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1.
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 178-182, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981926

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE@#Static progressive stretch (SPS) can be applied to treat chronic joint stiffness. However, the impacts of subacute application of SPS to the distal lower limbs, where deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is common, on venous thromboembolism remain unclear. This study aims to explore the risk of venous thromboembolism events following subacute application of SPS.@*METHODS@#A retrospective cohort study was conducted on patients diagnosed with DVT following a lower extremity orthopedic surgery before being transferred to the rehabilitation ward from May 2017 to May 2022. Patients with unilateral lower limb comminuted para-articular fractures, transferred to rehabilitation ward for further treatment within 3 weeks after operation, followed up more than 12 weeks since initial manual physiotherapy, and diagnosed DVT by ultrasound before rehabilitation course were included in the study. Patients with polytrauma, without evidence of previous peripheral vascular disease or incompetence, had medication for thrombosis treatment or prophylaxis before the operation, detected with paralysis due to nervous system impairment, infected after operation during the regime, or with acute progression of DVT were excluded. The included patients were randomized to the standard physiotherapy and the SPS integrated groups for observation. Associated DVT and pulmonary embolism data were collected during the physiotherapy course to compare the groups. SSPS 28.0 and GraphPad Prism 9 were used for data processing. A p < 0.05 was set significant difference.@*RESULTS@#In total of 154 patients with DVT participating in this study, 75 of them were treated with additional SPS for postoperative rehabilitation. The participants in the SPS group showed improved range of motion (12.3° ± 6.7°). However, in the SPS group, there was no difference in thrombosis volume between the start and termination (p = 0.106, p = 0.787, respectively), although difference was seen intra-therapy (p < 0.001). Contingency analysis revealed the pulmonary embolism incidence (OR = 0.703) in the SPS group compared to the mean physiotherapy.@*CONCLUSION@#The SPS technique is a safe and reliable option to prevent potential joint stiffness without aggravating the risk of distal DVT for postoperative patients suffering from relevant trauma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Lower Extremity , Risk Factors
2.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408190

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las enfermedades vasculares periféricas constituyen un problema de salud en el ámbito mundial por resultar causa importante de discapacidad y de invalidez. Objetivo: Caracterizar a los pacientes con enfermedades vasculares periféricas fallecidos en un período de cuatro años. Método: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y analítico en los pacientes fallecidos entre enero de 2015 y diciembre de 2018. Se estudiaron variables sociodemográficas y clínicas. Se estimaron las frecuencias absolutas y relativas, así como la tasa de mortalidad. Se identificó la asociación entre las variables con la causa directa de muerte. Resultados: El 42,7 por ciento de los diabéticos fallecieron; de estos, el 57,5 por ciento estaban descompensados. La hipertensión arterial, el tabaquismo y la diabetes mellitus fueron los factores de riesgo más frecuentes. La tasa de mortalidad total resultó 0,171/1000 ingresos. Como enfermedades arteriales más frecuente aparecieron los AAA (28,1 por ciento ) y la angiopatía diabética (25 por ciento ); y, como parte de esta última, el pie (25,7 por ciento ). La aneurismectomía con injerto por sustitución representó la cirugía revascularizadora más realizada (58,8 por ciento ). El shock hipovolémico y el tromboembolismo pulmonar predominaron como complicaciones posquirúrgicas (15,7 por ciento ). El shock séptico (31,6 por ciento ) y la bronconeumonía bacteriana (25,7 por ciento) fueron las causas directas de muerte. Conclusiones: Se logró caracterizar a los pacientes con enfermedades vasculares periféricas fallecidos en los últimos cuatro años, por lo que estimaron la tasa de prevalencia y la tendencia anual de la mortalidad en el Instituto Nacional de Angiología y Cirugía Vascular en ese período; asimismo, las variables asociadas a las causas directas de muerte(AU)


Introduction: Peripheral vascular diseases are a global health problem because they are a major cause of disability. Objective: Characterize patients with peripheral vascular diseases who died over a period of four years. Method: A descriptive and analytical study was conducted in patients who died between January 2015 and December 2018. Socio-demographic and clinical variables were studied. Absolute and relative frequencies were estimated, as well as the mortality rate. The association between the variables with the direct cause of death was identified. Results: 42.7 percent of diabetic patients died; of these, 57.5 percent were decompensated. High blood pressure, smoking and diabetes mellitus were the most frequent risk factors. The total mortality rate was 0.171/1000 admissions. The most frequent arterial diseases were AAA (28.1 percent) and diabetic angiopathy (25 percent); and, as part of the latter, foot angiopathy (25.7 percent). Aneurysmectomy with graft substitution represented the most performed revascularizing surgery (58.8 percent). Hypovolemic shock and pulmonary thromboembolism predominated as post-surgical complications (15.7 percent). Septic shock (31.6 percent) and bacterial bronchopneumonia (25.7 percent) were the direct causes of death. Conclusions: It was possible to characterize patients with peripheral vascular diseases who died in the last four years, so they estimated the prevalence rate and the annual trend of mortality at the National Institute of Angiology and Vascular Surgery in that period; also, the variables associated with direct causes of death(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Shock/complications , Risk Factors , Peripheral Vascular Diseases/mortality , Shock, Septic/mortality , Bronchopneumonia/mortality , Epidemiology, Descriptive
3.
J. vasc. bras ; 20: e20210074, 2021. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356447

ABSTRACT

Resumo A embolia paradoxal é a transposição de um trombo originário da circulação sistêmica venosa para a arterial através de um defeito cardíaco, mais comumente o forame oval pérvio (FOP). A manifestação mais comum é o acidente cerebrovascular. A oclusão arterial aguda (OAA) é rara, requer alta suspeição diagnóstica e corresponde a menos de 2% de todos casos de embolia arterial. O tromboembolismo pulmonar (TEP) é a causa mais comum de elevação temporária do shunt direita-esquerda em pacientes com FOP e ocorre em pelo menos 60% dos casos de embolia paradoxal. Em 2019, um homem de 27 anos, sem fator para hipercoagulabilidade, deu entrada no Hospital Universitário do ABC, com quadro de OAA grau I Rutherford em membros inferiores secundária a tromboembolismo através de FOP prévio não diagnosticado, associado a trombose venosa profunda de membro inferior direito e TEP bilateral. O manejo incluiu anticoagulação plena e encaminhamento para cirurgia cardíaca.


Resumo A embolia paradoxal é a transposição de um trombo originário da circulação sistêmica venosa para a arterial através de um defeito cardíaco, mais comumente o forame oval pérvio (FOP). A manifestação mais comum é o acidente cerebrovascular. A oclusão arterial aguda (OAA) é rara, requer alta suspeição diagnóstica e corresponde a menos de 2% de todos casos de embolia arterial. O tromboembolismo pulmonar (TEP) é a causa mais comum de elevação temporária do shunt direita-esquerda em pacientes com FOP e ocorre em pelo menos 60% dos casos de embolia paradoxal. Em 2019, um homem de 27 anos, sem fator para hipercoagulabilidade, deu entrada no Hospital Universitário do ABC, com quadro de OAA grau I Rutherford em membros inferiores secundária a tromboembolismo através de FOP prévio não diagnosticado, associado a trombose venosa profunda de membro inferior direito e TEP bilateral. O manejo incluiu anticoagulação plena e encaminhamento para cirurgia cardíaca.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Embolism, Paradoxical/complications , Venous Thrombosis/complications , Embolism, Paradoxical/diagnosis , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy , Lower Extremity , Diagnosis, Differential , Foramen Ovale
4.
J. vasc. bras ; 20: e20200203, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279399

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Prothrombotic states have been associated with viral infections and the novel Sars-COV-2 infection has been associated with elevated D-dimer levels, although no causal relation has been clearly established. Objectives This study presents an epidemiological analysis of manifest VTE episodes in a group of patients hospitalized because of COVID-19. Methods Medical records of patients who presented symptomatic deep vein thrombosis and/or pulmonary embolism in concomitance with confirmed COVID-19 were retrospectively studied. Demographic characteristics, prevalence of VTE, site of occurrence, D-dimer variation over time, management, and outcomes were analyzed. Results During the study period, 484 confirmed cases of COVID-19 were admitted, 64 of which displayed VTE symptoms and 13 of which had confirmed symptomatic VTE(2.68% of total sample and 20.31% of symptomatic cases). Most cases (76.92%) occurred in intensive care. On the day attributed to VTE onset, D-dimer levels were over 3,000 ng/mL in 8 (80%) patients, a significant increase from baseline admission levels (p < 0.05). A significant decrease was also observed in D-dimer values at hospital discharge (p < 0.05). All patients received pharmacological thromboprophylaxis and/or anticoagulation as indicated. Two deaths occurred during the study, both patients with severe comorbidities. At the end of our study protocol, nine patients had been discharged and two remained hospitalized, but had no signs of VTE worsening. Conclusions VTE prevalence in hospitalized COVID-19 patients was 2.7%, and higher in intensive care units. Early institution of prophylaxis and immediate full anticoagulation when VTE is diagnosed should be the goals of those who treat this kind of patient.


Resumo Contexto Os estados pró-trombóticos têm sido associados a infecções virais. A nova infecção pela síndrome respiratória aguda grave do coronavírus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) sabidamente eleva os níveis de D-dímero, embora a relação causal não tenha sido bem estabelecida. Objetivos Este estudo apresenta uma análise epidemiológica de episódios sintomáticos de tromboembolismo em um grupo de pacientes hospitalizados pela doença do novo coronavírus (COVID-19). Métodos Foi realizada uma revisão retrospectiva de prontuários de pacientes internados por COVID-19 que apresentaram trombose venosa profunda e/ou embolia pulmonar sintomáticas. Foram avaliados os dados demográficos, a prevalência de tromboembolismo, a variação do D-dímero ao longo do tempo, o manejo e os desfechos. Resultados Dos 484 casos confirmados de COVID-19 admitidos entre março e julho de 2020, 64 apresentaram sintomas de tromboembolismo, que foram investigados, e 13 tiveram tromboembolismo confirmado (2,68% do total e 20,31% dos sintomáticos). A maioria dos casos ocorreu em regime de terapia intensiva (76,92%). Houve um aumento significativo no número de pacientes com D-dímero acima de 3.000 ng/mL no dia atribuído ao diagnóstico de tromboembolismo com relação aos níveis do momento da admissão (80%, p < 0,05).Uma queda significativa de pacientes nesse limiar também foi observada no momento da alta (p < 0,05). Todos os pacientes receberam tromboprofilaxia ou anticoagulação conforme indicado. Houve dois óbitos na amostra, ambos pacientes com comorbidades severas. Ao fim do protocolo, nove pacientes receberam alta e dois permaneceram hospitalizados, mas sem sinais de piora. Conclusões A prevalência de tromboembolismo em pacientes hospitalizados por COVID-19 foi de 2,7%, sendo mais frequente em regime de terapia intensiva. A instituição precoce de profilaxia e anticoagulação imediata ao diagnóstico é primordial nesse grupo de pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Venous Thrombosis/complications , COVID-19/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/prevention & control , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Brazil , Retrospective Studies , Venous Thrombosis/prevention & control , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Critical Care , COVID-19/drug therapy , Intensive Care Units
5.
J. vasc. bras ; 20: e20200124, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279380

ABSTRACT

Abstract The incidence of asymptomatic pulmonary embolism (PE) exceeds 70% in patients with deep venous thrombosis (DVT), even in cases of distal deep vein thrombosis. We report the case of a patient with a diagnosis of DVT in the lower left limb associated with asymptomatic PE who presented late symptoms due to this same PE. The absence of acute symptoms and the late onset of symptoms could have provoked doubts about the most appropriate treatment, resulting in unnecessary interventions, if pulmonary embolism had not already been diagnosed with tomography. In the present case, we demonstrate that computed tomography angiography conducted at the time of DVT diagnosis accurately diagnosed PE and prevented any misinterpretation of recurrent DVT in a patient already being medicated, which could have been mistakenly interpreted as demonstrating failure of anticoagulant therapy. Such a situation could lead to unnecessary intervention to fit an inferior vena cava filter. We cannot suggest that a classic medical conduct should be reformulated simply on the basis of a case report. However, we would be remiss not to suggest that well-designed studies should be carried out in the future to assess the need for this examination in the acute phase.


Resumo A ocorrência de embolia pulmonar assintomática em pacientes com trombose venosa profunda tem uma incidência que excede 70%, mesmo nos casos de trombose venosa profunda distal. Relatamos o caso de um paciente com diagnóstico de trombose venosa profunda no membro inferior esquerdo associado a embolia pulmonar assintomática, que apresentou sintomas tardios devido a essa mesma embolia. A ausência de sintomas agudos e o surgimento de sintomas tardios pode suscitar dúvidas quanto ao tratamento mais adequado e resultar em intervenções desnecessárias, se o diagnóstico tomográfico de embolia pulmonar não tiver sido feito anteriormente. No presente caso, demonstramos que uma angiotomografia realizada no momento do diagnóstico de trombose venosa profunda detectou a embolia pulmonar e evitou uma interpretação incorreta de um evento trombótico recorrente na vigência de anticoagulação, o que por engano demonstraria uma falha na terapia anticoagulante. Essa situação pode levar a intervenções desnecessárias, como o implante de filtro de veia cava inferior. Entendemos que apenas um relato de caso não deve mudar uma conduta médica já estabelecida; no entanto, fomenta a discussão e estimula estudos que avaliem a necessidade de um exame diagnóstico pulmonar no momento do diagnóstico de trombose venosa profunda.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Venous Thrombosis/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/therapy , Recurrence , Vena Cava, Inferior , Mass Screening , Vena Cava Filters , Venous Thrombosis/therapy , Lower Extremity , Computed Tomography Angiography , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use
8.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992, Impr.) ; 66(3): 263-267, Mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS | ID: biblio-1136213

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVES Acute pulmonary embolism (APE) is an important cause of cardiovascular mortality, due mainly to hemodynamic instability. In these cases, the recommendation is to perform some reperfusion procedure, with systemic thrombolysis being the main therapy used. However, national data evaluating the efficacy and safety of thrombolysis are scarce. METHODS Retrospective analysis of a case series. We included 13 patients diagnosed with high-risk APE and 4 patients with intermediate-high risk from a single-center, who were treated with alteplase 100mg. RESULTS The mean age of the patients was 55 years, most of them female (76.4%). Among the risk factors for VTE were immobilization (41.17%), contraceptive use (35.29%), cancer (17.63%), and previous history of DVT (11.76%). The most frequent clinical manifestations of APE were dyspnea (88.23%), hypoxia (82.35%), hypotension (82.35%), and tachycardia (64.70%). 82.35% of the patients had echocardiographic signs of right ventricular dysfunction, and 52.94% had increased troponin and BNP. Severe bleeding associated with thrombolysis occurred in 17.54% of cases. No patient died due to bleeding. There were 8 deaths from right ventricular failure (47%), 6 in the cases of patients presenting as high-risk APE (35.3%), and 2 in the cases of intermediate-high risk (11.8%). CONCLUSION Thrombolysis in patients with high-risk APE or intermediate-high risk had a severe bleeding rate of 17.6%. However, the high mortality of this population (47%) due to right ventricular failure justifies the use of this therapeutic modality.


RESUMO OBJETIVOS A embolia pulmonar aguda (EAP) é uma causa importante de mortalidade cardiovascular ao causar instabilidade hemodinâmica. Nesses casos, a recomendação é a realização de algum procedimento de reperfusão, sendo a trombólise sistêmica a principal terapia utilizada. No entanto, dados nacionais avaliando a eficácia e a segurança da trombólise são escassos. MÉTODO Análise retrospectiva de uma série de casos. Foram incluídos 13 pacientes com o diagnóstico de EAP de alto risco e quatro pacientes de risco intermediário-alto, de um único centro, e que foram tratados com alteplase 100 mg. RESULTADOS A média de idade dos pacientes foi 55 anos, sendo a maioria do gênero feminino (76,4%). Dos fatores de risco para TEV, estavam presentes a imobilização (41,17%), o uso de anticonceptivos (35,29%), câncer (17,63%) e história prévia de TVP (11,76%). As manifestações clínicas mais frequentes da EAP foram dispneia (88,23%), hipóxia (82,35%), hipotensão (82,35%) e taquicardia (64,70%); 82,35% dos pacientes apresentaram sinais ecocardiográficos de disfunção ventricular direita e 52,94% apresentaram aumento da troponina e BNP. Sangramento grave associado à trombólise ocorreu em 17,54% dos casos. Nenhum paciente faleceu em decorrência de sangramento. Houve oito mortes por insuficiência ventricular direita (47%): seis nos casos de paciente que se apresentaram como EAP de alto risco (35,3%) e duas nos casos de risco intermediário-alto (11,8%). CONCLUSÃO A trombólise nos pacientes com EAP de alto risco ou risco intermediário-alto apresentou uma taxa de sangramento grave de 17,6%. No entanto, a alta mortalidade dessa população (47%) por insuficiência ventricular direita justifica o uso desta modalidade terapêutica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/drug therapy , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Antifibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Acute Disease , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/therapeutic use , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/complications , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/mortality , Risk Assessment , Fibrinolytic Agents/adverse effects , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Middle Aged , Antifibrinolytic Agents/adverse effects
9.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 837-841, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941186

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinical characteristics of inpatients with the indication of cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIED) therapy and combined acute pulmonary thromboembolism (APTE). Methods: We retrospectively screened 8 641 inpatients who admitted with the indication of CIED implantation in Fuwai Hospital from January 2014 to May 2019. The clinical characteristics, management strategies and clinical outcome were analyzed for patients diagnosed as APTE. Results: APTE were identified in 45 (5‰) patients in this cohort, there were 18(40%) male patients, the average age was (73±8) years old and body mass index was (27±10) kg/m2.Thirty-two (70%) patients were at intermediate-risk and 13 (30%) at low-risk. Anti-coagulation therapy was initiated in 38(84%) patients, and 30 patients underwent CIED implantation (27 pacemaker, 2 CRT and 1 ICD). No postoperative bleeding or pocket hematoma were detected in the 23 patients taking anticoagulation medication before implantation. During an average of (30±7) months' follow up, thrombus was dissolved in 20 patients, hemorrhage complications were observed in 2 patients (1 cerebral hemorrhage and 1 hematuria), anticoagulation therapy was discontinued in these 2 patients. Among 15 patients without immediate CIED implantation and treated with anticoagulation therapy during hospitalization, 2 patients developed complete paroxysmal Ⅲ° atrioventricular block, and recovered after therapy during hospitalization. Seven patients were re-hospitalized for CIED implantation due to bradycardia. Five patients died during follow-up (3 sudden cardiac death, 1 APTE combined with cerebral infarction, and 1 pulmonary infection). Conclusion: APTE is not rare in patients with the indication of CIED implantation, CIED implantation and anti-coagulation therapy are safe for these patients, and transient atrioventricular block could be detected in APTE patients.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Death, Sudden, Cardiac , Defibrillators, Implantable , Pacemaker, Artificial , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Retrospective Studies
11.
Clinics ; 75: e1373, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055875

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a unique form of pulmonary hypertension (PH) that arises from obstruction of the pulmonary vessels by recanalized thromboembolic material. CTEPH has a wide range of radiologic presentations. Commonly, it presents as main pulmonary artery enlargement, peripheral vascular obstructions, bronchial artery dilations, and mosaic attenuation patterns. Nevertheless, other uncommon presentations have been described, such as lung cavities. These lesions may be solely related to chronic lung parenchyma ischemia but may also be a consequence of concomitant chronic infectious conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the different etiologies that cause lung cavities in CTEPH patients. METHODS: A retrospective data analysis of the medical records of CTEPH patients in a single reference PH center that contained or mentioned lung cavities was conducted between 2013 and 2016. RESULTS: Seven CTEPH patients with lung cavities were identified. The cavities had different sizes, locations, and wall thicknesses. In two patients, the cavities were attributed to pulmonary infarction; in 5 patients, an infectious etiology was identified. CONCLUSION: Despite the possibility of being solely associated with chronic lung parenchyma ischemia, most cases of lung cavities in CTEPH patients were associated with chronic granulomatous diseases, reinforcing the need for active investigation of infectious agents in this setting.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Thromboembolism/etiology , Granulomatous Disease, Chronic/pathology , Hypertension, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/therapy , Angiography/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Chronic Disease , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Perfusion Imaging , Hypertension, Pulmonary/etiology , Hypertension, Pulmonary/therapy , Lung/blood supply , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use
12.
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 34(3): 310-314, jul.-sep. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047144

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A demanda por cirurgia plástica tem aumentado progressivamente, dentre os procedimentos mais frequentes estão as cirurgias de mamas (aumento e redução). Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo de prontuários de pacientes que foram submetidas a mamoplastia redutora e de aumento, no período de janeiro de 2015 a junho de 2018, no Hospital PUC-Campinas. Resultados: Foram realizadas 13 mamoplastias de aumento e 275 mamoplastias redutoras. Das 288 cirurgias realizadas duas (n=2) evoluíram com TEP (tromboembolismo pulmonar). Conclusão: Portanto, a incidência de fenômenos tromboembólicos em mamoplastias de aumento e redutoras mostrou-se baixa no presente estudo, assim como na literatura. Já as pacientes acometidas no estudo eram consideradas de baixo risco para complicação tromboembólica, de acordo com protocolos de profilaxia, devendo-se atentar para tais fenômenos no pós-operatório. Ainda são necessários mais estudos para padronização do uso de medidas de profilaxia do tromboembolismo venoso.


Introduction: The demand for plastic surgery has progressively increased, and breast enlargement and reduction surgeries are among the most frequent procedures. Methods: This retrospective study reviewed the medical records of patients who underwent reduction and augmentation mammoplasty between January 2015 and June 2018 at the PUC-Campinas Hospital. Results: Thirteen augmentation mammoplasties and 275 reduction mammoplasties were performed. Of the 288 patients who underwent surgeries, two patients developed postoperative pulmonary thromboembolism. Conclusion: The incidence of thromboembolic phenomena in augmentation and reduction mammoplasty is low. Patients in this study were considered at low risk for thromboembolic complications. According to prophylaxis protocols, this phenomena should be monitored postoperatively. Further studies are needed to standardize the use of venous thromboembolism prophylaxis measures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , History, 21st Century , Patients , Pulmonary Embolism , Surgery, Plastic , Breast , Medical Records , Retrospective Studies , Embolism and Thrombosis , Venous Thrombosis , Patients/statistics & numerical data , Pulmonary Embolism/surgery , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Surgery, Plastic/statistics & numerical data , Breast/surgery , Medical Records/statistics & numerical data , Embolism and Thrombosis/surgery , Venous Thrombosis/surgery , Venous Thrombosis/complications
14.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 17(3): 147-152, jul.-set. 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284214

ABSTRACT

O tromboembolismo pulmonar é um grave problema de saúde pública devido ao subdiagnóstico e às elevadas morbidade e mortalidade. Quando a embolia pulmonar é maciça com repercussão hemodinâmica importante e a terapia adequada não ocorre nas primeiras horas, a mortalidade é superior a 85%. Na suspeita clínica de tromboembolismo pulmonar, a avaliação ecocardiográfica pode ter papel fundamental na avaliação da mobilidade e da estrutura do ventrículo direito, presença de hipertensão pulmonar e documentação da presença de trombo. A detecção ecocardiográfica de trombo móvel nas câmaras cardíacas direitas permite identificar um grupo de pacientes de alto risco, com mortalidade muito elevada, quando comparada ao tromboembolismo pulmonar em geral. Além da terapia clínica clássica, com heparinas e trombolíticos, as terapêuticas endovascular e cirúrgica devem ser consideradas e podem contribuir para o prognóstico desses pacientes. Relata-se um caso de uma paciente de 33 anos de idade admitida em uma unidade de emergência da no 8o dia de pós-operatório de apendicectomia, com queixas de dor torácica e dispneia de início súbito. Ecocardiograma transtorácico evidenciou presença de trombo serpiginoso solto em átrio direito, que ocluía intermitentemente a valva tricúspide durante o ciclo cardíaco. Diante das características ecocardiográficas atípicas do trombo e da significativa chance de embolização maciça, optou-se por intervenção cirúrgica de emergência.


Pulmonary thromboembolism is a serious public health problem due to misdiagnosis and high morbidity and mortality. When pulmonary embolism is massive with important hemodynamic repercussion, and the appropriate therapy does not take place in the early hours, mortality is higher than 85%. If there is clinical suspicion of pulmonary thromboembolism, an echocardiographic evaluation may have a key role in the evaluation of mobility and structure of the right ventricle, presence of pulmonary hypertension, and documentation of the presence of thrombus. Echocardiographic detection of mobile thrombus in right cardiac chambers allows the identification of a group of high-risk patients with very high mortality when compared to pulmonary thromboembolism in general . In addition to the classical clinical therapy with heparins and thrombolytics, endovascular and surgical therapy should be considered and may contribute to these patients' prognosis. A case is reported of a 33-year-old female patient admitted to an Emergency Unit at 8th postoperative day (POD) of appendectomy, with complaints of chest pain and dyspnea of sudden onset. Transthoracic echocardiography showed the presence of a floating serpiginous thrombus in the right atrium, which intermittently occluded the tricuspid valve during the cardiac cycle. Due to the atypical echocardiographic features of the thrombus, and significant chance of massive embolization, an emergency surgery was chosen.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Echocardiography , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Embolism/surgery , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Tachycardia/etiology , Vasoconstrictor Agents/therapeutic use , Warfarin/therapeutic use , Chest Pain/etiology , Radiography , Norepinephrine/therapeutic use , Enoxaparin/therapeutic use , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/surgery , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/complications , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/drug therapy , Dyspnea/etiology , Electroencephalography , Tachypnea/etiology , Perfusion Index , Hypotension/etiology , Hypoxia/etiology , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use
15.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(3): 302-309, May-June 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002221

ABSTRACT

This paper is about the Guideline for Ventilation / Perfusion Scintigraphy. It has been developed by the Brazilian Society of Nuclear Medicine to be a best practices guide used in Nuclear Medicine. Its function is to be an educational tool to help the Nuclear Medicine Services in Brazil to guarantee a quality care to the patients


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Ventilation-Perfusion Ratio , Guidelines as Topic/standards , Pulmonary Artery/pathology , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Diagnostic Imaging/methods , Radionuclide Imaging/methods , Nuclear Medicine/standards
16.
J. bras. pneumol ; 45(1): e20170251, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-984624

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To validate the Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index (PESI), which was developed for risk stratification after acute pulmonary embolism (PE), for use in Brazil. Methods: This was a single-center retrospective study involving patients admitted to the emergency department with acute PE. The original and simplified versions of the PESI were calculated using hospital admission data from medical records. The outcome measure was the overall 30-day mortality rate. Results: We included 123 patients. The mean age was 57 ± 17 years, and there was a predominance of females, who accounted for 60% of the cohort. There were 28 deaths, translating to an overall 30-day mortality rate of 23%. In the cluster analysis by risk class, overall 30-day mortality was 2.40% for classes I-II, compared with 20.00% for classes III-IV-V (relative risk [RR] = 5.9; 95% CI: 1.88-18.51; p = 0.0002). When we calculated overall 30-day mortality using the simplified version (0 points vs. ≥ 1 point), we found it to be 3.25% for 0 points and 19.51% for ≥ 1 point (RR = 2.38; 95% CI: 0.89-6.38; p = 0.06). Using the original version, a survival analysis showed that risk classes I and II presented similar Kaplan-Meier curves (p = 0.59), as did risk classes III, IV, and V (p = 0.25). However, the curve of the clusters based on the original version, showed significantly higher mortality in the III-IV-V classes than in the I-II classes (RR = 7.63; 95% CI: 2.29-25.21; p = 0.0001). The cluster analysis based on the original version showed a greater area under the ROC curve than did the analysis based on the simplified version (0.70; 95% CI: 0.62-0.77 vs. 0.60; 95% CI: 0.51-0.67; p = 0.05). Conclusions: The PESI adequately predicted the prognosis after acute PE in this sample of the population of Brazil. The cluster analysis based on the original version is the most appropriate analysis in this setting.


RESUMO Objetivo: Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index (PESI) foi desenvolvido para a estratificação de risco após tromboembolia pulmonar (TEP) aguda. Nosso objetivo foi validá-lo para uso no Brasil. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo unicêntrico incluindo pacientes com TEP admitidos numa unidade de emergência. O PESI (versão original e simplificada) foi calculado utilizando-se dados dos prontuários na admissão hospitalar. O desfecho analisado foi mortalidade geral em 30 dias (MG30). Resultados: Foram incluídos 123 pacientes, com média de idade de 57 ± 17 anos, predomínio do sexo feminino (60%) e MG30 de 28 óbitos (23%). Na análise agrupada, a MG30 (classes I-II vs. III-IV-V) foi de 2,40% vs. 20,00% (risco relativo [RR] = 5,9; IC95%: 1,88-18,51; p = 0,0002). A MG30 na versão simplificada (0 vs. ≥ 1 ponto) foi de 3,25% vs. 19,51% (RR = 2,38; IC95%: 0,89-6,38; p = 0,06). A análise da sobrevida mostrou que as curvas de Kaplan-Meier foram semelhantes nas classes I e II (p = 0,59) e entre as classes III, IV e V (p = 0,25). A curva da versão original agrupada mostrou que a MG30 foi significativamente maior no grupo III-IV-V que no grupo I-II (RR = 7,63; IC95%: 2,29-25,21; p = 0,0001). A análise agrupada da versão original mostrou área sob a curva ROC maior que a da versão simplificada (0,70; IC95%: 0,62-0,77 vs. 0,60; IC95%: 0,51-0,67; p = 0,05). Conclusões: O PESI mensurou adequadamente o prognóstico de MG30 após TEP aguda nesta amostra da população brasileira. A utilização da versão original agrupada foi a mais adequada nesse cenário.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Risk Assessment/methods , Prognosis , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Reference Values , Time Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Brazil/epidemiology , Acute Disease , Prevalence , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sensitivity and Specificity , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data
17.
J. vasc. bras ; 17(3)jul.-set. 2018. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-916069

ABSTRACT

A aviação civil vem apresentando aumento progressivo do número de voos regulares nos últimos 10 anos e, em função disso, mais passageiros estão sendo transportados em viagens aéreas (VAs). Associado a isso, há um aumento das doenças relacionadas às VAs, especialmente naquelas de longa duração. Uma das complicações mais temidas dos voos é o tromboembolismo venoso (TEV), mas a sua real incidência é de difícil mensuração devido à falta de consenso sobre, por exemplo, quanto tempo após o pouso podemos considerar que o TEV possa estar relacionado à VA realizada ou mesmo quanto tempo de voo pode ser considerado como de longa duração. Muito tem se discutido sobre os mecanismos fisiopatológicos do TEV relacionado às VAs, quais passageiros são os de maior risco e quais medidas profiláticas podemos adotar com segurança e eficácia. O objetivo desta revisão é esclarecer esses pontos e as condutas consensuais atuais


Civil aviation has seen a steady increase in the number of scheduled flights over the last ten years and, as a result, more passengers are traveling by air. This has been associated with an increase in flight-related diseases, especially on long-haul flights. One of the most feared complications during flights is venous thromboembolism (VTE), but its true incidence is difficult to measure because of a lack of consensus on elements such as the definition of how long after landing a VTE can be considered to be related to a flight and even how long a flight must last to be considered of long duration. There has been much discussion of the pathophysiological mechanisms of flight-related VTE, of which passengers are at greatest risk, and of what prophylactic measures can be adopted safely and effectively. The purpose of this review is to clarify these points and describe current consensual conduct


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Air Travel/trends , Disease Prevention , Venous Thromboembolism/therapy , Venous Thrombosis/therapy , Aerospace Medicine/methods , Anticoagulants , Heparin , Hypoxia/complications , Incidence , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors , Prevalence , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Review , Risk Factors
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