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Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(3): 263-267, Mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136213


SUMMARY OBJECTIVES Acute pulmonary embolism (APE) is an important cause of cardiovascular mortality, due mainly to hemodynamic instability. In these cases, the recommendation is to perform some reperfusion procedure, with systemic thrombolysis being the main therapy used. However, national data evaluating the efficacy and safety of thrombolysis are scarce. METHODS Retrospective analysis of a case series. We included 13 patients diagnosed with high-risk APE and 4 patients with intermediate-high risk from a single-center, who were treated with alteplase 100mg. RESULTS The mean age of the patients was 55 years, most of them female (76.4%). Among the risk factors for VTE were immobilization (41.17%), contraceptive use (35.29%), cancer (17.63%), and previous history of DVT (11.76%). The most frequent clinical manifestations of APE were dyspnea (88.23%), hypoxia (82.35%), hypotension (82.35%), and tachycardia (64.70%). 82.35% of the patients had echocardiographic signs of right ventricular dysfunction, and 52.94% had increased troponin and BNP. Severe bleeding associated with thrombolysis occurred in 17.54% of cases. No patient died due to bleeding. There were 8 deaths from right ventricular failure (47%), 6 in the cases of patients presenting as high-risk APE (35.3%), and 2 in the cases of intermediate-high risk (11.8%). CONCLUSION Thrombolysis in patients with high-risk APE or intermediate-high risk had a severe bleeding rate of 17.6%. However, the high mortality of this population (47%) due to right ventricular failure justifies the use of this therapeutic modality.

RESUMO OBJETIVOS A embolia pulmonar aguda (EAP) é uma causa importante de mortalidade cardiovascular ao causar instabilidade hemodinâmica. Nesses casos, a recomendação é a realização de algum procedimento de reperfusão, sendo a trombólise sistêmica a principal terapia utilizada. No entanto, dados nacionais avaliando a eficácia e a segurança da trombólise são escassos. MÉTODO Análise retrospectiva de uma série de casos. Foram incluídos 13 pacientes com o diagnóstico de EAP de alto risco e quatro pacientes de risco intermediário-alto, de um único centro, e que foram tratados com alteplase 100 mg. RESULTADOS A média de idade dos pacientes foi 55 anos, sendo a maioria do gênero feminino (76,4%). Dos fatores de risco para TEV, estavam presentes a imobilização (41,17%), o uso de anticonceptivos (35,29%), câncer (17,63%) e história prévia de TVP (11,76%). As manifestações clínicas mais frequentes da EAP foram dispneia (88,23%), hipóxia (82,35%), hipotensão (82,35%) e taquicardia (64,70%); 82,35% dos pacientes apresentaram sinais ecocardiográficos de disfunção ventricular direita e 52,94% apresentaram aumento da troponina e BNP. Sangramento grave associado à trombólise ocorreu em 17,54% dos casos. Nenhum paciente faleceu em decorrência de sangramento. Houve oito mortes por insuficiência ventricular direita (47%): seis nos casos de paciente que se apresentaram como EAP de alto risco (35,3%) e duas nos casos de risco intermediário-alto (11,8%). CONCLUSÃO A trombólise nos pacientes com EAP de alto risco ou risco intermediário-alto apresentou uma taxa de sangramento grave de 17,6%. No entanto, a alta mortalidade dessa população (47%) por insuficiência ventricular direita justifica o uso desta modalidade terapêutica.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/drug therapy , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Antifibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Acute Disease , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/therapeutic use , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/complications , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/mortality , Risk Assessment , Fibrinolytic Agents/adverse effects , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Middle Aged , Antifibrinolytic Agents/adverse effects
Clinics ; 75: e1373, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055875


OBJECTIVES: Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a unique form of pulmonary hypertension (PH) that arises from obstruction of the pulmonary vessels by recanalized thromboembolic material. CTEPH has a wide range of radiologic presentations. Commonly, it presents as main pulmonary artery enlargement, peripheral vascular obstructions, bronchial artery dilations, and mosaic attenuation patterns. Nevertheless, other uncommon presentations have been described, such as lung cavities. These lesions may be solely related to chronic lung parenchyma ischemia but may also be a consequence of concomitant chronic infectious conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the different etiologies that cause lung cavities in CTEPH patients. METHODS: A retrospective data analysis of the medical records of CTEPH patients in a single reference PH center that contained or mentioned lung cavities was conducted between 2013 and 2016. RESULTS: Seven CTEPH patients with lung cavities were identified. The cavities had different sizes, locations, and wall thicknesses. In two patients, the cavities were attributed to pulmonary infarction; in 5 patients, an infectious etiology was identified. CONCLUSION: Despite the possibility of being solely associated with chronic lung parenchyma ischemia, most cases of lung cavities in CTEPH patients were associated with chronic granulomatous diseases, reinforcing the need for active investigation of infectious agents in this setting.

Humans , Male , Female , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Thromboembolism/etiology , Granulomatous Disease, Chronic/pathology , Hypertension, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/therapy , Angiography/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Chronic Disease , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Perfusion Imaging , Hypertension, Pulmonary/etiology , Hypertension, Pulmonary/therapy , Lung/blood supply , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 34(3): 310-314, jul.-sep. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047144


Introdução: A demanda por cirurgia plástica tem aumentado progressivamente, dentre os procedimentos mais frequentes estão as cirurgias de mamas (aumento e redução). Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo de prontuários de pacientes que foram submetidas a mamoplastia redutora e de aumento, no período de janeiro de 2015 a junho de 2018, no Hospital PUC-Campinas. Resultados: Foram realizadas 13 mamoplastias de aumento e 275 mamoplastias redutoras. Das 288 cirurgias realizadas duas (n=2) evoluíram com TEP (tromboembolismo pulmonar). Conclusão: Portanto, a incidência de fenômenos tromboembólicos em mamoplastias de aumento e redutoras mostrou-se baixa no presente estudo, assim como na literatura. Já as pacientes acometidas no estudo eram consideradas de baixo risco para complicação tromboembólica, de acordo com protocolos de profilaxia, devendo-se atentar para tais fenômenos no pós-operatório. Ainda são necessários mais estudos para padronização do uso de medidas de profilaxia do tromboembolismo venoso.

Introduction: The demand for plastic surgery has progressively increased, and breast enlargement and reduction surgeries are among the most frequent procedures. Methods: This retrospective study reviewed the medical records of patients who underwent reduction and augmentation mammoplasty between January 2015 and June 2018 at the PUC-Campinas Hospital. Results: Thirteen augmentation mammoplasties and 275 reduction mammoplasties were performed. Of the 288 patients who underwent surgeries, two patients developed postoperative pulmonary thromboembolism. Conclusion: The incidence of thromboembolic phenomena in augmentation and reduction mammoplasty is low. Patients in this study were considered at low risk for thromboembolic complications. According to prophylaxis protocols, this phenomena should be monitored postoperatively. Further studies are needed to standardize the use of venous thromboembolism prophylaxis measures.

Humans , Female , Adult , History, 21st Century , Patients , Pulmonary Embolism , Surgery, Plastic , Breast , Medical Records , Retrospective Studies , Embolism and Thrombosis , Venous Thrombosis , Patients/statistics & numerical data , Pulmonary Embolism/surgery , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Surgery, Plastic/statistics & numerical data , Breast/surgery , Medical Records/statistics & numerical data , Embolism and Thrombosis/surgery , Venous Thrombosis/surgery , Venous Thrombosis/complications
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(3): 302-309, May-June 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002221


This paper is about the Guideline for Ventilation / Perfusion Scintigraphy. It has been developed by the Brazilian Society of Nuclear Medicine to be a best practices guide used in Nuclear Medicine. Its function is to be an educational tool to help the Nuclear Medicine Services in Brazil to guarantee a quality care to the patients

Humans , Male , Female , Ventilation-Perfusion Ratio , Guidelines as Topic/standards , Pulmonary Artery/pathology , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Diagnostic Imaging/methods , Radionuclide Imaging/methods , Nuclear Medicine/standards
J. bras. pneumol ; 45(1): e20170251, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-984624


ABSTRACT Objective: To validate the Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index (PESI), which was developed for risk stratification after acute pulmonary embolism (PE), for use in Brazil. Methods: This was a single-center retrospective study involving patients admitted to the emergency department with acute PE. The original and simplified versions of the PESI were calculated using hospital admission data from medical records. The outcome measure was the overall 30-day mortality rate. Results: We included 123 patients. The mean age was 57 ± 17 years, and there was a predominance of females, who accounted for 60% of the cohort. There were 28 deaths, translating to an overall 30-day mortality rate of 23%. In the cluster analysis by risk class, overall 30-day mortality was 2.40% for classes I-II, compared with 20.00% for classes III-IV-V (relative risk [RR] = 5.9; 95% CI: 1.88-18.51; p = 0.0002). When we calculated overall 30-day mortality using the simplified version (0 points vs. ≥ 1 point), we found it to be 3.25% for 0 points and 19.51% for ≥ 1 point (RR = 2.38; 95% CI: 0.89-6.38; p = 0.06). Using the original version, a survival analysis showed that risk classes I and II presented similar Kaplan-Meier curves (p = 0.59), as did risk classes III, IV, and V (p = 0.25). However, the curve of the clusters based on the original version, showed significantly higher mortality in the III-IV-V classes than in the I-II classes (RR = 7.63; 95% CI: 2.29-25.21; p = 0.0001). The cluster analysis based on the original version showed a greater area under the ROC curve than did the analysis based on the simplified version (0.70; 95% CI: 0.62-0.77 vs. 0.60; 95% CI: 0.51-0.67; p = 0.05). Conclusions: The PESI adequately predicted the prognosis after acute PE in this sample of the population of Brazil. The cluster analysis based on the original version is the most appropriate analysis in this setting.

RESUMO Objetivo: Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index (PESI) foi desenvolvido para a estratificação de risco após tromboembolia pulmonar (TEP) aguda. Nosso objetivo foi validá-lo para uso no Brasil. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo unicêntrico incluindo pacientes com TEP admitidos numa unidade de emergência. O PESI (versão original e simplificada) foi calculado utilizando-se dados dos prontuários na admissão hospitalar. O desfecho analisado foi mortalidade geral em 30 dias (MG30). Resultados: Foram incluídos 123 pacientes, com média de idade de 57 ± 17 anos, predomínio do sexo feminino (60%) e MG30 de 28 óbitos (23%). Na análise agrupada, a MG30 (classes I-II vs. III-IV-V) foi de 2,40% vs. 20,00% (risco relativo [RR] = 5,9; IC95%: 1,88-18,51; p = 0,0002). A MG30 na versão simplificada (0 vs. ≥ 1 ponto) foi de 3,25% vs. 19,51% (RR = 2,38; IC95%: 0,89-6,38; p = 0,06). A análise da sobrevida mostrou que as curvas de Kaplan-Meier foram semelhantes nas classes I e II (p = 0,59) e entre as classes III, IV e V (p = 0,25). A curva da versão original agrupada mostrou que a MG30 foi significativamente maior no grupo III-IV-V que no grupo I-II (RR = 7,63; IC95%: 2,29-25,21; p = 0,0001). A análise agrupada da versão original mostrou área sob a curva ROC maior que a da versão simplificada (0,70; IC95%: 0,62-0,77 vs. 0,60; IC95%: 0,51-0,67; p = 0,05). Conclusões: O PESI mensurou adequadamente o prognóstico de MG30 após TEP aguda nesta amostra da população brasileira. A utilização da versão original agrupada foi a mais adequada nesse cenário.

Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Risk Assessment/methods , Prognosis , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Reference Values , Time Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Brazil/epidemiology , Acute Disease , Prevalence , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sensitivity and Specificity , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data
J. vasc. bras ; 17(3)jul.-set. 2018. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-916069


A aviação civil vem apresentando aumento progressivo do número de voos regulares nos últimos 10 anos e, em função disso, mais passageiros estão sendo transportados em viagens aéreas (VAs). Associado a isso, há um aumento das doenças relacionadas às VAs, especialmente naquelas de longa duração. Uma das complicações mais temidas dos voos é o tromboembolismo venoso (TEV), mas a sua real incidência é de difícil mensuração devido à falta de consenso sobre, por exemplo, quanto tempo após o pouso podemos considerar que o TEV possa estar relacionado à VA realizada ou mesmo quanto tempo de voo pode ser considerado como de longa duração. Muito tem se discutido sobre os mecanismos fisiopatológicos do TEV relacionado às VAs, quais passageiros são os de maior risco e quais medidas profiláticas podemos adotar com segurança e eficácia. O objetivo desta revisão é esclarecer esses pontos e as condutas consensuais atuais

Civil aviation has seen a steady increase in the number of scheduled flights over the last ten years and, as a result, more passengers are traveling by air. This has been associated with an increase in flight-related diseases, especially on long-haul flights. One of the most feared complications during flights is venous thromboembolism (VTE), but its true incidence is difficult to measure because of a lack of consensus on elements such as the definition of how long after landing a VTE can be considered to be related to a flight and even how long a flight must last to be considered of long duration. There has been much discussion of the pathophysiological mechanisms of flight-related VTE, of which passengers are at greatest risk, and of what prophylactic measures can be adopted safely and effectively. The purpose of this review is to clarify these points and describe current consensual conduct

Humans , Male , Female , Air Travel/trends , Disease Prevention , Venous Thromboembolism/therapy , Venous Thrombosis/therapy , Aerospace Medicine/methods , Anticoagulants , Heparin , Hypoxia/complications , Incidence , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors , Prevalence , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Review , Risk Factors
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 87(1): 26-34, ene.-mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-887491


Resumen: La hipertensión pulmonar tromboembólica crónica (HPTEC) es un subtipo de hipertensión pulmonar (HP) caracterizada por la obstrucción mecánica de las arterias pulmonares causada por una tromboembolia pulmonar. Sin tratamiento es una enfermedad progresiva y devastadora, y es el único subgrupo de HP potencialmente curable mediante la endarterectomía pulmonar. La magnitud, así como la recurrencia de la embolia pulmonar, son determinantes y contribuyen al desarrollo de la HPTEC aun cuando está asociada solo a algunos factores trombofílicos. Una hipótesis es que la enfermedad es consecuencia de la resolución incompleta y la organización del trombo, favorecido por fenómenos de inflamación, inmunitarios y/o genéticos que promueven el desarrollo de estenosis de tipo fibroso que culminan con el remodelado vascular oclusivo de vasos proximales y distales. Los mecanismos involucrados en la fallida resolución del trombo aún no están esclarecidos. Los pacientes con HPTEC con frecuencia exhiben HP severa que no puede ser explicada por el grado de obstrucción vascular demostrada en estudios por imagen. En tales casos la arteriopatía pulmonar y las lesiones trombóticas obstructivas, distales al nivel subsegmentario, pueden contribuir al incremento fuera de proporción de las resistencias vasculares pulmonares. Los procesos que llevan al desarrollo de la arteriopatía pulmonar y los cambios microvasculares que ocurren en la HPTEC explican el comportamiento progresivo de la HP y el deterioro clínico gradual con pobre pronóstico para los pacientes, así como también la falta de correlación entre la magnitud de la obstrucción vascular y la medición de parámetros hemodinámicos, aun en ausencia de tromboembolismo venoso recurrente. Esta revisión resume los aspectos más relevantes y actuales de la patobiología y fisiopatología de la HPTEC.

Abstract: Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) represents a unique subtype of pulmonary hypertension characterized by the presence of mechanical obstruction of the major pulmonary vessels caused by venous thromboembolism. CTEPH is a progressive and devastating disease if not treated, and is the only subset of PH potentially curable by a surgical procedure known as pulmonary endarterectomy. The clot burden and pulmonary embolism recurrence may contribute to the development of CTEPH however only few thrombophilic factors have been found to be associated. A current hypothesis is that CTEPH results from the incomplete resolution and organization of thrombus modified by inflammatory, immunologic and genetic mechanisms, leading to the development of fibrotic stenosis and adaptive vascular remodeling of resistance vessels. The causes of thrombus non-resolution have yet to be fully clarified. CTEPH patients often display severe PH that cannot be fully explained by the degree of pulmonary vascular obstruction apparent on imaging studies. In such cases, the small vessel disease and distal obstructive thrombotic lesions beyond the sub-segmental level may contribute for out of proportion elevated PVR. The processes implicated in the development of arteriopathy and microvascular changes might explain the progressive nature of PH and gradual clinical deterioration with poor prognosis, as well as lack of correlation between measurable hemodynamic parameters and vascular obstruction even in the absence of recurrent venous thromboembolism. This review summarizes the most relevant up-to-date aspects on pathobiology and pathophysiology of CTEPH.

Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/physiopathology , Hypertension, Pulmonary/complications , Hypertension, Pulmonary/physiopathology , Acute Disease , Chronic Disease
In. Soeiro, Alexandre de Matos; Leal, Tatiana de Carvalho Andreucci Torres; Oliveira Junior, Múcio Tavares de; Kalil Filho, Roberto. Manual da condutas da emergência do InCor: cardiopneumologia / IInCor Emergency Conduct Manual: Cardiopneumology. São Paulo, Manole, 2ª revisada e atualizada; 2017. p.699-716.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-848515
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 114(1): e17-e20, feb. 2016. ilus, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-838169


Durante la niñez, la tromboembolia pulmonar (TEP) es una afección poco frecuente, aunque potencialmente mortal. El mayor número de episodios de tromboemblia venosa (TEV) es resultado de complicaciones de factores de riesgo subyacentes, tales como tumores malignos, quimioterapia (L-asparaginasa) y colocación de un catéter venoso central. Presentamos el caso de un paciente con leucemia linfocítica aguda y TEP que tuvo un presíncope y fue tratado satisfactoriamente con heparina de bajo peso molecular y antagonistas del calcio.

In childhood, pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) is an uncommonbut potentially life-threatening disease. The greater numbers of venous thromboembolism (VTE) are complications of underlying risk factors such as malignancies, chemotherapy (L-asparaginase), and central venous catheter. We report a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and PTE, who presented with near-syncope, and was successfully treated with low molecular weight heparin and calcium channel blockers.

Humans , Male , Adolescent , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Calcium Channel Blockers/therapeutic use , Risk Factors , Fatal Outcome , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/complications , Venous Thromboembolism/complications , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 388-392, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-21018


PURPOSE: Comatose elderly patients with acute neurological illness have a great risk of deep vein thrombosis (DVT). In this study, the incidence of DVT and the effectiveness of early initiation of treatment were evaluated in those patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Total 323 patients were admitted to our ward due to neurological diseases in one year, and 43 patients, whose Glasgow Coma Scale was or =60 years, were included in this study. D-dimer was measured on admission and day 7, and lower-extremity ultrasonography was performed on day 7. When DVT was positive, heparin treatment was initiated, and further evaluation of pulmonary embolism (PE) was conducted. Vena cava filter protection was inserted in PE-positive patients. Incidence of DVT and PE, alteration of D-dimer value, and effect of heparin treatment were analyzed. RESULTS: DVT was positive in 19 (44.2%) patients, and PE was in 4 (9.3%). D-dimer was significantly higher in DVT-positive group on day 7 (p<0.01). No DVT were identified in patients with ischemic disease, while 66.7% of intracerebral hemorrhage and 53.3% of brain contusion patients were DVT positive. Surgery was a definite risk factor for DVT, with an odds ratio of 5.25. DVT and PE disappeared by treatment in all cases, and no patients were succumbed to the thrombosis. CONCLUSION: Patients with hemorrhagic diseases or who undergo operation possess high risk of DVT, and initiation of heparin treatment in 7 days after admission is an effective prophylaxis for DVT in comatose elderly patients without causing bleeding.

Acute Disease , Aged , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Antifibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Coma , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/therapeutic use , Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Heparin/adverse effects , Humans , Incidence , Japan/epidemiology , Lower Extremity , Male , Middle Aged , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Neurosurgical Procedures/adverse effects , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Risk Factors , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 59(4): 355-358, Aug. 2015. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-757372


Thyroid pathology is rarely involved in the pathogenesis of sudden death in young people. We report here the cases of two young patients with decreased levels of thyroid hormones whose death was caused by an increased thrombotic status, with venous thrombosis and pulmonary thromboembolism. In both cases the thyroid pathology was not considered as the underlying cause of death as the association between this condition and venous thrombosis is still debatable. However its presence may be considered a circumstantial factor, which could increase the severity of the disease and subsequently the lethality rate in pulmonary thromboembolism. An increased awareness for hypothyroidism or subclinical hypothyroidism in clinical practice may lead to a decrease in mortality secondary to thromboembolic disease. Also, increased awareness for thyroid pathology during forensic autopsy in sudden deaths may lead to potentially significant results, that could explain some of the sudden death with an unknown cause, and decrease the number of the so called blank autopsies.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Thyroid Hormones/blood , Death, Sudden/etiology , Hypothyroidism/complications