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Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 45(supl.2): S85-S90, July 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514208


ABSTRACT Introduction: Although still rare, pulmonary embolism (PE) in children has been increasing over the years. Data regarding this group of patients are still sparse, which contributes to the lack of standardized prophylaxis protocols and the misdiagnosis. This study aimed to determine the incidence of pediatric PE at a Brazilian tertiary hospital, describe clinical characteristics and identify possible risk factors. We also analyzed the diagnosis and management of PE. Methods: This was a retrospective review of tertiary Brazilian single-center data of all pediatric patients (0 - 18 years) with acute PE, diagnosed radiologically, from September 2009 to May 2019. Results: The incidence of PE was 3.3 cases per 10,000 hospitalized children. All the twenty-three cases had some risk factor identified and sixteen of them (69.5%) had more than one risk factor. The most important were central venous catheter (39.1%), malignancy (34.8%) and recent surgery (34.8%). Among the children with identifiable symptoms (69.5%), the most common was dyspnea (56.2%). Only one patient did not receive antithrombotic therapy because of the high bleeding risk and most patients (70.6%) were treated for 3 to 6 months. Among the nineteen patients alive at the end of the six-month follow-up, ten (52.6%) repeated the PE image control. Seven of them (70.0%) had complete or partial resolution of the thrombosis and none had worsening images. Conclusion: Our lower incidence than that of the current literature may reflect underdiagnosis due to low suspicion of PE. At least one risk factor was identified in all patients, which emphasizes the importance of increasing awareness of high-risk children.

Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Pulmonary Embolism , Thromboembolism , Child , Adolescent
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1536324


Introducción: El síndrome de May-Thurner es una enfermedad cuya prevalencia real es desconocida. Suele ser asintomática y las manifestaciones clínicas aparecen en el contexto de las complicaciones asociadas a la enfermedad. La aproximación diagnóstica se realiza por medio de imágenes, donde se identifican alteraciones patognomónicas que permiten descartar diagnósticos diferenciales. Se ha demostrado que la COVID-19 genera un estado protrombótico, que en contexto del síndrome de May-Thurner puede derivar en complicaciones tromboembólicas. Objetivo: Comparar la clínica y la posible relación de la enfermedad tromboembólica venosa en el curso de la COVID-19 en pacientes con SMT. Caso clínico: Mujer de 24 años, secretaria de profesión y residente en Bucaramanga. Presentó un cuadro clínico de 20 días de evolución que inició con rinorrea hialina, tos ocasional y mialgias; cinco días después manifestó fiebre no cuantificada y tos con expectoración hemoptoica. Conclusiones: Dentro de la fisiopatología de la infección por SARS-CoV-2 se desarrollan mecanismos procoagulantes, lo cual incrementa el riesgo de eventos trombóticos en pacientes con o sin factores de riesgo(AU)

Introduction: May-Thurner syndrome is a disease whose actual prevalence is unknown. It is usually asymptomatic and clinical manifestations appear in the context of complications associated with the disease. The diagnostic approach is performed by imaging, where pathognomonic alterations are identified to rule out differential diagnoses. It has been demonstrated that COVID-19 generates a prothrombotic state, which particularly in patients with May-Thurner syndrome would lead to thromboembolic complications. Objective: To compare the clinical and possible relationship of venous thromboembolic disease in the course of COVID-19 in patients with May-Thurner syndrome. Clinical case: 24-year-old woman, secretary by profession and resident in Bucaramanga, Colombia. She presented a clinical picture of 20 days of evolution that began with hyaline rhinorrhea, occasional cough and myalgias; five days later she manifested unquantified fever and cough with hemoptotic expectoration. Conclusions: Within the pathophysiology of SARS-CoV-2 infection, procoagulant mechanisms develop, which increases the risk of thrombotic events in patients with or without risk factors(AU)

Humans , Female , Young Adult , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Risk Factors , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis , May-Thurner Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Iliac Artery
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(3): 354-355, May-June 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439604
Rev. anesth.-réanim. med. urgence ; 15(2): 138-143, 2023. tables, figures
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1511826


Décrire les aspects épidémio-cliniques des manifestations thrombotiques au cours de la COVID-19 au sein des hôpitaux militaires de Libreville et Akanda, Gabon. Méthodes : Nous avons mené une étude rétrospective et descriptive multicentrique d'une durée de 7 mois, du 01er septembre 2021 au 31 mars 2022, portant sur les patients admis dans les unités de réanimation des hôpitaux d'instruction des armées de Libreville (HIAOBO) et d'Akanda (HIAA), pour COVID-19 documentée ou suspectée. Résultats : Durant la période d'étude, 167 patients ont été́ admis pour infection à SARS-CoV-2, parmi lesquels, 18 ont présentés des manifestations thromboemboliques (10,8%). La moyenne d'âge était de 54,7±6.4 ans. Il y avait une large prédominance masculine avec un sexe ratio à 2. Nous avons noté́ 9 cas d'embolie pulmonaire (50%), 5 cas d'accidents vasculaires cérébraux ischémiques (28%), 1 cas de thrombose veineuse profonde de membre inferieur (6%), 1 cas de thrombose veineuse cérébrale (6%), 1 cas de thrombose de la veine mésentérique (6%) et 1 cas de thrombose de la veine porte (6%). Les D-dimères étaient élevés chez tous les patients. Les globules blancs étaient élevés (>10000/mm3 ) chez 12 patients (67%). Les plaquettes étaient inférieures à 150000/mm3 pour 6 patients (33%). Tous les patients avaient une pneumonie à SARS-CoV-2 et la moyenne d'atteinte deslésions pulmonaires était estimée à 45%. Neuf patients étaient décédés (50%) au cours de l'hospitalisation. Conclusion : L'infection par le SARS-CoV-2 constitue vraisemblablement une prédisposition à la survenue d'un événement thrombotique. L'incidence des manifestations thrombotiques chez les patients atteints de COVID-19 reste élevée, renforçant ainsi la prescription systématique d'une anticoagulation prophylactique

Humans , Pulmonary Embolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis , Stroke , COVID-19 , Anticoagulants
Ethiop. med. j. (Online) ; 61(1): 1-13, 2023.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1416376


Introduction: Pulmonary embolism is one of the complications of COVID-19, with reported incidence ranging from 3 to 33 % in non-ICU patients to as high as 40% among ICU patients. Since the clinical presentations of COVID-19 and Pulmonary embolism overlap, it is difficult to differentiate between these cases. This study aimed to assess the incidence of pulmonary embolism and associated factors among confirmed Covid-19 Patients in Ethiopia. Methods: A nested case control study was conducted among 131 patients with COVID-19 (40 COVID-19 patients with Pulmonary embolism and 91 COVID-19 patients with no PE) who were on follow up from May, 2021 to May, 2022. Data was summarized using frequencies with percentages. A chi-square test/ Fisher's exact test was run to determine the presence of a significant difference between the exposure variables and the development of PE. To identify factors associated with the development of Pulmonary embolism, a multivariable Binary Logistic Regression model with sensitivity analysis was run. Results: The incidence of PE was 30.5% (95% CI, 22.9% - 37.4%) in the cohort of patients for whom upfront CTPA was performed. The Chi-square/ Fisher's exact test results showed a significantly higher proportion of patients with PE tend to present with shortness of breath, chest pain and anosmia/ageusia than those with no PE. However, in a subsequent regression analysis, only chest pain was found to be significantly associated with the development of PE in COVID-19 patients (AOR= 3.24, 95% CI= 1.10, 9.54, p-value=0.033). Conclusion: The incidence of PE among COVID-19 patients was found to be relatively lower than reports from other countries. Having chest pain was found to be a significant factor that indicates the development of PE, implying that in a setting where performing upfront CTPA is not practical, detailed symptom inquiry could serve as an important clinical criteria.

COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Angiography , Incidence , Diagnosis , Pandemics , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 178-182, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981926


PURPOSE@#Static progressive stretch (SPS) can be applied to treat chronic joint stiffness. However, the impacts of subacute application of SPS to the distal lower limbs, where deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is common, on venous thromboembolism remain unclear. This study aims to explore the risk of venous thromboembolism events following subacute application of SPS.@*METHODS@#A retrospective cohort study was conducted on patients diagnosed with DVT following a lower extremity orthopedic surgery before being transferred to the rehabilitation ward from May 2017 to May 2022. Patients with unilateral lower limb comminuted para-articular fractures, transferred to rehabilitation ward for further treatment within 3 weeks after operation, followed up more than 12 weeks since initial manual physiotherapy, and diagnosed DVT by ultrasound before rehabilitation course were included in the study. Patients with polytrauma, without evidence of previous peripheral vascular disease or incompetence, had medication for thrombosis treatment or prophylaxis before the operation, detected with paralysis due to nervous system impairment, infected after operation during the regime, or with acute progression of DVT were excluded. The included patients were randomized to the standard physiotherapy and the SPS integrated groups for observation. Associated DVT and pulmonary embolism data were collected during the physiotherapy course to compare the groups. SSPS 28.0 and GraphPad Prism 9 were used for data processing. A p < 0.05 was set significant difference.@*RESULTS@#In total of 154 patients with DVT participating in this study, 75 of them were treated with additional SPS for postoperative rehabilitation. The participants in the SPS group showed improved range of motion (12.3° ± 6.7°). However, in the SPS group, there was no difference in thrombosis volume between the start and termination (p = 0.106, p = 0.787, respectively), although difference was seen intra-therapy (p < 0.001). Contingency analysis revealed the pulmonary embolism incidence (OR = 0.703) in the SPS group compared to the mean physiotherapy.@*CONCLUSION@#The SPS technique is a safe and reliable option to prevent potential joint stiffness without aggravating the risk of distal DVT for postoperative patients suffering from relevant trauma.

Humans , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Lower Extremity , Risk Factors
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 7-12, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984173


OBJECTIVES@#To explore the difference in CT values between pulmonary thromboembolism and postmortem clot in postmortem CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) to further improve the application value of virtual autopsy.@*METHODS@#Postmortem CTPA data with the definite cause of death from 2016 to 2019 were collected and divided into pulmonary thromboembolism group (n=4), postmortem clot group (n=5), and control group (n=5). CT values of pulmonary trunk and left and right pulmonary artery contents in each group were measured and analyzed statistically.@*RESULTS@#The average CT value in the pulmonary thromboembolism group and postmortem clot group were (168.4±53.8) Hu and (282.7±78.0) Hu, respectively, which were lower than those of the control group (1 193.0±82.9) Hu (P<0.05). The average CT value of the postmortem clot group was higher than that of the pulmonary thromboembolism group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#CT value is reliable and feasible as a relatively objective quantitative index to distinguish pulmonary thromboembolism and postmortem clot in postmortem CTPA. At the same time, it can provide a scientific basis to a certain extent for ruling out pulmonary thromboembolism deaths.

Humans , Autopsy , Thrombosis , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Angiography , Cadaver
Med. leg. Costa Rica ; 39(2)dic. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1405585


Resumen Algunos estudios sugieren que existe una relación entre el uso de antipsicóticos y el riesgo de tromboembolismo venoso (TEV) y embolia pulmonar (EP). Sin embargo, los resultados siguen sin ser concluyentes. Se trata del caso de un Masculino de 23 años con antecedentes de Esquizofrenia y Depresión tratado quetiapina 800 mg, el cual es encontrado muerto en la cama de un hotel. En la necropsia sin lesiones traumáticas visibles, hallazgos histológicos de tromboembolismo pulmonar masivo con infartos pulmonares secundarios. Laboratorio de Toxicología detectó la presencia de quetiapina, no se detectó alcohol o drogas de abusos. Mediante el Algoritmo De Karch & Lasagna Modificado el tromboembolismo pulmonar fue una reacción adversa con una probabilidad de relación causal posible. Se han informado muchos casos de muerte súbita causada por EP con la exposición a antipsicóticos, pero la relación de su uso y el riesgo de TEV y EP sigue siendo controvertida.

Abstract Some studies suggest a relationship between antipsychotic use and the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and pulmonary embolism (PE). However, the results remain inconclusive. This is the case of a 23-year-old male with a history of schizophrenia and depression treated with quetiapine 800 mg, who was found dead in a hotel bed. At necropsy with no visible traumatic lesions, histological findings of massive pulmonary thromboembolism with secondary pulmonary infarcts. Toxicology laboratory detected the presence of quetiapine, no alcohol or drugs of abuse were detected. Using the Modified Karch & Lasagna Algorithm, pulmonary thromboembolism was an adverse reaction with a probable causal relationship. Many cases of sudden death caused by PE have been reported with exposure to antipsychotics, but the relationship of their use and the risk of VTE and PE remains controversial.

Humans , Male , Adult , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Quetiapine Fumarate/adverse effects
Más Vita ; 4(2): 86-92, jun. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1392119


La pandemia de COVID-19 actualmente ha demostrado la importancia de una evaluación y un manejo agresivos, al considerar su exposición como una enfermedad viral muy trasmisible que tiene efectos multisistémicos y una alta tasa de mortalidad. Es así que el diagnóstico y el tratamiento de la embolia pulmonar, son desafiantes en circunstancias habituales. Objetivo: Describir un caso clínico de tromboembolismo pulmonar masivo en covid-19. Reporte de Caso: Paciente de sexo masculino 42 años con antecedentes patológico personales de hipertensión arterial con prueba rápida para SARS COV-2 IGG e IGM positivo. Resultados: Se estima que cada año hay 900.000 casos de tromboembolismo venoso (TEV) en los Estados Unidos, 150.000 a 250.000 hospitalizaciones relacionadas con la embolia pulmonar (EP) y 60.000 a 100.000 muertes, lo que la convierte en la tercera causa más común de enfermedades cardiovasculares. Conclusión: Una vez que se diagnostica una embolia pulmonar, es necesaria la estratificación del riesgo para definir el manejo adecuado. Los tratamientos disponibles al momento pueden variar desde anticoagulación sola, trombólisis dirigida por catéter, trombólisis sistémica de dosis completa, embolectomía con catéter, embolectomía quirúrgica y soporte circulatorio mecánico como oxigenación por membrana extracorpórea (ECMO)(AU)

The COVID-19 pandemic has currently demonstrated the importance of aggressive evaluation and management, considering its exposure as a highly transmissible viral disease that has multisystem effects and a high mortality rate. Thus, the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary embolism are challenging under usual circumstances. Objective: To describe a clinical case of massive pulmonary thromboembolism in covid-19. Case Report: A 42-year-old male patient with a personal pathological history of arterial hypertension with a positive rapid test for SARS COV-2 IGG and IGM. Results: There are an estimated 900,000 cases of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in the United States each year, 150,000 to 250,000 pulmonary embolism (PE)-related hospitalizations, and 60,000 to 100,000 deaths, making it the third most common cause of pulmonary embolism. cardiovascular diseases. Conclusion: Once a pulmonary embolism is diagnosed, risk stratification is necessary to define the appropriate management. Currently available treatments may range from anticoagulation alone, catheter-directed thrombolysis, full-dose systemic thrombolysis, catheter embolectomy, surgical embolectomy, and mechanical circulatory support such as extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)(AU)

Humans , Male , Adult , Pulmonary Embolism , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Cardiovascular Diseases , Communicable Diseases , Mortality , Hospitalization
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 38(2): 81-87, jun. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1407773


Resumen Introducción: El aumento de la concentración de dímero-D en pacientes COVID-19 se ha asociado a mayor gravedad y peor pronóstico; sin embargo, su rol en predecir el diagnóstico de tromboembolismo pulmonar (TEP), aún es incierto. Objetivo: Evaluar la utilidad del dímero-D plasmático en el diagnóstico de TEP en pacientes con COVID-19. Pacientes y Métodos: Estudio observacional analítico. Se incluyó a pacientes COVID-19 que tenían una angiotomografía computada de tórax (AngioTAC). Se registraron datos clínicos, niveles plasmáticos de dímero-D de ingreso y previo al momento de realizar la AngioTAC. Se identificó la presencia o ausencia de TEP. Resultados: Se incluyeron 163 pacientes; 37(23%) presentaron TEP. Al comparar la serie de pacientes con TEP versus sin TEP, no se encontraron diferencias significativas en características clínicas, ni mortalidad. Hubo diferencias significativas en el nivel plasmático del dímero-D previo a realizar la AngioTAC (3.929 versus 1.912 μg/L; p = 0,005). El área bajo la curva ROC del dímero-D para TEPfue de 0,65. El mejor punto de corte del dímero-D fue de 2.000 μg/L, con una baja sensibilidad y valor predictivo positivo. El valor de corte con el mejor valor predictivo negativo (VPN)fue de 900 μg/L (96%), el cual fue mejor que la estrategia de corte de dímero D ajustado por edad (VPN 90%). Conclusión: La capacidad discriminativa del dímero D para diagnosticar TEP fue baja. En cambio, el dímero D mantiene un alto valor predictivo negativo para descartar TEP, el cual es mayor al valor descrito clásicamente en los pacientes no COVID.

Introduction: Increased D-dimer concentration in COVID-19 patients has been associated with greater severity and worse prognosis; however its role in predicting the diagnosis of pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE), is still uncertain. Objective: To evaluate the usefulness of plasma D-dimer in the diagnosis of PTE in patients with COVID-19. Method: Analytical observational study. COVID-19 patients who had a chest computed tomography angiography (CTA) were included. Clinical data, Ddimer plasma levels on admission and prior to CTA were recorded. The presence or absence of PTE was identified. Results: 163 patients were included, 37 (23%) presented PTE. After comparing the series of patients with PTE versus the series without PTE, no significant differences were found in clinical characteristics or mortality. There were significant differences in the plasma level of D-dimer prior to performing CTA (3,929 μg/L versus. 1,912 μg/L; p = 0.005). The area under the D-dimer ROC curve for PTEprediction was 0.65. The best D-dimer cutoffpoint was 2.000μg/L, with a low sensitivity and positivepredictive value. The cutoff value with the best negativepredictive value (NPV) was 900 μg/L (96%), which was better than the age-adjusted D-dimer cutoff strategy (NPV 90%). Conclusion: The discriminative ability of D-dimer to diagnose PTE was low. In contrast, D-dimer maintains a high negative predictive value to rule out PTE, which is higher than the value classically described in non-COVID patients.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , COVID-19/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Biomarkers/analysis , Predictive Value of Tests , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Computed Tomography Angiography
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408193


Introducción: La enfermedad tromboembólica venosa es un proceso grave y mortal, considerado un problema de salud a escala mundial. Objetivo: Caracterizar la morbi-mortalidad por enfermedad tromboembólica venosa en el Hospital Universitario "Arnaldo Milián Castro". Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo retrospectivo de corte transversal a una muestra de 290 casos atendidos en el Hospital Universitario "Arnaldo Milián Castro" de Villa Clara, entre febrero de 2014 y febrero de 2016. Las variables fueron: edad, sexo, factores de riesgo, forma de presentación de la enfermedad y tipo de diagnóstico. Resultados: Se observó un predominio del sexo femenino y de los pacientes mayores de 70 años, independientemente del sexo y la inmovilidad como factor de riesgo. La trombosis venosa profunda del sector íleo-femoral fue la forma de presentación más común. El diagnóstico clínico primó, aunque el tromboembolismo pulmonar, como la complicación principal, se diagnosticó por necropsia. La mayor cantidad de trombosis venosa profunda se registró en el Servicio de Angiología, mientras que las muertes por embolia pulmonar predominaron en el Servicio de Terapia Intensiva. El tratamiento médico más utilizado fue la heparina sódica más warfarina; el profiláctico se realizó solo en el 24,7 por ciento de los casos. La heparina sódica se utilizó más en los servicios de Terapia Intensiva. Conclusiones: La enfermedad tromboembólica venosa fue la principal causa de muerte prevenible en el hospital, lo que sugiere que la profilaxis antitrombótica debe resultar una práctica esencial en los pacientes hospitalizados(AU)

Introduction: Venous thromboembolic disease is a serious and fatal process considered a health problem on a global scale. Objective: Characterize morbidity and mortality due to venous thromboembolic disease at "Arnaldo Milián Castro" University Hospital. Methods: A retrospective descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 290 cases treated at "Arnaldo Milián Castro" University Hospital in Villa Clara between February 2014 and February 2016. The variables were: age, sex, risk factors, form of presentation of the disease and type of diagnosis. Results: A predominance of the female sex and patients over 70 years of age was observed, regardless of sex and immobility as risk factors. Deep vein thrombosis of the ileus-femoral sector was the most common form of presentation. Clinical diagnosis prevailed, although pulmonary thromboembolism, as the main complication, was diagnosed by necropsy. The highest amount of deep vein thrombosis was recorded in the Angiology Service, while deaths from pulmonary embolism predominated in the Intensive Care Service. The most commonly used medical treatment was sodium heparin plus warfarin; prophylaxis was performed only in 24.7 percent of cases. Sodium heparin was more used in Intensive Care services. Conclusions: Venous thromboembolic disease was the leading cause of preventable death in the hospital, suggesting that antithrombotic prophylaxis should be an essential practice in hospitalized patients.

Humans , Female , Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/mortality , Risk Factors , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408190


Introducción: Las enfermedades vasculares periféricas constituyen un problema de salud en el ámbito mundial por resultar causa importante de discapacidad y de invalidez. Objetivo: Caracterizar a los pacientes con enfermedades vasculares periféricas fallecidos en un período de cuatro años. Método: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y analítico en los pacientes fallecidos entre enero de 2015 y diciembre de 2018. Se estudiaron variables sociodemográficas y clínicas. Se estimaron las frecuencias absolutas y relativas, así como la tasa de mortalidad. Se identificó la asociación entre las variables con la causa directa de muerte. Resultados: El 42,7 por ciento de los diabéticos fallecieron; de estos, el 57,5 por ciento estaban descompensados. La hipertensión arterial, el tabaquismo y la diabetes mellitus fueron los factores de riesgo más frecuentes. La tasa de mortalidad total resultó 0,171/1000 ingresos. Como enfermedades arteriales más frecuente aparecieron los AAA (28,1 por ciento ) y la angiopatía diabética (25 por ciento ); y, como parte de esta última, el pie (25,7 por ciento ). La aneurismectomía con injerto por sustitución representó la cirugía revascularizadora más realizada (58,8 por ciento ). El shock hipovolémico y el tromboembolismo pulmonar predominaron como complicaciones posquirúrgicas (15,7 por ciento ). El shock séptico (31,6 por ciento ) y la bronconeumonía bacteriana (25,7 por ciento) fueron las causas directas de muerte. Conclusiones: Se logró caracterizar a los pacientes con enfermedades vasculares periféricas fallecidos en los últimos cuatro años, por lo que estimaron la tasa de prevalencia y la tendencia anual de la mortalidad en el Instituto Nacional de Angiología y Cirugía Vascular en ese período; asimismo, las variables asociadas a las causas directas de muerte(AU)

Introduction: Peripheral vascular diseases are a global health problem because they are a major cause of disability. Objective: Characterize patients with peripheral vascular diseases who died over a period of four years. Method: A descriptive and analytical study was conducted in patients who died between January 2015 and December 2018. Socio-demographic and clinical variables were studied. Absolute and relative frequencies were estimated, as well as the mortality rate. The association between the variables with the direct cause of death was identified. Results: 42.7 percent of diabetic patients died; of these, 57.5 percent were decompensated. High blood pressure, smoking and diabetes mellitus were the most frequent risk factors. The total mortality rate was 0.171/1000 admissions. The most frequent arterial diseases were AAA (28.1 percent) and diabetic angiopathy (25 percent); and, as part of the latter, foot angiopathy (25.7 percent). Aneurysmectomy with graft substitution represented the most performed revascularizing surgery (58.8 percent). Hypovolemic shock and pulmonary thromboembolism predominated as post-surgical complications (15.7 percent). Septic shock (31.6 percent) and bacterial bronchopneumonia (25.7 percent) were the direct causes of death. Conclusions: It was possible to characterize patients with peripheral vascular diseases who died in the last four years, so they estimated the prevalence rate and the annual trend of mortality at the National Institute of Angiology and Vascular Surgery in that period; also, the variables associated with direct causes of death(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Shock/complications , Risk Factors , Peripheral Vascular Diseases/mortality , Shock, Septic/mortality , Bronchopneumonia/mortality , Epidemiology, Descriptive
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 134-138, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935657


Objective: To explore the clinical characteristics and genotype of PROS1 gene related hereditary protein S deficiency (PSD) with the onset of pulmonary embolism in children. Methods: A family with pulmonary embolism was diagnosed as hereditary PSD in the Department of Pediatrics of Peking University First Hospital in November 2020, and the clinical data, including clinical manifestations, laboratory tests, imaging and genetic results, were collected for a retrospective research. The family members were also screened for protein S activity and PROS1 gene mutations. A literature search with "PROS1" "protein S deficiency" "homozygous" and "complex heterozygous" as key words was conducted at PubMed, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform (up to October 2021). Case reports of patients with PROS1 gene homozygous or complex heterozygous variants and related clinical features, protein S activity, and genotype were reviewed and analyzed. Results: The proband, a 14-year-old girl, was admitted to the hospital for a 9-day history of coughing and a 4-day history of chest pain in November 2020. After admission, laboratory tests showed that D-dimer was 8.38 mg/L (reference:<0.24 mg/L). An urgent CT pulmonary angiography confirmed bilateral pulmonary embolism and right lower pulmonary infarction, while an ultrasonography showed deep vein thrombosis in her left leg. Further examination revealed that protein S activity was less than 10%. The proband's second sister, a 12-year-old girl, was admitted to the hospital in December 2020. Her protein S activity was 8% and an ultrasonography showed deep vein thrombosis in her right leg. The protein S activity of the proband's father and mother were 36% and 26%, respectively. Trio-whole-exome sequencing detected compound heterozygous PROS1 gene variants (c.-168C>T and c.200A>C (p.E67A)) for the proband and her second sister, that were inherited from her father and mother, respectively. The proband's third sister's protein S activity was 28%; she and the proband's grandfather both carried c.200A>C (p.E67A) variants. The proband and her younger sister were treated with rivaroxaban and responded well during the 3-month follow-up. A total of 1 Chinese report in literature and 18 English literature were retrieved and 14 patients with protein S deficiency caused by homozygous or complex heterozygous variants of PROS1 gene were enrolled, including 8 male and 6 female patients. The ages ranged from 4 days to 35 years. Three patients experienced fulminant purpura or severe intracranial hemorrhage in early neonatal-period, while the remaining 11 patients developed venous thromboembolism in adolescence. Protein S activity was examined in 11 patients, and all showed less than 10% of activity. Missense variants was the most common type of gene variants. Conclusions: For children with pulmonary embolism, if there are no clear risk factors for thrombosis, hereditary protein S deficiency should be considered, and protein S activity should be examined before oral anticoagulant drugs. If protein S activity is less than 10%, protein S deficiency caused by homozygous or complex heterozygous variants should be considered.

Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pedigree , Protein S/genetics , Protein S Deficiency/genetics , Pulmonary Embolism/genetics , Retrospective Studies
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 49-54, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935102


Objective: To explore the efficacy and safety of percutaneous transluminal pulmonary angioplasty (PTPA) in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). Methods: This prospective single arm study included 19 CTEPH patients (7 male, age(56.3±12.5)years) admitted to Wuhan Asia Heart Hospital from January 2017 to June 2019 and received PTPA interventional therapy. Baseline data, including age, sex, WHO functional class, 6-minute walk distance (6MWD), NT-proBNP, right heart catheterization values, were collected. Patients received single or repeated PTPA. Number of dilated vessels from each patient was analyzed, patients were followed up for 24 weeks and right heart catheterization was repeated at 24 weeks post initial PTPA. All-cause death, perioperative complications, and reperfusion pulmonary edema were reported. WHO functional class, 6MWD, NT-proBNP, right heart catheterization values were compared between baseline and at 24 weeks follow up. Results: Nineteen CTEPH patients received a total of 56 PTPA treatments. The pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) decreased from (40.11±7.55) mmHg (1 mmHg=0.133 kPa) to (27.53±4.75) mmHg (P<0.001), and the total pulmonary resistance (TPR) decreased from (13.00±3.56) Wood U to (5.48±1.56) Wood U (P<0.001), cardiac output increased from (3.19±0.63) L/min to (5.23±0.94) L/minutes (P<0.01) at 24 weeks post PTPA. The WHO functional class improved significantly (P<0.001), 6MWD increased from (307.08±129.51) m to (428.00±112.64) m (P=0.002), the NT-proBNP decreased at 24 weeks post PTPA (P=0.002). During the follow-up period, there was no death; hemoptysis occurred in 4 patients during the operation, none of which resulted in serious adverse clinical consequences. One patient developed reperfusion pulmonary edema and recovered after treatment. Conclusion: PTPA treatment is safe and can significantly improve the hemodynamics and WHO functional class of patients with CTEPH.

Adult , Aged , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Angioplasty , Angioplasty, Balloon , Chronic Disease , Hypertension, Pulmonary/surgery , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Artery/surgery , Pulmonary Embolism , Treatment Outcome