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1.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 49(3): e201, July-Sept. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1280177

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Post-anesthetic complications, particularly respiratory complications, continue to be a source of concern due to their high frequency, particularly in pediatrics. Objective: To describe the incidence of respiratory complications in the post-anesthesia care unit of an intermediate complexity center during a six-month period, and to explore the variables associated with major respiratory complications. Materials and Methods: Retrospective cohort study based on clinical record reviews. The records of the post-anesthesia care unit of an intermediate complexity pediatric institution located in Medellin, Colombia, were reviewed. This center uses a nursing-based care model that includes patient extubation in the post-anesthesia care unit. Results: The records of 1181 patients were analyzed. The cumulative incidences of major complications were bronchospasm 1.44%, laryngospasm 0.68% and respiratory depression 0.59%. There were no cases of cardiac arrest or acute pulmonary edema. A history of respiratory infection less than 15 days before the procedure, rhinitis and female sex were associated with major respiratory complications. Conclusions: A low frequency of respiratory complications was found during care provided by nursing staff trained in anesthesia recovery and pediatric airway in the post-anesthesia care unit.


Resumen Introducción: Las complicaciones postanestésicas, especialmente las respiratorias, siguen siendo causa de preocupación por su alta frecuencia, en particular, en la población pediátrica. Objetivo: Describir la incidencia de complicaciones respiratorias en la unidad de cuidados postanestésicos de una institución de mediana complejidad, en un período de seis meses y explorar las variables relacionadas con las complicaciones respiratorias mayores. Materiales y métodos: Estudio de cohorte retrospectivo, basado en la valoración de historias clínicas. Se revisaron los registros de la unidad de cuidados postanestésicos de una institución pediátrica de mediana complejidad ubicada en Medellín. Esta institución utiliza un modelo de atención -basado en enfermería- que incluye la extubación del paciente en la unidad de cuidados postanestésicos. Resultados: Se analizaron los registros de 1181 pacientes. La incidencia acumulada de complicaciones mayores fue: broncoespasmo 1,44 %, laringoespasmo 0,68 % y depresión respiratoria 0,59 %. No se presentaron casos de paro cardiaco ni de edema agudo de pulmón. El antecedente de infección respiratoria menor a 15 días, rinitis y sexo femenino se asociaron con complicaciones respiratorias mayores. Conclusiones: Durante la atención en la unidad de cuidados postanestésicos por parte del personal de enfermería entrenado en la recuperación de la anestesia y de la vía aérea de los pacientes pediátricos, se encontró una baja frecuencia de complicaciones respiratorias.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pulmonary Edema , Respiratory Insufficiency , Anesthesia , Anesthetics , Bronchial Spasm , Rhinitis , Laryngismus , Cohort Studies , Colombia , Edema , Heart Arrest , Infections , Nursing Staff
2.
Rev. ecuat. pediatr ; 22(1): 1-6, Abril 30, 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1222378

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los virus de RNA son conocidos por tener altas tasas de variabilidad genética. El SARS-CoV-2 ha producido diversas variantes en la actualidad que pueden cambiar la presentación clínica. Se presenta el primer caso clínico de la variante B.1.1.7 con estado clínico crítico en un paciente pediátrico y nos alerta sobre la vigilancia de nuevas variantes y la relación de casos críticos en pacientes pediátricos. Caso clínico: Paciente pediátrica con antecedente de parálisis cerebral infantil, atrofia subcortical severa completa, síndrome de Lennox-Gastaut y neumonía recurrente. Presentó una evolución tórpida con necesidad de terapia intensiva por SDRA en relación con la variante B 1.1.7 del SARS-CoV-2. Evolución: Inicialmente fue atendido en un hospital privado, en el cual debido al SDRA necesitó de cuidados intensivos, fue trasladado a un hospital público en el cual posterior a 38 días fue dada de alta por evolución favorable de su cuadro infeccioso. Conclusión: Las nuevas variantes de SARS-CoV-2 pueden mostrar nuevos comportamientos clínicos. A pesar de los antecedentes del paciente estudiado, no se había observado previamente una evolución clínica hacia síntomas graves en pacientes pediátricos con COVID-19. Eso podría estar relacionado con la infección por SARS-CoV-2 variante B.1.1.7 que presentó este paciente.


Introduction: RNA viruses are known to have a high genetic variability. To date, SARS-CoV-2 has produced several variants that can change the clinical presentation of COVID-19. The first clinical case of variant B.1.1.7 with a critical clinical status in a pediatric patient is presented. It indicates that surveillance of new variants and their relationship to critical cases in pediatric patients are required. Clinical case: A pediatric patient with a history of infantile cerebral palsy, complete severe subcortical atrophy, Lennox−Gastaut syndrome, and recurrent pneumonia. She had a slow evolution requiring intensive therapy for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) that was related to SARS-CoV-2 variant B 1.1.7. Evolution: Initially, she was treated at a private hospital because she required intensive care due to ARDS, and she was then transferred to a public hospital. She was discharged after 35 days due to a favorable evolution of her infectious etiology. Conclusions: New SARS-CoV-2 variants may show new clinical behaviors. Despite this patient's history, a clinical course towards severe symptoms had not been previously observed in pediatric patients with COVID-19. The severe symptoms could be related to the SARS-CoV-2 variant B.1.1.7 infection in this patient.


Subject(s)
Pulmonary Edema , Child , Coronavirus Infections , Critical Care , Patient Reported Outcome Measures
3.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 33(1): 75-81, jan.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1289055

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Detectar precocemente a instabilidade respiratória e hemodinâmica para caracterizar o comprometimento pulmonar em pacientes com COVID-19 grave. Métodos: Analisamos retrospectivamente os dados colhidos de pacientes com COVID-19 que apresentaram insuficiência respiratória aguda com necessidade de intubação e ventilação mecânica. Utilizamos a avaliação da termodiluição transpulmonar por meio do dispositivo PiCCO™. Foram coletados os dados demográficos, respiratórios, hemodinâmicos e ecocardiográficos dentro das primeiras 48 horas após a admissão. Para resumir os dados, utilizamos estatística descritiva. Resultados: Entre 22 de março e 7 de abril de 2020, foram admitidos 23 pacientes com COVID-19 grave. Foram monitorados com o dispositivo PiCCO™ 12 (22,6%) deles. Quando da admissão, o volume diastólico final global indexado era normal (média de 738,8mL ± 209,2) e, na hora 48, encontrava-se moderadamente aumentado (879mL ± 179), enquanto o índice cardíaco se achava abaixo do normal (2,84 ± 0,65). Todos os pacientes revelaram a presença de água extravascular pulmonar acima de 8mL/kg na admissão (17,9 ± 8,9). Não identificamos qualquer evidência de origem cardiogênica. Conclusão: No caso de pneumonia grave por COVID-19, o quadro hemodinâmico e respiratório é compatível com edema pulmonar sem evidência de origem cardiogênica, o que favorece o diagnóstico de síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo.


ABSTRACT Objective: To detect early respiratory and hemodynamic instability to characterize pulmonary impairment in patients with severe COVID-19. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed data collected from COVID-19 patients suffering from acute respiratory failure requiring intubation and mechanical ventilation. We used transpulmonary thermodilution assessment with a PiCCO™ device. We collected demographic, respiratory, hemodynamic and echocardiographic data within the first 48 hours after admission. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data. Results: Fifty-three patients with severe COVID-19 were admitted between March 22nd and April 7th. Twelve of them (22.6%) were monitored with a PiCCO™ device. Upon admission, the global-end diastolic volume indexed was normal (mean 738.8mL ± 209.2) and moderately increased at H48 (879mL ± 179), and the cardiac index was subnormal (2.84 ± 0.65). All patients showed extravascular lung water over 8mL/kg on admission (17.9 ± 8.9). We did not identify any argument for cardiogenic failure. Conclusion: In the case of severe COVID-19 pneumonia, hemodynamic and respiratory presentation is consistent with pulmonary edema without evidence of cardiogenic origin, favoring the diagnosis of acute respiratory distress syndrome.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/diagnosis , COVID-19/complications , Patient Discharge , Pulmonary Edema/diagnosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Thermodilution/instrumentation , Thermodilution/methods , Time Factors , Acute Disease , Retrospective Studies , Positive-Pressure Respiration, Intrinsic , COVID-19/blood
4.
Repert.Med.Cir ; 30(3): 267-271, 2021. ilus.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1363539

ABSTRACT

El edema pulmonar agudo posextubación constituye un evento poco frecuente en la práctica anestésica. Cuando ocurre es necesario administrar tratamiento adecuado, ya que las complicaciones del mismo pueden traducirse en mayor estancia hospitalaria y lesiones serias del aparato respiratorio, como edema pulmonar intersticial, elevación de la presión hidrostática capilar y aumento de la presión transmural de las cámaras cardiacas, lo que puede conducir a fallo del aparato cardiovascular y a la muerte subsecuente del paciente. Se presenta el caso de un paciente con clasificación del estado físico ASA (American Society of Anesthesiologist) II, sin patología pulmonar previa, quien al momento de la emersión anestésica presenta un episodio agudo de dificultad respiratoria, con evidencia de edema pulmonar posextubación confirmado por clínica e imágenes con ulterior resolución satisfactoria.


Post-extubation acute pulmonary edema is a rare event in anesthetic practice. When it occurs, it requires adequate treatment, since its complications may result in longer hospital stay and serious respiratory system lesions, such as interstitial pulmonary edema, increased capillary hydrostatic pressure and increased transmural pressure of the cardiac chambers, which may progress to cardiopulmonary arrest and death of the patient. We present the case of a patient who was classified with the (American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) II physical status, without a history of pulmonary disease, who upon emergence of general anesthesia developed an acute episode of respiratory distress, with evidence of post-extubation pulmonary edema confirmed by clinical and imaging findings with subsequent satisfactory resolution.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Pulmonary Edema , Hydrostatic Pressure , Respiratory System , Therapeutics , Airway Extubation
5.
Rev. cientif. cienc. med ; 24(1): 78-81, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1358962

ABSTRACT

La agenesia pulmonar es una malformación infrecuente que se caracteriza por la ausencia de uno o ambos parénquimas pulmonares, estructuras bronquiales y vasculares. Posee una incidencia de un caso por cada 10 000 a 15 000 nacidos vivos. Generalmente, el diagnóstico es realizado durante la niñez, aunque puede llegar a presentarse asintomático hasta la edad adulta, lo cual su diagnóstico resulta un hallazgo incidental durante exámenes de rutina. Habiendo pocos casos descritos. Reportamos el caso de una paciente femenina 40 años de edad, quien fue referida al servicio de emergencia de nuestro Hospital del Tórax por presentar dolor torácico, disnea de medianos esfuerzos y fiebre de un mes de evolución.


Pulmonary agenesis is a rare malformation characterized by the absence of one or both pulmonary parenchyma, bronchial and vascular structures. Has an incidence of one case per 10 000 to 15 000 live births. Generally, the diagnosis is made during childhood, although it can be asymptomatic until adulthood, which makes its diagnosis an incidental finding during routine examinations. Few cases have been described. We report the case of a 40-yearold female patient, who was referred to the emergency department of our Hospital del Tórax for presenting chest pain, dyspnea of medium efforts and fever of one month of evolution


Subject(s)
Pulmonary Edema , Parenchymal Tissue
6.
Rev. Méd. Paraná ; 79(1): 94-96, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1282490

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de relatar um caso de edema pulmonar de etiologia neurogênica (EPN), que ocorreu nos pós-operatório imediato (POI) de uma neurocirurgia (pós-clipagem de aneurisma intracraniano). O controle adequado no POI deste edema pode ser difícil, e seu tratamento é diferente do edema pulmonar de origem cardiogênica. Houve maior tempo de internamento (tanto da UTI como hospitalar) pela própria característica do edema e as complicações resultantes que ocorreram. O paciente permaneceu na UTI por 154 dias, com vários episódios de sepse. A sua alta hospitalar foi possível, mas à custa de cuidados pós-hospitalares assistenciais


The aim of this work was to describe a case with pulmonary edema of neuronic ethnology (NPE) that occurred in the immediate postoperative period of a neurosurgery (clipping a cerebral aneurysm). The proper identification of this event can be difficult in he immediate postoperative care, and the its treatment is different from the cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Longer hospital stay (both ICU and hospital) by the very characteristic of the edema and the complications that occurred. The patient stayed at the ICU for 154 days, with multiple cases of sepsis. His hospital discharge was possible, but at the expense of post-hospital care


Subject(s)
Humans , Pulmonary Edema , Respiratory Insufficiency , Neurosurgery
7.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 57: e18972, 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350227

ABSTRACT

We investigated the effect of Punica granatum peel aqueous extract (PGE), on pulmonary inflammation and alveolar degradation induced by intratracheal administration of Elastase in Sprague Dawley rats. Lung inflammation was induced in rats by intratracheal instillation of Elastase. On day 1 and 2, animals received an intraperitoneal injection of PGE (200 mg/mL), three hours later, they were intratracheally instilled with 25U/kg pancreatic porcine Elastase. Animals were sacrificed 7 days later. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) were collected and cellularity, histology and mRNA expression of Monocyte chemotactic protein 1(MCP-1), Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha (TNF-α), Interleukin 6 (IL-6), and Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) were studied. In addition, activity of TNF- α, IL-6 and MCP-1 on BAL were also analyzed by ELISA Kit. Elastase administration increased: BAL cellularity, neutrophils recruitment and BAL MCP1, IL-6 expressions. It also increased lung TNF-α, MCP-1, MMP-2 expressions, platelets recruitment, histological parameters at 7th day of elastase treatment. Intraperitoneal injection of 200 mg/kg of PGE reduced, significantly, BAL cellularity, and neutrophils recruitment. However, in animal treated with PGE, MCP-1, MMP-2 and IL-6 on day 7, were similar to the Sham group. Treatment with PGE (200 mg/ kg) also significantly reduced lung TNF-α, and MCP-1 expression. This study reveals that PGE Punica granatum protects against elastase lung inflammation and alveolar degradation induced in rats


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Plant Extracts/analysis , Pancreatic Elastase/classification , Plant Bark , Pomegranate/adverse effects , Pneumonia/classification , Pulmonary Edema/classification , Emphysema/classification
8.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 90(3): 349-350, Jul.-Sep. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131055

ABSTRACT

Abstract The incidence of mitral regurgitation in acute myocardial syndromes is variable. Echocardiographic evaluation is fundamental in making a proper diagnosis of mechanical complications and to offer timely treatment. We present a case of a 64-year-old male who was admitted to the ER in acute pulmonary edema. The electrocardiogram showed negative ST-segment deviation from V4-V6, positive ST-segment deviation in aVR. Multivessel disease with severe mitral regurgitation was seen in catheterization. A transthoracic echocardiogram revealed important mitral regurgitation showing the "tiger stripes" sign, seen in the presence of intracardial oscillating structures, in this case, suspected papillary muscle rupture. Echocardiographic evaluation is necessary in every case of myocardial infarction who present with new-onset mitral regurgitation. Treatment is complex and must be determined with an interdisciplinary group.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Edema/diagnosis , Acute Coronary Syndrome/diagnosis , Mitral Valve Insufficiency/diagnosis , Pulmonary Edema/physiopathology , Severity of Illness Index , Echocardiography , Cardiac Catheterization , Acute Disease , Electrocardiography , Emergency Service, Hospital , Acute Coronary Syndrome/physiopathology
9.
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 49(3): e613, jul.-set. 2020. tab, fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144473

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La Organización Mundial de la Salud promueve un compromiso con el envejecimiento saludable. La autopsia constituye el método más completo para el estudio de las enfermedades, y en los fallecidos de la tercera edad se evidencian sus problemas de salud. Objetivo: Mostrar las particularidades en edad, sexo, enfermedades crónicas, en particular los tumores malignos, la sepsis y causas de muerte que se encuentran en las autopsias de fallecidos de la tercera edad. Método: se realizó un estudio retrospectivo, longitudinal, entre los años 1987-2017 de las autopsias en fallecidos de la tercera edad. Se agrupan por edades: edad avanzada, anciana y grande longeva. Se exploran las variables de edad y sexo, enfermedades crónicas, infección y causas de muerte. Resultados: Los fallecidos de la tercera edad constituyen más de las tres cuartas partes de las autopsias en la institución. El sexo femenino muestra mayor longevidad. La hipertensión arterial, diabetes y el cáncer decrecen con la edad, mientras la sepsis se incrementa. Aumentan progresivamente en las causas de muerte directa, la sepsis y el tromboembolismo, mientras disminuyen el choque, edema pulmonar e infarto cardiaco. Aumenta en las causas básicas la aterosclerosis cerebral y generalizada, disminuye la coronaria, la enfermedad hipertensiva y los tumores malignos. La no coincidencia clínico patológica aumenta con la edad, discretamente. Conclusiones: Existen particularidades en el estudio de los pacientes de la tercera edad, evidenciado por los resultados de autopsia, por lo que se recomienda la geriatrización de los servicios(AU)


Introduction: The World Health Organization promotes a commitment to healthy aging. The autopsy is the most complete method for the study of the diseases and in the elderly deceased their health problems are evidenced. Objective: To show the particularities in ages, sex, chronic diseases, in particular malignant tumors, sepsis and causes of death found in the autopsies of the deceased elderly people. Method: A retrospective, longitudinal study was carried out between the years 1987-2017 of autopsies in elderly deceased. They were grouped by age: advanced age, elderly and long-lived. The variables age, sex, chronic diseases, infection and causes of death were explored. Results: The elderly deceased were more than three quarters of the autopsies in the institution. The female sex showed greater longevity. Hypertension, diabetes and cancer decreased with age, while sepsis increased. Sepsis and thromboembolism were progressively increasing in the direct causes of death, while shock, pulmonary edema and cardiac infarction decreased. In basic causes, cerebral and generalized atherosclerosis increased and coronary atherosclerosis, hypertensive disease and malignant tumors decreased. The clinical - pathology no coincidence, increased slightly with age. Conclusions: There are particularities in the studies of elderly patients evidenced by the results of autopsy, so that geriatrification of services is necessary(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Pathology , Pulmonary Edema , Autopsy , Chronic Disease , Cause of Death , Longevity
10.
Cuad. Hosp. Clín ; 61(1): [9], jul. 2020. ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIBOCS | ID: biblio-1118905

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: informar acerca de un caso de endocarditis bacteriana. Paciente varón de 34 años de edad, con único antecedente de rinitis alérgica con tratamiento irregular. Él es procedente de Valparaiso Chile, se encuentra en sus vacaciones en la ciudad de La Paz, acude al servicio de medicina interna ­ emergencias, con clínica compatible con edema agudo de pulmón de la altura y edema cerebral de la altura, asociado a sepsis de foco pulmonar, que progresa a choque séptico, durante su internación intercurre con alzas térmicas continuas, asociado a hallazgo ecocardiográfico de vegetación en ventrículo derecho con hemocultivo positivo, por lo que se llega al diagnóstico de endocarditis bacteriana, se realizó el tratamiento correspondiente, y resolución del cuadro.


OBJECTIVE: to report a case of bacterial endocarditis A 34-year-old male patient with a unique history of allergic rhinitis with irregular treatment. He comes from Valparaiso Chile, is on vacation in the city of La Paz, goes to the service of internal medicine - emergencies with compatible clinical with acute pulmonary edema of height and cerebral edema of height, associated with sepsis of focus pulmonary disease, which progresses to septic shock, during internment with continuous hyperthermia, associated vegetation in right ventricle for echocardiography, also positive blood culture, so that a diagnosis of bacterial endocarditis is reached, Corresponding treatment was carried out, and resolution of pathology..


Subject(s)
Male , Adult , Pulmonary Edema , Shock, Septic , Endocarditis, Bacterial , Pathology , Echocardiography , Lung
12.
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 1031-1036, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879233

ABSTRACT

To investigate the computed tomography (CT) characteristics and differential diagnosis of high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) and COVID-19, CT findings of 52 cases of HAPE confirmed in Medical Station of Sanshili Barracks, PLA 950 Hospital from May 1, 2020 to May 30, 2020 were collected retrospectively. The size, number, location, distribution, density and morphology of the pulmonary lesions of these CT data were analyzed and compared with some already existed COVID-19 CT images which come from two files, "Radiological diagnosis of COVID-19: expert recommendation from the Chinese Society of Radiology (First edition)" and "A rapid advice guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of 2019 novel corona-virus (2019-nCoV) infected pneumonia (standard version)". The simple or multiple ground-glass opacity (GGO) lesions are located both in the HAPE and COVID-19 at the early stage, but only the thickening of interlobular septa, called "crazy paving pattern" belongs to COVID-19. At the next period, some increased cloudy shadows are located in HAPE, while lesions of COVID-19 are more likely to develop parallel to the direction of the pleura, and some of the lesions show the bronchial inflation. At the most serious stage, both the shadows in HAPE and COVID-19 become white, but the lesions of HAPE in the right lung are more serious than that of left lung. In summary, some cloudy shadows are the feature of HAPE CT image, and "crazy paving pattern" and "pleural parallel sign" belong to the COVID-19 CT, which can be used for differential diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Altitude , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , China , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Edema/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
14.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 89(4): 369-375, Oct.-Dec. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1149095

ABSTRACT

Resumen El ultrasonido pulmonar es una herramienta de fícil reproducibilidad en pacientes estables y críticos que se utiliza para valorar el estado de congestón y comprobar la causa de la disnea. En este texto se revisan los fundamentos de la ecografía pulmonar, los protocolos de adquisición y su interpretación, así como la evidencia que sustenta su uso en el paciente cardiovascular críticamente enfermo y en el paciente estable. Esta herramienta debe emplearse como complemento de la exploración física regular para poder instituir un tratamiento oportuno en los pacientes con congestión pulmonar.


Abstract Lung ultrasound is an easily available, reproducible examination tool, both in ambulatory and critically-ill patients, which is used to evaluate congestion status and to differentiate the etiology of dyspnea. In this review, we explain lung ultrasound technique, acquisition protocols and their interpretation, as well as the evidence that shows its effectiveness among stable and critically-ill patients. Lung ultrasound should be used as an add-on to traditional physical examination in order to give an accurate diagnosis and a rapid treatment to patients with pulmonary congestion.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ultrasonography/methods , Dyspnea/etiology , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Edema/diagnostic imaging , Critical Illness , Dyspnea/diagnostic imaging , Heart Failure/diagnostic imaging
15.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(4): 564-569, Out.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056599

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Takayasu arteritis (TA) is a chronic granulomatous inflammatory condition of unknown cause that involves large vessels - particularly the aorta and its branches - such as the carotid, coronary, pulmonary, and renal arteries. The left subclavian artery is the most frequently involved vessel. Stenosis of the renal artery has been reported in 23-31% of the cases and may result in malignant hypertension, ischemic renal disease, decompensated heart failure, and premature death. Involvement of both renal arteries is uncommon. Early onset anuria and acute kidney injury are rare and have been reported only in a few cases in the literature. This report describes the case of a 15-year-old female with constitutional symptoms evolving for a year, combined with headache, nausea, and vomiting, in addition to frequent visits to emergency services and insufficient clinical examination. The patient worsened significantly six months after the onset of symptoms and developed acute pulmonary edema, oliguria, acute kidney injury, and difficult-to-control hypertension, at which point she was admitted for intensive care and hemodialysis. Initial ultrasound examination showed she had normal kidneys and stenosis-free renal arteries. The patient was still anuric after 30 days of hospitalization. A biopsy was performed and revealed her kidneys were normal. Computed tomography angiography scans of the abdominal aorta presented evidence of occlusion of both renal arteries. The patient met the diagnostic criteria for Takayasu arteritis and had a severe complication rarely described in the literature: stenosis of the two renal arteries during the acute stage of ischemic renal disease.


RESUMO A Arterite de Takayasu (AT) é uma doença inflamatória crônica, granulomatosa, de causa desconhecida, que afeta grandes vasos, principalmente a aorta e seus ramos, incluindo artérias carótidas, coronárias, pulmonares e renais, sendo a artéria subclávia esquerda o vaso mais acometido. A estenose da artéria renal é relatada em 23-31% dos casos e pode resultar em hipertensão maligna, insuficiência renal por isquemia, descompensação cardíaca e morte prematura. O acometimento bilateral de artérias renais é incomum, sendo rara a presença de anúria súbita e lesão renal aguda como sintoma inicial da doença, com poucos relatos na literatura. O caso reporta uma adolescente de 15 anos com sintomas constitucionais durante um ano de evolução, associados a problemas como cefaleia, náuseas e vômitos, com idas frequentes a serviços de emergência, sem adequada investigação clínica. Após 6 meses do início dos sintomas, a paciente evoluiu de forma grave, com quadro de edema agudo de pulmão, oligúria, lesão renal aguda e hipertensão arterial de difícil controle, sendo necessário suporte em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva e hemodiálise. A ultrassonografia inicial mostrava rins normais e artérias renais sem sinais de estenose. Após 30 dias de internamento, paciente permanecia anúrica, sendo realizada biópsia renal que se mostrou dentro dos padrões da normalidade. Angiotomografia de aorta abdominal evidenciou oclusão bilateral de artérias renais. A paciente descrita fechou critérios diagnósticos para arterite de Takayasu e manifestou uma complicação grave pouco descrita na literatura: estenose bilateral de artérias renais, ainda na fase aguda da nefropatia isquêmica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Renal Artery Obstruction/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Oliguria/diagnosis , Oliguria/etiology , Pulmonary Edema/diagnosis , Pulmonary Edema/etiology , Acute Disease , Renal Dialysis/methods , Kidney Transplantation/methods , Treatment Outcome , Takayasu Arteritis/complications , Diagnosis, Differential , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/etiology
16.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 23(3): 157-161, set-dez. 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1046142

ABSTRACT

O processo de alisamento capilar é uma prática comum realizada nos salões de beleza. O procedimento exige a utilização de substâncias com capacidade de rompimento das cadeias dissulfídricas da fibra capilar com posterior modelamento para o efeito desejado, sendo o formol um dos compostos mais utilizados para esta finalidade, porém indevidamente. De acordo com a legislação vigente, o formol só pode ser utilizado em produtos cosméticos com a função de conservante em uma concentração máxima de 0,2%. Devido a seu uso incorreto em produtos capilares o presente trabalho teve como objetivo realizar uma análise semi-quantitativa da presença de formol em amostras de alisantes capilares, bem como verificar o pH destes produtos. Foram obtidas 22 amostras de alisantes capilares doadas por salões de beleza da região de Umuarama - PR. A determinação da presença de formol foi realizada através da reação de Shiff e comparação com escala colorimétrica de concentrações padronizadas de formaldeído variando de 0,005% a 10%. A verificação do pH foi realizada através da preparação de soluções aquosas de 10% do alisante e posterior aferição em pHmetro digital. Das amostras analisadas, verificou-se 22,72% encontraram-se em conformidade, apresentando quantidade de formaldeído adequada com a legislação (até 0,2%) ou ausência do composto, enquanto que 77,28% apresentaram valores acima do permitido. Já o pH adequado foi constatado em apenas 13,64% amostras. O uso incorreto ou exagerado do formol pode acarretar danos à saúde, como cefaléia, dispnéia, queimadura, edema pulmonar e até câncer. Uma maior fiscalização deve ser realizada nos estabelecimentos que realizam procedimentos de alisamento capilar, bem como nas indústrias produtoras e ainda em importadoras, para uma melhor garantia do cumprimento da legislação tanto para a preservação da saúde dos profissionais quando dos usuários.


The hair-straightening process is a common practice in most beauty salons. The procedure requires the use of substances capable of disrupting the disulfide chains of the hair fiber with subsequent modeling for the desired effect, with formaldehyde being one of the most commonly but improperly used compounds for this purpose. According to the current legislation, formaldehyde can only be used in cosmetic products as a preservative function in a maximum concentration of 0.2%. Due to its incorrect use in capillary products, this work has the purpose of developing a semi-quantitative analysis of the presence of formaldehyde in samples of hair straighteners, as well as verifying the pH of those products. Twenty-two samples of hair straighteners were donated by beauty salons from the region of Umuarama-PR. The determination of the presence of formaldehyde was performed using the Shiff reaction and compared using the colorimetric scale for standard formaldehyde concentrations varying from 0.005% to 10%. The pH verification was carried out by the preparation of 10% aqueous solutions of the straightener and subsequent measurement in a digital pH meter. From the analyzed samples, 22.72% were found to be in compliance, presenting the amount of formaldehyde within the legislation (up to 0.2%) or absence of the compound, while 77.28% presenting values above the legal limitations. Additionally, adequate pH was verified in only 13.64% of the samples. Incorrect or exaggerated use of formaldehyde can lead to health issues, such as headache, dyspnea, burns, pulmonary edema and even cancer. Greater surveillance should be carried out in establishments that perform hair straightening procedures as well as in the producing and importing industries in order to guarantee better compliance with the legislation both for the preservation of the health of professionals and users alike.


Subject(s)
Colorimetry/methods , Formaldehyde/toxicity , Hair/chemistry , Pulmonary Edema , Burns
17.
Acta méd. costarric ; 61(2): 55-61, abr.-jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001116

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: La ventilación mecánica no invasiva se considera la primera elección de ventilación en pacientes con insuficiencia respiratoria secundaria a enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica reagudizada, edema agudo de pulmón y en inmunocomprometidos. Un aspecto clave de la ventilación mecánica no invasiva es la posibilidad de evitar la entubación endotraqueal y la ventilación mecánica invasiva con sus potenciales complicaciones, y por ende, lograr menor morbimortalidad y estancia hospitalaria. El objetivo principal fue establecer si los pacientes con patología respiratoria sometidos a ventilación mecánica no invasiva presentaron un beneficio estadísticamente significativo en la mortalidad. Como objetivos específicos se determinaron las patologías respiratorias más frecuentes, el tipo de insuficiencia respiratoria asociado a la terapia, la interface más utilizada, las complicaciones más frecuentes, y las patologías respiratorias sometidas a terapia que obtuvieron mayor beneficio en la morbimortalidad. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio prospectivo, observacional y de reporte de casos, de una población adulta de 18 - 85 años hospitalizada en el período comprendido entre el 1 de agosto y el 31 de noviembre de 2014. Se estudió 40 pacientes con patología respiratoria que cumplieron criterios para recibir tratamiento con ventilación mecánica no invasiva. Resultados: El servicio más frecuente donde se utilizó ventilación mecánica no invasiva fue la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos. Se brindó terapia a más pacientes masculinos con edad promedio de 55 años. El tiempo promedio de terapia fue de 8,4 horas. Los diagnósticos más frecuentes fueron: neumonía, edema agudo de pulmón y edema pulmonar lesional. Para dichos diagnósticos la insuficiencia respiratoria hipoxémica fue la principal indicación. La "full fase" fue la interface más usada. Las complicaciones de úlceras por presión y neumonía fueron infrecuentes. No se encontró cambios gasométricos, de índice respiratorio, ni de gradiente alveolo - arterial durante la terapia. Los puntajes de APACHE-II y SOFA fueron bajos para la mayoría de los pacientes, y el 57,5 % de los pacientes terminó por deshabituarse, con una mortalidad observada del 12 %. Conclusión: Las indicaciones más frecuentes para ventilación mecánica no invasiva en este estudio fueron edema agudo de pulmón y neumonía en el paciente inmunocomprometido. Algunos pacientes con índices respiratorios menores de 150, no se planteó la entubación, pero esto no se reflejó en una mayor tasa de fracaso en la deshabituación, o mayor mortalidad. Debido a la diversidad en la aplicación de la terapia, se debe tratar de protocolizar su uso en el Hospital México, para buscar obtener mejores resultados.


Abstract Aim: The non invasive mechanical ventilation is considered the first choice of ventilation in patients with respiratory insufficiency secondary to exacerbated chronic pulmonary obstructive disease, acute pulmonary edema and immunocompromised patients. The clue of the non invasive mechanical ventilation is the possibility to avoid intubation and invasive mechanical ventilation with its complications, less morbidity and mortality, and less hospital stay. Besides, it is more comfortable, the patient can communicate, eat and drink, cough, avoid the need of profound sedation, and maintain the defense mechanisms of superior airway. The main objective was to establish if the patients who received non invasive ventilation had a benefit in mortality statistically significant. It was also evaluated which were the most frequent pulmonary diseases, the type of respiratory insufficiency associated with the therapy, the type of interface used, the most frequent complications, and which of the pulmonary diseases benefited most in morbidity and mortality with the use of this type of ventilation. Methods: We did a prospective, observational and case report study. Of a total population of 18 - 85 years hospitalized in a period between 1 of August and 31 of November of 2014, we studied a total of 40 patients who developed a respiratory disease who met the criteria to receive treatment with non invasive ventilation. Results: The department who used more non invasive ventilation was the Intensive Care Unit. There were more male patients, with an average age of 55 years. The average time of therapy was 8,4 hours. The most frequent diagnostics where pneumoniae, acute pulmonary edema, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. For these diseases the hipoxemic respiratory insufficiency was the principal indication. The fullface was the main interface used. The complications of pressure ulcers and pneumoniae where infrequent during therapy. There were none shocked patients under therapy and tachycardia was the main risk factor of dying without being statistically significant. We didn't find gasometric changes neither changes in the respiratory index or alveolar-arterial gradient during therapy. The majority of patients with pneumonia and acute pulmonary edema started the therapy with a respiratory index less than 150, but this didn`t relate with more time in therapy neither more mortality. The scores of APACHE-II and SOFA where low at the beginning of the therapy, the observed mortality was of 12%. Conclusion: The most frequent indications for non invasive ventilation obsesrved were acute pulmonary edema and pneumoniae in inmunocompromised patients. The elaboration of protocols to guide the correct use of this ventilations method is needed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Pneumonia/complications , Pulmonary Edema/complications , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Costa Rica
18.
Rev. Pesqui. Fisioter ; 9(2): 250-263, Maio 2019. ilus, tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151327

ABSTRACT

INTRODUÇÃO: O edema agudo de pulmão cardiogênico (EAPC) representa uma importante causa de insuficiência respiratória aguda podendo ser atenuada com a instalação de ventilação mecânica não-invasiva (VNI). OBJETIVO: Comparar pressão positiva contínua (CPAP) e pressão positiva de dois níveis (BIPAP) na via aérea em pacientes adultos com EAPC, quanto à função pulmonar, ao tempo de permanência, suas complicações e a dispneia através de uma revisão sistemática. METODOLOGIA: Ensaios clínicos controlados e randomizados (ECR), revisados por dois revisores independentes, conforme recomendações PRISMA, nas bases de dados PubMed e Biblioteca Cochrane. Incluídos estudos originais que utilizaram a CPAP e a BIPAP em pacientes com EAPC publicados na língua inglesa. A Escala PEDro foi utilizada para analisar a qualidade metodológica dos estudos e a Cochrane Collaboration para análise de risco de viés. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 13 artigos, publicados entre os anos 1997 e 2014. Os níveis de CPAP variaram entre 5 e 20 cmH2O nos estudos, e BIPAP apresentou-se com pressão inspiratória positiva (IPAP) entre 8 e 20 cmH2O e pressão expiratória positiva (PEEP) entre 3 e 10 cmH2O. Os estudos apresentaram CPAP e BIPAP sem diferença estatisticamente significante para a melhora da função pulmonar (FR, PaO2 e PaCO2), tempo de internamento, taxas de mortalidade, entubação e infarto agudo do miocárdio (IAM); mostrando-se como modalidades igualmente eficazes. CONCLUSÃO: CPAP e a BIPAP garantem os mesmos efeitos para melhora da função pulmonar, não mantém relação com a permanência da internação e complicações, e melhoram o quadro de dispneia.


INTRODUCTION: Acute cardiogenic lung edema (EAPC) represents an important cause of acute respiratory failure and can be attenuated with the installation of non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIV). OBJECTIVE: To compare the use of continuous positive pressure (CPAP) and two-way positive airway pressure (BIPAP) in adult patients with acute pulmonary edema of pulmonary function, length of stay and complications, and dyspnea through a systematic review METHODOLOGY: Systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) performed by two independent reviewers, as recommended by the PRISMA platform, in the PubMed and Cochrane Library databases. Original studies using CPAP and BIPAP were used in patients with acute cardiogenic lung edema published in English. The PEDro Scale was used to analyze the methodological quality of the studies and Cochrane Collaboration. RESULTS: We included 13 articles, published between 1997 and 2014. CPAP levels ranged from 5 to 20 cmH2O in the studies, and BIPAP presented positive inspiratory pressure (IPAP) between 8 and 20 cmH2O and positive expiratory pressure (EPAP) between 3 and 10 cmH2O. The studies presented CPAP and BIPAP without statistically significant difference for the improvement of the pulmonary function (FR, PaO2 and PaCO2), permanence of hospitalization, mortality rates, intubation and acute myocardial infarction (AMI); as equally effective modalities. CONCLUSION: CPAP and BIPAP guarantee the same effects to improve pulmonary function, does not maintain relation with the permanence of hospitalization and complications, namely: mortality, intubation and AMI, and improve dyspnea.


Subject(s)
Noninvasive Ventilation , Pulmonary Edema , Heart Failure
19.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(2): 222-226, Mar.-Apr. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003404

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives: Negative pressure pulmonary edema occurs by increased intrathoracic negative pressure following inspiration against obstructed upper airway. The pressure generated is transmitted to the pulmonary capillaries and exceeds the pressure of hydrostatic equilibrium, causing fluid extravasation into the pulmonary parenchyma and alveoli. In anesthesiology, common situations such as laryngospasm and upper airway obstruction can trigger this complication, which presents considerable morbidity and requires immediate diagnosis and propaedeutics. Upper airway patency, noninvasive ventilation with positive pressure, supplemental oxygen and, if necessary, reintubation with mechanical ventilation are the basis of therapy. Case report: Case 1: Male, 52 years old, undergoing appendectomy under general anesthesia with orotracheal intubation, non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocker, reversed with anticholinesterase, presented with laryngospasm after extubation, followed by pulmonary edema. Case 2: Female, 23 years old, undergoing breast reduction under general anesthesia with oro-tracheal intubation, non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocker, reversed with anticholinesterase,presented with inspiration against closed glottis after extubation, was treated with non-invasiveventilation with positive pressure; after 1 hour, she had pulmonary edema. Case 3: Male, 44 yearsold, undergoing ureterolithotripsy under general anesthesia, without neuromuscular blocker,presented with laryngospasm after laryngeal mask removal evolving with pulmonary edema. Case 4: Male, 7 years old, undergoing crude fracture reduction under general anesthesia withorotracheal intubation, non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocker, presented with laryngospasmreversed with non-invasive ventilation with positive pressure after extubation, followed bypulmonary edema. Conclusions: The anesthesiologists should prevent the patient from perform a forced inspirationagainst closed glottis, in addition to being able to recognize and treat cases of negative pressurepulmonary edema.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: O edema pulmonar por pressão negativa ocorre por aumento da pressão negativa intratorácica após inspiração contra via aérea superior obstruída. A pressão gerada é transmitida aos capilares pulmonares e supera a pressão de equilíbrio hidrostático, o que causa extravasamento de líquido para o parênquima pulmonar e alvéolos. Em anestesiologia, situações comuns como laringoespasmo e obstrução de via aérea superior podem desencadear essa complicação, que apresenta considerável morbidade e exige diagnóstico e propedêutica imediatos. A desobstrução das vias aéreas superiores, ventilação não invasiva com pressão positiva, oxigênio suplementar e, se necessário reintubação com ventilação mecânica são a base da terapia. Relato de caso: Caso 1: Masculino, 52 anos, submetido a apendicectomia sob anestesia geral com intubação orotraqueal, uso de bloqueador neuromuscular adespolarizante, revertido com anticolinesterásico; apresentou laringoespasmo após extubação, seguido de edema pulmonar. Caso 2: Feminino, 23 anos, submetida a mamoplastia redutora sob anestesia geral com intubação orotraqueal, bloqueador neuromuscular adespolarizante revertido com anticolinesterásico, apresentou inspiração contra glote fechada após extubação, tratada com ventilação não invasiva com pressão positiva; após uma hora apresentou edema pulmonar. Caso 3: Masculino, 44 anos, submetido a ureterolitotripsia sob anestesia geral, sem bloqueador neuromuscular, apresentou laringoespasmo após retirada de máscara laríngea e evoluiu com edema pulmonar. Caso 4: Masculino, sete anos, submetido a redução cruenta de fratura sob anestesia geral com intubação orotraqueal, uso de bloqueador neuromuscular adespolarizante; apresentou laringo-espasmo revertido com ventilação não invasiva com pressão positiva após extubação, seguidode edema pulmonar. Conclusões: O anestesiologista deve evitar que o paciente faça inspiração forçada contra glotefechada, além de ser capaz de reconhecer e tratar os casos de edema pulmonar por pressãonegativa.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adult , Pulmonary Edema/etiology , Laryngismus/complications , Airway Obstruction/complications , Laryngeal Masks , Airway Extubation/methods , Noninvasive Ventilation/methods , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Anesthesia, General/methods , Middle Aged
20.
Fisioter. Pesqui. (Online) ; 26(1): 3-8, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002020

ABSTRACT

RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever características de sucesso e insucesso do uso da ventilação não invasiva (VNI) na unidade de terapia intensiva (UTI) de um hospital universitário. Trata-se de um estudo observacional prospectivo no qual foram incluídos 75 pacientes, com idade média de 58,3±18,8 anos. Desses, doze necessitaram do uso da VNI por mais de uma vez, totalizando 92 utilizações. Evidenciou-se que, delas, a taxa de sucesso foi de 60,9% (56). O grupo insucesso apresentou mais indivíduos do sexo masculino (p=0,006) e número maior de pacientes com diagnóstico de infecção extrapulmonar (p=0,012). Não foram encontradas diferenças entre os grupos de sucesso e insucesso nos quesitos de modo, modelo, máscara, tempo total de permanência e razões para a instalação da VNI. No grupo insucesso, a pressão positiva inspiratória nas vias aéreas (Ipap) e o volume corrente (VC) foram superiores (p=0,029 e p=0,011, respectivamente). A saturação periférica de oxigênio (p=0,047), o pH (p=0,004), base excess (p=0,006) e o bicarbonato (p=0,013) apresentaram valores inferiores. Concluiu-se que os indivíduos do sexo masculino com diagnóstico de infecção extrapulmonar e que evoluíram com acidose metabólica evoluíram com mais insucesso na utilização da VNI. Esses, necessitaram de parâmetros elevados de Ipap e VC.


RESUMEN El objetivo de este estudio fue desarrollar las características del éxito y del fracaso con el uso de la ventilación no invasiva (VNI) en la unidad de terapia intensiva (UTI) de un hospital universitario. Se trata de un estudio observacional prospectivo en el cual fueron incluidos 75 pacientes, con edad media de 58,3±18,8 años. De estos, 12 necesitaron utilizar la VNI por más de una vez, que totalizó 92 utilizaciones. Se evidenció que, de estas, el índice de éxito fue del 60,9% (56). El grupo que no obtuvo el éxito esperado presentó más individuos del sexo masculino (p=0,006) y número mayor de pacientes con diagnóstico de infecciones extrapulmonares (p=0,012). No fueron encontradas diferencias entre los grupos con éxito y sin éxito en las cuestiones de modo, modelo, máscara, tiempo total de permanencia y razones para la instalación de la VNI. En el grupo sin éxito, la presión positiva inspiratoria en las vías aéreas (Ipap) y el volumen corriente (VC) fueron superiores (p=0,029 y p=0,011, respectivamente). La saturación periférica de oxígeno (p=0,047), el pH(p=0,004), base excess (p=0,0006) y el bicarbonato (p=0,013) presentaron valores inferiores. De este modo, se concluye que los individuos del sexo masculino con diagnóstico de infecciones extrapulmonares y que progresaron con acidose metabólica avanzaron más sin tener éxito en la utilización de la VNI. Además, necesitaron de parámetros elevados de Ipap y VC.


ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to describe the aspects of success and failure of the use of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in the intensive care unit (ICU) of a university hospital. This is a prospective observational study that included 75 patients, with 58.3±18.8 years as the mean age. Of these, 12 required the use of NIV more than once, for 92 uses in total. Among these, the success rate was 60.9% (56). The failure group had more males (p=0.006) and a higher number of patients diagnosed with extrapulmonary infection (p=0.012). No differences were found between success and failure groups for the variables mode, model, mask, total length of stay and reasons for NIV installation. In the failure group, inspiratory positive airways pressure (Ipap) and flow volume (FV) were higher (p=0.029 and p=0.011, respectively). Peripheral oxygen saturation (p=0.047), pH (p=0.004), base excess (p=0.006) and bicarbonate (p=0.013) presented lower values. This study concluded that male individuals diagnosed with extrapulmonary infection and whose picture evolved with metabolic acidosis evolved with more failure in NIV use. These patients required higher Ipap and FV parameters.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Noninvasive Ventilation , Intensive Care Units , Pulmonary Edema/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , Critical Care Outcomes , Hospitals, University
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