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1.
In. Soeiro, Alexandre de Matos; Leal, Tatiana de Carvalho Andreucci Torres; Accorsi, Tarso Augusto Duenhas; Gualandro, Danielle Menosi; Oliveira Junior, Múcio Tavares de; Caramelli, Bruno; Kalil Filho, Roberto. Manual da residência em cardiologia / Manual residence in cardiology. Santana de Parnaíba, Manole, 2 ed; 2022. p.966-973, ilus, tab.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353818
2.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(2): 367-376, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1248948

ABSTRACT

One lung ventilation (OLV) often results in trauma to the unventilated contralateral lung. This study aims to evaluate the effects of different OLV regimens on the injury of the unventilated contralateral lung to identify the best conditions for OLV. Forty rabbits were divided into five groups: a sham group, OLV group I (fraction of inspired oxygen (FIO2) 1.0, tidal volume (VT) 8mL/kg, respiratory rate (R) 40 breaths/min and inspiratory/expiratory ratio (I:E) 1:2), OLV group II (FIO2=1.0, VT 8mL/kg, R 40 breaths/min, I:E 1:2, and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) 5 cm H2O), OLV group III (FIO2 1.0, VT 6mL/kg, R 40 breaths/min, I:E 1:2 and PEEP 5 cm H2O) and OLV group IV (FIO2 0.8, VT 6mL/kg, R 40 breaths/min, I:E 1:2 and PEEP 5 cm H2O). Animals from all OLV groups received two-lung ventilation (TLV) to establish a baseline, followed by one of the indicated OLV regimens. The rabbits in the sham group were intubated through trachea and ventilated with fresh air. Arterial blood gas samples were collected, lung injury parameters were evaluated, and the concentrations of TNF-α and IL-8 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and pulmonary surfactant protein A (SPA) in the unventilated lung were also measured. In OLV group I, the unventilated left lung had higher TNF-α, IL-8 and lung injury score but lower SPA than the ventilated right lung. In OLV groups I to III, the concentrations of TNF-α, IL-8 and lung injury score in the left lung decreased but SPA increased. No differences in these parameters between OLV groups III and IV were observed. Strategic ventilation designed for OLV groups III and IV reduced OLV-induced injury of the non-ventilated contralateral lung in rabbits.(AU)


Ventilação pulmonar unilateral (OLV) frequentemente resulta em trauma no pulmão contralateral não ventilado. Este estudo visa avaliar os efeitos de diferentes regimes de OLV sobre a lesão do pulmão contralateral não ventilado para identificar as melhores condições para OLV. Quarenta coelhos foram divididos em cinco grupos: um grupo falso, OLV grupo I (fração de oxigênio inspirado (FIO2) 1.0, volume corrente (VT) 8mL/kg, frequência respiratória (R) 40 respirações/min e relação inspiração/expiração (I:E) 1:2), OLV grupo II (FIO2=1.0, VT 8mL/kg, R 40 respirações/min, I:E 1:2, e pressão positiva expiratória final (PEEP) 5 cm H2O), OLV grupo III (FIO2 1.0, VT 6mL/kg, R 40 respirações/min, I:E 1:2 e PEEP 5 cm H2O) e OLV grupo IV (FIO2 0.8, VT 6mL/kg, R 40 respirações/min, I:E 1:2 e PEEP 5 cm H2O). Os animais de todos os grupos OLV receberam ventilação nos dois pulmões (TLV) para estabelecer uma linha de base, seguida por um dos regimes OLV indicados. Os coelhos do grupo falso foram intubados através da traqueia e ventilados com ar fresco. Amostras de gases no sangue arterial foram coletadas, parâmetros de lesão pulmonar foram avaliados e as concentrações de TNF-α e IL-8 no fluido de lavagem bronco alveolar (BALF) e proteína A do surfactante pulmonar (SPA) no pulmão não ventilado também foram medidas. No grupo OLV I, o pulmão esquerdo não ventilado tinha maior índice de TNF-α, IL-8 e lesão pulmonar, mas menor SPA do que o pulmão direito ventilado. Nos grupos OLV I a III, as concentrações de TNF-α, IL-8 e a pontuação de lesão pulmonar no pulmão esquerdo diminuíram, mas o SPA aumentou. Não foram observadas diferenças nestes parâmetros entre os grupos OLV III e IV. A ventilação estratégica projetada para os grupos OLV III e IV reduziu a lesão induzida por OLV do pulmão contralateral não ventilado em coelhos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Pulmonary Ventilation , Acute Lung Injury/complications , One-Lung Ventilation/veterinary
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922399

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To establish a predictive equation for commonly used pulmonary ventilation function parameters in children aged 6-<16 years in northeast China.@*METHODS@#A total of 504 healthy children from Liaoning, Jilin, and Heilongjiang provinces of China were selected for the prospective study, among whom there were 242 boys and 262 girls. The JAEGER MasterScreen Pneumo spirometer was used to measure pulmonary ventilation function. With the measured values of 10 parameters, including forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV@*RESULTS@#The boys aged 9-<10 years and 15-<16 years had significantly higher body height, FVC, and FEV@*CONCLUSIONS@#A new predictive equation for the main pulmonary ventilation function parameters has been established in this study for children aged 6-<16 years in northeast China, which provides a basis for accurate judgment of pulmonary function abnormalities in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Child , China , Female , Forced Expiratory Volume , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Ventilation , Reference Values , Schools , Vital Capacity
4.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(3): 843-852, May-June, 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1129488

ABSTRACT

Foi comparada a ventilação controlada à pressão com ou sem pressão positiva expiratória final (PEEP), em coelhos, distribuídos em três grupos, denominados GP (grupo ventilação ciclada à pressão), GPP (grupo ventilação ciclada à pressão com PEEP) e GE (grupo ventilação espontânea - grupo controle). Os animais foram anestesiados com isoflurano, em circuito com reinalação de gases, durante duas horas. As médias de pressão arterial média (PAM) e pressão arterial sistólica (PAS) permaneceram discretamente abaixo dos valores normais em todos os grupos. Houve diminuição significativa da PAM e da PAS no grupo submetido à PEEP (GPP) ao longo do tempo. A pressão parcial de dióxido de carbono arterial (PaCO2) foi maior no GPP quando comparado aos outros grupos no último momento, gerando acidemia respiratória após uma hora de procedimento. A concentração de dióxido de carbono ao final da expiração (ETCO2) apresentou médias discretamente elevadas no grupo não tratado com PEEP (GP) e no grupo controle, enquanto o GPP apresentou maiores médias, possivelmente, relacionadas à diminuição do volume corrente neste grupo. Com base nesses resultados, foi possível concluir que a utilização da PEEP levou à acidemia, que se agravou ao longo do tempo anestésico. Ademais, a anestesia prolongada com isoflurano promove depressão cardiorrespiratória, independentemente do modo ventilatório empregado.(AU)


Pressure controlled ventilation with or without positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) was compared in rabbits, which were divided into three groups denominated GP (pressure cycled ventilation group), GPP (pressure cycled ventilation with PEEP group) and GE (spontaneous ventilation group - control group). The animals were anesthetized with isoflurane in a gas rebreathing circuit for two hours. The means of mean arterial pressure (MAP) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) remained slightly below normal values ​​in all groups. There was a significant decrease in MAP and SBP in the group submitted to PEEP (GPP) over time. The partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2) was higher in GPP when compared to the other groups, inducing respiratory acidosis after one hour. The end-expired carbon dioxide concentration (ETCO2) presented slightly elevated means in the GP, while the GPP presented higher means, possibly related to the decrease in tidal volume in this group. Based on these results it was concluded that the use of PEEP led to acidemia that worsened over anesthetic time. In addition, prolonged isoflurane anesthesia promotes cardiorespiratory depression, regardless the ventilatory mode employed.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Positive-Pressure Respiration , Pulmonary Ventilation , Hemodynamics , Isoflurane , Tidal Volume , Anesthesia
5.
Medellín; Unidad de Evidencia y Deliberación para la Toma de Decisiones UNED. Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Antioquia; 20200000. 32 p.
Monography in Spanish | PIE, LILACS, PIE | ID: biblio-1095459

ABSTRACT

La búsqueda identificó 163 artículos únicos, 50 cumplieron criterios de elegibilidad y fueron revisados en texto completo, y 25 fueron incluidos en esta síntesis. La evidencia en estos artículos proviene de 19 revisiones sistemáticas de ensayos clínicos (ECA) solos o combinados con algunos estudios observaciones (tipo cohorte o casos y controles) (6­24), una guía rápida de práctica clínica (3), tres guías de práctica clínica (4,5,25), un ensayo clínico con asignación aleatoria (26), y un estudio observacional de corte trasversal (27). Se abordaron los análisis de acuerdo con las preguntas planteadas: 1. Efectividad de los sistemas de alto flujo de oxígeno para evitar la progresión de la falla ventilatoria aguda. 2. Efectividad de los sistemas de ventilación con presión positiva para evitar la progresión de la falla ventilatoria aguda. 3. Seguridad de los sistemas de oxigenoterapia de alto flujo, con y sin ventilación positiva, en relación con la trasmisión de la infección.


Subject(s)
Humans , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pulmonary Ventilation
6.
s.l; s.n; 6 mar. 2020.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, BRISA | ID: biblio-1096802

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: identificar evidências científicas acerca do tratamento para indivíduos infectados por COVID-19. Metodologia: foi realizada atualização da revisão rápida conduzida pela equipe do Núcleo de Evidências em janeiro de 2020. Foram consultadas as bases de dados Medline (via Pubmed), EMBASE, Biblioteca Cochrane, ClinicalTrials e Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde - BVS, utilizando termos indexados e sinônimos relacionados a "coronavírus", "covid-19", "medicamentos antivirais", "tratamento", "tratamento de emergência", e "resultado do tratamento". Diretrizes, manuais ou guias de manejo de infecções por COVID-19 também foram identificados. Títulos e resumos foram rastreados, e posteriormente, textos completos foram avaliados. Foi conduzida extração de dados dos estudos incluídos e síntese descritiva dos resultados. Resultados: Após triagem de títulos e resumos, seleção de textos completos e extração de dados, foi incluída 1 série de casos, 40 protocolos de ensaios clínicos e 59 documentos com orientações sobre o COVID-19. A série de casos avaliou 41 pacientes infectados, os quais foram tratados com antibioticoterapia (via oral e intravenosa), oseltamivir (75mg, via oral) e metilprednisolona (40 a 120mg por dia); 28 pacientes receberam alta e 6 foram a óbito. Os protocolos de ensaios clínicos estão direcionados para a investigação da eficácia e segurança de diversos medicamentos, como antivirais, antirretrovirais, corticoesteróides, imunoglobulinas, antibióticos, interferons. Dentre os documentos institucionais identificados, apenas seis apresentam recomendações relacionadas ao tratamento de infecções por COVID-19, a saber: antirretrovirais (China, Rússia e Espanha), antivirais (China, México, Líbano, Suécia, Rússia e Espanha), antimalárico (China), imunoglobulinas (China), interferons (China, Rússia, Espanha) e imunoterapia (China). O Protocolo de manejo clínico para COVID-19, do Ministério da Saúde do Brasil recomenda medidas suporte como oxigenioterapia, ventilação pulmonar e antibioticoterapia, e não recomenda o uso rotineiro de corticoesteróides. Conclusão: Ainda não foram identificadas alternativas terapêuticas por meio de ensaios clínicos randomizados recomendadas para o tratamento de infecções por COVID-19. Vários estudos clínicos estão em andamento avaliando a eficácia e segurança de medicamentos de diferentes classes, suplementos nutricionais e intervenções da medicina chinesa em pessoas com infecção confirmada por COVID-19. Diferentes países recomendam práticas de prevenção e promoção da saúde visando o controle de infecções por COVID-19. Recomenda-se atualização periódica da presente revisão para monitoramento das evidências científicas à medida que se tornam disponíveis.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/instrumentation , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Antibiotic Prophylaxis/instrumentation , Pulmonary Ventilation , Oseltamivir/therapeutic use , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Brazil
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879795

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the percentage of the measured values of the main pulmonary ventilation function parameters in their predicted values based on Zapletal equation among healthy children aged 5-14 years in Kunming, China, and to provide a basis for accurate judgment of pulmonary ventilation function in clinical practice.@*METHODS@#A total of 702 healthy children aged 5-14 years (352 boys and 350 girls) from Kunming were enrolled. The Jaeger spirometer was used to measure the nine indices:forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), ratio of forced expiratory volume in one second to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC), maximal mid-expiratory flow (MMEF), forced expiratory flow at 25% of forced vital capacity (FEF25), forced expiratory flow at 50% of forced vital capacity (FEF50), forced expiratory flow at 75% of forced vital capacity (FEF75), peak expiratory flow (PEF), and maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV). The values obtained from the Zapletal equation of predicted values provided by the spirometer were used as the predicted values of children, and the percentage of measured values in predicted values was calculated.@*RESULTS@#In the 702 children, the percentages of the measured values of the main pulmonary ventilation function parameters PEF, FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, and MVV in their predicted values fluctuated from 102% to 114%, 94% to 108%, 98% to 113%, 98% to 107%, and 141% to 183% respectively. As for the main airway velocity parameters, the percentages of the measured values of FEF25, FEF50, FEF75, and MMEF in their predicted values fluctuated from 98% to 116%, 85% to 102%, 71% to 98%, and 83% to 100% respectively. The percentages of the measured values of PEF, FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, MVV, FEF25, FEF50, FEF75, and MMEF in their predicted values had the lower limits of normal of 88.2%, 88.4%, 92.0%, 94.4%, 118.5%, 82.9%, 70.0%, 62.1%, and 70.1% respectively.@*CONCLUSIONS@#There are differences between pulmonary ventilation function parameter levels and normal values provided by Zapletal equation in healthy children aged 5-14 years in Kunming. As for the pulmonary ventilation function parameters of PEF, FVC, FEV, FEV1/FVC, MVV, FEF25, FEF50, FEF75, and MMEF in these children, the lower limits of normal of measured values in predicted values may be determined as 88.2%, 88.4%, 92.0%, 94.4%, 118.5%, 82.9%, 70.0%, 62.1%, and 70.1% respectively.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , China , Female , Forced Expiratory Volume , Humans , Lung/physiology , Male , Pulmonary Ventilation , Reference Values , Vital Capacity
8.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 23(3)set-dez. 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1046203

ABSTRACT

A mobilidade diafragmática é essencial para a ventilação pulmonar. Pela ultrassonografia sua mensuração é direta, porém o processamento das medidas encontra-se em divergência na literatura. Indica-se pelo valor médio das três incursões respiratórias máximas ou o maior valor dentre elas restringindo à variações de 10%. Dessa forma, não existe um consenso em relação ao processamento da medida de mobilidade diafragmática máxima. Objetivo: Comparar dois diferentes processamentos das medidas pela ultrassonografia para o maior valor de mobilidade diafragmática. Materiais e métodos: Estudo observacional transversal. Avaliou-se a mobilidade diafragmática pela ultrassonografia, com um transdutor convexo (3 MHz) posicionado anteriormente na região subcostal e leve inclinação cranial, em decúbito dorsal. Visualizou-se o hemidiafragma direito pelo ponto médio entre a linha médio clavicular e axilar anterior. Para visualizar a janela do diafragma e mensurar sua mobilidade foi utilizado o modo B, seguido do modo M. Os participantes realizaram inspirações máximas e os maiores valores com diferença máxima de 10% entre eles mensurados e registrados. Para análise, o maior valor e o valor médio obtido das três medidas foram considerados. Para normalidade dos dados foi realizado o teste de Shapiro Wilk. Para diferenças entre os registros, o teste de t student. Resultados: 30 indivíduos (30,33 ± 9,7 anos), 16 mulheres e 14 homens. A medida da mobilidade diafragmática pelo maior valor em comparação ao valor médio apresentou diferença estatisticamente significante (8,11 ± 1,43 cm versus 7,79 ± 1,43 cm; p<0,001). Conclusão: O valor máximo da mobilidade diafragmática foi obtido por meio da análise do maior valor. Ao escolher a média, a mobilidade diafragmática pode ser subestimada. 


Diaphragmatic mobility is essential to pulmonary ventilation. It can be directly measured by using ultrasonography, but the processing of the measurements can be found described differently in the literature. It can be measured as the average of at least three different cycles or from the greatest value among them resticting it to a 10% variation. Thus, there is no consensus about the processing of the maximum measurement of diaphragmatic mobility. Objective: Comparisson of two differents ultrasound measurement processings aiming at the diaphragmatic mobility maximum value. Methodology: Cross-sectional observational study. The diaphragmatic mobility was assessed by ultrasonography with convex transducer (3MHz) placed on the subcostal region between the midclavicular and anterior axillary. In order to explore the right diaphragmatic window and mobility, the B mode was used, followed by the M mode. The participants made maximum inspiration, and the highest value with a maximum difference of 10% was recorded. For statistical analysis, the mean and the highest value of three measurements were considered. The data distribution was analyzed with a Shapiro Wilk test and differences among records by the t student test. Results: 30 participants (30.33 ± 9.7 years) - 16 women and 14 men. The measurement of the diaphragmatic mobility obtained by the highest value compared against the mean value presented a statistically significant difference (8.11 ± 1.43 cm vs 7.79 ± 1.43 cm; p<0.001). Conclusions: The maximum value of diaphragmatic mobility was obtained by the analysis of the highest value. By choosing to use the mean value, diaphragmatic mobility may be underestimated.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Diaphragm/physiology , Respiration , Diaphragm , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ultrasonography , Pulmonary Ventilation , Organ Motion
9.
Geriatr., Gerontol. Aging (Impr.) ; 13(4): 183-189, out-.dez.2019. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1097118

ABSTRACT

INTRODUÇÃO: As alterações musculares que acompanham o envelhecimento, traduzidas numa diminuição quer na massa quer na capacidade de trabalho da musculatura, condicionam diminuições na força e resistência ao esforço no idoso. OBJETIVO: Correlacionar a perda de capacidade de trabalho muscular com as possíveis alterações ventilatórias derivadas dessa perda em idosos. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com 18 adultos voluntários com idade superior a 65 anos (13 do sexo feminino e cinco do sexo masculino), incluídos no Projeto AGA@4life. Todos os participantes realizaram provas funcionais respiratórias com espirômetro Flowhandy ZAN 100, e foi-lhes avaliada a força de preensão com um dinamômetro apropriado. Avaliaram-se ainda a composição corporal por bioimpedância e o perfil nutricional. RESULTADOS: Observou-se associação significativa entre a percentagem de massa magra e diversos parâmetros espirométricos, nomeadamente o volume expiratório máximo no primeiro segundo (VEMS), a capacidade vital forçada (CVF), o débito expiratório máximo a 25% da CVF (DEM25), o débito expiratório máximo a 50% da CVF (DEM50), o débito expiratório máximo entre 25 e 75% da capacidade vital forçada (DEM25/75) e o débito expiratório máximo (PEF). Também, a autoeficácia no exercício se associou significativamente com VEMS, CVF, DEM25, DEM50, DEM75 e DEM25/75 e PEF. Constatou-se ainda correlação significativa e positiva da percentagem de massa magra com a força de preensão. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados demonstram associação entre a função ventilatória e parâmetros funcionais e clínicos característicos da sarcopenia, sugerindo a partilha de mecanismos fisiopatológicos na limitação observada com o agravamento desses parâmetros.


INTRODUCTION: Age-related muscle changes, translated into a decrease both in muscle imass and functionality, are determinants of a decrease in strength and resistance to exercise in older adults. OBJECTIVE: To correlate the loss of muscle mass and functionality with the respiratory function in older adults. METHODS: Cross-sectional study including 18 volunteers with age above 65 years (13 women and 5 men) included in the AGA@4life Project. All participants performed functional respiratory tests with an Flowhandy ZAN 100 spirometer, and handgrip strength was assessed with an appropriate dynamometer. Nutritional profile was assessed and body composition was evaluated via bioimpedance. RESULTS: There was a significant association between the percentage of lean mass and several spirometric parameters, namely the FEV1, FVC, PEF25, PEF50, PEF25/75 and PEF. Significant associations were also found with the self-efficacy for exercise and the same respiratory parameters. A significant and positive correlation was observed between the percentage of lean mass and handgrip strength. CONCLUSIONS: The results show an association between respiratory function and functional and clinical parameters characteristic of sarcopenia, suggesting common pathophysiological mechanisms in the limitation observed with the worsening of these parameters.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Body Composition/physiology , Body Weights and Measures , Pulmonary Ventilation/physiology , Sarcopenia , Respiratory Function Tests , Geriatric Assessment , Hand Strength/physiology , Muscle Strength/physiology
10.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(3): 953-958, Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012380

ABSTRACT

La correcta utilización de los términos morfológicos está estandarizada por las terminologías, una de ellas es la Terminologia Histologica (TH). Éstas sugieren la exclusión de los epónimos. Pese a esto, existen estructuras que continúan en esta condición. Específicamente, "Poros de Kohn, Canales de Martin y Canales de Lambert" son términos que componen la ventilación colateral (VC) y son ejemplo de esta situación. Así, el objetivo del presente estudio fue identificar en TH los términos asociados a la VC a fin de proponer denominaciones siguiendo las recomendaciones de la Federación Internacional de Programas de Terminologías Anatómicas (FIPAT). Se buscaron los términos relacionados a la VC en TH, posteriormente, se efectuó el mismo ejercicio en textos de histología, además de esto, en base de datos MedLine a través de su buscador PudMed con el siguiente algoritmo: (lung) AND (alveoli pulmonary) AND (airway) AND (collateral) AND (ventilation). En TH se encontró el término Porus septalis (H3. 05.02.0.00036) para referirse al término Poros de Kohn, en seis textos de histología se menciona el término Poros de Kohn, en 21 artículos revisados se menciona la VC, de estos, en diez se utiliza el epónimo Poro de Kohn, para referirse a los poros septales, el epónimo Canales de Lambert fue utilizado en seis artículos y el epónimo Canales de Martin, apareció en cinco artículos. A partir de la información encontrada, su desarrollo histórico, sumado a los lineamientos de la FIPAT, proponemos complementar e incluir en TH los términos Porus septalis alveolaris para los poros de Kohn, Ductus bronchiolaris alveolaris para los Canales de Lambert y Ductus interbronquiolaris para los canales de Martin, respectivamente.


The correct use of morphological terms is standardized by the Terminologies, one of them is the Histological Terminology (HT) For these Terminologies, the exclusion of eponyms is recommended. Despite this, there are structures that remain as eponyms. Three in particular: Pores of Kohn, Martin Channels and Lambert Channels are terms that make up collateral ventilation (CV) and are an example of this. Thus, the objective of the present study was to identify in the HT the terms associated with the CV in order to propose denominations following the recommendations of the Federative International Programme on Anatomical Terminologies (FIPAT). The terms related to CV in the TH were researched, and subsequently, the same exercise was carried out in histology texts. The MedLine database was also used through its PudMed search engine with the following algorithm: (lung) AND (alveoli pulmonary) AND (airway) AND (collateral) AND (ventilation). In HT the term Porus Septalis" (H3.05.0.0.036) was found to refer to the term "Pores of Kohn, in six histology texts the term Pores of Kohn is mentioned, in 21 reviewed articles the CV is mentioned, of these, in ten the eponymous Pores of Kohn is used, to refer to the Septal Pores, the eponymous Lambert Channels was used in six articles and the eponymous Martin Channels appeared in five articles. From the information found, its historical development, added to the guidelines of the FIPAT, we propose complementing and including in the HT the terms "Porus septalis alveolaris" for pores of Kohn, "Ductus bronchiolaris alveolaris" for the Lambert Channels and "Ductus interbronquiolaris" for the Martin Channels, respectively.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pulmonary Alveoli/anatomy & histology , Bronchi/anatomy & histology , Terminology as Topic , Pulmonary Ventilation , Eponyms
11.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 137(2): 177-183, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1014638

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Excess trunk body fat in obese individuals influences respiratory physiological function. The aims of this study were to compare volumetric capnography findings (VCap) between severely obese patients and normal-weight subjects and to assess whether there is any association between neck circumference (NC), waist-hip ratio (WHR) and VCap among grade III obese individuals. DESIGN AND SETTING: Analytical observational case-matched cross-sectional study, University of Campinas. METHODS: This cross-sectional study compared VCap variables between 60 stage III obese patients and 60 normal-weight individuals. RESULTS: In comparison with the normal-weight group, obese patients presented higher alveolar minute volume (8.92 ± 4.94 versus 6.09 ± 2.2; P = < 0.0001), CO2 production (278 ± 91.0 versus 209 ± 60.23; P < 0.0001), expiratory tidal volume (807 ± 365 versus 624 ± 202; P = 0.005), CO2 production per breath (21.1 ± 9.7 versus 16.7 ± 6.16; P = 0.010) and peak expiratory flow (30.9 ± 11.9 versus 25.5 ± 9.13; P = 0.004). The end-expiratory CO2 (PetCO2) concentration (33.5 ± 4.88 versus 35.9 ± 3.79; P = 0.013) and the phase 3 slope were normalized according to expired tidal volume (0.02 ± 0.05 versus 0.03 ± 0.01; P = 0.049) were lower in the obese group. CONCLUSIONS: The greater the NC was, the larger were the alveolar minute volume, anatomical dead space, CO2 production per minute and per breath and expiratory volume; whereas the smaller were the phase 2 slope (P2Slp), phase 3 slope (P3Slp) and pressure drop in the mouth during inspiration.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Obesity, Morbid/physiopathology , Tidal Volume/physiology , Pulmonary Ventilation/physiology , Spirometry , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Capnography , Waist-Hip Ratio
12.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 95(1): 76-86, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-984646

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: Volumetric capnography provides the standard CO2 elimination by the volume expired per respiratory cycle and is a measure to assess pulmonary involvement. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the respiratory dynamics of healthy control subjects and those with cystic fibrosis in a submaximal exercise protocol for six minutes on the treadmill, using volumetric capnography parameters (slope 3 [Slp3], Slp3/tidal volume [Slp3/TV], and slope 2 [Slp2]). Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with 128 subjects (cystic fibrosis, 64 subjects; controls, 64 subjects]. Participants underwent volumetric capnography before, during, and after six minutes on the treadmill. Statistical analysis was performed using the Friedman, Mann-Whitney, and Kruskal-Wallis tests, considering age and sex. An alpha = 0.05 was considered. Results: Six minutes on the treadmill evaluation: in cystic fibrosis, volumetric capnography parameters were different before, during, and after six minutes on the treadmill; the same was observed for the controls, except for Slp2. Regarding age, an Slp3 difference was observed in cystic fibrosis patients regardless of age, at all moments, and in controls for age ≥ 12 years; a difference in Slp3/TV was observed in cystic fibrosis and controls, regardless of age; and an Slp2 difference in the cystic fibrosis, regardless of age. Regarding sex, Slp3 and Slp3/TV differences were observed in cystic fibrosis regardless of sex, and in controls in male participants; an Slp2 difference was observed in the cystic fibrosis and female participants. The analysis between groups (cystic fibrosis and controls) indicated that Slp3 and Slp3/TV has identified the CF, regardless of age and sex, while the Slp2 showed the CF considering age. Conclusions: Cystic fibrosis showed greater values of the parameters before, during, and after exercise, even when stratified by age and sex, which may indicate ventilation inhomogeneity in the peripheral pathways in the cystic fibrosis.


Resumo Objetivos: A capnografia volumétrica fornece o padrão de eliminação do CO2, pelo volume expirado por ciclo respiratório e avalia o comprometimento pulmonar. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a dinâmica respiratória de indivíduos controles saudáveis e em indivíduos com fibrose cística, em um protocolo de exercício submáximo por seis minutos em esteira, por parâmetros da capnografia volumétrica [slope 3(Slp3), Slp3/volume corrente (Slp3/TV) e slope 2(Slp2)]. Métodos: Estudo de corte transversal com 128 indivíduos [(fibrose cística) 64 indivíduos; (controles) 64 indivíduos]. Os participantes realizaram capnografia volumétrica antes, durante e após seis minutos em esteira. Análise estatística realizada pelos testes de Friedman, Mann-Whitney e Kruskal-Wallis, considerado a idade e o sexo. Alpha = 0,05. Resultados: Avaliação de seis minutos em esteira: na fibrose cística, os parâmetros da capnografia volumétrica foram diferentes antes, durante e após seis minutos em esteira, o mesmo ocorreu nos controles, exceto para o Slp2. Considerando a idade: (Slp3) diferença na FC, independentemente da idade, em todos os momentos e nos controles apenas para ≥ 12 anos; (Slp3/TV) diferença para fibrose cística e controles independentemente da idade; (Slp2) diferença apenas para o grupo fibrose cística, independentemente da idade. Considerando o sexo: (Slp3 e Slp3/TV) diferença para fibrose cística, independentemente do sexo, e controles apenas no sexo masculino; (Slp2) diferença para fibrose cística e sexo feminino. Análise entre grupos (fibrose cística versus controles): Slp3 e Slp3/TV identificou a fibrose cística, independentemente da idade e sexo, enquanto o Slp2 evidenciou a fibrose cística considerando a idade. Conclusão: A fibrose cística apresentou maiores valores dos parâmetros antes, durante e após exercício, inclusive quando se considerou idade e sexo, podendo indicar não homogeneidade da distribuição da ventilação nas vias periféricas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Tidal Volume/physiology , Forced Expiratory Volume/physiology , Pulmonary Ventilation/physiology , Capnography/methods , Cystic Fibrosis/physiopathology , Walk Test/methods , Spirometry , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies
13.
J. bras. pneumol ; 45(3): e20180058, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990114

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the effects of manual chest compression (MCC) on the expiratory flow bias during the positive end-expiratory pressure-zero end-expiratory pressure (PEEP-ZEEP) airway clearance maneuver applied in patients on mechanical ventilation. The flow bias, which influences pulmonary secretion removal, is evaluated by the ratio and difference between the peak expiratory flow (PEF) and the peak inspiratory flow (PIF). Methods: This was a crossover randomized study involving 10 patients. The PEEP-ZEEP maneuver was applied at four time points, one without MCC and the other three with MCC, which were performed by three different respiratory therapists. Respiratory mechanics data were obtained with a specific monitor. Results: The PEEP-ZEEP maneuver without MCC was enough to exceed the threshold that is considered necessary to move secretion toward the glottis (PEF − PIF difference > 33 L/min): a mean PEF − PIF difference of 49.1 ± 9.4 L/min was achieved. The mean PEF/PIF ratio achieved was 3.3 ± 0.7. Using MCC with PEEP-ZEEP increased the mean PEF − PIF difference by 6.7 ± 3.4 L/min. We found a moderate correlation between respiratory therapist hand grip strength and the flow bias generated with MCC. No adverse hemodynamic or respiratory effects were found. Conclusions: The PEEP-ZEEP maneuver, without MCC, resulted in an expiratory flow bias superior to that necessary to facilitate pulmonary secretion removal. Combining MCC with the PEEP-ZEEP maneuver increased the expiratory flow bias, which increases the potential of the maneuver to remove secretions.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar os efeitos da compressão torácica manual (CTM) sobre o flow bias expiratório durante a manobra positive end-expiratory pressure-zero end-expiratory pressure (PEEP-ZEEP) para a remoção de secreção em pacientes sob ventilação mecânica invasiva. O flow bias, que influencia na remoção de secreção pulmonar, foi avaliado pela razão e diferença entre pico de fluxo expiratório (PFE) e pico de fluxo inspiratório (PFI). Métodos: Estudo cruzado e randomizado no qual participaram 10 pacientes. A manobra PEEP-ZEEP foi aplicada em quatro momentos, sendo um sem CTM e os outros três em associação com a CTM, que foram aplicadas por três fisioterapeutas distintos. Um monitor específico foi utilizado para o registro dos dados de mecânica respiratória. Resultados: A manobra PEEP-ZEEP sem a CTM foi suficiente para ultrapassar o limiar do flow bias expiratório (diferença PFE − PFI > 33 l/min), considerado necessário para deslocar a secreção em direção à glote; a média da diferença PFE − PFI encontrada foi de 49,1 ± 9,4 l/min. A média da razão PFE/PFI alcançada foi de 3,3 ± 0,7. A associação da CTM à PEEP-ZEEP aumentou a média da diferença PFE − PFI em 6,7 ± 3,4 l/min. Foi observada correlação moderada entre a força de preensão manual dos fisioterapeutas e o flow bias gerado durante a CTM. Não foram encontradas alterações hemodinâmicas ou respiratórias adversas ao longo do estudo. Conclusões: A manobra PEEP-ZEEP sem a CTM resultou em um flow bias expiratório superior ao considerado efetivo para auxiliar na remoção de secreção pulmonar. A associação com a CTM aumentou o flow bias expiratório, o que aumenta o potencial da manobra para remover secreções.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Positive-Pressure Respiration/methods , Pulmonary Ventilation/physiology , Thoracic Wall/physiopathology , Lung/physiology , Reference Values , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Time Factors , Linear Models , Respiratory Mechanics/physiology , Analysis of Variance , Treatment Outcome , Cross-Over Studies , Bodily Secretions , Arterial Pressure/physiology
14.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(8): e8513, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011602

ABSTRACT

Phenotypic differences have been described between patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc)-associated interstitial lung disease (ILD) and SSc-associated pulmonary hypertension, including performance differences in the 6-min walk test (6MWT). Moreover, the correlations between the 6MWT and traditional pulmonary function tests (PFTs) are weak, indicating the need to search for new parameters that explain exercise performance. Thus, our objective was to evaluate the impact of ventilation distribution heterogeneity assessed by the nitrogen single-breath washout (N2SBW) test and peripheral muscle dysfunction on the exercise capacity in patients with SSc-ILD and limited involvement of the pulmonary parenchyma. In this cross-sectional study, 20 women with SSc-ILD and 20 matched controls underwent PFTs (including spirometry, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLco), and the N2SBW test) and performed the 6MWT and knee isometric dynamometry. The 6-min walking distance (6MWD, % predicted) was strongly correlated with the phase III slope of the single-breath nitrogen washout (phase III slopeN2SBW) (r=−0.753, P<0.0001) and reasonably correlated with the forced vital capacity (FVC) (r=0.466, P=0.008) and DLco (r=0.398, P=0.011). The peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) during exercise was not significantly correlated with any of the pulmonary or muscle function parameters. The phase III slopeN2SBW was the only predictive variable for the 6MWD, whereas quadriceps strength and FVC/DLco were predictive variables for SpO2. Ventilation distribution heterogeneity is one factor that contributes to a lower 6MWD in SSc-ILD patients. In addition, muscle dysfunction and abnormal lung diffusion at least partly explain the decreased SpO2 of these patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , Scleroderma, Systemic/complications , Exercise Tolerance/physiology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/physiopathology , Hypertension, Pulmonary/physiopathology , Lung/physiology , Raynaud Disease/complications , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Case-Control Studies , Vital Capacity/physiology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/etiology , Pulmonary Ventilation , Walk Test/methods , Hypertension, Pulmonary/etiology , Lung/physiopathology , Lung Volume Measurements/methods
15.
S. Afr. j. child health (Online) ; 13(2): 84-88, 2019. tab
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1270363

ABSTRACT

Background. Non-invasive nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) and high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy (HFNC) are non-invasive ventilation (NIV) modalities appropriate for children in developing countries. There is minimal literature describing nCPAP and HFNC use in children with respiratory compromise secondary to non-pulmonary disease. Objectives. Th present study aimed to describe the characteristics and outcomes of children without primary lung pathology, who received nCPAP and HFNC during their admission to Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa. Methods. This was a prospective observational study of routinely collected data, between August 2015 and January 2016. Primary and secondary outcome measures were NIV failure (progression to intubation and invasive ventilation) and paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admission, respectively. Comparative statistics were conducted using Mann-Whitney U or t-tests. Data significantly associated with the primary and secondary outcomes on univariate analysis were entered into backward stepwise logistic regression models to determine independent predictive factors. Results. There were 31 cases of nCPAP and 1 case of HFNC use in 31 patients (median age 3.5 (interquartile range (IQR) 1.8 - 7.6) months). The majority (n=23; 71.9%) presented with primary diarrhoeal disease. There were 2 deaths (6.5%), 17 (53.1%) PICU admissions, and 5 (15.6%) cases received invasive ventilation (NIV failure). The median duration of hospital stay was 11.5 (IQR 6.0 - 17.5) days. Patients who failed NIV had lower admission SaO2 levels than those without treatment failure (95% (IQR 95 - 99) v. 100% (IQR 100 - 100); p=0.03). On multiple logistic regression, lower temperature (adjusted OR (aOR) 0.19; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.05 - 0.78; p=0.02) and receiving inotropes in the emergency setting (aOR 23.05; 95% CI 1.64 - 325.06; p=0.02) were independently associated with PICU admission. Conclusion. nCPAP was used clinically for the management of children with respiratory compromise secondary to non-pulmonary illnesses, particularly diarrhoeal disease. Larger controlled clinical studies are needed to determine the effectiveness and utility of nCPAP in this population. HFNC was not commonly used, and this modality requires further investigation in this population


Subject(s)
Cannula , Nose Diseases , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pulmonary Ventilation , South Africa , Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762253

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Aeration of the lungs must be monitored during general anesthesia because of the possibility of postsurgical pulmonary complications. The aim of this study was to compare PaO₂/FiO₂ and the number of regions with B-line on transthoracic lung ultrasonography (TLU) between the postinduction and postsurgical periods. METHODS: Twenty-six adult patients undergoing major abdominal surgery were enrolled. Arterial blood gas analysis and TLU were performed 30 min after the induction of anesthesia (postinduction) and after skin closure (postsurgical period) while patients were under mechanical ventilation. TLU was performed in 12 regions (anterior, lateral, and posterior in the upper and lower regions of both lungs). The number of regions with B-line was counted. RESULTS: Compared with postinduction values, the number of regions with B-line on TLU was increased in the postsurgical period (0.3 ± 0.5 to 1.3 ± 1.2, P < 0.001); however, PaO₂/FiO₂ did not significantly differ (421.3 ± 95.8 to 425.2 ± 86.0, P = 0.765). The change in PaO₂/FiO₂ (postinduction-postsurgical period) was significantly higher in Group B than in Group A (P = 0.028). CONCLUSIONS: Although the number of regions with B-line on TLU was increased in the postsurgical period, lung oxygenation did not differ, based on the main assessment in this study. In contrast, patients with an increased number of regions with B-line tended to show a reduction in PaO₂/FiO₂ during the postsurgical period. Further study seems necessary to establish the number of regions with B-line on TLU as a tool for evaluation of perioperative oxygenation.


Subject(s)
Adult , Anesthesia , Anesthesia, General , Anesthesiology , Blood Gas Analysis , Humans , Lung , Observational Study , Oxygen , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Atelectasis , Pulmonary Ventilation , Respiration, Artificial , Skin , Ultrasonography
17.
Rev. Pesqui. Fisioter ; 8(3): 305-312, ago., 2018. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-915793

ABSTRACT

INTRODUÇÃO: A tosse, voluntária ou reflexa, é um dos principais mecanismos de depuração para proteção das vias aéreas. O pico de fluxo de tosse (PFT) é um método de avaliação específica, mas que vem demonstrando utilidade para avaliar riscos de complicação pulmonares bem como sua gravidade. Variável muito semelhante ao pico de fluxo expiratório cuja principal diferença consiste no fechamento da glote durante a manobra de tosse. Então avaliar a tosse é importante para identificar pacientes com alterações no pico de fluxo de tosse, e consequente risco de complicações pulmonares. OBJETIVO: Analisar o PFT voluntário e parâmetros clínicos e epidemiológicos em uma população internada nas enfermarias de um hospital de urgências. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com pacientes internados nas enfermarias de um Hospital Público de Goiânia. Foram coletados dados epidemiológicos e clínicos. O PFT foi mensurado pelo peak flow meter e a avaliação de dor através da Escala de Dor Visual Numérica associada à Escala de Dor de Faces. RESULTADOS: A amostra foi composta em sua maioria por homens 288 (81,36). A média de idade da população estudada foi de 45,91 anos (±20,14). Sessenta e um por cento dos pacientes (219) apresentaram tosse eficaz, e 43 (12,15%) tosse ineficaz, revelou associação com idade, sexo e diagnóstico. CONCLUSÃO: Os pacientes que mais apresentaram alterações na força de tosse foram os idosos, sexo feminino e vítimas acometidas por desordens neurológicas e toracoabdominais. [AU]


INTRODUCTION. Cough, whether voluntary or reflex, is one of the major clearance mechanisms for airway protection. Peak cough flow is a recent and specific evaluation method, but it has been useful for evaluating pulmonary complications as well as their severity. Variable very similar to the peak of expiratory flow whose main difference consists in the closure of the glottis during the maneuver of cough. Therefore, assessing cough is important to identify patients with changes in peak cough flow, and the consequent risk of pulmonary complications. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the peak flow of voluntary cough and its association with clinical and epidemiological parameters in a population hospitalized in the wards of an emergency hospital. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with 354 patients admitted to the wards of a Public Hospital of Goiânia. Epidemiological and clinical data were collected. Optic cough flow was measured by the peak flow meter and the pain assessment using the Numerical Visual Pain Scale associated with the Face Pain Scale. RESULTS: The sample consisted mostly of 288 (81,36) men. The mean age of the study population was 45,91 years (± 20,14). 61, 86% (219) of the patients had effective cough, and 43 (12,15%) had an ineffective cough. CONCLUSION: Patients who presented the greatest changes in coughing strength were the elderly, females and victims of neurological and thoracoabdominal disorders. [AU]


Subject(s)
Cough , Pulmonary Ventilation
18.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 31(4)jul.-ago. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-910196

ABSTRACT

O consumo máximo de oxigênio (VO2 max) e o limiar anaeróbico (LA) obtidos no teste cardiopulmonar de exercício (TCPE) são utilizados na avaliação de atletas. Todavia, dificuldades na identificação e mensuração dessas variáveis dificultam sua utilização prática. O ponto ótimo cardiorrespiratório (POC) é uma variável submáxima do TCPE de mensuração objetiva e com significado clínico prognóstico. Contudo, é desconhecido o seu comportamento em atletas.Descrever o comportamento do POC em jogadores profissionais de futebol e sua associação com VO2 max e LA. Análise retrospectiva de 198 futebolistas submetidos a TCPE máximo em esteira rolante com protocolo em rampa, divididos pela posição em campo: goleiro, zagueiro, lateral, meio-campo e atacante. Foram determinados VO2max, LA e POC. O POC correspondeu ao menor valor de ventilação/consumo de oxigênio em um dado minuto do TCPE. Variáveis contínuas foram comparadas pelo teste t de Student não emparelhado ou ANOVA, ou teste de Mann-Whitney ou de Kruskal-Wallis dependendo na distribuição das mesmas, e variáveis categóricas foram comparadas pelo teste do qui-quadrado. A correlação de Pearson foi utilizada para testar a associação entre POC e outras variáveis ventilatórias. Adotou-se um nível de 5% para significância estatística. O POC (média ± desvio-padrão) foi de 18,2 ± 2,1 a uma velocidade 4,3 ± 1,4 km.h-1 menor do que a do LA. Enquanto o VO2 max (62,1 ± 6,2 mL.kg-1.min-1) tendeu a ser menor nos goleiros (p < 0,05), o POC não variou conforme a posição em campo (p = 0,41). Não houve associação significativa entre POC e VO2max (r = 0,032,p = 0,65) nem com LA (r = -0,003, p = 0,96).O POC pode ser facilmente determinado em exercício submáximo realizado com velocidades incrementais em futebolistas e não varia pela posição em campo. A ausência de associação com VO2max e LA indica que o POC traz uma informação distinta e complementar a essas variáveis. Estudos futuros são necessários para determinar implicações práticas do POC na avaliação de atletas


Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) and ventilatory threshold (VT) obtained during a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPX) are used in the evaluation of athletes. However, the identification of these variables may sometimes be unreliable, which limits their use. In contrast, the cardiorespiratory optimal point (COP) is a submaximal variable derived from CPX with objective measurement and prognostic significance. However, its behavior in athletes is unknown. To describe the behavior of COP in professional soccer players and its association with VO2max and VT. VO2max, VT and COP were obtained retrospectively from 198 soccer players undergoing maximal treadmill CPX using ramp protocol. COP was defined as the lowest value of the ventilation/oxygen consumption ratio in a given minute of the CPX. The soccer players were stratified according to their field position: goalkeeper, center-defender, left/right-back, midfielder and forwarder. Continuous variables were compared using unpaired Student t test or ANOVA, or Mann-Whitney test or Kruskal-Wallis test depending on their distribution, and categorical variables were compared using chi-square test. Pearson correlation was used to test the association between COP and other ventilatory variables. A level of 5% was used for statistical significance. COP (mean ± SD) was 18.2 ± 2.1 and was achieved at a speed 4.3 ± 1.4 km.h-1 lower than that achieved at the VT. While VO2max (62.1 ± 6.2 mL.kg-1.min-1) tended to be lower in goalkeepers (p < 0.05), the COP did not vary according to field position (p = 0.41). No significant association was observed between COP and VO2max (r = 0.032, p = 0.65) or between COP and VT (r = -0.003, p = 0.96). COP can be easily determined during submaximal exercise performed with incremental speed in soccer players and does not vary according to the athlete's field position. The absence of association with VO2max and VT indicates that COP provides distinct and complementary information to these variables. Future studies are needed to determine the practical implications of COP in assessing athletes


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Athletic Performance , Cardiorespiratory Fitness/physiology , Exercise , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , Soccer/trends , Analysis of Variance , Athletes , Electrocardiography/methods , Pulmonary Ventilation/physiology , Retrospective Studies , Spirometry/methods , Sports Medicine , Statistical Analysis
19.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 31(4): 323-332, jul.-ago. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954122

ABSTRACT

O consumo máximo de oxigênio (VO2max) e o limiar anaeróbico (LA) obtidos no teste cardiopulmonar de exercício (TCPE) são utilizados na avaliação de atletas. Todavia, dificuldades na identificação e mensuração dessas variáveis dificultam sua utilização prática. O ponto ótimo cardiorrespiratório (POC) é uma variável submáxima do TCPE de mensuração objetiva e com significado clínico prognóstico. Contudo, é desconhecido o seu comportamento em atletas. Objetivo: Descrever o comportamento do POC em jogadores profissionais de futebol e sua associação com VO2max e LA. Materiais e Método: Análise retrospectiva de 198 futebolistas submetidos a TCPE máximo em esteira rolante com protocolo em rampa, divididos pela posição em campo: goleiro, zagueiro, lateral, meio-campo e atacante. Foram determinados VO2max, LA e POC. O POC correspondeu ao menor valor de ventilação/consumo de oxigênio em um dado minuto do TCPE. Variáveis contínuas foram comparadas pelo teste t de Student não emparelhado ou ANOVA, ou teste de Mann-Whitney ou de Kruskal-Wallis dependendo na distribuição das mesmas, e variáveis categóricas foram comparadas pelo teste do qui-quadrado. A correlação de Pearson foi utilizada para testar a associação entre POC e outras variáveis ventilatórias. Adotou-se um nível de 5% para significância estatística. Resultados: O POC (média ± desvio-padrão) foi de 18,2 ± 2,1 a uma velocidade 4,3 ± 1,4 km.h-1 menor do que a do LA. Enquanto o VO2max (62,1 ± 6,2 mL.kg-1.min-1) tendeu a ser menor nos goleiros (p < 0,05), o POC não variou conforme a posição em campo (p = 0,41). Não houve associação significativa entre POC e VO2max (r = 0,032, p = 0,65) nem com LA (r = -0,003, p = 0,96). Conclusão: O POC pode ser facilmente determinado em exercício submáximo realizado com velocidades incrementais em futebolistas e não varia pela posição em campo. A ausência de associação com VO2max e LA indica que o POC traz uma informação distinta e complementar a essas variáveis. Estudos futuros são necessários para determinar implicações práticas do POC na avaliação de atletas


Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) and ventilatory threshold (VT) obtained during a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPX) are used in the evaluation of athletes. However, the identification of these variables may sometimes be unreliable, which limits their use. In contrast, the cardiorespiratory optimal point (COP) is a submaximal variable derived from CPX with objective measurement and prognostic significance. However, its behavior in athletes is unknown. Objective: To describe the behavior of COP in professional soccer players and its association with VO2max and VT. Methods: VO2max, VT and COP were obtained retrospectively from 198 soccer players undergoing maximal treadmill CPX using ramp protocol. COP was defined as the lowest value of the ventilation/oxygen consumption ratio in a given minute of the CPX. The soccer players were stratified according to their field position: goalkeeper, center-defender, left/right-back, midfielder and forwarder. Continuous variables were compared using unpaired Student t test or ANOVA, or Mann-Whitney test or Kruskal-Wallis test depending on their distribution, and categorical variables were compared using chi-square test. Pearson correlation was used to test the association between COP and other ventilatory variables. A level of 5% was used for statistical significance. Results: COP (mean ± SD) was 18.2 ± 2.1 and was achieved at a speed 4.3 ± 1.4 km.h-1 lower than that achieved at the VT. While VO2max (62.1 ± 6.2 mL.kg-1.min-1) tended to be lower in goalkeepers (p < 0.05), the COP did not vary according to field position (p = 0.41). No significant association was observed between COP and VO2max (r = 0.032, p = 0.65) or between COP and VT (r = -0.003, p = 0.96). Conclusion: COP can be easily determined during submaximal exercise performed with incremental speed in soccer players and does not vary according to the athlete's field position. The absence of association with VO2max and VT indicates that COP provides distinct and complementary information to these variables. Future studies are needed to determine the practical implications of COP in assessing athletes


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , Soccer/trends , Exercise , Athletic Performance , Cardiorespiratory Fitness/physiology , Spirometry/methods , Sports Medicine , Statistical Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Analysis of Variance , Pulmonary Ventilation/physiology , Electrocardiography/methods , Athletes
20.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 33(2): 176-182, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-958398

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: The aim of this study is to characterize the presence of exercise oscillatory ventilation (EOV) and to relate it with other cardiopulmonary exercise test (CET) responses and clinical variables. Methods: Forty-six male patients (age: 53.1±13.6 years old; left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF]: 30±8%) with heart failure were recruited to perform a maximal CET and to correlate the CET responses with clinical variables. The EOV was obtained according to Leite et al. criteria and VE/VCO2 > 34 and peak VO2 < 14 ml/kg/min were used to assess patients' severity. Results: The EOV was observed in 16 of 24 patients who performed the CET, as well as VE/VCO2 > 34 and peak VO2 < 14 ml/kg/min in 14 and 10 patients, respectively. There was no difference in clinical and CET variables of the patients who presented EOV in CET when compared to non-EOV patients. Also, there was no difference in CET and clinical variables when comparing patients who presented EOV and had a VE/VCO2 slope > 34 to patients who just had one of these responses either. Conclusion: The present study showed that there was an incidence of patients with EOV and lower peak VO2 and higher VE/VCO2 slope values, but they showed no difference on other prognostic variables. As well, there was no influence of the presence of EOV on other parameters of CET in this population, suggesting that this variable may be an independent marker of worst prognosis in HF patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Exercise/physiology , Pulmonary Ventilation/physiology , Exercise Test/methods , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Prognosis , Reference Values , Stroke Volume/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Vital Capacity/physiology , Anthropometry , Forced Expiratory Volume/physiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric
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