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1.
Med. leg. Costa Rica ; 39(2)dic. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1405585

ABSTRACT

Resumen Algunos estudios sugieren que existe una relación entre el uso de antipsicóticos y el riesgo de tromboembolismo venoso (TEV) y embolia pulmonar (EP). Sin embargo, los resultados siguen sin ser concluyentes. Se trata del caso de un Masculino de 23 años con antecedentes de Esquizofrenia y Depresión tratado quetiapina 800 mg, el cual es encontrado muerto en la cama de un hotel. En la necropsia sin lesiones traumáticas visibles, hallazgos histológicos de tromboembolismo pulmonar masivo con infartos pulmonares secundarios. Laboratorio de Toxicología detectó la presencia de quetiapina, no se detectó alcohol o drogas de abusos. Mediante el Algoritmo De Karch & Lasagna Modificado el tromboembolismo pulmonar fue una reacción adversa con una probabilidad de relación causal posible. Se han informado muchos casos de muerte súbita causada por EP con la exposición a antipsicóticos, pero la relación de su uso y el riesgo de TEV y EP sigue siendo controvertida.


Abstract Some studies suggest a relationship between antipsychotic use and the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and pulmonary embolism (PE). However, the results remain inconclusive. This is the case of a 23-year-old male with a history of schizophrenia and depression treated with quetiapine 800 mg, who was found dead in a hotel bed. At necropsy with no visible traumatic lesions, histological findings of massive pulmonary thromboembolism with secondary pulmonary infarcts. Toxicology laboratory detected the presence of quetiapine, no alcohol or drugs of abuse were detected. Using the Modified Karch & Lasagna Algorithm, pulmonary thromboembolism was an adverse reaction with a probable causal relationship. Many cases of sudden death caused by PE have been reported with exposure to antipsychotics, but the relationship of their use and the risk of VTE and PE remains controversial.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Quetiapine Fumarate/adverse effects
2.
Más Vita ; 4(2): 86-92, jun. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1392119

ABSTRACT

La pandemia de COVID-19 actualmente ha demostrado la importancia de una evaluación y un manejo agresivos, al considerar su exposición como una enfermedad viral muy trasmisible que tiene efectos multisistémicos y una alta tasa de mortalidad. Es así que el diagnóstico y el tratamiento de la embolia pulmonar, son desafiantes en circunstancias habituales. Objetivo: Describir un caso clínico de tromboembolismo pulmonar masivo en covid-19. Reporte de Caso: Paciente de sexo masculino 42 años con antecedentes patológico personales de hipertensión arterial con prueba rápida para SARS COV-2 IGG e IGM positivo. Resultados: Se estima que cada año hay 900.000 casos de tromboembolismo venoso (TEV) en los Estados Unidos, 150.000 a 250.000 hospitalizaciones relacionadas con la embolia pulmonar (EP) y 60.000 a 100.000 muertes, lo que la convierte en la tercera causa más común de enfermedades cardiovasculares. Conclusión: Una vez que se diagnostica una embolia pulmonar, es necesaria la estratificación del riesgo para definir el manejo adecuado. Los tratamientos disponibles al momento pueden variar desde anticoagulación sola, trombólisis dirigida por catéter, trombólisis sistémica de dosis completa, embolectomía con catéter, embolectomía quirúrgica y soporte circulatorio mecánico como oxigenación por membrana extracorpórea (ECMO)(AU)


The COVID-19 pandemic has currently demonstrated the importance of aggressive evaluation and management, considering its exposure as a highly transmissible viral disease that has multisystem effects and a high mortality rate. Thus, the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary embolism are challenging under usual circumstances. Objective: To describe a clinical case of massive pulmonary thromboembolism in covid-19. Case Report: A 42-year-old male patient with a personal pathological history of arterial hypertension with a positive rapid test for SARS COV-2 IGG and IGM. Results: There are an estimated 900,000 cases of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in the United States each year, 150,000 to 250,000 pulmonary embolism (PE)-related hospitalizations, and 60,000 to 100,000 deaths, making it the third most common cause of pulmonary embolism. cardiovascular diseases. Conclusion: Once a pulmonary embolism is diagnosed, risk stratification is necessary to define the appropriate management. Currently available treatments may range from anticoagulation alone, catheter-directed thrombolysis, full-dose systemic thrombolysis, catheter embolectomy, surgical embolectomy, and mechanical circulatory support such as extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Pulmonary Embolism , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Cardiovascular Diseases , Communicable Diseases , Mortality , Hospitalization
5.
Belo Horizonte; s.n; 2022. 199 p. ilus, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1398657

ABSTRACT

A trombose venosa profunda (TVP) e o tromboembolismo pulmonar (TEP) são as principais manifestações clínicas do tromboembolismo venoso (TEV). O TEV é uma complicação comum e potencialmente grave das cirurgias ortopédicas, uma vez que pode levar à limitação funcional e morte pós-operatória. O uso da tromboprofilaxia reduz acentuadamente a incidência de TEV relacionado às intervenções ortopédicas, e seu uso é recomendado por diversas diretrizes. Entretanto, a indicação e o tipo de tromboprofilaxia para algumas intervenções ortopédicas, assim como o uso de ferramentas de predição de risco, ainda não estão bem estabelecidos e constituem pontos de debate. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram identificar os fatores de risco para TEV e suas interações nas cirurgias ortopédicas e avaliar a aplicabilidade do escore de risco de Caprini na predição de TEV em pacientes ortopédicos. Além disso, devido à escassez de conhecimento e recomendações sobre tromboprofilaxia nas intervenções ortopédicas de tornozelo e pé, realizaram-se uma revisão narrativa e uma enquete internacional sobre o assunto. Para analisar a interação de fatores de risco de TEV e a aplicabilidade preditiva do escore de Caprini nas cirurgias ortopédicas, foram utilizados os dados do Multiple Environmental and Genetic Assessment of risk factors for venous thrombosis (MEGA), um estudo caso-controle holandês de base populacional cujo desfecho de interesse é o TEV. Neste, 263 indivíduos que tiveram TEV e 94 controles foram submetidos à cirurgia ortopédica. O risco de TEV foi maior nos primeiros 30 dias após a cirurgia [odds ratio ajustada (ORadj) 17,5; intervalo de confiança (IC) 95%, 9,2-33,4] e manteve-se aumentado até 90 dias (ORadj 11,5; IC 95%, 7,3-17,7). Houve interação entre cirurgia ortopédica e mutação fator V Leiden (ORadj 17,5; IC 95%, 4,1-73,6), tipo de sangue não-O (ORadj 11,2; 95% IC, 3,4-34,0) e níveis séricos de fator VIII maiores que 150 mg/dl (ORadj 18,6; IC, 7,4-46,9). Quanto ao escore de Caprini, foram avaliados 357 indivíduos com TEV submetidos à cirurgia ortopédica. Um total de 20,9% dos casos e 41,5% dos controles foram classificados no grupo de menor risco (Caprini < 5 pontos). Pacientes com um escore de Caprini maior que 11 pontos tiveram um risco de TEV seis vezes maior (OR 6,3; IC 95%, 1,7-22,9), e pacientes com um escore de 9 a 10 tiveram um risco três vezes maior (OR 3,5; IC 95% 1,2-10,3). A área sob a curva (AUC) do escore de Caprini foi de 0,64, evidenciando uma discriminação de predição de TEV moderada. Na enquete internacional sobre tromboprofilaxia de pé e tornozelo, 693 cirurgiões ortopédicos de pé e tornozelo de 49 países participaram. Aproximadamente 50% informaram prescrever tromboprofilaxia durante a imobilização do paciente. Quando utilizada, as escolhas preferidas em ordem decrescente foram ácido acetilsalicílico (AAS), heparina de baixo peso molecular (HBPM) e anticoagulantes orais diretos. AAS e HBPM foram predominantemente prescritos na América do Norte e Europa, respectivamente. TVP prévia, imobilidade, obesidade e trombofilia hereditária foram considerados os principais fatores de risco indicativos do uso de tromboprofilaxia. Concluiu-se que: houve risco aumentado de TEV e interação entre os fatores de risco fator V Leiden, níveis elevados de fator VIII e grupo sanguíneo não- O com cirurgia ortopédica; o escore de Caprini é uma ferramenta que pode auxiliar os cirurgiões ortopédicos a classificarem o risco de TEV no pós-operatório, embora seu desempenho preditivo discriminativo tenha sido moderado; apesar de a maioria dos cirurgiões ortopédicos de tornozelo e pé considerarem que a tromboprofilaxia está indicada para cirurgias de tornozelo e pé (principalmente na presença de fatores de risco como TVP prévia, imobilidade, obesidade e trombofilia hereditária), a prescrição, o tipo e a duração apresentam grande discrepância intercontinental. Assim, este trabalho contribui para a identificação de pacientes sob alto risco de TEV, ponto estratégico para o uso individualizado e seguro da tromboprofilaxia como ferramenta para redução do risco de TEV relacionado às cirurgias ortopédicas.


Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism are the main clinical manifestations of venous thromboembolism (VTE). VTE is a common and potentially serious complication of orthopedic surgeries, as it can lead to functional limitation and postoperative death. The use of thromboprophylaxis markedly reduces the incidence of VTE related to orthopedic interventions, and its use is recommended by several guidelines. However, the indication and type of thromboprophylaxis for some orthopedic interventions, as well as the use of risk prediction tools are still not well established and is debatable. The objectives of this study were to identify risk factors for VTE and their interactions in orthopedic surgeries and to evaluate the applicability of the Caprini risk score in predicting VTE in orthopedic patients. In addition, due to the lack of knowledge and recommendations on thromboprophylaxis in foot and ankle surgeries, a narrative review and an international survey on the subject were carried out. Data from the MEGA Study (Multiple Environmental and Genetic Assessment of risk factors for venous thrombosis) which is a Dutch population-based case-control study whose outcome of interest is VTE were used. A total of 263 subjects who had VTE and 94 controls underwent orthopedic surgery. The risk of VTE was the highest in the first 30 days after surgery (adjusted odds ratio [ORadj] 17.5; 95% CI [confidence interval], 9.2-33.4) and remained increased up to 90 days (ORadj, 11.5; 95% CI, 7.3- 17.7). There was interaction between orthopedic surgery and factor V Leiden mutation (ORadj 17.5, 95%CI 4.1-73.6), non-O blood type (ORadj 11.2; 95%CI 3.4-34.0) and factor VIII plasma levels greater than 150 mg/dl (ORadj 18.6; CI 7.4-46.9). To assess the applicability of the Caprini Score, 357 individuals with VTE undergoing orthopedic surgery in the MEGA were evaluated. A total of 20.9% of cases and 41.5% of controls were classified in the lowest risk group (Caprini <5 points). Patients with a Caprini score greater than 11 points had a six-fold increased risk of VTE (OR 6.3, 95% CI 1.7- 22.9) and patients with a score of 9-10 had about three-fold increased risk (OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.2-10.3). The area under curve for the Caprini score was 0.64, evidencing a moderate VTE prediction discrimination. In the international survey on foot and ankle thromboprophylaxis, 693 orthopedic foot and ankle surgeons from 49 countries participated. Approximately 50% reported prescribing thromboprophylaxis during patient immobilization that, when used, the preferred choice, in descending order, was acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) and direct oral anticoagulants. ASA and LMWH were predominantly prescribed in North America and Europe, respectively. Previous DVT, immobility, obesity and hereditary thrombophilia were considered the main risk factors indicative of the use of thromboprophylaxis. It is concluded that there was increased risk of VTE and interaction between factor V Leiden, high plasma levels of factor VIII or non-O blood group and orthopedic surgery; that the Caprini score is a tool that can help orthopedic surgeons to classify the risk of postoperative VTE, although its discriminative predictive performance was moderate and that although most ankle and foot orthopedic surgeons consider that thromboprophylaxis is indicated for ankle and foot surgeries (especially in the presence of risk factors such as previous DVT, immobility, obesity and hereditary thrombophilia), the prescription, type and duration present a large intercontinental discrepancy. Thus, this work contributed to the identification of patients at high risk of VTE, a strategic point for the individualized and safe use of thromboprophylaxis as a tool to reduce the risk of VTE related to orthopedic surgeries.


Subject(s)
Pulmonary Embolism/prevention & control , Venous Thrombosis , Venous Thromboembolism , Academic Dissertation , Venous Thrombosis/prevention & control , Orthopedic Surgeons
6.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, CONASS, SES-GO | ID: biblio-1363165

ABSTRACT

Tecnologia: Riociguate e outros medicamentos de controle da hipertensão pulmonar. Indicação: Tratamento de Hipertensão Pulmonar Tomboembólica Crônica (HPTEC). Pergunta: Há superioridade em eficácia e segurança do riociguate, comparado a medicamentos disponíveis no SUS, no tratamento de HPTEC inoperável ou operada com hipertensão pulmonar residual? Métodos: Revisão rápida de evidências (overview) de revisões sistemáticas, com levantamento bibliográfico realizado na base de dados PUBMED, utilizando estratégia estruturada de busca. A qualidade metodológica das revisões sistemáticas foi avaliada com AMSTAR-2 (Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews). Resultados: Foram selecionadas 4 e incluídas 2 revisões sistemáticas. Conclusão: Comparado ao placebo, em tratamento de curto prazo de HPTEC, riociguate melhora a tolerância ao exercício, aumenta a chance de melhora da classificação funcional e tem similar risco de eventos adversos sérios, porém não reduz a mortalidade. Treprostinil tem efeitos similares a riociguate. Entretanto, ambrisentana, bosentana, macitentana ou sildenafila não diferem do placebo no tratamento de HPTEC


Technology: Riociguat and other drugs to control pulmonary hypertension. Indication: Treatment of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). Question: Is riociguat more effective and safe than other drugs available in the Brazilian Public Health System for the treatment of inoperable or recurrent CTEPH? Methods: Rapid review of evidence (overview) from systematic reviews, with a bibliographic search in the PUBMED database, using a structured strategy. The methodological quality of systematic reviews was assessed with AMSTAR-2 (Methodological Quality Assessment of Systematic Reviews). Results: Four systematic reviews were selected and two included in this study. Conclusion: Compared to placebo, in the short-term treatment of CTEPH, riociguat improves exercise tolerance, increases the chance of improving functional classification, and has a similar risk of serious adverse events, but does not reduce mortality. Treprostinil has similar effects to riociguat. However, ambrisentan, bosentan, macitentan or sildenafil do not differ from placebo in the treatment of CTEPH


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Guanylate Cyclase/therapeutic use , Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Placebos , Evidence-Informed Policy
7.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 134-138, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935657

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the clinical characteristics and genotype of PROS1 gene related hereditary protein S deficiency (PSD) with the onset of pulmonary embolism in children. Methods: A family with pulmonary embolism was diagnosed as hereditary PSD in the Department of Pediatrics of Peking University First Hospital in November 2020, and the clinical data, including clinical manifestations, laboratory tests, imaging and genetic results, were collected for a retrospective research. The family members were also screened for protein S activity and PROS1 gene mutations. A literature search with "PROS1" "protein S deficiency" "homozygous" and "complex heterozygous" as key words was conducted at PubMed, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform (up to October 2021). Case reports of patients with PROS1 gene homozygous or complex heterozygous variants and related clinical features, protein S activity, and genotype were reviewed and analyzed. Results: The proband, a 14-year-old girl, was admitted to the hospital for a 9-day history of coughing and a 4-day history of chest pain in November 2020. After admission, laboratory tests showed that D-dimer was 8.38 mg/L (reference:<0.24 mg/L). An urgent CT pulmonary angiography confirmed bilateral pulmonary embolism and right lower pulmonary infarction, while an ultrasonography showed deep vein thrombosis in her left leg. Further examination revealed that protein S activity was less than 10%. The proband's second sister, a 12-year-old girl, was admitted to the hospital in December 2020. Her protein S activity was 8% and an ultrasonography showed deep vein thrombosis in her right leg. The protein S activity of the proband's father and mother were 36% and 26%, respectively. Trio-whole-exome sequencing detected compound heterozygous PROS1 gene variants (c.-168C>T and c.200A>C (p.E67A)) for the proband and her second sister, that were inherited from her father and mother, respectively. The proband's third sister's protein S activity was 28%; she and the proband's grandfather both carried c.200A>C (p.E67A) variants. The proband and her younger sister were treated with rivaroxaban and responded well during the 3-month follow-up. A total of 1 Chinese report in literature and 18 English literature were retrieved and 14 patients with protein S deficiency caused by homozygous or complex heterozygous variants of PROS1 gene were enrolled, including 8 male and 6 female patients. The ages ranged from 4 days to 35 years. Three patients experienced fulminant purpura or severe intracranial hemorrhage in early neonatal-period, while the remaining 11 patients developed venous thromboembolism in adolescence. Protein S activity was examined in 11 patients, and all showed less than 10% of activity. Missense variants was the most common type of gene variants. Conclusions: For children with pulmonary embolism, if there are no clear risk factors for thrombosis, hereditary protein S deficiency should be considered, and protein S activity should be examined before oral anticoagulant drugs. If protein S activity is less than 10%, protein S deficiency caused by homozygous or complex heterozygous variants should be considered.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pedigree , Protein S/genetics , Protein S Deficiency/genetics , Pulmonary Embolism/genetics , Retrospective Studies
8.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 49-54, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935102

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the efficacy and safety of percutaneous transluminal pulmonary angioplasty (PTPA) in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). Methods: This prospective single arm study included 19 CTEPH patients (7 male, age(56.3±12.5)years) admitted to Wuhan Asia Heart Hospital from January 2017 to June 2019 and received PTPA interventional therapy. Baseline data, including age, sex, WHO functional class, 6-minute walk distance (6MWD), NT-proBNP, right heart catheterization values, were collected. Patients received single or repeated PTPA. Number of dilated vessels from each patient was analyzed, patients were followed up for 24 weeks and right heart catheterization was repeated at 24 weeks post initial PTPA. All-cause death, perioperative complications, and reperfusion pulmonary edema were reported. WHO functional class, 6MWD, NT-proBNP, right heart catheterization values were compared between baseline and at 24 weeks follow up. Results: Nineteen CTEPH patients received a total of 56 PTPA treatments. The pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) decreased from (40.11±7.55) mmHg (1 mmHg=0.133 kPa) to (27.53±4.75) mmHg (P<0.001), and the total pulmonary resistance (TPR) decreased from (13.00±3.56) Wood U to (5.48±1.56) Wood U (P<0.001), cardiac output increased from (3.19±0.63) L/min to (5.23±0.94) L/minutes (P<0.01) at 24 weeks post PTPA. The WHO functional class improved significantly (P<0.001), 6MWD increased from (307.08±129.51) m to (428.00±112.64) m (P=0.002), the NT-proBNP decreased at 24 weeks post PTPA (P=0.002). During the follow-up period, there was no death; hemoptysis occurred in 4 patients during the operation, none of which resulted in serious adverse clinical consequences. One patient developed reperfusion pulmonary edema and recovered after treatment. Conclusion: PTPA treatment is safe and can significantly improve the hemodynamics and WHO functional class of patients with CTEPH.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Angioplasty , Angioplasty, Balloon , Chronic Disease , Humans , Hypertension, Pulmonary/surgery , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Artery/surgery , Pulmonary Embolism , Treatment Outcome
9.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 36-42, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935100

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the clinical features of patients with acute pulmonary embolism (APE) living in high altitude area of Yunnan province. Methods: This was a cross-sectional retrospective study. APE patients, hospitalized in our hospital between January 2017 and December 2019, were included. The selected patients were divided into low-risk group, medium-risk group and high-risk group according to risk stratification. The clinical data of patients, including demographic data, the main symptoms, risk factors of APE, heart rate and systolic blood pressure and laboratory testing results (D-dimer, cardiac troponin I (cTNI), N terminal B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP)) and echocardiography and electrocardiogram examination results, were obtained through the electronic medical record system. The clinical characteristics of selected patients were analyzed. Results: A total of 392 patients, aged (63.5±15.7) years, 224 males (57.14%), were included in this study and there were 59 low-risk, 304 medium-risk and 29 high-risk patients in this cohort. The main clinical manifestations were chest pain (157(40.05%)), dyspnea (107(27.30%)), hemoptysis (55(14.03%)), syncope as the first symptom (20(5.10%)), and only 6 cases (1.53%) presented with the typical "Virchow's triad". Most of the patients were accompanied by atypical chest tightness (223(56.89%)) and cough (208(53.06%)). The main risk factors were venous thrombosis of lower limbs (179(45.66%)), hypertension (138(35.20%)), surgery (63(16.07%)), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (62(15.82%)). There were 57 cases (14.54%) of coronary heart disease, 57 cases (14.54%) of diabetes, 51 cases (13.01%) of cerebral infarction, 47 cases (12.00%) of advanced age, 15 cases (3.83%) of tumor, 7 cases (1.79%) of activity restriction, 6 cases (1.53%) of pregnancy and 4 cases (1.02%) of hormone use in this cohort. The proportion of lower extremity venous thrombosis was significantly higher in low-risk group than in medium-risk group (P<0.01), COPD was more common in high-risk and medium-risk groups than in low-risk group (P<0.01), hypertension was more common in high-risk group than in medium-and low-risk groups (P<0.01). The proportion of advanced age was significantly higher in medium-risk group than in low-risk group (P<0.01). There were no significant differences in RBC and hemoglobin level between low-, medium-and high-risk groups (P>0.05). The level of D-dimer was significantly higher in high-risk group than in medium-and low-risk groups (P<0.05). Levels of NT-proBNP and cTNI were significantly higher in high-risk group than in medium- and low-risk groups (P<0.05). Increased proportion of cTNI and NT-proBNP was significantly higher in high-risk group than in medium- and low-risk groups (P<0.05). There were 105 (26.79%) patients with pulmonary hypertension (PAH). The incidence of PAH was significantly higher in high-risk group than in low-risk group (P<0.01). There were 104 patients (26.53%) with right ventricular enlargement, and the incidence of right ventricular enlargement was significantly higher in high-risk group than in medium-and low-risk groups (P<0.01). Characteristic changes of electrocardiogram in patient with APE were T-wave inversion of limb leads (98(25.00%)), followed by SⅠQⅢTⅢ (83(21.17%)). Conclusions: The main clinical manifestations of APE in Yunnan high altitude area are chest pain and dyspnea, and syncope is the first symptom in some patients, but the typical "Virchow's triad" is rare. The most common risk factors are lower extremity venous thrombosis, hypertension, and COPD. Clinical symptoms, risk factors and laboratory examination results differ among patients with different risk stratification.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Altitude , Biomarkers , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Male , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain , Peptide Fragments , Prognosis , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928477

ABSTRACT

Trauma-induced pulmonary thromboembolism is the second leading cause of death in severe trauma patients. Primary fibrinolytic hyperactivity combined with hemorrhage and consequential hypercoagulability in severe trauma patients create a huge challenge for clinicians. It is crucial to ensure a safe anticoagulant therapy for trauma patients, but a series of clinical issues need to be answered first, for example, what are the risk factors for traumatic venous thromboembolism? How to assess and determine the status of coagulation dysfunction of patients? When is the optimal timing to initiate pharmacologic prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism? What types of prophylactic agents should be used? How to manage the anticoagulation-related hemorrhage and to determine the optimal timing of restarting chemoprophylaxis? The present review attempts to answer the above questions.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Hemorrhage , Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/prevention & control , Risk Factors , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control
12.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(2): 525-529, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364338

ABSTRACT

Resumo A doença de coronavírus 2019 (COVID-19) foi relatada em quase todos os países do mundo desde dezembro de 2019. A infecção por SARS-CoV-2 é frequentemente assintomática ou com sintomas leves, mas também pode levar à hipóxia, um estado hiperinflamatório e coagulopatia. Os parâmetros de coagulação anormais estão associados a complicações trombóticas, incluindo embolia pulmonar na COVID-19, mas pouco se sabe sobre os mecanismos. A semelhança dos sintomas iniciais de ambas as doenças também pode ser confusa, portanto, os médicos devem estar cientes do potencial para condições concomitantes. Apresentamos aqui um caso que não apresentava opacidades em vidro fosco nos pulmões, mas apresentava embolia pulmonar e derrame pleural em associação com infecção por COVID-19.


Abstract Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been reported in almost every country in the world since December 2019. Infection with SARS-CoV-2 is often asymptomatic or with mild symptoms, but it may also lead to hypoxia, a hyperinflammatory state, and coagulopathy. The abnormal coagulation parameters are associated with thrombotic complications, including pulmonary embolism in COVID-19, but little is known about the mechanisms. The similarity of initial symptoms of both diseases can also be confusing, therefore the physicians should be aware of the potential for concurrent conditions. Herein, we present a case who did not have ground-glass opacities in the lungs, yet presented with pulmonary embolism and pleural effusions in association with COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Lung
14.
J. vasc. bras ; 21: e20210186, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375801

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Vena cava filter implantation is considered a simple procedure, which can lead to overuse and over-indication. It is nevertheless associated with short and long-term complications. Objectives The goals of this study were to evaluate rates of vena cava filter implantation conducted by Brazil's Unified Public Health System, analyzing in-hospital mortality and migration of patients from other cities seeking medical attention in São Paulo. Methods This study analyzed all vena cava filter procedures conducted from 2008 to 2018 in the city of São Paulo and registered on the public database using a big data system to conduct web scraping of publicly available databases. Results A total of 1324 vena cava filter implantations were analyzed. 60.5% of the patients were female; 61.7% were under 65 years old; 34.07% had registered addresses in other cities or states; and there was a 7.4% in-hospital mortality rate. Conclusions We observed an increase in the rates of use of vena cava filters up to 2010 and a decrease in rates from that year onwards, which coincides with the year that the Food and Drug Administration published a recommendation to better evaluate vena cava filter indications.


Resumo Contexto O implante de filtro de veia cava é considerado um procedimento de baixa complexidade, o que pode resultar em indicação excessiva. No entanto, não é isento de complicações a curto e longo prazo. Objetivos Avaliar as taxas de implantes de filtro de veia cava realizados pelo Sistema Único de Saúde e a origem geográfica e mortalidade intra-hospitalar dos pacientes. Métodos Foi conduzida uma análise em um banco de dados públicos referente às taxas de implantes de filtro de veia cava realizados de 2008 a 2018 na cidade de São Paulo, utilizando o sistema de big data. Resultados Foram analisados 1.324 implantes de filtro de veia cava financiados pelo Sistema Único de Saúde. Identificou-se tendência de aumento da taxa de implantação até 2010 e de redução dos números após esse período. Do total de pacientes, 60,5% eram do sexo feminino; 61,75% tinham menos de 65 anos; e 34,07% possuíam endereço oficial em outra cidade ou estado. A taxa de mortalidade intra-hospitalar foi de 7,4%. Conclusões Observamos aumento das taxas de implante de filtro de veia cava até 2010 e redução das taxas após esse período, o que coincide com o ano em que a organização norte-americana Food and Drug Administration publicou uma recomendação para melhor avaliar as indicações de filtros.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Vena Cava Filters/trends , Vena Cava Filters/statistics & numerical data , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/mortality , Time Factors , Unified Health System , Hospital Mortality/trends , Venous Thrombosis/mortality , Human Migration
15.
MedUNAB ; 24(3): 340-346, 202112.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353595

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El tromboembolismo pulmonar y la trombosis venosa profunda son urgencias cardiovasculares relativamente comunes, se han descrito diferentes predictores clínicos para la estratificación del riesgo, biomarcadores séricos y pruebas de imagenología. Dentro de los biomarcadores séricos se ha descrito el dímero D. Debido a que la enfermedad tromboembólica venosa es un reto diagnóstico para el clínico, el objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar la pertinencia de la solicitud del dímero D, en el servicio de urgencias de un centro de tercer nivel en la ciudad de Bogotá durante los años 2018-2019. Metodología. Estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal retrospectivo de pacientes que consultaron al servicio de urgencias, de una clínica de tercer nivel, de la ciudad de Bogotá, durante el periodo 2018-2019. Resultados. Se revisaron 583 historias clínicas, se excluyeron 107 pacientes, con un total final de 474 (57.3% mujeres y 42.6% hombres). De estos, 21 pacientes presentaron estudios positivos (angiotomografía y Doppler venoso). El dímero D presentó un valor predictivo negativo inferior al 50%. Discusión. A pesar de los resultados y de ser un estudio de un solo centro se evidencian las dificultades que tienen los médicos de los servicios de urgencias al momento de solicitar pruebas diagnósticas. Conclusiones. Este estudio evidencia la dificultad que existe en los servicios de urgencias al momento de la evaluación diagnóstica y cómo la solicitud de los paraclínicos tiene que ser un proceso estandarizado, guiado por los motivos de consulta y hallazgos al examen físico, y así no perder las características operativas de las pruebas diagnósticas y su utilidad al momento de la evaluación clínica.


Introduction. Pulmonary thromboembolisms and deep vein thromboses are relatively common cardiovascular emergencies. Various clinical predictors, serial biomarkers and imaging tests have been described for the stratification of the risk. D-dimer has been described within the serial biomarkers. Since venous thromboembolic disease is a diagnostic challenge for doctors, the objective of this study was to assess the pertinence of the D-dimer request in emergency services in a level three center in Bogotá during 2018-2019. Methodology. An observational, descriptive and cross-sectional retrospective study of patients who resorted to emergency services in a level three clinic in Bogotá during 2018-2019. Results. 583 medical records were reviewed, and 107 patients were excluded, with a final total of 474 patients (57.3% women and 42.6% men). Of these, 21 patients had positive studies (angiotomography and venous doppler ultrasound). D-dimer had a negative predictive value of less than 50%. Discussion. Despite the results and it being a study in a single clinic, the difficulties emergency service doctors experience when requesting diagnostic tests can be observed. Conclusions. This study shows the difficulties in emergency services when performing a diagnosis. The request for complementary tests has to be a standardized process guided by the reasons for the consultation and findings from the physical exam, in order not to lose the operational characteristics of the diagnostic tests and their usefulness during the clinical evaluation.


Introdução. Tromboembolismo pulmonar e trombose venosa profunda são emergências cardiovasculares relativamente comuns. Têm sido descritos diferentes preditores clínicos para estratificação de risco, biomarcadores séricos e testes de imagem. Entre os biomarcadores séricos, foi descrito o D-dímero. Considerando que a doença tromboembólica venosa é um desafio diagnóstico para o clínico, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a relevância da solicitação de D-dímero no serviço de emergência de um centro de terceiro nível na cidade de Bogotá ao longo dos anos 2018-2019. Metodologia. Estudo observacional, descritivo e transversal retrospectivo de pacientes que consultaram o serviço de emergência de uma clínica de terceiro nível na cidade de Bogotá, no período de 2018-2019. Resultados. Foram revisados 583 prontuários, excluídos 107 pacientes, totalizando 474 (57.3% mulheres e 42.6% homens). Destes, 21 pacientes apresentaram estudos positivos (angiotomografia e Doppler venoso). D-dímero apresentou valor preditivo negativo inferior a 50%. Discussão. Apesar dos resultados e do fato de se tratar de um estudo só de um centro, são evidentes as dificuldades que os médicos de emergência apresentam ao solicitarem exames diagnósticos. Conclusões. Este estudo mostra a dificuldade que existe nos serviços de emergência no momento da avaliação diagnóstica e como a solicitação dos testes paraclínicos tem que ser um processo padronizado, orientado pelos motivos da consulta e pelos resultados do exame físico, e assim não perder as características operacionais dos exames diagnósticos e sua utilidade no momento da avaliação clínica.


Subject(s)
Pulmonary Embolism , Probability , Venous Thrombosis , Diagnostic Errors , Computed Tomography Angiography
17.
Notas enferm. (Córdoba) ; 21(38): 34-42, nov. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1348586

ABSTRACT

Si bien el uso rtPA está indicado para diversas patologías como el tratamiento trombolítico en los infartos agudos de miocardio, el tromboembolismo pulmonar agudo con inestabilidad hemodinamica y el tratamiento trombolítico del accidente cerebrovascular isquémico agudo conforme a la disposición DI­2018-495-APN-ANMAT#MSYDS el uso del mismo en Argentina y conforme a consenso (consenso sobre accidente cerebrovascular isquémico agudo). La administración oportuna del rtPA, a pacientes apropiadamente seleccionados constituye el principal tratamiento de forma temprana en el ACV (1-8). Por lo que el rol que cumple enfermería es fundamental en la valoración de riesgos previa a la administración, preparación, administración del fármaco y valoración continua post administración del mismo[AU]


Although the use of rtPA is indicated for various pathologies such as thrombolytic treatment in acute myocardial infarctions, acute pulmonary thromboembolism with hemodynamic instability, and thrombolytic treatment of acute ischemic stroke according to the DI-2018-495-APN-ANMAT provision. #MSYDS the use of thesame in Argentina and accordingtoconsensus (consensus on accident cerebrovascular ischemico acute). Timely administration of rtPAto appropriately selected patients constitutes the main treat mentearly in stroke (1,8). Therefore, the role play edby nursingis fundamental in the risk ass essment prior to the administration, preparation, administration of the drug, and continuous post-administration assessment[AU]


Embora o uso de rtPA seja indicado para várias patologias, como tratamento trombolítico em infartos agudos do miocárdio, tromboembolismo pulmonar agudo com instabilidade hemodinâmica e tratamento trombolítico de acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico agudo de acordo com a disposição DI- 2018-495-APN-ANMAT. #MSYDS a uso do mesmona Argentina e de acordocom o consenso (consensus on accident cerebrovascular ischemico agute). A administração oportuna de rtPA a pacientes adequadamente selecionados constitui o principal tratamento no início do AVC (1,8). Por tanto, o papel da enfermagem é fundamental na avaliação do risco antes da administração, preparo, administração do medicamento e avaliação pós-administração contínua[AU]


Subject(s)
Humans , Plasminogen , Plasminogen/administration & dosage , Stroke , Ischemic Stroke , Myocardial Infarction , Nursing Care , Pulmonary Embolism , Hemodynamics
18.
Medicina UPB ; 40(2): 41-59, 13 oct. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1342185

ABSTRACT

El tromboembolismo pulmonar es la manifestación más grave de la enfermedad tromboembólica venosa y la tercera causa de mortalidad cardiovascular. Su sintomatología puede ir desde un cuadro asintomático o con síntomas leves, hasta el paro cardiaco. Dentro del enfoque de esta patología es importante tener en cuenta escalas que permiten estimar la probabilidad de que determinado paciente con ciertos signos, síntomas y factores de riesgo presente un tromboembolismo pulmonar, así como escalas diseñadas para valorar el riesgo de morir, en pacientes en los que ya se estableció este diagnóstico. Los pilares del tratamiento son la anticoagulación y la trombólisis, sin embargo, esta última está indicada únicamente en algunos casos. La presente revisión tiene como objetivo presentar una actualización de la evidencia sobre el enfoque diagnóstico y terapéutico del tromboembolismo pulmonar agudo, desde el ingreso del paciente al servicio de urgencias.


Pulmonary embolism is the most severe manifestation of venous thromboembolic disease and the third cause of cardiovascular mortality. Its symptoms can range from asymp-tomatic or mild symptoms to cardiac arrest. The approach to patients with suspected pulmonary embolism includes scores that allow estimating the clinical probability that a certain patient with certain signs, symptoms and risk factors will present a pulmonary thromboembolism, as well as scores that classify patients by severity and risk of hemody-namic decompensation. Treatment is based on anticoagulation and thrombolysis, which is used only in certain patients. The goal of this review is to present updated evidence regarding diagnosis and treatment of acute pulmonary embolism from the moment the patient arrives at the emergency room.


A embolia pulmonar é a manifestação mais grave da doença tromboembólica venosa e a terceira principal causa de mortalidade cardiovascular. Seus sintomas podem variar de sintomas assintomáticos ou leves a parada cardíaca. No enfoque desta patologia, é importante levar em consideração escalas que permitem estimar a probabilidade de um determinado paciente com determinados sinais, sintomas e fatores de risco apresentar tromboembolismo pulmonar, bem como escalas destinadas a avaliar o risco de morrer, em pacientes nos quais esse diagnóstico já foi estabelecido. Os pilares do tratamento são a anticoagulação e a trombólise, porém, esta última está indicada apenas em alguns casos. A presente revisão tem como objetivo apresentar uma atualização das evidências sobre a abordagem diagnóstica e terapêutica do tromboembolismo pulmonar agudo, desde a admissão do paciente no pronto-socorro.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pulmonary Embolism , Thromboembolism , Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital
19.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 49(3): e601, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1280184

ABSTRACT

Abstract The new coronavirus 2019-nCov or SARS-Cov-2 is responsible for the most important pandemic in the 21st century: the coronavirus disease (COVID-19). The 2019-nCov infection elicits a hyper-coagulable state, conditioning a worse outcome in these patients. The pathophysiology of the exaggerated coagulation activation in these patients is still unknown, and probably involves several mechanisms, different from those involved in sepsis-associated coagulopathy. This article discusses the case of a patient with no remarkable medical history, who after 7 days of fever, diarrhea and epigastric pain was diagnosed with COVID-19 bilateral pneumonia, further aggravated by severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. In this context, the patient experienced a massive acute pulmonary thromboembolism accompanied by an acute thrombus in the heart's right ventricle, leading to hemodynamic instability. For the first time in our center in these patients, systemic fibrinolysis was successfully performed, with resolution of the intracavitary thrombus and the acute hemodynamic shock.


Resumen El nuevo coronavirus 2019-nCov o SARS-Cov-2 es responsable de la pandemia más importante del siglo XXI: la enfermedad del coronavirus (COVID-19). La infección por 2019-nCov produce un estado de hipercoagulabilidad, que promueve peores desenlaces en estos pacientes. La fisiopatología de la exagerada activación de la coagulación en estos pacientes aún se desconoce y posiblemente involucre varios mecanismos, diferentes a los participan en la coagulopatía asociada a sepsis. El presente artículo presenta el caso de un paciente sin antecedentes médicos y quien luego de 7 días de fiebre, diarrea y dolor epigástrico, fue diagnosticado con neumonía bilateral por COVID-19, agravada por la presencia de Síndrome de Dificultad Respiratoria Aguda. En este contexto, el paciente desarrolla un tromboembolismo pulmonar agudo masivo, acompañado de un trombo agudo en el ventrículo derecho, produciéndole inestabilidad hemodinámica. Por primera vez en nuestro centro, se realizó exitosamente una fibrinólisis sistémica, con resolución del trombo intracavitario y del shock hemodinámico agudo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Pulmonary Embolism , Thrombosis , Blood Coagulation , Pandemics , Fibrinolysis , COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn , Coronavirus , SARS-CoV-2 , Heart Ventricles , Hemodynamics , Infections
20.
Rev. Assoc. Méd. Rio Gd. do Sul ; 65(3): 01022105, Jul-Set 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1373506

ABSTRACT

RESUMO O tromboembolismo pulmonar agudo é uma complicação comum do tromboembolismo venoso, sendo muitas vezes fatal. Com maior incidência em homens, apresenta risco aumentado com o avanço da idade. O quadro clínico característico inclui dor torácica, dispneia, taquicardia e taquipneia. Seu diagnóstico inclui dados clínicos, laboratoriais e de imagem e o tratamento consiste, na maioria dos casos, em anticoagulação. Relatamos aqui o caso de um paciente masculino, 45 anos, com histórico de trombose venosa profunda em membro inferior, que desenvolveu tromboembolismo pulmonar na vigência de tratamento anticoagulante com Rivaroxabana. PALAVRA-CHAVE: Tromboembolismo pulmonar, Rivaroxabana, trombose venosa profunda, anticoagulante, obesidade


ABSTRACT Acute pulmonary thromboembolism is a common complication of venous thromboembolism and is often fatal. With a higher incidence in men, it presents an increased risk with advancing age. The characteristic clinical picture includes chest pain, dyspnea, tachycardia, and tachypnea. Its diagnosis includes clinical, laboratory and imaging data and treatment consists, in most cases, of anticoagulation. Here we report the case of a 45-year-old male patient with a history of deep venous thrombosis in the lower limb, who developed pulmonary thromboembolism while receiving anticoagulant treatment with Rivaroxaban. KEYWORDS: Pulmonary thromboembolism, Rivaroxaban, deep venous thrombosis, anticoagulant, obesity


Subject(s)
Humans , Pulmonary Embolism , Venous Thrombosis , Rivaroxaban , Anticoagulants , Obesity
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