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Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eGS4442, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039730


ABSTRACT Objective To analyze the legal demands of tiotropium bromide to treat chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Methods We included secondary data from the pharmaceutical care management systems made available by the Paraná State Drug Center. Results Public interest civil action and ordinary procedures, among others, were the most common used by the patients to obtain the medicine. Two Health Centers in Paraná (Londrina and Umuarama) concentrated more than 50% of the actions. The most common specialty of physicians who prescribed (33.8%) was pulmonology. There is a small financial impact of tiotropium bromide on general costs with medicines of the Paraná State Drug Center. However, a significant individual financial impact was observed because one unit of the medicine represents 38% of the Brazilian minimum wage. Conclusion Our study highlights the need of incorporating this medicine in the class of long-acting anticholinergic bronchodilator in the Brazilian public health system.

RESUMO Objetivo Analisar as demandas judiciais do brometo de tiotrópio para tratar a doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica. Métodos Foram considerados dados secundários dos sistemas gerenciais de assistência farmacêutica, disponibilizados pelo Centro de Medicamentos do Paraná. Resultados Ações civis públicas e ações ordinárias, de procedimento comum, entre outras, foram as mais praticadas pelos pacientes para obter o medicamento. Duas Regionais de Saúde do Paraná (Londrina e Umuarama) concentraram mais de 50% das ações. Quanto à especialidade dos médicos prescritores, 33,8% eram pneumologistas. Verificou-se discreto impacto financeiro do brometo de tiotrópio nos gastos gerais com medicamentos pelo Centro de Medicamentos do Paraná. Entretanto, também houve relevante impacto financeiro individual, pois uma unidade do medicamento consome 38% do salário mínimo. Conclusão O estudo aponta para a necessidade de incorporação deste medicamento da classe broncodilatadores anticolinérgicos de longa duração, no Sistema Único de Saúde.

Humans , Bronchodilator Agents/economics , Drugs, Essential/supply & distribution , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/economics , Judicial Role , Tiotropium Bromide/economics , Health Services Needs and Demand/legislation & jurisprudence , Time Factors , Brazil , Retrospective Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric , Drugs, Essential/economics , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/drug therapy , Health Services Accessibility/economics , Health Services Accessibility/legislation & jurisprudence , Health Services Accessibility/trends , Health Services Needs and Demand/economics , Health Services Needs and Demand/trends , National Health Programs
Rev. Asoc. Méd. Argent ; 130(3): 35-36, sept. 2017.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-973083


Se describe cómo el consumo de tabaco produce la Enfermedad Obstructiva Pulmonar (EPOC), y su repercusión en la salud pública. Se explica la fisiopatología, la clínica, el diagnóstico y el tratamiento de esta enfermedad prevenible.

It describes how the consumption of tobacco causes Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and its impact on public health. Pathophysiology, clinical, diagnosis and treatment of this preventable disease is explained.

Humans , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/etiology , Tobacco Use Disorder/complications , Tobacco Use Disorder/therapy , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/economics , Dyspnea/etiology , Bronchodilator Agents/therapeutic use
Braz. j. phys. ther. (Impr.) ; 18(2): 165-173, 16/05/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-709561


Objective: The current study evaluated the costs and benefits of a simple aerobic walking program for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Method: This was a blinded randomized controlled clinical trial that recruited 72 patients diagnosed with COPD, 40 of whom were included in the study and divided into two groups [control group (CG) and pulmonary rehabilitation group (GPR)]. We assessed pulmonary function, distance covered during the 6-minute walk test (6MWT), respiratory and peripheral muscle strength, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), body composition, and level of activities of daily living (ADLs) before and after an 8-week walking program. The financial costs were calculated according to the pricing table of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS). Results: Only 34 of the 40 patients remained in the final sample; 16 in the CG and 18 in the GPR (FEV1: 50.9±14% predicted and FEV1: 56±0.5% predicted, respectively). The intervention group exhibited improvements in the 6MWT, sensation of dyspnea and fatigue, work performed, BODE index (p<0.01), HRQOL, ADL level (p<0.001), and lower limb strength (p<0.05). The final mean cost per patient for the GPR was R$ 148.75 (~US$ 75.00) and no patient significantly exceeded this value. However, 2 patients in the CG did exceed this value, incurring a cost of R$ 689.15 (~US$ 345.00). Conclusion: Aerobic walking demonstrated significant clinical benefits in a cost-efficient manner in patients with COPD. .

Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Exercise Therapy , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/economics , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/rehabilitation , Walking , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Single-Blind Method
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-216713


The respiratory system is one of the most important body systems particularly from the viewpoint of occupational medicine because it is the major route of occupational exposure. In 2013, there were significant changes in the specific criteria for the recognition of occupational diseases, which were established by the Enforcement Decree of the Industrial Accident Compensation Insurance Act (IACIA). In this article, the authors deal with the former criteria, implications of the revision, and changes in the specific criteria in Korea by focusing on the 2013 amendment to the IACIA. Before the 2013 amendment to the IACIA, occupational respiratory disease was not a category because the previous criteria were based on specific hazardous agents and their health effects. Workers as well as clinicians were not familiar with the agent-based criteria. To improve these criteria, a system-based structure was added. Through these changes, in the current criteria, 33 types of agents and 11 types of respiratory diseases are listed under diseases of the respiratory system. In the current criteria, there are no concrete guidelines for evaluating work-relatedness, such as estimating the exposure level, latent period, and detailed examination methods. The results of further studies can support the formulation of detailed criteria.

Alveolitis, Extrinsic Allergic/economics , Asbestosis/economics , Asthma/economics , Humans , Lung Diseases/economics , Occupational Diseases/economics , Occupational Exposure , Pneumoconiosis/economics , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/economics , Republic of Korea , Workers' Compensation/economics
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 27(2): 153-158, jun. 2011.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-597561


Patients with chronic respiratory disease are heavy users of health care and social services resources worldwide. Although the major goals of pulmonary rehabilitation programs are to reduce levels of morbidity and to improve activity as well as participation in patients with chronic respiratory disease, their role in the management of these patients must also be validated by cost-effectiveness. Pulmonary rehabilitation's role in decreasing utilization of health care resources is an important potential benefit. Pulmonary rehabilitation is an effective intervention in patients disabled by chronic respiratory disease; however, there are relatively few studies that evaluate its effect on health care utilization. An 18-session, 6-week outpatient pulmonary rehabilitation program decreased inpatient hospital days and decreased the number of home visits when compared with standard medical management. A comprehensive cost-effectiveness analysis of the addition of this multidisciplinary pulmonary rehabilitation program to standard care for patients with chronic disabling respiratory disease concluded that the program was cost-effective and produced cost per quality-adjusted-life-years (QALY) ratios within the bounds considered to be cost-effective and therefore likely to result in financial benefits to the health care system. Patients with COPD who receive an education intervention with supervision and support based on disease-specific self management principles have decreased hospital admissions, decreased emergency department visits, and reduced number of unscheduled physician visits. This approach of care through self-management strategies is of interest because it does not require specialized resources and could be implemented within normal health care practice. In a before-after designed study, a community-based, 18-session, comprehensive pulmonary rehabilitation program was associated with an average reduction of total costs of US$344 per person per year. This wa...

Los pacientes con enfermedades respiratorias crónicas son grandes consumidores de recursos sanitarios y servicios sociales en todo el mundo. Aunque el principal objetivo de los programas de rehabilitación pulmonar es aliviar la disnea y mejorar la capacidad física, su papel en el manejo de los pacientes con afecciones respiratorias crónicas debe ser validado por estudios de costo-efectividad. La reducción del empleo de los recursos sanitarios puede ser un beneficio potencial importante de los programas de rehabilitación respiratoria multidisciplinarios. La rehabilitación pulmonar ha demostrado ser una intervención efectiva en los pacientes con discapacidad por enfermedad respiratoria crónica, sin embargo, existen relativamente pocos estudios que hayan examinado su efecto sobre la utilización de recursos sanitarios. En un programa ambulatorio de rehabilitación pulmonar de seis semanas se observó una reducción en los días de hospitalización y el número de visitas domiciliarias en comparación con el tratamiento médico estándar. El análisis de costo-efectividad de un programa de rehabilitación pulmonar multidisciplinario en pacientes con enfermedades respiratorias crónicas discapacitantes concluyó que el programa era costo-efectivo en términos de años de vida ajustados por calidad (AVAC) considerados como rentables y por lo tanto es probable que fuera económicamente beneficioso para el sistema de salud. Los pacientes con EPOC que reciben una intervención educativa con supervisión y apoyo basado en los principios de autogestión de la enfermedad disminuyen los ingresos hospitalarios, las visitas a los servicios de urgencias y el número de visitas médicas no programadas. Este enfoque de la atención, basado en estrategias de autocuidado, es de interés, ya que no requiere de recursos especializados y podría aplicarse en la práctica de salud habitual. Un programa integral de rehabilitación pulmonar basado en la comunidad se asoció a una reducción promedio de los costos...

Humans , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/economics , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/rehabilitation , Health Programs and Plans/economics , Chile , Consensus , Evidence-Based Medicine , Hospital Costs , Hospitalization/economics , Program Evaluation , Intensive Care Units/economics
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-177044


We sought to assess continuity of care for elderly patients in Korea and to examine any association between continuity of care and health outcomes (hospitalization, emergency department visits, health care costs). This was a retrospective cohort study using the Korea National Health Insurance Claims Database. Elderly people, 65-84 yr of age, who were first diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (n=268,220), hypertension (n=858,927), asthma (n=129,550), or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, n=131,512) in 2002 were followed up for four years, until 2006. The mean of the Continuity of Care Index was 0.735 for hypertension, 0.709 for diabetes mellitus, 0.700 for COPD, and 0.663 for asthma. As continuity of care increased, in all four diseases, the risks of hospitalization and emergency department visits decreased, as did health care costs. In the Korean health care system, elderly patients with greater continuity of care with health care providers had lower risks of hospital and emergency department use and lower health care costs. In conclusion, policy makers need to develop and try actively the program to improve the continuity of care in elderly patients with chronic diseases.

Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Asthma/economics , Cohort Studies , Continuity of Patient Care/economics , Costs and Cost Analysis , Databases, Factual , Diabetes Mellitus/economics , Emergency Service, Hospital/economics , Female , Hospitalization/economics , Humans , Hypertension/economics , Male , National Health Programs , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/economics , Republic of Korea , Retrospective Studies , Risk
Rev. méd. Chile ; 136(10): 1281-1287, Oct. 2008. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-503895


Background: Tobaceo is the fourth cause of the global burden of disease, accounting for 79.9 million loss of disability-adjusted Ufe years (DALYs) in 2001. In 2002, tobacco-attributable mortality in Chile represented 17 percent of total mortality. Aim: To estimate the direct cost of tobaceo in Ischemic Heart Disease, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Lung Cáncer, explore patients' disposition to answer a health related expenses questionnaire, valídate the instruments used and determine an adequate sample size for an upcoming study. Material and methods: Socio-demographic and health care related variables were investigated among patients attending two publie hospitais for ischemic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer, in a cross-sectional study. Costs were estimated using the national publie health insurance price list and market pnces. Tobacco-attributable fraction was then applied to calcúlate the tobacco-attributable cost ofeach disease. Results: The instruments used were validated. The group of lung cáncer patients was smaller due to increased mortality prior to interview. Lung cancer generated the largest total and attríbutable direct costs. The costs in patients with ischemic heart disease were significantly lower Conclusions: There were some difficulties in the application of the questionnaire to register medication use. The sample size needed in a larger study was calculated for each of the three diseases. We recommend that a definitive study addresses tobacco-attributable direct costs related to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Health Expenditures/statistics & numerical data , Lung Neoplasms/economics , Myocardial Ischemia/economics , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/economics , Smoking/economics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Chile/epidemiology , Hospital Costs/statistics & numerical data , Lung Neoplasms/mortality , Myocardial Ischemia/epidemiology , Pilot Projects , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Sample Size , Surveys and Questionnaires , Smoking/epidemiology
Rev. salud pública ; 10(4): 537-549, sept.-oct. 2008. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-511317


Objetivo Valorar el impacto económico del Gas Natural Domiciliario -GND- como tecnología sanitaria sobre la enfermedad respiratoria asociada al humo de biomasa en localidades del caribe colombiano. Métodos Tres estudios combinados: a) carga de enfermedad respiratoria asociada al uso de combustibles de biomasa; b) costos de la enfermedad (Infección Respiratoria Aguda -IRA- y Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica-EPOC); y c) análisis de costo efectividad del GND para reducir morbilidad por enfermedades respiratorias. Resultados En las localidades se esperarían anualmente 498 (477-560) casos de IRA que generaría 149 (119-196) hospitalizaciones, 6 (4-10) muertes y 7 291 (5 746 -9 696) AVAD. También se esperarían 459 (372-684) casos de EPOC, 138 (93- 239) hospitalizaciones, 11 (5-26) muertes y 1 500 (973-2 711) AVAD. Los costos de esta carga de enfermedad en ausencia del GND son anualmente de 5,2 (3,8-8,3) millones de dólares. De éstos, la mayoría son costos de EPOC (cerca del 85 por ciento). Los costos por IRA y EPOC, luego de instalado el GND, ascienden a 3,5 (2,5-5,7) millones de dólares. Los costos evitados serían 1,6 (1,2-2,6) millones de dólares, (30 por ciento de los costos de la carga). El costo efectividad incremental de introducir el GND sería un poco más de 56 (22-74) mil dólares por muerte evitada y entre 43 y 66 dólares evitar un AVAD. Conclusiones Frente a la no intervención, la instalación del GND resulta ser una tecnología costo efectiva para la reducción de las enfermedades respiratorias asociadas al consumo de combustibles de biomasa.

Objective Evaluating the economic impact of natural gas as a sanitary technology regarding respiratory disease associated with indoor air pollution in rural localities on the Colombian Caribbean coast. Methods Three studies were carried out: the burden of respiratory disease was evaluated (acute lower respiratory infection-ALRI and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - COPD), disease costs were studied and the cost effectiveness of natural gas was analysed in terms of reducing indoor air pollution. Results Without natural gas in these localities, it would be expected that 498 (477-560) cases of ALRI per year would lead to 149 (119-196) hospitalisations, 6 (4-10) deaths and 7 291 (5,746-9,696) disability adjusted life years (DALY) annually. Furthermore, it is expected that 459 (372-684) cases of COPD per year would lead to 138 (93-239), hospitalisations, 11 deaths (5-26) and 1 500 (973-2 711) DALY annually. Annual disease burden cost was 5,2 (3,8-8,3) million dollars before installing domiciliary natural gas (DNG); most of such cost arose from COPD (around 85 percent). ARI and COPD costs after installing DNG would rise to 3,5 (2,5-5,7) million dollars; avoided costs would be 1,6 (1,2-2,6) million dollars, (30 percent of disease burden cost without DNG). The incremental cost-effectiveness (ICER) of installing DNG would be 56 (22-74) thousand dollars per life saved and ICER per DALY saved would be 43-66 dollars. Conclusion DNG is a sanitary technology which reduces the burden of indoor air pollution-associated respiratory diseases arising from burning biomass fuel in rural localities in a cost-effective way.

Aged , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Air Pollution, Indoor/prevention & control , Fossil Fuels/economics , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/prevention & control , Acute Disease , Caribbean Region , Colombia , Cost of Illness , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Pneumonia/economics , Pneumonia/mortality , Pneumonia/prevention & control , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/economics , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/mortality , Rural Population
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-45384


OBJECTIVE: To estimate the direct out-of-pocket medical costs of treating major diseases attributable to smoking in Thailand in 2006. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A prevalence-based, disease-specific, approach was used to estimate the direct medical costs of treating lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and coronary heart disease (CHD) attributable to smoking. Epidemiological parameters were obtained from the literature; historical out-of-pocket cost data were used to estimate 2006 expenditure. RESULTS: The number of cases attributable to smoking in 2006 was 5,299 for lung cancer, 624,309 for COPD, and 52,605 for CHD. The out-of-pocket expenditures for treatment were 368.49 million baht for lung cancer, 7,714.88 million baht for COPD, and 1,773.65 million baht for CHD. Total smoking-attributable out-of-pocket medical costs amounted to 9,857.02 million baht, 0.48% of GDP in 2006. CONCLUSION: The prevalence-based, disease-specific, analysis described here shows that the health and economic impact of smoking in Thailand are substantial, and should be reduced by implementing smoking-cessation and related tobacco control policies of the types found effective in reducing the prevalence of smoking in other countries.

Coronary Artery Disease/economics , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/economics , Prevalence , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/economics , Risk , Risk Assessment , Smoking/adverse effects , Thailand/epidemiology