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1.
Rev. biol. trop ; 56(4): 1893-1904, Dec. 2008. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-637786

ABSTRACT

Identification of individual jaguars (Panthera onca) and pumas (Puma concolor) based on footprint morphometry (Carnivora: Felidae). Estimating feline abundance becomes particularly difficult, sometimes impossible, due to their elusive behavior and extensive space requirements. Available techniques are expensive and/or poorly efficient, therefore alternative methods are needed. The objective of this study was to assess the possibility of identifying individual jaguars and pumas based on morphometric analyses of their tracks. The footprints of five jaguars and four pumas were drawn and the foot (hind or fore foot, left or right foot) and the substrate were recorded. We took 16 measures from each footprint including lengths, widths, areas and angles. Variables were analyzed by using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and substituted by the first Principal Component (PC) (> 70 % variance). We assessed the effect of the substrate and type of foot by means of paired t-student tests, and found differences between fore and hind feet and footprints from the same individual when made on soil or sand. No differences were found between right or left feet. The footprints changed over time as revealed by Multiple ANOVA. Different individuals could be identifyied based on discriminant analyses with more than 70 % confidence. We conclude that this method is feasible and can be useful when studying endangered felines. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (4): 1893-1904. Epub 2008 December 12.


Estimar la abundancia de felinos resulta particular-mente difícil o, incluso imposible, debido a su comportamiento críptico y sus amplios requerimiento espaciales. Las técnicas disponibles para estimar abundancia son costosas y poco eficientes, por lo que es necesario proponer métodos alternativos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la capacidad de identificación de individuos utilizando el análisis morfométrico de huellas en yaguares y pumas. Para ello, se dibujaron huellas de cinco yaguares y cuatro pumas, registrándose el tipo de pata que dio origen a la huella y el sustrato. Para cada huella se tomaron 16 mediciones morfológicas de ángulos, largos, anchos y áreas. Las variables de largos, anchos y áreas fueron analizadas con un Análisis de Componentes Principales (ACP) y sustituidas por el primer componente principal (más del 70 % de la varianza en todos los casos). Se evaluó el efecto del sustrato y del tipo de pata a partir de pruebas t-pareadas, encontrándose diferencias entre huellas del mismo individuo dibujadas a partir de arena o tierra (t-pareadas p < 0.05), así como diferencias en todas las variables para patas delanteras y traseras (t-pareadas p < 0.05 en todos los casos). No se encontraron diferencias entre patas izquierdas o derechas. El efecto de la edad de la huella se estudió con Análisis Múltiples de Varianza, en los que se revelaron diferencias en las variables con respecto a la edad de la huella. Se realizaron análisis discriminantes por especies, sustrato de la huella y tipo de pata, para determinar la capacidad del método de discriminar entre individuos. Se obtuvo una adecuada separación de los individuos con más del 70 % de confianza. Se concluye que este método es factible y puede ser de gran utilidad especialmente en el caso de felinos amenazados.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Forelimb/anatomy & histology , Hindlimb/anatomy & histology , Panthera/classification , Puma/classification , Population Density , Panthera/anatomy & histology , Puma/anatomy & histology , Reproducibility of Results , Venezuela
3.
Biota neotrop. (Online, Ed. port.) ; 7(1)2007. ilus, mapas, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-459161

ABSTRACT

A predação de rebanhos domésticos por onças-pintadas (Panthera onca) e onças-pardas (Puma concolor) foi quantificada de 1998 a 2000 e a opinião local para resolver o conflito foi investigada em duas comunidades quilombolas na Mata Atlântica. Os responsáveis pelas propriedades foram entrevistados regularmente de maio de 2000 a janeiro de 2001. A predação foi dependente do número de animais domésticos nas propriedades, foi aparentemente seletiva e possivelmente sazonal. O prejuízo econômico foi alto quando associado com o baixo número de criações. A população expressou uma visão bastante negativa frente à presença de onças e a maior parte (54 por cento) sugeriu o extermínio desses animais. Conhecer a percepção local é fundamental para adotar um planejamento participativo que reduza as perdas dos proprietários e garanta a conservação dos grandes felinos.


Domestic livestock predation by jaguars (Panthera onca) and pumas (Puma concolor) was recorded from 1998 to 2000 and local opinion to solve the conflict was investigated in two quilombola communities in the Atlantic Forest. The householders were interviewed regularly from May 2000 to January 2001. Predation depended on the number of domestic animals per household, and was apparently selective and possibly seasonal. The economic damage was high when associated with the low livestock number. People's attitude towards predators was negative and most of those surveyed (54 percent) suggested these animals should be eliminated. Knowing the local perception is essential to adopt a participative management to reduce household losses and to guarantee large cats' conservation.


Subject(s)
Animals, Domestic/injuries , Hunt/analysis , Hunt/adverse effects , Panthera/classification , Panthera/growth & development , Puma/classification , Puma/growth & development
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