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Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 314-316, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986037


Pneumoconiosis is characterized by chronic lung inflammation and fibrosis, and inflammation can promote pulmonary fibrosis, which in turn leads to pneumoconiosis. When a large shadow with a long diameter of not less than 2 cm and a short diameter of not less than 1 cm appears in the lung, it can be classified as stage Ⅲ pneumoconiosis. This paper reports a case of stage Ⅲ pneumoconiosis with a large shadow in the upper right lung accompanied by burr-like changes misdiagnosed as lung cancer by CT examination.When the large shadow lesions in patients with pneumoconiosis and lung cancer are difficult to distinguish on CT, an additional MRI examination, particularly T(2)W imaging sequence is useful sequence for identifying the two.

Humans , Pneumoconiosis/pathology , Lung/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology , Diagnostic Errors
Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine ; (12): 841-849, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985994


Objective: JWH133, a cannabinoid type 2 receptor agonist, was tested for its ability to protect mice from bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Methods: By using a random number generator, 24 C57BL/6J male mice were randomly divided into the control group, model group, JWH133 intervention group, and JWH133+a cannabinoid type-2 receptor antagonist (AM630) inhibitor group, with 6 mice in each group. A mouse pulmonary fibrosis model was established by tracheal instillation of bleomycin (5 mg/kg). Starting from the first day after modeling, the control group mice were intraperitoneally injected with 0.1 ml of 0.9% sodium chloride solution, and the model group mice were intraperitoneally injected with 0.1 ml of 0.9% sodium chloride solution. The JWH133 intervention group mice were intraperitoneally injected with 0.1 ml of JWH133 (2.5 mg/kg, dissolved in physiological saline), and the JWH133+AM630 antagonistic group mice were intraperitoneally injected with 0.1 ml of JWH133 (2.5 mg/kg) and AM630 (2.5 mg/kg). After 28 days, all mice were killed; the lung tissue was obtained, pathological changes were observed, and alveolar inflammation scores and Ashcroft scores were calculated. The content of type Ⅰ collagen in the lung tissue of the four groups of mice was measured using immunohistochemistry. The levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) in the serum of the four groups of mice were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the content of hydroxyproline (HYP) in the lung tissue of the four groups of mice was measured. Western blotting was used to measure the protein expression levels of type Ⅲ collagen, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK1/2), phosphorylated P-ERK1/2 (P-ERK1/2), and phosphorylated ribosome S6 kinase type 1 (P-p90RSK) in the lung tissue of mice in the four groups. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to measure the expression levels of collagen Ⅰ, collagen Ⅲ, and α-SMA mRNA in the lung tissue of the four groups of mice. Results: Compared with the control group, the pathological changes in the lung tissue of the model group mice worsened, with an increase in alveolar inflammation score (3.833±0.408 vs. 0.833±0.408, P<0.05), an increase in Ashcroft score (7.333±0.516 vs. 2.000±0.633, P<0.05), an increase in type Ⅰ collagen absorbance value (0.065±0.008 vs. 0.018±0.006, P<0.05), an increase in inflammatory cell infiltration, and an increase in hydroxyproline levels [(1.551±0.051) μg/mg vs. (0.974±0.060) μg/mg, P<0.05]. Compared with the model group, the JWH133 intervention group showed reduced pathological changes in lung tissue, decreased alveolar inflammation score (1.833±0.408, P<0.05), decreased Ashcroft score (4.167±0.753, P<0.05), decreased type Ⅰ collagen absorbance value (0.032±0.004, P<0.05), reduced inflammatory cell infiltration, and decreased hydroxyproline levels [(1.148±0.055) μg/mg, P<0.05]. Compared with the JWH133 intervention group, the JWH133+AM630 antagonistic group showed more severe pathological changes in the lung tissue of mice, increased alveolar inflammation score and Ashcroft score, increased type Ⅰ collagen absorbance value, increased inflammatory cell infiltration, and increased hydroxyproline levels. Compared with the control group, the expression of α-SMA, type Ⅲ collagen, P-ERK1/2, and P-p90RSK proteins in the lung tissue of the model group mice increased, while the expression of type Ⅰ collagen, type Ⅲ collagen, and α-SMA mRNA increased. Compared with the model group, the protein expression of α-SMA (relative expression 0.60±0.17 vs. 1.34±0.19, P<0.05), type Ⅲ collagen (relative expression 0.52±0.09 vs. 1.35±0.14, P<0.05), P-ERK1/2 (relative expression 0.32±0.11 vs. 1.14±0.14, P<0.05), and P-p90RSK (relative expression 0.43±0.14 vs. 1.15±0.07, P<0.05) decreased in the JWH133 intervention group. The type Ⅰ collagen mRNA (2.190±0.362 vs. 5.078±0.792, P<0.05), type Ⅲ collagen mRNA (1.750±0.290 vs. 4.935±0.456, P<0.05), and α-SMA mRNA (1.588±0.060 vs. 5.192±0.506, P<0.05) decreased. Compared with the JWH133 intervention group, the JWH133+AM630 antagonistic group increased the expression of α-SMA, type Ⅲ collagen, P-ERK1/2, and P-p90RSK protein in the lung tissue of mice, and increased the expression of type Ⅲ collagen and α-SMA mRNA. Conclusion: In mice with bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, the cannabinoid type-2 receptor agonist JWH133 inhibited inflammation and improved extracellular matrix deposition, which alleviated lung fibrosis. The underlying mechanism of action may be related to the activation of the ERK1/2-RSK1 signaling pathway.

Mice , Male , Animals , Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology , Cannabinoid Receptor Agonists/metabolism , Collagen Type I/pharmacology , Collagen Type III/pharmacology , Hydroxyproline/pharmacology , Sodium Chloride/metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Lung/pathology , Cannabinoids/adverse effects , Bleomycin/metabolism , Collagen/metabolism , Inflammation/pathology , RNA, Messenger/metabolism
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 72-77, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970716


Pulmonary fibrosis is the end-stage pathological change of lung diseases, which seriously affects the respiratory function of human body. A large number of studies at home and abroad have confirmed that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an important intermediate stage in the development of pulmonary fibrosis. Inhibition of multiple pathways upstream and downstream of EMT, such as the classical Smads pathway and non-Smads pathway of TGF-1 can effectively inhibit the process of EMT and alleviate pulmonary fibrosis. This article will review the main conclusions of the mechanism of action of EMT as a target to improve the pathology of pulmonary fibrosis so far, and provide a theoretical basis and research direction for further research and development of anti-pulmonary fibrosis drugs.

Humans , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition/drug effects , Fibrosis/drug therapy , Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology , Signal Transduction , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism , Antifibrotic Agents/therapeutic use
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 62-66, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970714


Pulmonary fibrosis is end-stage of variety of heterogeneous interstitial lung disease, characterizedby excessive proliferation of fibroblasts and extracellular matrix deposition and destruction of lung parenchyma. Thyroid and lung are derived from the same endodermal cells, thyroid hormone affect the occurrence、development and prognosis of the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer and other lung diseases, This article reviews the role and mechanism of thyroid hormone in pulmonary fibrosis in order to provide new idea for the study of the role and mechanism of thyroid hormone in silicosis.

Humans , Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology , Lung/pathology , Silicosis , Lung Diseases, Interstitial , Fibroblasts , Thyroid Hormones , Fibrosis
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 235-240, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935784


Pulmonary fibrosis is an irreversible interstitial lung disease characterized by lung parenchyma remodeling and collagen deposition. In recent years, the incidence and mortality of pulmonary fibrosis caused by unknown causes have risen. However, its pathogenesis is still unclear. C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12)/C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4)/CXCR7 signal axis plays a critical regulatory role in pulmonary fibrosis disease. In addition, the signal axis has been shown to regulate recruitment and migration of circulating fibrocytes, mesenchymal stem cells to the damage lung tissue, the migration of endothelial cells, the proliferation and differentiation of fibroblasts and endothelial cells, which further affects the occurrence and progression of pulmonary fibrosis. In this review, we summarized the pathogenesis and treatment research progress of CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4/CXCR7 in the occurrence and progression of pulmonary fibrosis.

Humans , Chemokine CXCL12 , Endothelial Cells/pathology , Ligands , Lung/pathology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology , Receptors, CXCR4
J. bras. pneumol ; 45(5): e20180079, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012575


ABSTRACT Objective: To describe the clinical, functional, and radiological features of index cases of familial pulmonary fibrosis (FPF) in Brazil. Methods: We evaluated 35 patients with FPF - of whom 18 (51.4%) were women - with a median age of 66.0 years (range, 35.5-89.3 years). All of the patients completed a standardized questionnaire, as well as undergoing pulmonary function tests and HRCT of the chest. In 6 cases, lung tissue samples were obtained: from surgical biopsies in 5 cases; and from an autopsy in 1 case. Results: A history of smoking and a history of exposure to birds or mold were reported in 45.7% and 80.0% of the cases, respectively. Cough and marked dyspnea were reported by 62.8% and 48.6% of the patients, respectively. Fine crackles were detected in 91.4% of the patients. In 4 patients, the findings were suspicious for telomere disease. The median FVC and DLCO, as percentages of the predicted values, were 64.9% (range, 48.8-105.7%) and 38.9% (range, 16.0-60.0%), respectively. Nine patients had reduced DLCO despite having normal spirometry results. Regarding HRCT, patterns typical of usual interstitial pneumonia were found in 6 patients (17.1%). In 25 cases (71.5%), the HRCT features were consistent with a diagnosis other than idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. In 11 cases (31.4%), the radiological patterns were uncharacteristic of interstitial lung disease. Of the six lung tissue samples analyzed, four showed interstitial pneumonia with bronchiolocentric accentuation, and, on the basis of the clinical and radiological data, the corresponding patients were diagnosed with hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Conclusions: Patients with FPF can present with a wide variety of clinical features. Most HRCT scans of these patients exhibit patterns not typical of usual interstitial pneumonia. The family history of fibrotic lung diseases should be investigated in all patients under suspicion, regardless of their age.

RESUMO Objetivo: Descrever as características clínicas, funcionais e radiológicas de um grupo de casos índice diagnosticados com fibrose pulmonar familiar (FPF) no Brasil. Métodos: Trinta e cinco pacientes com FPF (18 mulheres; 51,4%), com mediana de idade de 66,0 anos (variação: 35,5-89,3 anos), responderam a um questionário padronizado e foram submetidos a testes de função pulmonar e TCAR de tórax. Tecido pulmonar foi obtido para revisão em 6 casos: a partir de biópsias cirúrgicas em 5 e de autópsia em 1. Resultados: Antecedentes de tabagismo e de exposição a aves ou mofo foram referidos por 45,7% e 80,0% dos casos, respectivamente. Tosse e dispneia significante foram referidas por 62,8% e 48,6% dos pacientes, respectivamente. Estertores finos foram detectados em 91,4% dos indivíduos. Em 4 pacientes, os achados levantaram suspeitas de doença dos telômeros. As medianas da CVF e da DLCO foram, respectivamente, de 64,9% (variação: 48,8-105,7%) e 38,9% (variação: 16,0-60,0%) em porcentagem dos valores previstos. Apesar de espirometria normal, 9 pacientes exibiram DLCO reduzida. Em relação às TCAR, padrões típicos de pneumonia intersticial usual foram encontrados em 6 pacientes (17,1%). Em 25 casos (71,5%) os achados tomográficos foram mais consistentes com um diagnóstico de não relacionado a fibrose pulmonar idiopática. Em 11 pacientes (31,4%) o padrão radiológico foi incaracterístico para doença pulmonar intersticial. Das seis amostras de tecido pulmonar analisadas, quatro mostraram pneumonias intersticiais com acentuação bronquiolocêntrica e, em função de outros dados clínicos e radiológicos, pneumonite de hipersensibilidade foi diagnosticada. Conclusões: Pacientes com FPF podem apresentar características clínicas diversas. A maioria das TCAR desses pacientes exibe padrões não típicos de pneumonia intersticial usual. A pesquisa da história clínica de outros casos de pneumopatias fibrosantes na família deve ser feita em todos os pacientes em investigação, independentemente da idade.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/pathology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/epidemiology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Function Tests , Biopsy , Brazil/epidemiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Sex Distribution , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/epidemiology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/diagnostic imaging , Age of Onset , Age Distribution
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 37(11): 1247-1252, Nov. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-895358


Equine multinodular pulmonary fibrosis (EMPF) diagnosed at the Laboratório Regional de Diagnóstico of Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Pelotas (LRD/UFPel), is described. Differential aspects of other pulmonary diseases in horses with pneumonia and interstitial fibrosis were discussed. The disease occurred in a 15-year-old equine that presented with clinical signs of respiratory distress, intermittent fever, anorexia, and dyspnea. Macroscopically, there was enlargement of the lungs with whitish, pale, firm and well-delimited nodules, approximately 7-10 cm in diameter, distributed throughout the parenchyma. Histologically, the lung nodules had alveolar spaces with walls covered by cuboidal epithelium containing macrophages, neutrophils, lymphocytes, hyperplasia of type II pneumocytes and, eventually, multinucleated giant cells. The interstitium was markedly thickened by mature fibrous connective tissue and collagen. There were intranuclear inclusion bodies in the macrophages. The PCR technique for detecting the EHV-5 DNA was positive. In a retrospective study of pneumonia cases in horses with interstitial fibrosis diagnosed in the LRD/UFPel, two animals had macroscopic and histological lesions similar to those with EMPF, but they were negative for EHV-5 in PCR. Four cases diagnosed with pneumonia and interstitial tissue fibrosis had a histological pattern that was different from that observed in the EMPF animal, thus eliminating the possibility of EMPF. It is concluded that EMPF is a sporadic disease that should be considered in cases of respiratory disease in horses. Reports of such cases are important to alert technicians about the occurrence of rare diseases in Brazil. It is also necessary to establish the true role of EHV-5 in the pathogenesis of EMPF. Cases of pulmonary fibrosis such as EMPF, in which the virus is not present, should be studied to establish whether it could be an idiopathic form of the disease.(AU)

Descreve-se a fibrose multinodular pulmonar equina (EMPF) diagnosticado no Laboratório Regional de Diagnóstico da Faculdade de Veterinária da Universidade Federal de Pelotas. Foram discutidos a patologia da doença e os aspectos diferenciais de outras enfermidades pulmonares de equinos que cursam com pneumonia e fibrose intersticial. A doença ocorreu em um equino sem raça definida de 15 anos de idade que apresentou sinais clínicos de dificuldade respiratória febre intermitente, anorexia e dispneia, com evolução de aproximadamente 10 dias. Macroscopicamente havia aumento de volume dos pulmões e nódulos esbranquiçados, pálidos, firmes e bem delimitados, de aproximadamente 7-10 cm de diâmetro, distribuídos pelo parênquima. Histologicamente, o tecido pulmonar apresentava nódulos caracterizados pela presença de espaços alveolares, com paredes revestidas por epitélio cuboidal achatado, contendo macrófagos e neutrófilos e havia, também, linfócitos e hiperplasia de pneumócitos tipo II e eventualmente células gigantes multinuacleadas. O interstício estava acentuadamente espessado por tecido conjuntivo fibroso maduro e por colágeno. Havia corpúsculos de inclusão intranucleares em macrófagos. A técnica de PCR para detecção do DNA de herpes vírus equino-5 (EHV-5) resultou positiva. Em um estudo retrospectivo de casos de pneumonia com fibrose intersticial diagnosticados no LRD entre 2000 e 2015, dois equinos apresentaram lesões macroscópicas e histológicas similares às de EMPF, porém resultaram negativos na PCR para detecção de EHV-5. Quatro casos de pneumonia com fibrose do tecido intersticial apresentaram padrão histológico diverso da EMPF descartando-se a possibilidade de tratar-se da doença. Conclui-se que EMPF é uma enfermidade esporádica, no entanto deve ser levada em consideração em casos de doença respiratória em equinos. A descrição dos casos diagnosticados é importante para alertar técnicos sobre a ocorrência da mesma no Brasil. É necessário estabelecer o real papel do EHV-5 na patogenia da doença. Casos de fibrose pulmonar semelhantes à EMPF em que não esteja presente o vírus, devem ser estudados a fim de ficar estabelecido se poderia ser uma forma idiopática da mesma doença.(AU)

Animals , Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/veterinary , Horse Diseases , Retrospective Studies , Diagnosis, Differential
Autops. Case Rep ; 7(2): 15-26, Apr.-June 2017. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-905200


In 2005, the combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) was first defined as a distinct entity, which comprised centrilobular or paraseptal emphysema in the upper pulmonary lobes, and fibrosis in the lower lobes accompanied by reduced diffused capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (DLCO). Recently, the fibrosis associated with the connective tissue disease was also included in the diagnosis of CPFE, although the exposure to tobacco, coal, welding, agrochemical compounds, and tire manufacturing are the most frequent causative agents. This entity characteristically presents reduced DLCO with preserved lung volumes and severe pulmonary hypertension, which is not observed in emphysema and fibrosis alone. We present the case of a 63-year-old woman with a history of heavy tobacco smoking abuse, who developed progressive dyspnea, severe pulmonary hypertension, and cor pulmonale over a 2-year period. She attended the emergency facility several times complaining of worsening dyspnea that was treated as decompensate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The imaging examination showed paraseptal emphysema in the upper pulmonary lobes and fibrosis in the middle and lower lobes. The echo Doppler cardiogram revealed the dilation of the right cardiac chambers and pulmonary hypertension, which was confirmed by pulmonary trunk artery pressure measurement by catheterization. During this period, she was progressively restricted to the minimal activities of daily life and dependent on caregivers. She was brought to the hospital neurologically obtunded, presenting anasarca, and respiratory failure, which led her to death. The autopsy showed signs of pulmonary hypertension and findings of fibrosis and emphysema in the histological examination of the lungs. The authors highlight the importance of the recognition of this entity in case of COPD associated with severe pulmonary hypertension of unknown cause.

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Hypertension, Pulmonary/pathology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/pathology , Pulmonary Emphysema/pathology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology , Autopsy , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Edema/diagnosis , Fatal Outcome , Lung/pathology , Pulmonary Heart Disease/diagnosis , Tobacco Smoking/adverse effects
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 33(1): 31-36, mar. 2017. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-844394


Diffuse Lung Disease (DLD) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality, however in Chile we are lacking of epidemiological data on this condition. Our aim is communicate the first report of a prospective registry of DLD patients treated at bronchopulmonary unit of DIPRECA hospital. Methods: Cross-sectional study in patients referred to our bronchopulmonary unit under suspicion of DLD. Diagnosis was confirmed by chest computed tomography and informed consent was approved by patients. Data regarding clinical, serological, pulmonary function tests and echocardiography were collected from 2014 up to date. Results: 30 patients were analysed, their median of age was 76.5 years-old (Interquartile Range 68-80), 56.7% were women, median duration of disease: 4 years (IQR 1-10.6) and 43% has smoking history Most frequent signs and symptoms were crackles (97%), dyspnoea (90%) and cough (57%). Comorbidities: 3% had asthma, 3% chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and 6.7% connective tissue diseases. Radiological findings: 20% had DLD with usual interstitial pneumonia pattern (UIP), 23% DLD possible UIP, 30% DLD inconsistent with UIP, 14% chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis and 13% nonspecific interstitial pneumonia. Serology: 18% had positive rheumatoid factor of which only one case had rheumatoid arthritis, 67% had positive antinuclear antibodies (ANA), 17% ANCA positive of which only one case of clinical vasculitis. Spirometry was mainly normal (52%) or restrictive (45%). Echocardiography showed pulmonary hypertension mainly mild in 52% of patients. No significant association was found between titles of ANA ≥ 1/320 and gender, smoking or radiological pattern. Conclusions: Our demographic and radiological findings are similar to those reported in literature; however, the highlights in our cohort are the increased frequency of female gender and positive ANA without history or clinical manifestation of connective tissue diseases.

La enfermedad pulmonar difusa (EPD) es causa importante de morbimortalidad; a pesar de esto no tenemos datos epidemiológicos en Chile. Nuestro objetivo es comunicar el primer reporte del registro prospectivo de pacientes con EPD atendidos en la unidad de broncopulmonar del hospital DIPRECA. Métodos: Estudio de corte transversal en pacientes derivados alpoliclínico broncopulmonar del hospital DIPRECA por sospecha de EPD. En caso de confirmación diagnóstica por tomografía computada de tórax y consentimiento informado aprobado por los pacientes, se compilaron datos clínicos, serológicos, pruebas de función pulmonar y ecocardiografía, desde 2014 hasta la fecha. Resultados: Se analizaron 30 pacientes la mediana de su edad fue 76,5 años (rango intercuartílico 68-80), 56,7% eran mujeres, duración mediana de la enfermedad: 4 años (RIC 1-10,6)y 43% con antecedentes de tabaquismo. Los síntomas y signos más frecuente fueron crujidos (97%), disnea (90%) y tos (57%). Comorbilidades: 3% tenía asma, 3% enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica y 6,7% enfermedades del tejido conectivo. Hallazgos radiológicos: 20% tenía EPD con patrón de neumonía intersticial usual (UIP), 23% EPD posible UIP, 30% EPD inconsistente con UIP, 14% neumonitis por hipersensibilidad crónica y 13% neumonía intersticial no específica. Serología: 18% tenía factor reumatoide positivo de ellos sólo uno de los casos tenía artritis reumatoide, el 67% tenía anticuerpos antinucleares (ANA) positivos, 17% ANCA positivo de ellos sólo un caso tenía historia de vasculitis clínica. La espirometría fue mayoritariamente normal (52%) o restrictiva (45%). Ecocardiografía detectó hipertensión pulmonar mayoritariamente leve en 52% de los pacientes. No se encontró asociación significativa entre los títulos de ANA ≥ 1/320 en relación a género, tabaquismo o patrón radiológico. Conclusiones: Nuestros hallazgos demográficos y radiológicos son similares a los de la literatura; sin embargo, destaca en nuestra cohorte la mayor frecuencia de género femenino y ANA positivos sin historia o manifestación clínica de enfermedades del tejido conectivo.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/pathology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology , Antibodies, Antinuclear , Autoimmunity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/diagnostic imaging , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/immunology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Fibrosis/immunology , Sex Factors , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 48(6): 545-552, 06/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748222


Abnormal high mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) activation is involved in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. Pulmonary rehabilitation mixture (PRM), which combines extracts from eight traditional Chinese medicines, has very good lung protection in clinical use. However, it is not known if PRM has anti-fibrotic activity. In this study, we investigated the effects of PRM on transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-mediated and bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis in vitro and in vivo. The effects of PRM on TGF-β1-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in A549 cells, on the proliferation of human lung fibroblasts (HLF-1) in vitro, and on BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis in vivo were investigated. PRM treatment resulted in a reduction of EMT in A549 cells that was associated with attenuating an increase of vimentin and a decrease of E-cadherin. PRM inhibited the proliferation of HLF-1 at an IC50 of 0.51 µg/mL. PRM ameliorated BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats, with reduction of histopathological scores and collagen deposition, and a decrease in α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and HMGB1 expression. An increase in receptor for advanced glycation end-product (RAGE) expression was found in BLM-instilled lungs. PRM significantly decreased EMT and prevented pulmonary fibrosis through decreasing HMGB1 and regulating RAGE in vitro and in vivo. PRM inhibited TGF-β1-induced EMT via decreased HMGB1 and vimentin and increased RAGE and E-cadherin levels. In summary, PRM prevented experimental pulmonary fibrosis by modulating the HMGB1/RAGE pathway.

Animals , Humans , Male , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , Pulmonary Fibrosis/prevention & control , Antibiotics, Antineoplastic , Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products/drug effects , Apoptosis/drug effects , Bleomycin , Blotting, Western , Cells, Cultured , Collagen/drug effects , Complex Mixtures/pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition/drug effects , Fibroblasts/drug effects , HMGB1 Protein/drug effects , Hydroxyproline/analysis , Immunohistochemistry , Lung/drug effects , Lung/pathology , Platelet-Derived Growth Factor/drug effects , Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology , Random Allocation , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reproducibility of Results , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/drug effects
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 47(7): 567-575, 07/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-712970


Limitations on tissue proliferation capacity determined by telomerase/apoptosis balance have been implicated in pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. In addition, collagen V shows promise as an inductor of apoptosis. We evaluated the quantitative relationship between the telomerase/apoptosis index, collagen V synthesis, and epithelial/fibroblast replication in mice exposed to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) at high oxygen concentration. Two groups of mice were analyzed: 20 mice received BHT, and 10 control mice received corn oil. Telomerase expression, apoptosis, collagen I, III, and V fibers, and hydroxyproline were evaluated by immunohistochemistry, in situ detection of apoptosis, electron microscopy, immunofluorescence, and histomorphometry. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of increased alveolar epithelial cells type 1 (AEC1) in apoptosis. Immunostaining showed increased nuclear expression of telomerase in AEC type 2 (AEC2) between normal and chronic scarring areas of usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP). Control lungs and normal areas from UIP lungs showed weak green birefringence of type I and III collagens in the alveolar wall and type V collagen in the basement membrane of alveolar capillaries. The increase in collagen V was greater than collagens I and III in scarring areas of UIP. A significant direct association was found between collagen V and AEC2 apoptosis. We concluded that telomerase, collagen V fiber density, and apoptosis evaluation in experimental UIP offers the potential to control reepithelization of alveolar septa and fibroblast proliferation. Strategies aimed at preventing high rates of collagen V synthesis, or local responses to high rates of cell apoptosis, may have a significant impact in pulmonary fibrosis.

Animals , Male , Apoptosis/physiology , Collagen Type V/biosynthesis , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology , Telomerase/metabolism , Butylated Hydroxytoluene , Cell Proliferation , Collagen Type I/analysis , Collagen Type II/analysis , Collagen Type V/analysis , Disease Models, Animal , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/pathology , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Fibroblasts/metabolism , Fibroblasts/pathology , Hydroxyproline/analysis , Immunohistochemistry , In Situ Nick-End Labeling , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Microscopy, Electron , Pulmonary Alveoli/pathology , Pulmonary Alveoli/ultrastructure , Staining and Labeling , Telomerase/isolation & purification
Med. interna (Caracas) ; 30(1)2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-753297


El Síndrome Antisintetasa, es una enfermedad poco frecuente perteneciente al grupo de las miopatías inflamatorias de origen inmunológico. Su caracterización inmunológica es muy variable y de allí las distintas manifestaciones clínicas de su presentación y su difícil diagnóstico. Se presenta un paciente femenino de 42 años de edad, con diagnóstico de Artritis Reumatoide (AR), con 9/10 puntos por puntaje para AR por EULAR 2011, anti-CCP +, RF -, desde octubre de 2011, en tratamiento con Prednisona y Metotrexate. Acude en febrero de 2012 por presentar disnea progresiva y tos con expectoración verdosa. Recibe antibioticoterapia sin respuesta. Se realiza TC de Tórax dónde se evidencia fibrosis pulmonar y bronquiectasias por tracción, con imágenes en panal de abeja a predominio de segmentos inferiores y posteriores. Durante su estancia hospitalaria presenta debilidad muscular proximal con elevación de CK a 4.969 U/L. , se realiza biopsia de músculo, que reporta miopatía inflamatoria; electromiografía, con patrón característico de miopatía inflamatoria y perfil inmunológico, obteniéndose Anti-Jo1 positivo, 0,885 (Negativo < 0,250). En el contexto de un síndrome poliarticular inflamatorio, una enfermedad pulmonar intersticial y una miopatía inflamatoria proximal con Anti Jo-1 (+); se realiza diagnóstico definitivo de Síndrome Antisintetasa.

This is a rare disease, member of the inflammatory myopathies of immunological origin. It has a very variable immunologic profile which makes the diagnosis difficult. We present a female patient 42 years- old, with the diagnosis of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), with 9/10 points of EULAR 2011 Score for RA diagnosis and RF -, Anti CCP +, in October of 2011; her treatment at that time was prednisone and methotrexate. In February of 2012, she consulted to the emergency with dyspnea and productive cough. She received antibiotics with no response. The chest Computerized Tomography evidenced pulmonary fibrosis, traction bronchiectasis and honeycombe images in posterior and inferior segments of both lungs. During her hospitalization, she presented proximal muscular weakness with CK elevation to 4.969 U/L. The muscle biopsy, which concluded inflammatory myopathy, the electromyography had the characteristic pattern of inflammatory myopathy and the immunologic profile, with a positive Anti-Jo1 0,885 (Negative <0,250). In the context of a polyarticular syndrome, an interstitial lung disease and a proximal inflammatory myopathy with a positive Anti-Jo1, we made the final diagnosis of Antisynthetase syndrome.

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/complications , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/diagnosis , Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology , Myositis/pathology , Prednisone , Biopsy/methods
Biol. Res ; 45(4): 345-350, 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-668684


Statins reduce cholesterol levels by inhibiting 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase and have a major place in the treatment of atherosclerotic disease. Recent studies have shown anti-inflammatory properties of statins. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of simvastatin on bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats. A total of 31 female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: (1) intratracheal (IT) phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) + intraperitoneal (IP) PBS (n=7); (2) IT BLM + IP PBS (n=8); (3) IT BLM + low dose (LD) simvastatin (1 mg/kg daily, n=8); (4) IT BLM + high dose (HD) simvastatin (5 mg/kg daily, n=8). Simvastatin was administered IP for 15 days, beginning 1 day prior to IT BLM. The effect of simvastatin on pulmonary fibrosis was studied by measurements of IL-13, PDGF, IFN-γ, TGF-p1 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and lung tissue hydroxyproline (HPL) content and by histopathological examination (Ashcroft score). BLM caused significant change in BAL fluid cytokine levels and increased both HPL content and histopathological score (p<0.001 for all). While LD simvastatin had no effect on cytokine levels, HD significantly reduced IL-13 (15.12 ±7.08 pg/ml vs. 4.43±2.34 pg/mL; p<0.05) and TGF-β1 levels (269.25 ±65.42 pg/mL vs. 131.75±32.65 pg/mL; p<0.05). Neither HD nor LD simvastatin attenuated HPL content or Ashcroft score. In conclusion, this study showed that LD simvastatin had no effect on a BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis model, while the high dose caused partial improvement in profibrotic cytokine levels.

Animals , Female , Rats , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , Simvastatin/therapeutic use , Bleomycin , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Pulmonary Fibrosis/chemically induced , Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Transforming Growth Factor beta1
Egyptian Journal of Histology [The]. 2012; 35 (1): 95-105
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-126547


Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is one of the major types of potentially lethal lung diseases. Curcumin, a natural phenolic compound of Curcuma longa Linn, has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity. It is a potent inhibitor of reactive oxygen-generating enzymes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the beneficial efficacy on curcumin on experimental lung fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride [CCl [4]] on adult male albino rats. A total of 32 adult male albino rats were divided into four groups. Group I [four rats] was the control group. Group II [eight rats] was further subdivided into two equal subgroups; subgroup IIA was given corn oil [1 mg/kg orally] and subgroup IIB was given curcumin [100mg/kg orally, daily]. Group III [10 rats] was given CCl[4] [1ml/kg twice a week by intraperitoneal route] and group IV [10 rats] was given curcumin 1 week before and concomitantly with CCl[4] injection. Half of the rats of each group were sacrificed after 2 weeks [subgroup A, for short-term study] and the other half were sacrificed after 5 weeks [subgroup B, for long-term study] Lung tissues were processed for light microscope [L/M] and electron microscope [E/M] studies. Moreover, morphometric study was carried out. Subgroup IIIA [short-term study] showed a nonsignificant increase in the mean area percentage of collagen fibers and a nonsignificant decrease in the number of type II pneumocytes. Lung sections revealed local areas of interstitial inflammatory reaction, intra-alveolar hemorrhage, edema, and congestion of pulmonary vessels. Subgroup IIIB [long-term study] revealed a highly significant increase in the mean area percentage of collagen fibers and a significant decrease in the number of type II pneumocytes. Lung sections showed diffuse interstitial inflammatory reaction, foci of necrotic alveolar walls, and diffuse interstitial accumulation of collagen. E/M examination revealed degenerative changes and necrosis of type I and II pneumocytes. The alveolar macrophages showed signs of activation. For 2 weeks the curcumin-supplemented group [subgroup VIA] showed an improvement in their histological findings, as revealed by the significant increase in the number of type II pneumocytes that appeared activated. Type I pneumocytes appeared healthy. After 5 weeks [subgroup VIB], there was more improvement as revealed by the highly significant decrease in the mean are percentage of collagen fibers, highly significant increase in the number of type II pneumocytes, and very minimal inflammatory reaction. Curcumin has an ameliorating effect against lung damage induced by CCI[4]. Thus, this study introduces curcumin as one of the natural herbal remedies that could act as a potential preventive agent against interstitial pulmonary fibrosis. Addition of this compound to the food of those individuals who are vulnerable to interstitial pulmonary fibrosis is recommended

Male , Animals, Laboratory , Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/ultrastructure , Microscopy, Electron , Protective Agents , Curcumin , Treatment Outcome , Rats , Male
J. bras. pneumol ; 34(10): 772-778, out. 2008. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-496612


OBJETIVO: Avaliar o perfil funcional do esôfago e a prevalência de refluxo gastroesofágico (RGE) em pacientes candidatos a transplante pulmonar. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados prospectivamente, entre junho de 2005 e novembro de 2006, 55 pacientes candidatos a transplante pulmonar da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Porto Alegre. Os pacientes foram submetidos a esofagomanometria estacionária e pHmetria esofágica ambulatorial de 24 h de um e dois eletrodos antes de serem submetidos ao transplante pulmonar. RESULTADOS: A esofagomanometria foi anormal em 80 por cento dos pacientes e a pHmetria revelou RGE ácido patológico em 24 por cento. Os sintomas digestivos apresentaram sensibilidade de 50 por cento e especificidade de 61 por cento para RGE. Dos pacientes com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica, 94 por cento apresentaram alteração à manometria, e 80 por cento apresentaram hipotonia do esfíncter inferior, que foi o achado mais freqüente. Pacientes com bronquiectasias apresentaram a maior prevalência de RGE (50 por cento). CONCLUSÕES: O achado freqüente em pacientes com doença pulmonar avançada é RGE. Na população examinada, a presença de sintomas digestivos de RGE não foi preditiva de refluxo ácido patológico. A contribuição do RGE na rejeição crônica deve ser considerada e requer estudos posteriores para seu esclarecimento.

OBJECTIVE: To assess the esophageal function profile and the prevalence of gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) in lung transplant candidates. METHODS: From July of 2005 to November of 2006, a prospective study was conducted involving 55 candidates for lung transplantation at the Santa Casa de Misericórdia Hospital in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Prior to transplantation, patients underwent outpatient stationary esophageal manometry and 24-h esophageal pH-metry using one and two electrodes. RESULTS: Abnormal esophageal manometry was documented in 80 percent of the patients, and 24 percent of the patients presented pathological acid reflux. Digestive symptoms presented sensitivity and specificity for GER of 50 percent and 61 percent, respectively. Of the patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 94 percent presented abnormal esophageal manometry, and 80 percent presented lower esophageal sphincter hypotonia, making it the most common finding. Patients with bronchiectasis presented the highest prevalence of GER (50 percent). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with advanced lung disease, GER is highly prevalent. In the population studied, digestive symptoms of GER were not predictive of pathological acid reflux. The role that GER plays in chronic rejection should be examined and clarified in future studies.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Esophagus/pathology , Gastroesophageal Reflux/epidemiology , Lung Transplantation , Lung Diseases/pathology , Brazil/epidemiology , Esophageal pH Monitoring , Lung Diseases/surgery , Manometry , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/pathology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/surgery , Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/surgery , Severity of Illness Index
J. bras. pneumol ; 34(7): 445-452, jul. 2008. ilus, tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-488269


OBJETIVO: Investigar os efeitos da quercetina em um modelo de inflamação pulmonar e fibrose induzidas por bleomicina. MÉTODOS: Setenta e nove hamsters machos adultos foram randomizados para aplicação de injeções pelas vias intratraqueal (IT) e intraperitoneal (IP) em quatro configurações: veículo IP/salina IT (grupo VS, n = 16); salina IT/quercetina IP (grupo QS, n = 16); bleomicina IT/veículo IP (grupo VB, n = 27); e bleomicina IT/quercetina IP (grupo QB, n = 20). A quercetina e a bleomicina foram aplicadas em doses de 30 mg/kg/dia e 10 U/kg, respectivamente.A quercetina foi iniciada/suspensa 3 dias antes/14 dias depois das injeções IT. RESULTADOS: A taxa de mortalidade do grupo VB foi significantemente superior à dos demais grupos (44 por cento vs. VS: 0 por cento; QS: 0 por cento; QB: 15 por cento). O grupo VB exibiu níveis pulmonares de substâncias reativas ao ácido tiobarbitúrico (× 10-2 nmol/mg) significativamente maiores (6,6 ± 1,3 vs. VS: 5,5 ± 0,8; QS: 2,5 ± 0,6; e QB: 5,8 ± 0,6).Os grupos VB/QB mostraram níveis pulmonares de glutationa reduzida (× 10-2 nmol/mg) significativamente menores que os dos grupos VS/QS (28,9 ± 13,8/28,6 ± 14,8 vs. 43,9 ± 16,0/51,1 ± 20,3) e níveis de hidroxiprolina (mg/g) significativamente maiores (201,6 ± 37,3/177,6 ± 20,3 vs. 109,6 ± 26,1/117,5 ± 32,0). CONCLUSÕES: Em um modelo animal de lesão pulmonar, a quercetina exibiu efeitos antiinflamatórios que são relacionados, pelo menos em parte, a suas propriedades antioxidantes.

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify the best experimental model in which to observe the pulmonary alterations characterizing hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS). METHODS: Male Wistar rats, with mean weight of 250 g, were used in four experimental models: inhaled carbon tetrachloride; intraperitoneal carbon tetrachloride; partial portal vein ligation; and bile duct ligation (BDL). The animals in all groups were divided into control and experimental subgroups. The following variables were measured: transaminase levels; blood gases; lipoperoxidation, using thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and chemiluminescence; and levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) anti-oxidant activity. Anatomopathological examination of the lung was also performed. RESULTS: There were statistically significant differences between the BDL control and BDL experimental groups: aspartate aminotransferase (105.3 ± 43 vs. 500.5 ± 90.3 IU/L); alanine aminotransferase (78.75 ± 37.7 vs. 162.75 ± 35.4 IU/L); alkaline phosphatase (160 ± 20.45 vs. 373.25 ± 45.44 IU/L); arterial oxygen tension (85.25 ± 8.1 vs. 49.9 ± 22.5 mmHg); and oxygen saturation (95 ± 0.7 vs. 73.3 ± 12.07 percent). Lipoperoxidation and antioxidant activity also differed significantly between the two BDL groups (control vs. experimental): TBARS (0.87 ± 0.3 vs. 2.01 ± 0.9 nmol/mg protein); chemiluminescence (16008.41 ± 1171.45 vs. 20250.36 ± 827.82 cps/mg protein); and SOD (6.66 ± 1.34 vs. 16.06 ± 2.67 IU/mg protein). The anatomopathological examination confirmed pulmonary vasodilatation in the BDL model. In the other models, there were no alterations that were characteristic of HPS. CONCLUSIONS: The data obtained suggest that the BDL model can be used in future studies involving hepatic alterations related to oxidative stress and HPS.

Animals , Cricetinae , Male , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Lung Injury/prevention & control , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Pulmonary Fibrosis/prevention & control , Quercetin/therapeutic use , Analysis of Variance , Antibiotics, Antineoplastic , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Bleomycin , Collagen/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Lung Injury/chemically induced , Lung/drug effects , Lung/pathology , Mesocricetus , Pulmonary Fibrosis/chemically induced , Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology , Quercetin/administration & dosage , Random Allocation
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 529-532, 2008.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-201062


Acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP) is a rapidly progressive condition of unknown cause that occurs in a previously healthy individual and produces the histologic findings of diffuse alveolar damage. Since the term AIP was first introduced in 1986, there have been very few case reports of AIP in children. Here we present a case of AIP in a 3-yr-old girl whose other two siblings showed similar radiologic findings. The patient was confirmed to have AIP from autopsy showing histological findings of diffuse alveolar damage and proliferation of fibroblasts. Her 3-yr-old brother was also clinically and radiologically highly suspected as having AIP, and the other asymptomatic 8-yr-old sister was radiologically suspected as having AIP.

Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Acute Disease , Family Health , Fatal Outcome , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/pathology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology , Siblings , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
J. bras. pneumol ; 33(6): 671-678, nov.-dez. 2007. ilus, tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-471289


OBJETIVO: Correlacionar os achados tomográficos com os parâmetros de função pulmonar em portadores de fibrose pulmonar idiopática (FPI). MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo de corte transversal, em que foram avaliados 30 pacientes não tabagistas, portadores de FPI. Utilizando um sistema de escore semiquantitativo, os seguintes achados na tomografia computadorizada de alta resolução (TCAR) foram quantificados: extensão total da doença intersticial (Tot), infiltrado reticular e faveolamento (Ret+Fav), e opacidade em vidro fosco (Vif). As variáveis funcionais foram mensuradas através de espirometria, técnica de oscilações forçadas (TOF), método da diluição com hélio e método da respiração única para medir a capacidade de difusão do monóxido de carbono (DLCO). RESULTADOS: Dos 30 pacientes estudados, 18 eram mulheres e 12 eram homens, com média de idade de 70,9 anos. Foram encontradas correlações significativas de Tot e Ret+Fav com as medidas de capacidade vital forçada (CVF), capacidade pulmonar total (CPT), DLCO e complacência dinâmica do sistema respiratório (correlações negativas), e de Vif com volume residual/CPT (correlação positiva). A relação fluxo expiratório forçado entre 25 e 75 por cento da CVF/CVF (FEF25-75 por cento/CVF) correlacionou-se positivamente com Tot, Ret+Fav e Vif. CONCLUSÕES: Em portadores de FPI, as medidas de volume, difusão e complacência dinâmica são as variáveis fisiológicas que melhor refletem a extensão da doença intersticial na TCAR.

OBJECTIVE: To correlate tomographic findings with pulmonary function parameters in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out, in which 30 nonsmoking patients with IPF were evaluated. Using a semiquantitative scoring system, the following high-resolution computerized tomography (HRCT) findings were quantified: total interstitial disease (TID), reticular abnormality/honeycombing, and ground-glass opacity (GGO). The functional variables were measured by spirometry, forced oscillation technique (FOT), helium dilution method, as well as the single-breath method of measuring diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO). RESULTS: Of the 30 patients studied, 18 were female, and 12 were male, with a mean age of 70.9 years. We found that TID and reticular abnormality and honeycombing correlated significantly (negative correlations) with the measurements of forced vital capacity (FVC), total lung capacity (TLC), DLCO, and dynamic respiratory compliance were found, as well as that GGO correlated significantly (and positively) with residual volume/TLC. The ratio of forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75 percent of FVC to FVC (FEF25-75 percent/FVC) correlated positively with TID, reticular abnormality/honeycombing, and GGO. CONCLUSION: In IPF patients, the measurements of volume, diffusion, and dynamic compliance are the physiological variables which best reflect the extent of the interstitial disease on HRCT scans.

Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Fibrosis/physiopathology , Pulmonary Fibrosis , Biopsy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Carbon Monoxide/metabolism , Lung Volume Measurements , Lung Compliance/physiology , Lung/pathology , Lung/physiopathology , Lung , Models, Statistical , Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity/physiology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology , Respiratory Function Tests , Smoking , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods