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1.
Notas enferm. (Córdoba) ; 21(38): 34-42, nov. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1348586

ABSTRACT

Si bien el uso rtPA está indicado para diversas patologías como el tratamiento trombolítico en los infartos agudos de miocardio, el tromboembolismo pulmonar agudo con inestabilidad hemodinamica y el tratamiento trombolítico del accidente cerebrovascular isquémico agudo conforme a la disposición DI­2018-495-APN-ANMAT#MSYDS el uso del mismo en Argentina y conforme a consenso (consenso sobre accidente cerebrovascular isquémico agudo). La administración oportuna del rtPA, a pacientes apropiadamente seleccionados constituye el principal tratamiento de forma temprana en el ACV (1-8). Por lo que el rol que cumple enfermería es fundamental en la valoración de riesgos previa a la administración, preparación, administración del fármaco y valoración continua post administración del mismo[AU]


Although the use of rtPA is indicated for various pathologies such as thrombolytic treatment in acute myocardial infarctions, acute pulmonary thromboembolism with hemodynamic instability, and thrombolytic treatment of acute ischemic stroke according to the DI-2018-495-APN-ANMAT provision. #MSYDS the use of thesame in Argentina and accordingtoconsensus (consensus on accident cerebrovascular ischemico acute). Timely administration of rtPAto appropriately selected patients constitutes the main treat mentearly in stroke (1,8). Therefore, the role play edby nursingis fundamental in the risk ass essment prior to the administration, preparation, administration of the drug, and continuous post-administration assessment[AU]


Embora o uso de rtPA seja indicado para várias patologias, como tratamento trombolítico em infartos agudos do miocárdio, tromboembolismo pulmonar agudo com instabilidade hemodinâmica e tratamento trombolítico de acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico agudo de acordo com a disposição DI- 2018-495-APN-ANMAT. #MSYDS a uso do mesmona Argentina e de acordocom o consenso (consensus on accident cerebrovascular ischemico agute). A administração oportuna de rtPA a pacientes adequadamente selecionados constitui o principal tratamento no início do AVC (1,8). Por tanto, o papel da enfermagem é fundamental na avaliação do risco antes da administração, preparo, administração do medicamento e avaliação pós-administração contínua[AU]


Subject(s)
Humans , Plasminogen , Plasminogen/administration & dosage , Stroke , Ischemic Stroke , Myocardial Infarction , Nursing Care , Pulmonary Embolism , Hemodynamics
2.
Medicina UPB ; 40(2): 41-59, 13 oct. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1342185

ABSTRACT

El tromboembolismo pulmonar es la manifestación más grave de la enfermedad tromboembólica venosa y la tercera causa de mortalidad cardiovascular. Su sintomatología puede ir desde un cuadro asintomático o con síntomas leves, hasta el paro cardiaco. Dentro del enfoque de esta patología es importante tener en cuenta escalas que permiten estimar la probabilidad de que determinado paciente con ciertos signos, síntomas y factores de riesgo presente un tromboembolismo pulmonar, así como escalas diseñadas para valorar el riesgo de morir, en pacientes en los que ya se estableció este diagnóstico. Los pilares del tratamiento son la anticoagulación y la trombólisis, sin embargo, esta última está indicada únicamente en algunos casos. La presente revisión tiene como objetivo presentar una actualización de la evidencia sobre el enfoque diagnóstico y terapéutico del tromboembolismo pulmonar agudo, desde el ingreso del paciente al servicio de urgencias.


Pulmonary embolism is the most severe manifestation of venous thromboembolic disease and the third cause of cardiovascular mortality. Its symptoms can range from asymp-tomatic or mild symptoms to cardiac arrest. The approach to patients with suspected pulmonary embolism includes scores that allow estimating the clinical probability that a certain patient with certain signs, symptoms and risk factors will present a pulmonary thromboembolism, as well as scores that classify patients by severity and risk of hemody-namic decompensation. Treatment is based on anticoagulation and thrombolysis, which is used only in certain patients. The goal of this review is to present updated evidence regarding diagnosis and treatment of acute pulmonary embolism from the moment the patient arrives at the emergency room.


A embolia pulmonar é a manifestação mais grave da doença tromboembólica venosa e a terceira principal causa de mortalidade cardiovascular. Seus sintomas podem variar de sintomas assintomáticos ou leves a parada cardíaca. No enfoque desta patologia, é importante levar em consideração escalas que permitem estimar a probabilidade de um determinado paciente com determinados sinais, sintomas e fatores de risco apresentar tromboembolismo pulmonar, bem como escalas destinadas a avaliar o risco de morrer, em pacientes nos quais esse diagnóstico já foi estabelecido. Os pilares do tratamento são a anticoagulação e a trombólise, porém, esta última está indicada apenas em alguns casos. A presente revisão tem como objetivo apresentar uma atualização das evidências sobre a abordagem diagnóstica e terapêutica do tromboembolismo pulmonar agudo, desde a admissão do paciente no pronto-socorro.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pulmonary Embolism , Thromboembolism , Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital
3.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 49(3): e601, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1280184

ABSTRACT

Abstract The new coronavirus 2019-nCov or SARS-Cov-2 is responsible for the most important pandemic in the 21st century: the coronavirus disease (COVID-19). The 2019-nCov infection elicits a hyper-coagulable state, conditioning a worse outcome in these patients. The pathophysiology of the exaggerated coagulation activation in these patients is still unknown, and probably involves several mechanisms, different from those involved in sepsis-associated coagulopathy. This article discusses the case of a patient with no remarkable medical history, who after 7 days of fever, diarrhea and epigastric pain was diagnosed with COVID-19 bilateral pneumonia, further aggravated by severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. In this context, the patient experienced a massive acute pulmonary thromboembolism accompanied by an acute thrombus in the heart's right ventricle, leading to hemodynamic instability. For the first time in our center in these patients, systemic fibrinolysis was successfully performed, with resolution of the intracavitary thrombus and the acute hemodynamic shock.


Resumen El nuevo coronavirus 2019-nCov o SARS-Cov-2 es responsable de la pandemia más importante del siglo XXI: la enfermedad del coronavirus (COVID-19). La infección por 2019-nCov produce un estado de hipercoagulabilidad, que promueve peores desenlaces en estos pacientes. La fisiopatología de la exagerada activación de la coagulación en estos pacientes aún se desconoce y posiblemente involucre varios mecanismos, diferentes a los participan en la coagulopatía asociada a sepsis. El presente artículo presenta el caso de un paciente sin antecedentes médicos y quien luego de 7 días de fiebre, diarrea y dolor epigástrico, fue diagnosticado con neumonía bilateral por COVID-19, agravada por la presencia de Síndrome de Dificultad Respiratoria Aguda. En este contexto, el paciente desarrolla un tromboembolismo pulmonar agudo masivo, acompañado de un trombo agudo en el ventrículo derecho, produciéndole inestabilidad hemodinámica. Por primera vez en nuestro centro, se realizó exitosamente una fibrinólisis sistémica, con resolución del trombo intracavitario y del shock hemodinámico agudo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Pulmonary Embolism , Thrombosis , Blood Coagulation , Pandemics , Fibrinolysis , COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn , Coronavirus , SARS-CoV-2 , Heart Ventricles , Hemodynamics , Infections
4.
Rev. méd. Urug ; 37(3): e37312, set. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY | ID: biblio-1341560

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Introducción: la vacunación contra SARS-CoV-2 es una herramienta imprescindible en el combate contra la pandemia de COVID-19. La vacuna desarrollada en colaboración entre la Universidad de Oxford y el laboratorio de productos farmacéuticos AstraZeneca (AZN) ha demostrado buena eficacia, pero ha habido reporte de trombosis venosas. Caso clínico: se presenta el caso de un paciente de 70 años, de sexo masculino, que 7 días después de la administración de la primera dosis de la vacuna AZN desarrolla trombosis venosa profunda de ambos miembros inferiores y tromboembolismo pulmonar. Coincide con trombocitopenia de 15.000/mm3, descenso del fibrinógeno y elevación de los D-dímeros. La situación clínica evoca el planteo de trombocitopenia trombótica inducida por vacuna (VITT). Se realizó tratamiento con inmunoglobulinas intravenosas, metilprednisolona y crioprecipitados. Requirió colocación de un filtro de la vena cava inferior. Una vez mejorado el recuento plaquetario se instaló tratamiento anticoagulante con apixaban. Evolucionó favorablemente. Discusión: se trata del primer reporte nacional de VITT. Las trombosis subsiguientes a la vacuna de AZN pueden verse con las vacunas que comparten la misma plataforma vacunal (adenovirus inactivado). Se han reportado casos fundamentalmente en menores de 60 años y en topografías inhabituales. Este caso tiene la particularidad de que se trata de un paciente mayor de 60 años, que ya había tenido COVID-19 cinco meses antes y que se presenta con una trombosis en sitios habituales. El manejo terapéutico se adecuó a las pautas internacionales. El caso deja un aprendizaje relevante tanto en lo que refiere al diagnóstico precoz como al manejo terapéutico.


Abstract: Introduction: vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 are an essential tool against the COVID-19 pandemic. The vaccine developed in collaboration with the University of Oxford and the AstraZeneca (AZN) laboratory has proved to be effective, although venous thrombosis have been reported. Clinical case: the study presents the case of a 70 year old male patient who, 7 days after receiving the first dose of the AZN vaccination develops deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in the lower extremities and pulmonary embolism. Simultaneously, thrombocytopenia is 15.000/mm3, fibrinogen levels drop D-dimer levels are elevated. The clinical situation leads to the suspicion of vaccine-associated immune thrombosis and thrombocytopenia (VITT). The patient was treated with intravenous immune globulin, methylprednisolone and cryoprecipitates, requiring a filter to be placed in the inferior vena cava. Once platelets count improved, anti-coagulation therapy including apixaban was commenced, evolution being good. Discussion: this is the first national report on VITT. Thrombosis after the AZN vaccination may be seen in other vaccines that use the same vaccine platform (inactive adenovirus). Cases have been reported mainly in patients younger than 60 years old and in unusual topographies. In particular, this case presents a male patient that is older than 60 years old, who had already been infected with COVID-19 five months before and who currently consults with thrombosis in regular sites. Therapeutic handling observed international guidelines. The case contributes relevant data both in terms of early diagnosis and therapeutic handling.


Resumo: Introdução: a vacinação contra a SARS-CoV-2 é uma ferramenta essencial na luta contra a pandemia de COVID-19. A vacina desenvolvida pela colaboração entre a Universidade de Oxford e o laboratório farmacêutico AstraZeneca (AZN) tem demonstrado boa eficácia, mas foram relatados casos de trombose venosa. Caso clínico: apresenta-se o caso de um paciente do sexo masculino, 70 anos, que 7 dias após a administração da primeira dose da vacina AZN desenvolveu trombose venosa profunda de ambos os membros inferiores e tromboembolismo pulmonar. Coincide com trombocitopenia de 15.000 / mm3, diminuição do fibrinogênio e aumento dos D-dímeros. A situação clínica lembra a trombocitopenia trombótica induzida por vacina (VITT). O tratamento foi realizado com imunoglobulinas intravenosas, metilprednisolona e crioprecipitados. Foi necessário colocar um filtro de veia cava inferior. Uma vez que a contagem de plaquetas melhorou, o tratamento anticoagulante com apixaban foi instalado. O paciente favoravelmente. Discussão: este é o primeiro relatório nacional de VITT. As tromboses subseqüentes à vacina AZN podem ser vistas com vacinas que compartilham a mesma plataforma (adenovírus inativado). Os casos foram relatados principalmente em pessoas com menos de 60 anos de idade e em topografias incomuns. Este caso tem a particularidade de se tratar de um paciente com mais de 60 anos, já com COVID-19 há cinco meses e que apresenta trombose em sítios comuns. O manejo terapêutico foi adaptado às diretrizes internacionais. O caso deixa um aprendizado relevante tanto no que diz respeito ao diagnóstico precoce quanto ao manejo terapêutico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/therapy , Thrombocytopenia/therapy , Venous Thrombosis/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects
5.
Rev. urug. cardiol ; 36(2): e402, ago. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1289998

ABSTRACT

El tromboembolismo pulmonar tiene una presentación clínica variada. Es fundamental tener un alto índice de sospecha para arribar al diagnóstico oportuno. El síncope se asocia a casos graves y tiene importancia pronóstica. El tratamiento trombolítico es la piedra angular en el subgrupo de pacientes de alto riesgo. Se presentan tres casos clínicos de tromboembolia pulmonar de alto riesgo con el fin de discutir el escenario clínico de presentación y el tratamiento instaurado.


Pulmonary thromboembolism has a varied clinical presentation. It is essential to have a high index of suspicion to arrive at a timely diagnosis. Syncope is associated with severe cases and is of prognostic significance. Thrombolytic treatment is the cornerstone in the subgroup of high-risk patients. Three clinical cases of high-risk pulmonary thromboembolism are presented in order to discuss the clinical presentation scenario and the established treatment.


O tromboembolismo pulmonar tem a presentação clínica variada. É essencial ter um alto índice de suspeita para chegar a um diagnóstico oportuno. A síncope está associada a casos graves e tem significado prognóstico. O tratamento trombolítico é a pedra angular no subgrupo de pacientes de alto risco. São apresentados três casos clínicos de tromboembolismo pulmonar de alto risco para discutir o quadro clínico e o tratamento instituído.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Syncope/complications , Heart Arrest/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Radiography, Thoracic , Catastrophic Illness , Electrocardiography
6.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(3): 382-388, jun. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346473

ABSTRACT

Resumen Se realizó un estudio unicéntrico retrospectivo para evaluar la eficacia y seguridad de trombolisis dirigida por catéter (TDC) en pacientes con tromboembolismo pulmonar agudo (TEP) de 2014 a 2020. Se analizó la efectividad (mejoría de presión pulmonar), y seguridad (sangrado intracraneal y grave definido por compromiso hemodinámico). Se incluyeron 43 pacientes, de 67(56-79) años, 5 (12%) con shock, 41 (95%) con dilatación del ventrículo derecho y TEP bilateral. La decis ión de TDC fue: tratamiento inicial (53%), escalada de anticoagulación (42%) y rescate de trombolisis sistémica (5%). Se utilizó TDC facilitada por ultrasonido en 40 casos (93%), utilizándose 30 (25-35) mg de activador tisular del plasminógeno recombinante (rtPA) durante 20 h. Se administró un bolo de rtPA en 38 (89%) casos, que fue 5 mg (95%) o 1 mg (5%). Se utilizó un solo catéter por paciente. En 4 (9%) se decidió recolocación (mismo pulmón) para continuar infusión en otro sector. Se observó una disminución significativa de la presión media pulmonar (pre 35 [29-41] mmHg vs. post 24 [20-34] mmHg, p<0.001). No se observó ningún caso de hemorragia intracraneal, y un caso (2%) de sangrado grave. Se observó hematoma del sitio de punción en 5 (12%) (incluyendo el sangrado grave), y requirió transfusiones en 3 (7%). La mortalidad intrahospitalaria fue 12%, siendo un solo c aso (2%) atribuido al TEP. El tratamiento con TDC fue efectivo asociándose a una reducción significativa de la presión pulmonar, sin observarse ningún sangrado intracraneal y con un sangrado grave. Nuestros resultados se asemejan a lo publicado en otros estudios.


Abstract We performed a single center retrospective study in patients with pulmonary embolism (PE) undergoing catheter directed thrombolysis (CDT) from 2014 to 2020. Efficacy was defined by mean pulmonary pressure drop, and safety was assessed by intracranial and severe bleeding (defined by GUSTO). Forty-three patients were included, aged 64 (56-79) years old, 5 (12%) with shock, most with right ventricle dilation (95%) and bilateral PE (95%) or unilateral (5%) in patients with only one functional lung. CDT was used as first treatment (53%), upscale after anticoagulation alone (42%), or after failed systemic thrombolytics (5%). Median recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) dose was 30 (25-35) mg over 20 (20-20) hours, and rtPA bolus was used after catheter placement in 38 cases (89%), consisting of 5 mg (95%) or 1 mg (5%). Only one lung was treated for technical reasons, and 4 (9%) were repositioned in the same lung for continuation of infusion. A significant reduction in mean pulmonary pressure was observed (pre 35 [29-41] mmHg vs. post 24 [20-34] mmHg, p<0.001) with no intracranial bleeding. One patient (2%) experienced severe bleeding, while 5 (12%) presented access site bleeding, and 3 (7%) required blood transfusions. In-hospital mortality was 12% but only one case (2%) due to PE. Our results are similar to previously reported studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Plasminogen Activators/therapeutic use , Thrombolytic Therapy , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Catheters , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use
7.
Rev. colomb. obstet. ginecol ; 72(1): 53-68, Jan.-Mar. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251613

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo: sintetizar la evidencia disponible en torno a las intervenciones para la prevención de eventos tromboembólicos venosos durante el cuidado perioperatorio de las mujeres con patología ginecológica benigna, buscando reducir la morbi-mortalidad asociada a esta condición. Materiales y métodos: el grupo desarrollador estuvo integrado por profesionales de la salud, tomadores decisiones y un representante de las pacientes. Todos los participantes declararon sus conflictos de interés. Se construyeron preguntas clínicas contestables y se realizó la graduación de los desenlaces. Se elaboró la pesquisa de la información en Medline/PubMed, Embase, Epistemonikos y LILACS. La búsqueda también abarcó fuentes de literatura gris y se actualizó el 22 de septiembre de 2020 sin restricciones por fecha o idioma. Se implementó la aproximación GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) para establecer la calidad de la evidencia y la fuerza de las recomendaciones, se realizó consenso formal acorde con la metodología RAND/UCLA. Previo a la publicación, el documento fue objeto de revisión por pares. Resultados: se presenta la versión corta del consenso "para la prevención de eventos tromboembólicos venosos durante el cuidado perioperatorio de las mujeres con patología ginecológica benigna", junto a su evidencia de soporte y respectivas recomendaciones. Conclusiones: como recomendaciones claves para la implementación, se proponen el uso de la escala de Caprini y el uso de intervenciones acorde con el nivel de riesgo perioperatorio de las pacientes.


ABSTRACT Objective: To draw a synthesis of the available evidence regarding interventions for the prevention of venous thromboembolic events during the peri-operative care of women with benign gynecological pathology, with the aim of reducing the associated morbidity and mortality. Materials and methods: The development group included healthcare professionals, decision-makers and one patient representative. All the participants stated their disclosures. Answerable clinical questions were built and outcomes were graded. The search for information was conducted in Medline, Embase, Epistemonikos and LILACS, but it also included grey literature and was updated on September 22, 2020, with no date or language restrictions. The GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) approach was used to determine the quality of the evidence and the strength of the recommendations. Formal consensus was developed in accordance with the RAND/UCLA methodology. The document was submitted to peer review before publication. Results: The abbreviated version of the "consensus on the prevention of venous thromboembolic events during the perioperative care of women with benign gynecological pathology" is presented together with the supporting evidence and respective recommendations. Conclusions: The key recommendations for implementation include the use of the Caprini scale and of interventions consistent with the individual peri-operative risk level.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Consensus , Venous Thromboembolism , Pulmonary Embolism , General Surgery , Women , Perioperative Care
8.
Med. U.P.B ; 40(1): 77-81, 03/03/2021. Ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1177502

ABSTRACT

Los diferentes reportes de consumo de sustancias evidencian cómo el consumo de alcohol afecta diferentes órganos y sistemas; según el tiempo de presentación hay riesgos agudos y crónicos. Dentro de las complicaciones agudas gastrointestinales asociadas al consumo de alcohol está el síndrome de Boerhaave consistente en una ruptura esofágica espontánea. Es importante identificar este síndrome porque se relaciona con alta mortalidad debido a la amplia gama de signos y síntomas que produce, como vómito, disnea, taquipnea, taquicardia y dolor esternal, que pueden generar confusión con otras enfermedades como el tromboembolismo pulmonar. El objetivo de este reporte es pre-sentar el primer caso clínico en Colombia de un paciente con síndrome de Boerhaave como complicación del consumo de alcohol, ya que es importante que el personal de salud reconozca los factores de riesgo que lo desencadenan.


Numerous reports of substance use show how alcohol consumption affects different organs and systems; related risks can be acute and chronic, depending on the time of presentation. Among the acute gastrointestinal complications associated with alcohol consumption is Boerhaave syndrome, which consists of a spontaneous esophageal rupture. It is important to identify this pathology because it is associated with high mortality due to the wide range of signs and symptoms that it produces such as vomiting, dyspnea, tachypnea, tachycardia, and sternal pain, which can lead to confusion with other diseases like pulmonary thromboembolism and may therefore delay proper and timely diagnostic. The objective of this report is to present the first clinical case reported in Colombia of a patient who suffered from Boerhaave syndrome secondary to chronic alcohol consumption and to sensitize the health personnel about the importance of recognizing alcohol consumption as a risk factor for this complication.


Os diferentes relatos de uso de substâncias mostram como o consumo de álcool afeta diferentes órgãos e sistemas; dependendo da época de apresentação, existem riscos agudos e crônicos. Entre as complicações gastrointestinais agudas associadas ao con-sumo de álcool está a síndrome de Boerhaave, que consiste em uma ruptura esofágica espontânea. É importante identificar essa síndrome, pois está associada a alta mortalidade devido à ampla gama de sinais e sintomas que produz, como vômitos, dispneia, taquipneia, taquicardia e dor esternal, que podem levar à confusão com outras doenças, como tromboembolismo pulmonar. O objetivo deste relatório é apresentar o primeiro caso clínico na Colômbia de um paciente com síndrome de Boerhaave como uma complicação do consumo de álcool, pois é importante que o pessoal de saúde reconheça os fatores de risco que a desencadeiam.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alcohol Drinking , Pain , Pulmonary Embolism , Rupture , Tachycardia , Vomiting , Confusion , Ethanol
9.
Rev. cuba. cir ; 60(1): e968, ene.-mar. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289370

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las reintervenciones en la cirugía abdominal, son causa de una alta mortalidad en los servicios de cirugía general. Objetivo: Caracterizar morbimortalidad de las reintervenciones de la cirugía abdominal urgente y electiva en el servicio de cirugía general del Hospital Universitario "Manuel Ascunce Domenech". Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo transversal, de los pacientes que requirieron de reintervención quirúrgica abdominal. El universo estuvo conformado por 236 pacientes que cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión. Se utilizaron métodos estadísticos descriptivos y cálculos con valores porcentuales. Resultados: Predominó el grupo de edades de 40-49 años, así como el sexo masculino, con un 25 por ciento y 64,8 por ciento, respectivamente. En cuanto al tiempo en que se realizó la reintervención 72,5 por ciento se realizó luego de las 48 horas. El 88,6 por ciento de los pacientes resolvió la causa que lo originó en la primera reintervención. Las causas más frecuentes fueron la peritonitis generalizada seguida de los abscesos intrabdominales con un 19,5 por ciento y 17,4 por ciento respectivamente. La mortalidad fue de 30,1 por ciento y el tromboembolismo pulmonar la causa directa de muerte en 12,3 por ciento de los casos. Conclusiones: Casi la totalidad de los casos fueron reintervenidos luego de las 48 horas y las dos terceras partes resolvieron en la primera intervención. La peritonitis generalizada y los abscesos intrabdominales fueron la causa de la reintervención en un número importante(AU)


Introduction: Abdominal surgery re-interventions cause high mortality in general surgery services. Objective: To characterize morbidity and mortality of urgent and elective abdominal surgery re-interventions in the general surgery service of Manuel Ascunce Domenech University Hospital. Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive, observational study was carried out with patients who required abdominal surgical re-intervention. The universe consisted of 236 patients who met the inclusion criteria. Descriptive statistical methods and calculations with percentage values were used. Results: There was a predominance of the age group 40-49 years and the male sex, accounting for 25 percent and 64.8 percent, respectively. Regarding time of performance of re-intervention, 72.5 percent was carried out after 48 hours. 88.6 percent of the patients had, in the first re-intervention, a solution for the cause that originated it. The most frequent causes were generalized peritonitis, followed by intraabdominal abscesses, accounting for 19.5 percent and 17.4 percent, respectively. Mortality was 30.1 percent and pulmonary embolism was the direct cause of death in 12.3 percent of cases. Conclusions: Almost all the cases were re-intervened after 48 hours and two thirds had a solution the first re-intervention. Generalized peritonitis and intraabdominal abscesses were the cause of re-intervention, in a significant number(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Peritonitis/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/mortality , Reoperation/methods , Indicators of Morbidity and Mortality , Abdominal Cavity/surgery , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Observational Studies as Topic
10.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP, CONASS, SESSP-CTDPROD, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1248179

ABSTRACT

O Tromboembolismo Pulmonar (TEP) é uma doença cardiovascular aguda que acomete cerca de 1 a cada 1000 pessoas por ano nos Estados Unidos, sendo a terceira causa de morte mais comum no ambiente hospitalar. Com isso, o objetivo deste estudo foi descrever o perfil epidemiológico de casos de TEP no Brasil no período de janeiro de 2015 a dezembro de 2019. A partir do Sistema de Informações Hospitalares do Sistema Único de Saúde brasileiro (SIH/SUS) foram obtidos dados sobre todos os casos de TEP notificados no Brasil de 2015 a 2019. Nesse período, o número de internações por TEP no Brasil foi de 42.411, concentrando-se na região sudeste (54,7%), entretanto, a região com a maior taxa de letalidade hospitalar (25,38%) foi o Nordeste. Quanto ao sexo, observa-se a prevalência de internações e óbitos nas mulheres, contudo, em comparação, a taxa de letalidade hospitalar dos homens é superior em 1.77%. Em relação a raça, constata-se que a branca é a mais acometida, sobretudo nas mulheres. É notória a correlação entre os fatores sociodemográficos e o desenvolvimento do TEP, visto que as regiões com menor Índice de Desenvolvimento Humano (IDH) do Brasil (norte e nordeste) lideram o ranking no que se refere à letalidade hospitalar. Por isso, é necessária a implementação de ferramentas que estimulem a prevenção do TEP e seus fatores de risco, visando diminuir a taxa de letalidade e incidência de casos no Brasil.


Subject(s)
Pulmonary Embolism , Unified Health System , Disease Prevention
11.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e01572021, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250835

ABSTRACT

Abstract Approximately one-third of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) present with coagulation disorders and hematological changes. However, the clinical manifestations of COVID-19 and prognoses of people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remain controversial. This study reports the case of a 27-year-old HIV-infected man who regularly used antiretroviral medications, had no other comorbidities and was admitted for acute respiratory distress syndrome caused by COVID-19. Complementary examinations during hospitalization revealed a diagnosis of pulmonary thromboembolism in association with an intracavitary thrombus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Thrombosis , HIV Infections/complications , COVID-19 , HIV , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Alger. J. health sci. (Online. Oran) ; 3(2): 39-43, 2021. Tables, figures
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1293019

ABSTRACT

La maladie à coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) est déclarée pandémie mondiale depuis le 11 mars 2020 avec des chiffres qui avoisinent les 30 millions d'infections confirmées dans le monde et un million de décès. Le nombre d'arrêts cardiaques extrahospitalier a doublé dans certaines régions laissant de nombreux spécialistes se pencher sur la relation entre la mort subite et l'infection au SARS-CoV-2. Un des principaux mécanismes de mort subite par infection COVID-19 est l'arythmie, très fréquemment décrite chez les malades hospitalisés dans le cadre de prise en charge de la COVID-19. Les embolies pulmonaires fatales et les lésions myocardiques sont aussi des mécanismes à citer. Ces dernières peuvent être des lésions directes causant une myocardite virale ou des lésions indirectes par inadéquation entre apports et besoins en substrats énergétiques. La sensibilisation au concept du «near-term prevention¼ pourra faire partie de l'arsenal prophylactique des morts subites, en face de la peur de consultation déjà installée en population générale en période pandémique. Cet article a pour objectif de recenser les mécanismes principaux de mort subite liée à l'infection par le SARS-CoV-2 et de faire sortir les moyens de prévention primaire pouvant être mis en avant en situation pandémique.


Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been declared a global pandemic since March 11, 2020 with approaching 30 million confirmed infections and one million deaths worldwide. Out-of-hospital cardiac arrests have doubled in some areas allowing several physicians to look into the relationship between sudden death and SARSCoV-2 infection. One of the main mechanisms of sudden death from COVID-19 infection is arrhythmia, very frequently described in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Fatal pulmonary embolism and myocardial damage are identically involved. These latter could be direct at the origin of the viral myocarditis or indirect secondary to an inadequacy of energy substrates. Awareness of the «near-term prevention¼ concept could be part of the prophylactic arsenal of sudden deaths, in the face of the fear of hospital consultation already installed in the general population during the pandemic period. This article aims to identify the main mechanisms of sudden cardiac death linked to SARS-CoV-2 infection and to bring out the means of primary prevention that can be put forward in a pandemic situation.


Subject(s)
Death, Sudden , Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Algeria
14.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(12): 1657-1665, Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143675

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: Different parameters on electrocardiograms (ECG) have been investigated to predict arrhythmia and mortality in patients with acute pulmonary embolism (APE). The acute effect of thrombolytic therapy (TT) on these parameters has not been investigated yet. METHODS: We examined the data of 83 patients who were evaluated as high-risk APE and discharged from the hospital after TT. First, the high-risk APE patients' ECGs were compared with healthy control subjects (n = 55). After their admission and 24 hours later, the ECGs of patients with APE were compared. Heart rate, P-wave morphology, QRS duration, QT distance, Tp-e, and the index of cardiac electrophysiological balance (iCEB) were analyzed. RESULTS: Although P maximum was not different between the groups' ECGs, heart rate, QT, QTc (corrected QT) interval, Tp-e intervals, Tp-e/QT ratio, and P wave dispersion were significantly higher in the APE group ( P values < 0.031). iCEB or iCEBc (corrected iCEB) values were lower in APE group ( P < 0.001). After TT, we determined a decrease in heart rate, Tp-e interval, and Tp-e/QT ratio ( P < 0.001). Although we detected a decrease in the QT and QTc interval and QT dispersion (QTd), QTd had no statistical significance (respectively P -value 0.013, 0.029, and 0.096). The iCEB and iCEBc levels were lower after TT ( P -value was 0.035 and 0.044 respectively). CONCLUSION: The QT, QTc, Tp-e interval, Tp-e/QTc ratio, iCEB, and iCEBc values significantly decreased after TT. It may be thought that effective TT causes partial improvement in ventricular repolarization in an early period.


RESUMO OBJETIVO: Diferentes parâmetros de eletrocardiograma (ECG) têm sido investigados para predizer mortalidade e arritmia em pacientes com embolia pulmonar aguda (EPA). O efeito agudo da terapia trombolítica (TT) nesses parâmetros ainda não foi investigado. MÉTODOS: Examinamos os dados de 83 pacientes avaliados com EPA de alto risco e que receberam alta hospitalar após TT. Primeiramente, comparamos os ECGs dos pacientes com EPA de alto risco com os de indivíduos saudáveis (n = 55). Os ECGs dos pacientes com EPA foram comparados logo após a internação e 24 horas mais tarde. A frequência cardíaca, a morfologia da onda P, a duração do QRS, o intervalo QT, Tp-e e o índice de equilíbrio eletrofisiológico cardíaco (iCEB) foram analisados. RESULTADOS: Embora o valor máximo de P não tenha sido diferente entre os grupos no ECG, a frequência cardíaca, QT, intervalo QTc (QT corrigido), intervalos Tpe, razão TP-e/QT e dispersão da onda P foram significativamente mais elevados no grupo de EPA (valores de P < 0,031). Os valores do iCEB ou iCEBc (iCEB corrigido) foram inferiores no grupo de APE (P < 0,001). Após a TT, observamos uma diminuição da frequência cardíaca, do intervalo TP-e e da razão TP-e/QT ( P < 0,001). Apesar de termos observado uma diminuição do intervalo QT e QTc e da dispersão do QT (QTd), o valor de QTd não apresentou uma diferença estatisticamente significativa (respectivamente, valor de P 0,013, 0,029 e 0,096). Os níveis do iCEB e iCEBc foram menores após a TT (valor de P 0,035 e 0,044, respectivamente). CONCLUSÃO: Os valores de QT, QTc, intervalo Tp-e, razão Tp-e/QTc, iCEB e iCEBc diminuíram significativamente após TT. Pode-se concluir que a TT eficaz causa uma melhora parcial da repolarização ventricular no período inicial.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Electrocardiography , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/drug therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy , Heart Rate
15.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(12): 1645-1650, Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143659

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: Early diagnosis and risk stratification may provide a better prognosis in pulmonary embolism (PE). Copeptin has emerged as a valuable predictive biomarker in various cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of copeptin in patients with acute PE and to evaluate its relationship with disease severity and PE-related death. METHODS: Fifty-four patients and 60 healthy individuals were included in this study. Copeptin concentrations and right ventricular dysfunction were analyzed. The correlation between copeptin levels and hemodynamic and echocardiographic parameters was examined. After these first measurements, patients were evaluated with PE-related mortality at the one-year follow-up. RESULTS: The copeptin levels were higher in PE patients than in the control group (8.3 ng/mL vs 3.8 ng/mL, p<0.001). Copeptin levels were found to be significantly higher in patients with PE-related death and right ventricular dysfunction (10.2 vs 7.5 ng/ml, p=0.001; 10.5 vs 7.5 ng/ml, p=0.002, respectively). When the cut-off value of copeptin was ≥5.85, its sensitivity and specificity for predicting PE were 71.9% and 85.0%, respectively (AUC=0.762, 95% CI=0.635-0.889, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The copeptin measurement had moderate sensitivity and specificity in predicting the diagnosis of PE, and the copeptin level was significantly higher in patients with PE-related death at the one-year follow-up. Copeptin may be a useful new biomarker in predicting diagnosis, risk stratification, and prognosis of PE.


RESUMO OBJETIVO: O diagnóstico precoce e a estratificação de risco podem proporcionar um melhor prognóstico em casos de embolia pulmonar (EP). A copeptina surgiu como um valioso biomarcador preditivo de várias doenças cardiovasculares. O objetivo deste estudo é determinar os níveis de copeptina em pacientes com EP aguda e avaliar a sua relação com a severidade da doença e mortes relacionadas à EP. MÉTODOS: Um total de 54 pacientes e 60 indivíduos saudáveis foram incluídos neste estudo. As concentrações de copeptina e disfunções ventriculares direitas foram analisadas. A correlação entre os níveis de copeptina e parâmetros ecocardiográficos e hemodinâmicos foi examinada. Após essas primeiras medições, os pacientes foram avaliados em relação à mortalidade relacionada à EP após um ano. RESULTADOS: Os níveis de copeptina foram maiores em pacientes com EP do que no grupo de controle (8,3 ng/mL vs 3,8 ng/mL, p<0,001). Os níveis de copeptina eram significativamente maiores em pacientes com mortes relacionadas à EP e disfunção ventricular direita (10,2 vs 7,5 ng/ml, p=0,001; 10,5 vs 7,5 ng/ml, p=0,002, respectivamente). Com um valor de corte ≥5,85 para a copeptina, sua sensibilidade e especificidade preditivas para EP foram 71,9% e 85,0%, respectivamente (AUC=0,762, 95% IC=0,635 - 0,889, p<0,001). CONCLUSÃO: A medição da copeptina teve sensibilidade e especificidade preditivas moderadas para o diagnóstico de EP, e o nível de copeptina foi significativamente maior em pacientes com mortes relacionadas à EP após um ano. A copeptina pode ser um novo biomarcador preditivo útil para o diagnóstico, a estratificação de risco e o prognóstico de PE.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Glycopeptides , Plasma , Prognosis , Biomarkers , Acute Disease , Predictive Value of Tests
16.
Rev. cuba. reumatol ; 22(3): e752,
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1144538

ABSTRACT

El síndrome antifosfolipídico o de Hughes, como también se le conoce, puede aparecer de manera aislada o asociado a otras enfermedades autoinmunes como el lupus eritematoso sistémico. La asociación de ambas entidades puede causar varias complicaciones, como el tromboembolismo pulmonar. Se presenta el caso de una paciente de 28 años de edad, con antecedentes de abortos a repetición y óbito fetal, ingresada en esta ocasión, debido a una trombosis venosa profunda del miembro superior derecho, confirmada mediante ecografía Doppler. Se comprobó el diagnóstico de síndrome antifosfolipídico secundario a lupus eritematoso sistémico, sustentado por los elementos clínicos e inmunitarios presentes. La paciente evolucionó satisfactoriamente, con el protocolo terapéutico empleado en fase aguda: heparina de bajo peso molecular del tipo clexane (enoxaparina) 1 mg/kg cada 12 h y dicumarínicos del tipo warfarina 5 mg con una razón normalizada internacional (INR) de 3. Se mantiene actualmente con una dosis de 10 mg/día e hidroxicloroquina 200 mg diarios. Conclusiones: Se resalta la importancia de diagnosticar el síndrome antifosfolipídico, ante toda paciente con abortos espontáneos o muertes perinatales inexplicables. El tratamiento debe ser multidisciplinario y se debe realizar una búsqueda sistemática de afecciones secundarias (particularmente enfermedades difusas del tejido conectivo) antes de calificar al síndrome como primario(AU)


The antiphospholipid or Hughes syndrome, as it is also known, can appear in isolation or in association with other autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus. The association of both entities can cause various complications, such as pulmonary thromboembolism. We present the case of a 28-year-old patient, with a history of repeated abortions and stillbirth, admitted on this occasion due to deep vein thrombosis of the right upper limb, confirmed by Doppler ultrasound. The diagnosis of antiphospholipid syndrome secondary to systemic lupus erythematosus was confirmed, supported by the clinical and immune elements present. The patient evolved satisfactorily, with the therapeutic protocol used in the acute phase, where she initially received treatment with low molecular weight heparin of the type clexane (enoxaparin) 1 mg x kg every 12 hours, and discoumarin drugs of the warfarin type, which she currently maintains at a 5mg dose with an INR of 3. Initially prednisone was placed at a dose of 1mg x kg with good therapeutic response, currently maintaining a 10mg dose. He is also currently on hydroxychloroquine 200 mg daily. Conclusions: The importance of diagnosing the antiphospholipid syndrome is highlighted in all patients with spontaneous abortions or unexplained perinatal deaths. Treatment should be multidisciplinary and a systematic search for secondary conditions (particularly diffuse connective tissue diseases) should be conducted before qualifying the syndrome as primary(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Abortion, Spontaneous/etiology , Antiphospholipid Syndrome/complications , Antiphospholipid Syndrome/diagnosis , Hydroxychloroquine , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/prevention & control , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use
17.
Rev. cuba. hematol. inmunol. hemoter ; 36(4): e1144, oct.-dic. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289415

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El dímero D es un marcador de la generación de trombina y plasmina. Constituye el producto final de la degradación de un trombo rico en fibrina mediada por la acción secuencial de 3 enzimas: trombina, factor FXIIIa y plasmina. Las pruebas disponibles en la actualidad para el diagnóstico del dímero D son variadas y no son uniformes. Objetivo: Analizar las evidencias disponibles sobre la utilidad de diferentes pruebas rápidas de dímero D. Métodos: Se realizó una revisión de la literatura de los últimos diez años, en inglés y español, utilizando motores de búsqueda como Google Académico y Pubmed que permitió el acceso a artículos relacionados en revistas arbitradas. Se agrupó y organizó información sobre las posibles utilidades del dímero D. Desarrollo: La determinación en el laboratorio del dímero D, se usa como prueba rápida y sencilla, posee un lugar definido en los algoritmos de exclusión de la enfermedad tromboembólica venosa, en el diagnóstico de coagulación intravascular diseminada y con aplicación en la predicción de la recidiva de trombosis venosa profunda, en los últimos años. Existen diversos ensayos para la determinación de la concentración plasmática de dímero D que utilizan distintas metodologías, diferentes anticuerpos y sensibilidades. Conclusiones: La determinación de dímero D por los métodos cuantitativos en pacientes con trastornos trombóticos es muy importante para determinar su sensibilidad, y fundamentar el desarrollo del algoritmo diagnóstico de las mencionadas entidades(AU)


Introduction: D-dimer is a marker of thrombin and plasmin generation. It is the final product of the degradation of a fibrin-rich thrombus mediated by the sequential action of three enzymes: thrombin, factor XIIIa and plasmin. The tests currently available for D-dimer diagnosis are varied and not uniform. Objective: Analyze the evidence available about the usefulness of a number of D-dimer rapid tests. Methods: A review was conducted of the literature published in English and Spanish in the last ten years, using search engines such as Google Scholar and PubMed, which allowed access to papers about the topic in peer-reviewed journals. Data about the possible uses of D-dimer were grouped and organized. Discussion: Laboratory D-dimer determination is a rapid and simple test that has occupied a definite place in the exclusion algorithms for venous thromboembolic disease, the diagnosis of disseminated intravascular coagulation, and the prediction of deep venous thrombosis recurrence in recent years. A number of assays are available to determine D-dimer plasma concentration. These are based on different methodologies, antibodies and sensitivity values. Conclusions: D-dimer determination by quantitative methods is very important in patients with thrombotic disorders to determine their sensitivity and substantiate the development of the diagnostic algorithm for the aforementioned conditions(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Upper Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Prospective Studies
18.
Rev. ADM ; 77(6): 312-315, nov.-dic. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151256

ABSTRACT

La respuesta a la infección viral produce un estado de trombosis o hipercoagulabilidad que, unido a la inflamación de las células endoteliales, puede generar disfunción plaquetaria y predisposición a la formación de trombos que, aunque con frecuencia son más venosos, también pueden aparecer en el sistema arterial y producir infartos a cualquier nivel así como tromboembolia e hipertensión pulmonar. Estas manifestaciones han sido captadas hospitalariamente y al egreso de los pacientes detectados por SARS-CoV-2 habiendo ya cumplido el tiempo establecido de virulencia. Los criterios diagnósticos de respuesta inmunológica trombótica asociada a COVID-19 (RITAC) ayudan a seleccionar al paciente que está predispuesto a esta condición; a esto se añade que el paciente ya tiene un diagnóstico de infección por SARS-CoV-2 (AU)


The response to viral infection produces a prothrombotic state of hypercoagulability , united with an inflammation of endothelial cells, It can generate platelet dysfunction and predisposition to the formation of thrombus, that, although, are more frequently venous, Also, it can appear in the arterial system and cause heart attacks at any level; thromboembolism and pulmonary hypertension, as well. These manifestations have been captured hospitably and with the egress of patients detected by SARS-CoV-2. The diagnostic criteria of RITAC (abbreviation in Spanish of Thrombotic Immune Response Associated to COVID-19), help to select the patient who is predisposed to this condition; adding that the patient already has a diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral , Thrombosis , Coronavirus Infections , Betacoronavirus , Panama , Pulmonary Embolism , Dental Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data
19.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 40(4): 587-593, oct.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142423

ABSTRACT

Resumen: La tuberculosis es una de las enfermedades infecciosas más comunes en el mundo. Aunque la mortalidad en niños es prácticamente nula cuando el diagnóstico y el tratamiento son oportunos, puede asociarse con complicaciones como la trombosis venosa profunda y la superficial a partir de la respuesta inflamatoria sistémica frente a la infección, lo que propicia la coagulación y ocasiona una significativa morbimortalidad. Se reporta el caso de una adolescente de 14 años con tuberculosis pulmonar en tratamiento combinado quien, de forma atípica, presentó dos episodios de tromboembolia venosa: el primero en el riñón y el segundo en los pulmones. Tras descartar el síndrome nefrótico y el antifosfolipídico, los estudios de tomografía de tórax y abdomen fueron una herramienta fundamental para su diagnóstico. Se inició tratamiento con heparina de bajo peso molecular con mejoría de los síntomas. Teniendo en cuenta las necesidades de anticoagulación no fue posible realizar estudios adicionales de ampliación. Las complicaciones tromboembólicas en pacientes con tuberculosis y sin otros factores de riesgo obligan a considerar el efecto coagulante que resulta de la reacción inflamatoria sistémica, la cual podría, por sí sola, ser la causa de una complicación significativa pero prevenible, aunque frecuentemente escapa al diagnóstico. En este sentido, se recomienda considerar la posibilidad de la tromboembolia venosa en estos pacientes y hacer un seguimiento estricto que permita aplicar el tratamiento anticoagulante tempranamente y prevenir, así, resultados adversos.


Abstract: Tuberculosis is one of the most common infectious diseases around the world. With timely diagnosis and treatment, mortality in children is practically zero. It is usually associated with a diverse number of complications that can cause significant morbidity and mortality, such as deep and superficial vein thrombosis. This event has been associated with a procoagulant state caused by the systemic inflammatory response to infection. We report the case of a 14-year-old adolescent with pulmonary tuberculosis under the initial four-drug regimen. She presented two episodes of venous thromboembolism, the first in the kidneys and the second in the lungs. After ruling out diseases such as nephrotic and antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, chest and abdomen tomographies were performed as a fundamental tool for the diagnosis. Thereafter, treatment with low molecular weight heparin was initiated and the symptoms improved. Given the requirement for anticoagulation, further image studies could not be done. Thromboembolic complications in patients with no other risk factors, associated only with a previous pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosis, offer evidence to consider the procoagulant effect resulting from the systemic inflammatory response that, by itself, could be the cause of a serious complication, often underdiagnosed but also preventable. Therefore, it is recommended to consider the predisposition for venous thromboembolism in these patients and to establish strict surveillance so early anticoagulant therapy can be provided to prevent adverse outcomes.


Subject(s)
Tuberculosis , Pulmonary Embolism , Adolescent , Venous Thrombosis , Anticoagulants , Antitubercular Agents
20.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 115(5): 809-818, nov. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1142259

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento: A embolia pulmonar aguda (EPA) tem desfecho clínico variável. A angiotomografia computadorizada (angio-CT) é considerada o padrão-ouro para o diagnóstico. Objetivo: Avaliar se o volume vascular pulmonar (VVP) quantificado por software automatizado é um preditor de mortalidade após EPA. Métodos: Estudo de coorte retrospectivo no qual a imagem da angio-CT de 61 pacientes com EPA foi reanalisada. O VVP e o volume pulmonar (VP) foram estimados automaticamente pelo software Yacta. Calculamos o VVP ajustado pela razão: VVP(cm3)/VP(litros). Parâmetros prognósticos clássicos da angio-CT (carga embólica; razão do diâmetro do ventrículo direito/ventrículo esquerdo; razão do diâmetro da artéria pulmonar/aorta; desvio do septo interventricular; infarto pulmonar e refluxo de contraste na veia hepática) foram avaliados. A mortalidade em 1 mês foi o desfecho analisado. Consideramos um valor de p <0,05 como estatisticamente significativo. Resultados: Sete mortes (11%) ocorreram entre os 61 pacientes durante 1 mês de seguimento. O VVP ajustado <23cm3/L foi um preditor independente de mortalidade na análise univariada (odds ratio [OR]: 26; intervalo de confiança de 95% [IC95%]: 3-244; p=0,004) e na análise multivariada (OR ajustado: 19 [IC95%: 1,3-270]; p=0,03). Os parâmetros clássicos da angio-CT não foram associados à mortalidade em 1 mês nesta amostra. O VVP ajustado <23cm3/L apresentou sensibilidade de 86%, especificidade de 82%, valor preditivo negativo de 94% e valor preditivo positivo de 64% para identificação dos pacientes que morreram. Conclusão: VVP ajustado <23cm3/L foi um preditor independente de mortalidade após EPA. Esse parâmetro mostrou melhor desempenho prognóstico do que os outros achados clássicos da angio-CT. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 115(5):809-818)


Abstract Background: Acute pulmonary embolism (APE) has a variable clinical outcome. Computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) is the gold standard for this diagnosis. Objective: To evaluate if the pulmonary vascular volume (PVV) quantified by automated software is a mortality predictor after APE. Methods: Retrospective cohort study where the CTPA imaging of 61 patients with APE was reanalyzed. Pulmonary vascular volume (PVV) and pulmonary volume (PV) were automatically estimated using the Yacta software. We calculated the adjusted PVV by the ratio: PVV(cm3)/PV(liters). Classical prognostic CTPA parameters (clot load index, right ventricle/left ventricle diameter ratio, pulmonary artery/aorta diameter ratio, ventricular septal bowing, pulmonary infarction and reflux of contrast into the hepatic vein) were assessed. The outcome assessed was one-month mortality. We considered a p-value <0.05 as statistically significant. Results: Seven deaths (11%) occurred at one month among these 61 patients. PVV<23cm3/L was an independent predictor of one-month mortality in the univariate [odds ratio (OR): 26; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3-244; p=0.004] and multivariate analyses [adjusted OR: 19; 95%CI: 1.3-270; p=0.03]. The classical CTPA parameters were not associated with one-month mortality in this sample. The PVV<23cm3/L showed a sensitivity of 86%, a specificity of 82%, a negative predictive value of 94% and a positive predictive value of 64% to identify the patients who died. Conclusion: PVV<23cm3/L was an independent predictor of one-month mortality after APE. This parameter showed better prognostic performance than other classical CTPA findings. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 115(5):809-818)


Subject(s)
Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Artery/diagnostic imaging , Software , Angiography , Acute Disease , Retrospective Studies
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