESUMO Objetivo: A identificação de obstrução persistente das vias aéreas é fundamental para o diagnóstico de DPOC. As diretrizes da GOLD sugerem um critério fixo - relação VEF1/CVF pós-broncodilatador < 70% - para definir obstrução, embora outras diretrizes sugiram que a relação VEF1/CVF pós-broncodilatador < o limite inferior da normalidade (LIN) é o critério mais preciso. Métodos: Estudo observacional com indivíduos ≥ 40 anos de idade com fatores de risco para DPOC encaminhados ao nosso laboratório de função pulmonar para espirometria. Também foram registrados sintomas respiratórios. Calculamos a prevalência de obstrução e de ausência de obstrução das vias aéreas segundo o critério GOLD (GOLD+ e GOLD−, respectivamente) e segundo o critério LIN (LIN+ e LIN−, respectivamente). Avaliamos também o grau de concordância entre os dois critérios. Resultados: Foram incluídos 241 indivíduos. Obstrução das vias aéreas foi identificada segundo o critério GOLD em 42 indivíduos (17,4%) e segundo o critério LIN em 23 (9,5%). A concordância global entre os dois critérios foi boa (k = 0,67; IC95%: 0,52-0,81), embora tenha sido menor entre os indivíduos ≥ 70 anos de idade (k = 0,42; IC95%: 0,12-0,72). A proporção de obesos foi menor na categoria GOLD+/LIN+ do que na categoria GOLD+/LIN− (p = 0,03), assim como a mediana de DLCO (p = 0,04). Conclusões: A utilização do critério GOLD parece estar associada a uma maior prevalência de DPOC. A concordância entre os critérios GOLD e LIN também parece ser boa, embora seja mais fraca em indivíduos mais velhos. A utilização de diferentes critérios para definir obstrução das vias aéreas parece identificar indivíduos com diferentes características. É essencial compreender o significado clínico da discordância entre esses critérios. Até que mais dados estejam disponíveis, recomendamos uma abordagem holística e individualizada e também um acompanhamento cuidadoso dos pacientes com resultados discordantes para obstrução das vias aéreas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Airway Obstruction/diagnosis , Airway Obstruction/etiology , Airway Obstruction/epidemiology , Spirometry , Vital Capacity , Forced Expiratory Volume , Risk Factors
11.
J. bras. pneumol ; 47(1): e20200033, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134930

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the frequency of asthma-COPD overlap (ACO) in patients with COPD and to compare, from a clinical, laboratory, and functional point of view, patients with and without ACO, according to different diagnostic criteria. Methods: The participants underwent evaluation by a pulmonologist, together with spirometry and blood tests. All of the patients were instructed to record their PEF twice a day. The diagnosis of ACO was based on the Proyecto Latinoamericano de Investigación en Obstrucción Pulmonar (PLATINO, Latin American Project for the Investigation of Obstructive Lung Disease) criteria, the American Thoracic Society (ATS) Roundtable criteria, and the Spanish criteria. We investigated patient histories of exacerbations and hospitalizations, after which we applied the COPD Assessment Test and the modified Medical Research Council scale, to classify risk and symptoms in accordance with the GOLD criteria. Results: Of the 51 COPD patients, 14 (27.5%), 8 (12.2%), and 18 (40.0) were diagnosed with ACO on the basis of the PLATINO, ATS Roundtable, and Spanish criteria, respectively. The values for pre-bronchodilator FVC, post-bronchodilator FVC, and pre-bronchodilator FEV1 were significantly lower among the patients with ACO than among those with COPD only (1.9 ± 0.4 L vs. 2.4 ± 0.7 L, 2.1 ± 0.5 L vs. 2.5 ± 0.8 L, and 1.0 ± 0.3 L vs. 1.3 ± 0.5 L, respectively). When the Spanish criteria were applied, IgE levels were significantly higher among the patients with ACO than among those with COPD only (363.7 ± 525.9 kU/L vs. 58.2 ± 81.6 kU/L). A history of asthma was more common among the patients with ACO (p < 0.001 for all criteria). Conclusions: In our sample, patients with ACO were more likely to report previous episodes of asthma and had worse lung function than did those with COPD only. The ATS Roundtable criteria appear to be the most judicious, although concordance was greatest between the PLATINO and the Spanish criteria.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a frequência de asthma-COPD overlap (ACO, sobreposição asma-DPOC) em pacientes com DPOC e comparar, do ponto de vista clínico, laboratorial e funcional, os pacientes com e sem essa sobreposição conforme diferentes critérios diagnósticos. Métodos: Os participantes foram submetidos à avaliação com pneumologista, espirometria e exame sanguíneo, sendo orientados a manter o registro do PFE duas vezes ao dia. O diagnóstico de ACO deu-se através dos critérios Projeto Latino-Americano de Investigação em Obstrução Pulmonar (PLATINO), American Thoracic Society (ATS) Roundtable e Espanhol. Foram investigados os históricos de exacerbações e hospitalizações e aplicados os instrumentos COPD Assessment Test e escala Medical Research Council modificada, utilizados para a classificação de risco e sintomas da GOLD. Resultados: Entre os 51 pacientes com DPOC, 14 (27,5%), 8 (12,2%) e 18 (40,0) foram diagnosticados com ACO segundo os critérios PLATINO, ATS Roundtable e Espanhol, respectivamente. Pacientes com sobreposição significativamente apresentaram pior CVF pré-broncodilatador (1,9 ± 0,4 L vs. 2,4 ± 0,7 L), CVF pós-broncodilatador (2,1 ± 0,5 L vs. 2,5 ± 0,8 L) e VEF1 pré-broncodilatador (1,0 ± 0,3 L vs. 1,3 ± 0,5 L) quando comparados a pacientes com DPOC. Os níveis de IgE foram significativamente mais elevados em pacientes com sobreposição diagnosticados pelo critério Espanhol (363,7 ± 525,9 kU/L vs. 58,2 ± 81,6 kU/L). O histórico de asma foi mais frequente em pacientes com a sobreposição (p < 0,001 para todos os critérios). Conclusões: Nesta amostra, pacientes com ACO relataram asma prévia com maior frequência e possuíam pior função pulmonar quando comparados a pacientes com DPOC. O critério ATS Roundtable aparenta ser o mais criterioso em sua definição, enquanto os critérios PLATINO e Espanhol apresentaram maior concordância entre si.


Subject(s)
Humans , Asthma/complications , Asthma/diagnosis , Asthma/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Spirometry , Forced Expiratory Volume , Hospitalization , Laboratories
12.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(12): 1679-1684, Dec. 2020. tab
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143668

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: We aimed to explore the prevalence of smoking rates and comorbidities and evaluate the relationship between them and disease severity and mortality in inpatients with COVID-19. METHODS: COVID-19 patients were divided into the following groups: clinic group, intensive care unit (ICU) group, survivors, and non-survivors. Non-COVID-19 patients were included as a control group. The groups were compared. RESULTS: There was no difference between patients with and without COVID-19 in terms of smoking, asthma, diabetes, dementia, coronary artery disease (CAD), hypertension, chronic renal failure and arrhythmia (p>0.05). Older age (Odds ratio (OR), 1.061; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.041-1.082; p< 0.0001), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (OR, 2.775; 95% CI: 1.128-6.829; p=0.026) and CAD (OR, 2.696; 95% CI: 1.216-5.974; p=0.015) were significantly associated with ICU admission. Current smoking (OR, 5.101; 95% CI: 2.382-10.927; p<0.0001) and former smoking (OR, 3.789; 95% CI: 1.845-7.780; p<0.0001) were risk factors for ICU admission. Older age (OR; 1.082; 95% CI: 1.056-1.109; p<0.0001), COPD (OR, 3.213; 95% CI: 1.224-8.431; p=0.018), CAD (OR, 6.252; 95% CI: 2.171-18.004; p=0.001) and congestive heart failure (CHF) (OR, 5.917; 95% CI 1.069-32.258; p=0.042), were significantly associated with mortality. Current smoking (OR, 13.014; 95% CI: 5.058-33.480; p<0.0001) and former smoking (OR, 6.507; 95% CI 2.731-15.501; p<0.0001) were also risk factors for mortality. CONCLUSION: Smoking, older age, COPD, and CAD were risk factors for ICU admission and mortality in patients with COVID-19. CHF was not a risk factor for ICU admission; however, it was a risk factor for mortality.


RESUMO OBJETIVO: Buscamos explorar as taxas de prevalência de tabagismo e de comorbidades e avaliar a relação entre elas e a severidade e mortalidade da doença em pacientes hospitalizados com COVID-19. MÉTODOS: Pacientes com COVID-19 foram divididos nos seguintes grupos: grupo clínico, grupo da unidade de terapia intensiva (UTI), grupo de sobreviventes e não-sobreviventes. Pacientes sem COVID-19 foram incluídos em um grupo de controle. Os grupos foram comparados. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença entre os pacientes com e sem COVID-19 em termos de tabagismo, asma, diabetes, demência, doença arterial coronariana (DAC), hipertensão arterial, insuficiência renal crônica e arritmia (p>0,05). Idade mais avançada (odds ratio (OR), 1,061; 95% de intervalo de confiança (IC): 1,041-1,082; p< 0,0001), doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica (DPOC) (OR, 2,775; 95% IC: 1,128-6,829; p=0,026) e DAC (OR, 2,696; 95% IC: 1,216-5,974; p=0,015) estavam significativamente associados com a admissão na UTI. O tabagismo atual (OR, 5,101; 95% IC: 2,382-10,927; p < 0,0001) e tabagismo prévio (OR, 3,789; 95% IC: 1,845-7,780; p< 0,0001) foram fatores de risco para admissão na UTI. Idade mais avançada (OR; 1,082; 95% IC: 1,056-1,109;< 0,0001), DPOC (OR, 3,213; 95% IC: 1,224-8,431; p=0,018), DAC (OR, 6,252; 95% IC: 2,171-18,004; p=0,001) e insuficiência cardíaca congestiva (ICC) (OR, 5,917; 95% IC 1,069-32,258; p=0,042) estavam significativamente associados com mortalidade. O tabagismo atual (OR, 13,014; 95% IC: 5,058-33,480; p<0,0001) e o tabagismo prévio (OR, 6,507; 95% IC 2,731-15,501; p<0,0001) também foram fatores de risco para mortalidade. CONCLUSÃO: O tabagismo, a idade avançada, DPOC e DAC foram fatores de risco para admissão na UTI e mortalidade em pacientes com COVID-19. ICC não foi um fator de risco para admissão na UTI; no entanto, foi um fator de risco para mortalidade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Aged , Smoking/adverse effects , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Turkey/epidemiology , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Comorbidity , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Intensive Care Units , Middle Aged
13.
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 49(4): e646, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156504

ABSTRACT

Introducción: En la actualidad no existen escalas predictivas de fácil aplicación, del fracaso de la ventilación no invasiva en la enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica agudizada. Objetivos: Validar una escala predictiva de fracaso de la ventilación no invasiva en un grupo de enfermos a partir de los factores identificados como predictores de fallo. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio de cohortes, en pacientes con enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica agudizada, tratados con ventilación no invasiva, egresados de las unidades de atención al paciente grave del Hospital Provincial Saturnino Lora, desde enero del 2011 a enero del 2016, en quienes se identificaron los factores predictivos de fallo. La muestra quedó conformada por 118 pacientes. En un segundo momento, se diseñó la escala predictiva. Para su validación, se realizó un estudio de cohorte, en una nueva muestra de 82 pacientes con iguales características, desde enero del 2016 a enero del 2019. Resultados: La presencia de fugas en la máscara, el inicio de los síntomas de más de 24 horas, la disminución de los valores promedios de la escala de coma de Glasgow y el pH, el incremento de las frecuencias cardiaca y respiratoria y la PaCO2, se asocian con el fracaso de la ventilación no invasiva. Los factores con magnitud causal, fueron la frecuencia respiratoria, la frecuencia cardiaca, y la PaCO2 a las dos horas. Conclusiones: La escala predictiva del fracaso de la ventilación no invasiva en la enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica agudizada resulta adecuada para precisar la probabilidad de fallo del proceder terapéutico(AU)


Introduction: There are currently no predictive scales, easy to apply, for the failure of non-invasive ventilation in acute chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Objectives: To validate a predictive scale of failure of non-invasive ventilation in a group of patients based on the factors identified as predictors of failure. Methods: A cohort study was carried out in patients with acute chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, treated with non-invasive ventilation, graduated from the serious patient care units of the Saturnino Lora Provincial Hospital, from January 2011 to January 2016, in whom the predictive factors of failure were identified. The sample was made up of 118 patients. At a second moment, the predictive scale was designed. For its validation, a cohort study was conducted in a new sample of 82 patients with the same characteristics, recruited from January 2016 to January 2019. Results: The presence of leaks, the onset of symptoms of more than 24 hours, the decrease in the average values ​​of the Glasgow Coma Scale and pH, the increase in heart and respiratory rates and PaCO2, are associated with failure of noninvasive ventilation. The factors with causal magnitude were respiratory rate, heart rate, and PaCO2 at two hours. Conclusions: The predictive scale of failure of non-invasive ventilation in acute chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is adequate to determine the probability of failure of the therapeutic procedure(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Noninvasive Ventilation/methods
15.
CoDAS ; 32(4): e20190036, 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133513

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Verificar a relação entre o risco de disfagia e o estado de saúde de indivíduos com Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica (DPOC). Método: Estudo transversal, com amostra de conveniência. Foram incluídos 23 indivíduos com diagnóstico de DPOC, de acordo com os critérios de GOLD (2019). São participantes de um programa de reabilitação pulmonar, clinicamente estáveis (sem exacerbações dos sintomas, no mínimo, de 30 dias) e em tratamento medicamentoso otimizado. Foram avaliadas as medidas antropométricas (IMC), o pico de fluxo expiratório (PFE), o estado mental (MEEM), o risco de disfagia (Eating Assessment Tool -EAT-10) e o estado de saúde (COPD Assessment Test -CAT). A média de idade dos participantes foi de 60,39 ± 9,90 anos, dos quais 11 eram do sexo feminino e eutróficos. Resultados: Foram encontradas associações positiva e moderada (r=0,57; p=0,004) entre o escore obtido pelo CAT e EAT-10 de indivíduos com DPOC. Conclusão: Os resultados demonstraram relação entre o risco de disfagia e o estado de saúde nos indivíduos com DPOC.


ABSTRACT Purpose: To verify the relationship between the risk of dysphagia and health status in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Method: Cross-sectional study with convenience sample. Twenty-three individuals with a diagnosis of COPD according to GOLD 2019 criteria. The individuals participated in a pulmonary rehabilitation program, clinically stable (without exacerbations of at least 30 days) and in optimized drug treatment were included. The study analyzed anthropometric measures (BMI), peak expiratory flow (PEF), mental status (MEEM), eating assessment tool (EAT-10), and health status (COPD Assessment Test -CAT). The mean age was 60.39 ± 9.90 years, 11 individuals were female and eutrophic. Results: We observed a positive and moderate association (r = 0.57, p = 0.004) between the CAT and EAT-10 scores in the sample studied. Conclusion: The results demonstrated relationship between the risk of dysphagia and the health status in individuals with COPD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Deglutition Disorders/diagnosis , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Respiratory Function Tests , Health Status , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/rehabilitation , Middle Aged
16.
Clinics ; 75: e1778, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142778

ABSTRACT

In recent years, frailty has attracted increasing attention from clinicians and health care workers. The influence of frailty on the elderly, especially those with chronic diseases of the respiratory system, is highly significant. Frailty is particularly more common in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Frailty and COPD share many risk factors and pathophysiological mechanisms. As a comprehensive interventional method for chronic respiratory diseases, pulmonary rehabilitation is an important basic measure for the management of patients with COPD. Frailty in these patients can be reversed using pulmonary rehabilitation by targeting five components of the frailty phenotype at the entry point. The present review discusses the benefits of pulmonary rehabilitation in patients with COPD complicated by frailty and provides a theoretical basis for pulmonary rehabilitation treatment in this population. In addition, the timing of pulmonary rehabilitation is also addressed, with the prefrail stage being the "golden" period. The implementation of pulmonary rehabilitation must vary among individuals, and individualized treatment strategies will help maximize benefits.


Subject(s)
Aged , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Frailty , Quality of Life , Risk Factors , Lung
17.
J. bras. pneumol ; 46(6): e20190136, 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134924

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo Verificar a associação entre massa e espessura do ventrículo esquerdo (VE) e presença de hipoxemia noturna significativa em pacientes portadores de DPOC com hipoxemia diurna leve. Métodos Estudo transversal realizado em pacientes ambulatoriais, clinicamente estáveis, portadores de DPOC e hipoxemia leve (saturação de oxigênio ≥ 90 a ≤ 94%, identificados por oximetria não invasiva) em um centro clínico especializado no atendimento de doenças respiratórias em Goiânia (GO). Todos foram submetidos a avaliação clínica, espirometria, polissonografia, ecocardiografia, gasometria arterial, teste de caminhada de 6 minutos e radiografia de tórax. Resultados Foram avaliados 64 pacientes com DPOC e hipoxemia noturna. Pacientes com hipoxemia noturna significativa apresentaram parâmetros ecocardiográficos associados a mais quantidade de musculatura do VE quando comparados a pacientes com hipoxemia noturna leve. A relação entre volume/massa do VE foi significativamente menor no grupo com hipoxemia noturna significativa (0,64 ± 0,13 versus 0,72 ± 0,12; p = 0,04) e a espessura diastólica do septo interventricular e a espessura diastólica da parede posterior do VE foram significativamente maiores nesse grupo (9,7 ± 0,92 versus 9,1 ± 0,90; p = 0,03) (9,7 ± 1,0 versus 8,9 ± 1,0; p = 0,01). O tempo de sono REM com saturação abaixo de 85% prediz significativamente a espessura do septo (ajuste para índice de massa corporal [IMC], idade e pressão arterial média; r2 = 0,20; p = 0,046). Conclusão Em indivíduos portadores de DPOC e hipoxemia noturna significativa, foi observada associação entre hipoxemia severa no sono REM e parâmetros ecocardiográficos que indicam aumento da massa do VE. Tal fato sugere que esse subgrupo de indivíduos pode se beneficiar de uma avaliação ecocardiográfica do VE.


ABSTRACT Objective To verify association between left ventricular (LV) mass and thickness and the presence of significant nocturnal hypoxemia in patients with COPD with mild diurnal hypoxemia. Methods A cross-sectional study carried out in clinically stable outpatients with COPD and mild hypoxemia (oxygen saturation ≥90 to ≤94%, identified by noninvasive oximetry) in a clinic specialized in the treatment of respiratory diseases in Goiânia-GO. All patients were submitted to clinical evaluation, spirometry, polysomnography, echocardiography, arterial blood gas analysis, 6-minute walk test and chest X-ray. Results Patients with significant nocturnal hypoxemia had echocardiographic parameters associated with increase of LV musculature when compared to patients with mild nocturnal hypoxemia. The LV volume/mass ratio was significantly lower in the group with significant nocturnal hypoxemia (ratio 0.64 ± 0.13 versus 0.72 ± 0.12, p = 0.04), the thickness diastolic diameter of the interventricular septum and the diastolic thickness of the LV posterior wall were significantly higher in this group (9.7 ± 0.92 versus 9.1 ± 0.90 p = 0.03), (9.7 ± 1.0 versus 8.9 ± 1.0, p = 0.01. The time in REM sleep with saturation below 85% significantly predicted septum thickness (adjustment for BMI, age and mean blood pressure, r2 = 0.20; p = 0.046). Conclusion We observed association between severe REM sleep hypoxemia and echocardiographic parameters indicating increased LV mass in individuals with COPD and significant nocturnal hypoxemia. This suggests that this subgroup of individuals may benefit from an echocardiographic evaluation of the left ventricle.


Subject(s)
Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Echocardiography/methods , Polysomnography/adverse effects , Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular/etiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/physiopathology , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging , Hypoxia/physiopathology , Sleep Apnea Syndromes/physiopathology , Spirometry , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Heart Ventricles/anatomy & histology , Hypoxia/etiology
18.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 27: e30338, jan.-dez. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1050630

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: avaliar os efeitos imediatos da orientação do plano de alta hospitalar aos pacientes com DPOC. Método: estudo prospectivo, comparativo, realizado num hospital privado de São Paulo, com pacientes com DPOC. Na primeira etapa foi aplicado questionário "Plano educacional para pacientes com DPOC" para avaliar conhecimento do paciente sobre sua doença. Na segunda etapa foi realizada intervenção educacional e na terceira, reaplicação do questionário. A comparação do resultado do pré e pós-teste foram feitas pelo teste T pareado. Projeto de pesquisa aprovado em comitê de ética, parecer no 003/12. Resultados: dos 50 pacientes participantes do estudo, 68% responderam não conhecer bem sua doença antes da orientação e apenas 22% após intervenção educacional. Todas seções do questionário apresentaram aumento na média de acertos após intervenção educacional. Conclusão: orientação do plano de alta hospitalar mostrou-se efetiva resultando em melhora imediata do conhecimento.


Objective: to evaluate the immediate effects of the orientation of the hospital discharge plan for patients with COPD. Method: prospective and comparative study performed in a private hospital in São Paulo, with patients with COPD. In first step it was used the questionnaire "Educational Plan for COPD patients" to assess patient knowledge about their disease. In second step, educational intervention was carried out and in the third, again the of the questionnaire was used. The comparison between pre and post-test results was done by paired T-test. The project was approved by the research ethics committee. Result: from the 50 patients who participated in study, 68% reported not knowing their disease well before orientation and only 22% after educational intervention. In all sections of questionnaire there was an increase in correct answers after educational intervention. Conclusion: the orientation of the hospital discharge plan was effective resulting in an immediate improvement of knowledge.


Objetivo: evaluar los efectos inmediatos de la orientación del plan de alta para pacientes con EPOC. Métodos: estudio prospectivo, comparativo, realizado en hospital privado de São Paulo, con pacientes con EPOC. En la primera etapa se aplicó el cuestionario "Plan de Educación para los pacientes con EPOC" para evaluar el conocimiento del paciente sobre su enfermedad. En la segunda etapa fué realizada intervención educativa, en la tercera se realizó reaplicación del cuestionario. La comparación del resultado del pre y post-test fue hecha por la prueba T pareado. Proyecto de investigación aprobado por comité de ética, protocolo no 003/12. Resultados: de los 50 pacientes participantes, 68% dijeron desconocer su enfermedad antes de la orientación, sólo 22% después de la intervención educativa. Todas secciones del cuestionario se produjo aumento en promedio de aciertos después de la intervención. Conclusión: la orientación del plan de alta fué eficaz, resultando mejora inmediata del conocimiento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Patient Discharge , Health Education , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/nursing , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/prevention & control , Education, Nursing , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive
19.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 34(5): 550-559, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042035

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Many publications on coronary surgery and carotid stenosis (CS) can be found, but we do not have enough information about the relationship between ischemic stroke, CS and non-coronary cardiac surgery. Objectives: To evaluate the incidence and risk factors associated with the stroke and CS ≥50% in patients undergoing non-coronary surgeries. Objectives: We assessed 241 patients, aged 40 years or older, between 2009 and 2016, operated in Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Ponta Grossa-PR, Brazil. We perform carotid Doppler in patients 40 years of age or older before any cardiac surgery as a routine. The incidence and possible risk factors for CS ≥50% and perioperative stroke were analyzed by univariate statistical analysis. Results: 11 patients (4.56%) presented perioperative stroke. The risk factor for stroke was CS ≥50%: OR=5.3750 (1.2909-22.3805), P=0.0208. Eighteen patients (7.46%) had CS ≥50% and their risk factors were extracardiac arteriopathy: OR=18.6607 (6.3644-54.7143), P<0.0001; COPD: OR=3.9040 (1.4491-10.5179), P=0.0071; diabetes mellitus: OR=2.9844 (1.0453-8.5204), P=0.0411; recent myocardial infarction: OR=13.8125 (1.8239-104.6052), P=0.0110; EuroSCORE II higher P=0.0056. Conclusion: The incidences of stroke and CS ≥50% were 4.56% and 7.46%, respectively. The risk factor for stroke was CS ≥50% and for CS ≥50% were extracardiac arteriopathy, COPD, diabetes mellitus, recent myocardial infarction and higher EuroSCORE II.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Brain Ischemia/etiology , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Carotid Stenosis/etiology , Carotid Stenosis/epidemiology , Stroke/epidemiology , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Reference Values , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Age Distribution , Risk Assessment , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Diabetes Complications/epidemiology , Peripheral Arterial Disease/complications , Peripheral Arterial Disease/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology
20.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 113(3): 419-428, Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038559

ABSTRACT

Abstract The finding of pulmonary hypertension (PH) by echocardiography is common and of concern. However, echocardiography is just a suggestive and non-diagnostic assessment of PH. When direct involvement of pulmonary circulation is suspected, invasive hemodynamic monitoring is recommended to establish the diagnosis. This assessent provides, in addition to the diagnostic confirmation, the correct identification of the vascular territory predominantly involved (arterial pulmonary or postcapillary). Treatment with specific medication for PH (phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, endothelin receptor antagonists and prostacyclin analogues) has been proven effective in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension, but its use in patients with PH due to left heart disease can even be damaging. In this review, we discuss the diagnosis criteria, how etiological investigation should be carried out, the clinical classification and, finally, the therapeutic recommendations for PH.


Resumo O achado de hipertensão pulmonar (HP) em avaliação ecocardiográfica é frequente e preocupante. No entanto, o ecocardiograma é apenas um exame sugestivo e não diagnóstico de HP. Quando se suspeita de acometimento direto da circulação pulmonar, está indicada medida hemodinâmica invasiva para estabelecer o diagnóstico. Essa avaliação permite, além da confirmação diagnóstica, a correta identificação do território vascular predominantemente acometido (arterial pulmonar ou pós-capilar). O tratamento com as medicações específicas de HP (inibidores da fosfodiestarese 5, antagonistas do receptor de endotelina, análogos da prostaciclina e estimulador da guanilil ciclase solúvel) é comprovadamente eficaz para pacientes com hipertensão arterial pulmonar, mas seu uso em pacientes com HP decorrente de doença cardíaca de câmaras esquerdas pode até mesmo ser prejudicial. Discutiremos nesta revisão o critério diagnóstico, a maneira de proceder a investigação etiológica, a classificação clínica e, finalmente, as recomendações terapêuticas na HP.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hypertension, Pulmonary/diagnostic imaging , Echocardiography , Pulmonary Circulation , Risk Assessment , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Heart Diseases/complications , Hypertension, Pulmonary/etiology , Hypertension, Pulmonary/physiopathology , Hypertension, Pulmonary/therapy
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