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1.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 135-148, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922667

ABSTRACT

The family of voltage-gated potassium Kv2 channels consists of the Kv2.1 and Kv2.2 subtypes. Kv2.1 is constitutively highly phosphorylated in neurons and its function relies on its phosphorylation state. Whether the function of Kv2.2 is also dependent on its phosphorylation state remains unknown. Here, we investigated whether Kv2.2 channels can be phosphorylated by protein kinase C (PKC) and examined the effects of PKC-induced phosphorylation on their activity and function. Activation of PKC inhibited Kv2.2 currents and altered their steady-state activation in HEK293 cells. Point mutations and specific antibodies against phosphorylated S481 or S488 demonstrated the importance of these residues for the PKC-dependent modulation of Kv2.2. In layer II pyramidal neurons in cortical slices, activation of PKC similarly regulated native Kv2.2 channels and simultaneously reduced the frequency of action potentials. In conclusion, this study provides the first evidence to our knowledge that PKC-induced phosphorylation of the Kv2.2 channel controls the excitability of cortical pyramidal neurons.


Subject(s)
Action Potentials , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Protein Kinase C/metabolism , Pyramidal Cells/enzymology , Shab Potassium Channels/genetics
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1693-1699, Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134500

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Herbal extracts used for treatment of diabetes has focused mostly on the hypoglycaemic and anti-oxidant property.There are no studies which focused on its effect on dendritic architecture of pyramidal neurons of hippocampus caused by diabetes. This study was taken up to explore the effect of administration of Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) seed extract on diabetes induced dendritic atrophy in hippocampus. Experimental diabetes was induced in rats by administering single dose of Streptozotocin (60 mg/kg)intraperitoneally.Treatment groups of rats were orally administeredfenugreek seed extract of 1 g/kg body weight for 6 weeks. Followingly they were sacrificed and the brains were removed, processed for the Golgi-Cox stain method.The number of dendritic branching points and intersections were counted in successive radial segments of 20 µm up to a radial distance of 100 micron from soma and analysed by the Sholl's method. The rats with diabetes showed a significant decrease in the dendritic length and branching points in most of the apical and basal dendrites of CA1 and CA3 pyramidal neurons.Treatment with fenugreek seed extract were able to significantly alleviate the dendritic atrophy in most of the segments except in the apical branching points of the CA1 neuron. The present study demonstrates that fenugreek seed extract having a proven hypoglycaemic and anti-diabetic property also possess protection to the hippocampal pyramidal neurons form diabetes associated neuronal atrophy.


RESUMEN: Los extractos de hierbas para el tratamiento de la diabetes se han basado principalmente en las propiedades hipoglucémicas y antioxidantes. En la literatura no hay estudios basados en su efecto sobre la arquitectura dendrítica de las neuronas piramidales del hipocampo, causadas por la diabetes. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar el efecto de la administración de extracto de semilla de Trigonella foenum graecum (fenogreco) sobre la atrofia dendrítica inducida por la diabetes en el hipocampo. Se indujo diabetes experimental en ratas mediante la administración de una dosis única de estreptozotocina (60 mg / kg) por vía intraperitoneal. Se administró a grupos de ratas extracto de semilla de fenogreco a razón de 1 g / kg de peso corporal durante 6 semanas. Las ratas fueron sacrificadas posteriormente y se procesaron los cerebros mediante método de tinción de Golgi-Cox. El número de puntos de ramificación dendrítica e intersecciones se contaron en segmentos radiales sucesivos de 20 µm hasta una distancia radial de 100 micras del soma y se analizaron mediante el método de Sholl. Las ratas con diabetes mostraron una disminución significativa en la longitud dendrítica y los puntos de ramificación en la mayoría de las dendritas apicales y basales de las neuronas piramidales CA1 y CA3. El tratamiento con extracto de semilla de fenogreco alivió significativamente la atrofia dendrítica en la mayoría de los casos, excepto en los puntos de ramificación apical de la neurona CA1. El estudio demuestra que el extracto de semilla de fenogreco además de tener propiedades hipoglucémicas y antidiabéticas, también protege las neuronas piramidales del hipocampo contra la atrofia neuronal asociada a la diabetes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Atrophy/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Trigonella/chemistry , Dendrites/drug effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Rats, Wistar , Pyramidal Cells , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/complications , Hippocampus/drug effects
3.
Niger. j. paediatr ; 47(4): 298-304, 2020. ilus
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1267473

ABSTRACT

Background: Hippocampus is a neural structure in the temporal lobe that plays a crucial role in learning and memory. Cognitive impairment with learning disabilities is a common feature in hydrocephalus and is more prominent in adult-onset hydrocephalus. The aim of this study is to describe the morphological alterations in the pyramidal cells of the hippocampus of adult hydrocephalic mice. Method: Hydrocephalus was induced in adult albino mice by intra-cisternal injection of kaolin suspension (250 mg/ml in sterile water). They were sacrificed 7, 14 and 21 days post-induction. Morphological analysis was carried out on hematoxylin and eosin stained coronal sections of the hippocampus: the pyramidal neurons (normal and pyknotic) in the CA1 and CA3 subregions were counted and the pyknotic index (PI) was calculated. The somatic and dendritic features of Golgi stained pyramidal neurons were examined by light microscopy in both hydrocephalic and control mice. Result: The PI was significantly greater in the CA1 region of the hippocampus in the hydrocephalic groups compared to the age matched controls. The dendritic processes of pyramidal neurons in the CA1 region were fewer with shorter terminal branches in the hydrocephalic mice than in controls; this was pronounced at 7 days post-induction. In the CA3 region, there was no difference in dendritic arborization between hydrocephalic and control mice. Conclusion: Acute adult-onset hydrocephalus was associated with increased pyknosis and reduced dendritic arborization in hippocampal pyramidal cells in the CA1 but not CA3 region


Subject(s)
Golgi Apparatus , Hydrocephalus , Pyramidal Cells
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828942

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects of acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) on electrophysiological epileptic activities of mouse hippocampal pyramidal neurons in the extracellular acidotic condition.@*METHODS@#We investigated effects of extracellular acidosis on epileptic activities induced by elevated extracellular K concentration or the application of an antagonist of GABA receptors in perfusate of mouse hippocampal slices under field potential recordings. We also tested the effects of extracellular acidosis on neuronal excitability under field potential recording and evaluated the changes in epileptic activities of the neurons in response to pharmacological inhibition of ASICs using a specific inhibitor of ASICs.@*RESULTS@#Extracellular acidosis significantly suppressed epileptic activities of the hippocampal neurons by converting ictal-like epileptic activities to non-ictal-like epileptic activities in both high [K ]o and disinhibition models, and also suppressed the intrinsic excitability of the neurons. ASICs inhibitor did not antagonize the inhibitory effect of extracellular acidosis on ictal epileptic activities and intrinsic neuronal excitability, but exacerbated non-ictal epileptic activities of the neurons in extracellular acidotic condition in both high [K]o and disinhibition models.@*CONCLUSIONS@#ASICs can differentially modulate ictal-like and non-ictallike epileptic activities via its direct actions on excitatory neurons.


Subject(s)
Acid Sensing Ion Channels , Acidosis , Animals , Hippocampus , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Mice , Pyramidal Cells
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828523

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects of acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) on electrophysiological epileptic activities of mouse hippocampal pyramidal neurons in the extracellular acidotic condition.@*METHODS@#We investigated effects of extracellular acidosis on epileptic activities induced by elevated extracellular K concentration or the application of an antagonist of GABA receptors in perfusate of mouse hippocampal slices under field potential recordings. We also tested the effects of extracellular acidosis on neuronal excitability under field potential recording and evaluated the changes in epileptic activities of the neurons in response to pharmacological inhibition of ASICs using a specific inhibitor of ASICs.@*RESULTS@#Extracellular acidosis significantly suppressed epileptic activities of the hippocampal neurons by converting ictal-like epileptic activities to non-ictal-like epileptic activities in both high [K ]o and disinhibition models, and also suppressed the intrinsic excitability of the neurons. ASICs inhibitor did not antagonize the inhibitory effect of extracellular acidosis on ictal epileptic activities and intrinsic neuronal excitability, but exacerbated non-ictal epileptic activities of the neurons in extracellular acidotic condition in both high [K]o and disinhibition models.@*CONCLUSIONS@#ASICs can differentially modulate ictal-like and non-ictallike epileptic activities via its direct actions on excitatory neurons.


Subject(s)
Acid Sensing Ion Channels , Metabolism , Acidosis , Animals , Epilepsy , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Mice , Pyramidal Cells , Pathology , Physiology
6.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(2): 576-583, June 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002261

ABSTRACT

Antidepressants use during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of autism spectrum disorders. Animal models based on early life alterations in serotonin availability replicate some of the anatomical and behavioral abnormalities observed in autistic individuals. In recent years there has been a growing interest in the possible role of the hippocampus in autism. The aim of study is to examine the effects of neonatal antidepressant (CTM) exposure during a sensitive period of brain development on pyramidal and granule cells density of hippocampal formation. We examined the pyramidal and granular cells density of dorsal hippocampus using Nissl stained sections obtained from neonatal citalopram (CTM) exposed rats (5 mg/kg, twice daily, s.c.), from postnatal day 8 to 21 (PN8-21), saline and non-exposed rats. The density of pyramidal cells was significantly increased by 10.2 % in CA1, 10.6 % in CA3 and 13.2 % in CA4 in CTM treated compared with non-treated or saline treated animals (p<0.0001). The density of granule cells in the dentate gyrus was significantly increased by 12.0 % in CTM treated compared with non-treated or saline treated animals (p<0.0001). These findings were obtained only from male rats, suggesting a sexual dimorphism in neural development after SSRI exposure. These data suggest that the neonatal exposure to CTM may induce long-lasting changes in the hippcampal formation in adults, and such effects appear to preferentially target males.


El uso de antidepresivos durante el embarazo se asoció con un mayor riesgo de trastornos del espectro autista. Los modelos animales basados en alteraciones tempranas de la vida en la disponibilidad de serotonina replican algunas de las anomalías anatómicas y de comportamiento observadas en individuos autistas. En los últimos años ha habido un interés creciente en el posible papel del hipocampo en el autismo. El objetivo del estudio fue examinar los efectos de la exposición al antidepresivo neonatal (CTM) durante un período sensible del desarrollo cerebral en la densidad de las células piramidales y granulares de la formación del hipocampo. Examinamos la densidad de las células piramidales y granulares del hipocampo dorsal utilizando secciones teñidas con Nissl obtenidas de ratas expuestas al citalopram neonatal (CTM) (5 mg / kg, dos veces al día, sc), desde el día postnatal 8 a 21 (PN8-21), solución salina y ratas no expuestas. La densidad de células piramidales se incrementó significativamente en un 10,2 % en CA1, 10,6 % en CA3 y 13,2 % en CA4 en CTM tratados en comparación con animales no tratados o tratados con solución salina (p <0,0001). La densidad de células granulares en el giro dentado aumentó significativamente en un 12,0 % en los animales tratados con CTM en comparación con los animales no tratados o tratados con solución salina (p <0,0001). Estos hallazgos se obtuvieron solo en ratas macho, lo que sugiere un dimorfismo sexual en el desarrollo neural después de la exposición a ISRS. Estos datos sugieren que la exposición neonatal a la CTM puede inducir cambios de larga duración en la formación del hipocampo en adultos, y estos efectos parecen dirigirse preferentemente a los machos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects , Citalopram/pharmacology , Hippocampus/drug effects , Antidepressive Agents/pharmacology , Autistic Disorder/chemically induced , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Citalopram/adverse effects , Cell Count , Sex Factors , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Pyramidal Cells/drug effects , Hippocampus/cytology , Hippocampus/growth & development , Animals, Newborn , Antidepressive Agents/adverse effects
7.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 497-506, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775419

ABSTRACT

Neuroligins (NLs) are postsynaptic cell-adhesion proteins that play important roles in synapse formation and the excitatory-inhibitory balance. They have been associated with autism in both human genetic and animal model studies, and affect synaptic connections and synaptic plasticity in several brain regions. Yet current research mainly focuses on pyramidal neurons, while the function of NLs in interneurons remains to be understood. To explore the functional difference among NLs in the subtype-specific synapse formation of both pyramidal neurons and interneurons, we performed viral-mediated shRNA knockdown of NLs in cultured rat cortical neurons and examined the synapses in the two major types of neurons. Our results showed that in both types of neurons, NL1 and NL3 were involved in excitatory synapse formation, and NL2 in GABAergic synapse formation. Interestingly, NL1 affected GABAergic synapse formation more specifically than NL3, and NL2 affected excitatory synapse density preferentially in pyramidal neurons. In summary, our results demonstrated that different NLs play distinct roles in regulating the development and balance of excitatory and inhibitory synapses in pyramidal neurons and interneurons.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal , Physiology , Cells, Cultured , Cerebral Cortex , Embryology , Physiology , GABAergic Neurons , Physiology , Interneurons , Physiology , Membrane Proteins , Physiology , Nerve Tissue Proteins , Physiology , Protein Isoforms , Physiology , Pyramidal Cells , Physiology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Synapses , Physiology
8.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 140-147, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786393

ABSTRACT

P53 and its family member p63 play important roles in cellular senescence and organismal aging. In this study, p53 and p63 immunoreactivity were examined in the hippocampus of young, adult and aged mice by using immunohistochemistry. In addition, neuronal distribution and degeneration was examined by NeuN immunohistochemistry and fluoro-Jade B fluorescence staining. Strong p53 immunoreactivity was mainly expressed in pyramidal and granule cells of the hippocampus in young mice. p53 immunoreactivity in the pyramidal and granule cells was significantly reduced in the adult mice. In the aged mice, p53 immunoreactivity in the pyramidal and granule cells was more significantly decreased. p63 immunoreactivity was strong in the pyramidal and granule cells in the young mice. p63 immunoreactivity in these cells was apparently and gradually decreased with age, showing that p63 immunoreactivity in the aged granule cells was hardly shown. However, numbers of pyramidal neurons and granule cells were not significantly decreased in the aged mice with normal aging. Taken together, this study indicates that there are no degenerative neurons in the hippocampus during normal aging, showing that p53 and p63 immunoreactivity in hippocampal neurons was progressively reduced during normal aging, which might be closely related to the normal aging processes.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aging , Animals , Cellular Senescence , Fluorescence , Hippocampus , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Mice , Neurons , Pyramidal Cells
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776868

ABSTRACT

To examine the effects of Populus tomentiglandulosa (PT) extract on the expressions of antioxidant enzymes and neurotrophic factors in the cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) region of the hippocampus at 5 min after inducing transient global cerebral ischemia (TGCI) in gerbils, TGCI was induced by occlusion of common carotid arteries for 5 min. Before ischemic surgery, 200 mg·kg PT extract was orally administrated once daily for 7 d. We performed neuronal nuclear antigen immunohistochemistry and Fluoro-Jade B staining. Furthermore, we determined in situ production of superoxide anion radical, expression levels of SOD1 and SOD2 as antioxidant enzymes and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) as neurotrophic factors. Pretreatment with 200 mg·kg PT extract prevented neuronal death (loss). Furthermore, pretreatment with 200 mg·kg PT extract significantly inhibited the production of superoxide anion radical, increased expressions of SODs and maintained expressions of BDNF and IGF-I. Such increased expressions of SODs were maintained in the neurons after IRI. In summary, pretreated PT extract can significantly increase levels of SODs and protect the neurons against TGCI, suggesting that PT can be a useful natural agent to protect against TGCI.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Genetics , Metabolism , CA1 Region, Hippocampal , Metabolism , Gerbillinae , Humans , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I , Genetics , Metabolism , Male , Neuroprotective Agents , Plant Extracts , Populus , Chemistry , Pyramidal Cells , Metabolism , Reperfusion Injury , Drug Therapy , Genetics , Metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase , Genetics , Metabolism , Up-Regulation
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761815

ABSTRACT

Cordycepin exerts neuroprotective effects against excitotoxic neuronal death. However, its direct electrophysiological evidence in Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains unclear. This study aimed to explore the electrophysiological mechanisms underlying the protective effect of cordycepin against the excitotoxic neuronal insult in AD using whole-cell patch clamp techniques. β-Amyloid (Aβ) and ibotenic acid (IBO)-induced injury model in cultured hippocampal neurons was used for the purpose. The results revealed that cordycepin significantly delayed Aβ + IBO-induced excessive neuronal membrane depolarization. It increased the onset time/latency, extended the duration, and reduced the slope in both slow and rapid depolarization. Additionally, cordycepin reversed the neuronal hyperactivity in Aβ + IBO-induced evoked action potential (AP) firing, including increase in repetitive firing frequency, shortening of evoked AP latency, decrease in the amplitude of fast afterhyperpolarization, and increase in membrane depolarization. Further, the suppressive effect of cordycepin against Aβ + IBO-induced excessive neuronal membrane depolarization and neuronal hyperactivity was blocked by DPCPX (8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine, an adenosine A₁ receptor-specific blocker). Collectively, these results revealed the suppressive effect of cordycepin against the Aβ + IBO-induced excitotoxic neuronal insult by attenuating excessive neuronal activity and membrane depolarization, and the mechanism through the activation of A₁R is strongly recommended, thus highlighting the therapeutic potential of cordycepin in AD.


Subject(s)
Action Potentials , Adenosine , Alzheimer Disease , Fires , Ibotenic Acid , Membranes , Neurons , Neuroprotection , Neuroprotective Agents , Patch-Clamp Techniques , Pyramidal Cells
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761804

ABSTRACT

It is known that top-down associative inputs terminate on distal apical dendrites in layer 1 while bottom-up sensory inputs terminate on perisomatic dendrites of layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons (L2/3 PyNs) in primary sensory cortex. Since studies on synaptic transmission in layer 1 are sparse, we investigated the basic properties and cholinergic modulation of synaptic transmission in layer 1 and compared them to those in perisomatic dendrites of L2/3 PyNs of rat primary visual cortex. Using extracellular stimulations of layer 1 and layer 4, we evoked excitatory postsynaptic current/potential in synapses in distal apical dendrites (L1-EPSC/L1-EPSP) and those in perisomatic dendrites (L4-EPSC/L4-EPSP), respectively. Kinetics of L1-EPSC was slower than that of L4-EPSC. L1-EPSC showed presynaptic depression while L4-EPSC was facilitating. In contrast, inhibitory postsynaptic currents showed similar paired-pulse ratio between layer 1 and layer 4 stimulations with depression only at 100 Hz. Cholinergic stimulation induced presynaptic depression by activating muscarinic receptors in excitatory and inhibitory synapses to similar extents in both inputs. However, nicotinic stimulation enhanced excitatory synaptic transmission by ~20% in L4-EPSC. Rectification index of AMPA receptors and AMPA/NMDA ratio were similar between synapses in distal apical and perisomatic dendrites. These results provide basic properties and cholinergic modulation of synaptic transmission between distal apical and perisomatic dendrites in L2/3 PyNs of the visual cortex, which might be important for controlling information processing balance depending on attentional state.


Subject(s)
Animals , Electronic Data Processing , Dendrites , Depression , Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potentials , Kinetics , Pyramidal Cells , Rats , Receptors, AMPA , Receptors, Muscarinic , Synapses , Synaptic Transmission , Visual Cortex
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761788

ABSTRACT

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C and its receptor, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-3, are responsible for lymphangiogenesis in both embryos and adults. In epilepsy, the expression of VEGF-C and VEGFR-3 was significantly upregulated in the human brains affected with temporal lobe epilepsy. Moreover, pharmacologic inhibition of VEGF receptors after acute seizures could suppress the generation of spontaneous recurrent seizures, suggesting a critical role of VEGF-related signaling in epilepsy. Therefore, in the present study, the spatiotemporal expression of VEGF-C and VEGFR-3 against pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) was investigated in C57BL/6N mice using immunohistochemistry. At 1 day after SE, hippocampal astrocytes and microglia were activated. Pyramidal neuronal death was observed at 4 days after SE. In the subpyramidal zone, VEGF-C expression gradually increased and peaked at 7 days after SE, while VEGFR-3 was significantly upregulated at 4 days after SE and began to decrease at 7 days after SE. Most VEGF-C/VEGFR-3-expressing cells were pyramidal neurons, but VEGF-C was also observed in some astrocytes in sham-manipulated animals. However, at 4 days and 7 days after SE, both VEGFR-3 and VEGF-C immunoreactivities were observed mainly in astrocytes and in some microglia of the stratum radiatum and lacunosum-moleculare of the hippocampus, respectively. These data indicate that VEGF-C and VEGFR-3 can be upregulated in hippocampal astrocytes and microglia after pilocarpine-induced SE, providing basic information about VEGF-C and VEGFR-3 expression patterns following acute seizures.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Astrocytes , Brain , Embryonic Structures , Epilepsy , Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe , Hippocampus , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Lymphangiogenesis , Mice , Microglia , Pyramidal Cells , Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor , Seizures , Status Epilepticus , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-3
13.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 320-328, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763772

ABSTRACT

The basolateral amygdala (BLA) receives dense projections from cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain. Acetylcholine can contributes to amygdala-dependent behaviors: formation and extinction of fear memory and appetitive instrumental learning. However, the cholinergic mechanism at the circuit level has not been defined yet. We demonstrated that cholinergic-induced di-synaptic inhibition of BLA pyramidal neurons exhibits a retrograde form of short-term synaptic inhibition, depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition (DSI). Activation of nicotinic receptors was sufficient to evoke action potentials in cholecystokinin (CCK)-positive inhibitory neurons, which strongly inhibit pyramidal neurons through their perisomatic synapses. Our cell type-specific monosynaptic retrograde tracing also revealed that CCK neurons are innervated by basal forebrain cholinergic neurons. Therefore, our data indicated that CCK inhibitory neurons mediate the cholinergic-induced di-synaptic inhibition of BLA pyramidal neurons.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholine , Action Potentials , Basal Forebrain , Basolateral Nuclear Complex , Cholecystokinin , Cholinergic Neurons , Conditioning, Operant , Iontophoresis , Memory , Neurons , Pyramidal Cells , Receptors, Nicotinic , Synapses
14.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(1): 265-272, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990037

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Currently many people with epilepsy do not have seizure control even with the best available medications. Moreover various antiepileptics have adverse cognitive impact with other side effect. Thus, need for new antiepileptic drugs still remains challenge. However, many of the natural components have antiepileptic action and this fact remains scientifically unexplored. This study was designed to check the behavioral and neuro-pathological outcome of 1-Triacontanol cerotate (1TAC), isolated from Marsilea quadrifolia Linn. (MQ) on chronic Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) kindling model of epilepsy in rats. Two-month-old adult male Wistar rats (n=60) were randomly divided into six groups; Group I (Cage Control), II (Vehicle Control), III (Positive Control), IV (Standard drug treated), V (1TAC: 40 mg/kg) & VI (1TAC: 80 mg/kg). To induce kindling a 35 mg/kg dose of PTZ was injected i.p. in every 48 hrs for 30 days in Group III to VI. Spatial memory performance was tested using Morris water maze, following which brains were further processed for histopathological investigations. Interestingly, 1TAC was able to minimize the loss of pyramidal cells in hippocampal CA3 region. These cellular changes were behaviorally responded as improved special learning and memory, a better spatial navigation and object place configuration. The current study strongly implicates that 1TAC from MQ has potent neuroprotective role and augments special memory deficit in chronic epileptic rats. The isolated component which attenuates spatial memory performance could be beneficial outcome to retain cognitive blunting in chronic epilepsy.


RESUMEN: Actualmente, muchas personas con epilepsia no cuentan con un control adecuado de las convulsiones, incluso con los mejores medicamentos disponibles. Además, varios antiepilépticos tienen un impacto cognitivo adverso además de efectos secundarios. Por lo tanto, la necesidad de nuevos fármacos antiepilépticos sigue siendo un desafío. Sin embargo, muchos de los componentes naturales tienen acción antiepiléptica y este hecho permanece científicamente inexplorado. Este estudio se diseñó para verificar el resultado conductual y neuro-patológico del cerotato de 1-triacontanol (1TAC), aislado de Marsilea quadrifolia Linn. (MQ) en el modelo de epilepsia en ratas del pentilenetetrazol (PTZ) crónico (PTZ). Ratas Wistar adultas de dos meses de edad (n = 60) se dividieron aleatoriamente en seis grupos; Grupo I (Control de jaula), II (Control de vehículo), III (Control positivo), IV (Medicamento estándar de tratamiento), V (1TAC: 40 mg / kg) y VI (1TAC: 80 mg / kg). Para inducir la inflamación se inyectó una dosis de 35 mg / kg de PTZ i.p. en cada 48 horas durante 30 días en los grupos III a VI. El rendimiento de la memoria espacial se probó utilizando el laberinto de agua de Morris, después de lo cual se procesaron los cerebros para investigaciones histopatológicas. Curiosamente, 1TAC pudo minimizar la pérdida de células piramidales en la región CA3 del hipocampo. Estos cambios celulares respondieron de manera conductual como una mejora del aprendizaje especial y la memoria, una mejor navegación espacial y la configuración del lugar del objeto. El estudio actual implica fuertemente que 1TAC de MQ tiene un potente papel neuroprotector y mejora el déficit de memoria especial en ratas epilépticas crónicas. El componente aislado que atenúa el rendimiento de la memoria espacial podría ser un resultado beneficioso para retener la reducción cognitiva en la epilepsia crónica.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Marsileaceae/chemistry , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Fatty Alcohols/administration & dosage , CA3 Region, Hippocampal/drug effects , Spatial Memory/drug effects , Pentylenetetrazole/adverse effects , Chronic Disease , Rats, Wistar , Pyramidal Cells , Epilepsy/chemically induced , Fatty Acids , Fatty Alcohols/isolation & purification , Morris Water Maze Test , Hippocampus/drug effects
15.
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180182, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-990102

ABSTRACT

Abstract Previous studies suggested that mastication activity can affect learning and memory function. However, most were focused on mastication impaired models by providing long-term soft diet. The effects of chewing food with various hardness, especially during the growth period, remain unknown. Objective: To analyze the difference of hippocampus function and morphology, as characterized by pyramidal cell count and BDNF expression in different mastication activities. Materials and Methods: 28-day old, post-weaned, male-Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups (n=7); the first (K0) was fed a standard diet using pellets as the control, the second (K1) was fed soft food and the third (K2) was fed hard food. After eight weeks, the rats were decapitated, their brains were removed and placed on histological plates made to count the pyramid cells and quantify BDNF expression in the hippocampus. Data collected were compared using one-way ANOVA. Results: Results confirmed the pyramid cell count (K0=169.14±27.25; K1=130.14±29.32; K2=128.14±39.02) and BDNF expression (K0=85.27±19.78; K1=49.57±20.90; K2=36.86±28.97) of the K0 group to be significantly higher than that of K1 and K2 groups (p<0.05); no significant difference in the pyramidal cell count and BNDF expression was found between K1 and K2 groups (p>0.05). Conclusion: A standard diet leads to the optimum effect on hippocampus morphology. Food consistency must be appropriately suited to each development stage, in this case, hippocampus development in post-weaned period.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Pyramidal Cells/physiology , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/analysis , Food , Hippocampus/physiology , Mastication/physiology , Reference Values , Time Factors , Random Allocation , Cell Count , Rats, Wistar , Hardness/physiology
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758834

ABSTRACT

In Mongolian gerbils, bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) for several minutes induces ischemia, due to an incomplete circle of Willis, resulting in delayed neuronal cell death in the Cornet d'Ammon 1 (CA1) region of the hippocampus. Neuronal cell death in the hippocampus and changes in behavior were examined after BCCAO was performed for 5 min in the gerbils. One day after BCCAO, the pyramidal neurons of the CA1 region of the hippocampus showed degenerative changes (clumped chromatin in nuclei). At 5 and 10 days after BCCAO, extensive neuronal cell death was observed in the hippocampal CA1 region. Cognitive performance was evaluated by using the radial maze and passive avoidance tests. In the radial maze test, which examines win-stay performance, the number of errors was significantly higher in ischemic gerbils than in sham-operated gerbils on days 1 and 2 post-operation. In the passive avoidance test, the latency and freezing times were significantly shorter in ischemic gerbils than in sham-operated gerbils on the days 1, 2, and 4–6 post-operation. These results indicate that transient forebrain ischemia impairs cognitive performance, even immediately after the ischemic insult when there are only subtle signs of neuronal cell death.


Subject(s)
CA1 Region, Hippocampal , Carotid Artery, Common , Cell Death , Chromatin , Circle of Willis , Freezing , Gerbillinae , Hippocampus , Ischemia , Neurons , Prosencephalon , Pyramidal Cells
17.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 759-768, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777023

ABSTRACT

Cyproheptadine (CPH), a first-generation antihistamine, enhances the delayed rectifier outward K current (I) in mouse cortical neurons through a sigma-1 receptor-mediated protein kinase A pathway. In this study, we aimed to determine the effects of CPH on neuronal excitability in current-clamped pyramidal neurons in mouse medial prefrontal cortex slices. CPH (10 µmol/L) significantly reduced the current density required to generate action potentials (APs) and increased the instantaneous frequency evoked by a depolarizing current. CPH also depolarized the resting membrane potential (RMP), decreased the delay time to elicit an AP, and reduced the spike threshold potential. This effect of CPH was mimicked by a sigma-1 receptor agonist and eliminated by an antagonist. Application of tetraethylammonium (TEA) to block I channels hyperpolarized the RMP and reduced the instantaneous frequency of APs. TEA eliminated the effects of CPH on AP frequency and delay time, but had no effect on spike threshold or RMP. The current-voltage relationship showed that CPH increased the membrane depolarization in response to positive current pulses and hyperpolarization in response to negative current pulses, suggesting that other types of membrane ion channels might also be affected by CPH. These results suggest that CPH increases the excitability of medial prefrontal cortex neurons by regulating TEA-sensitive I channels as well as other TEA-insensitive K channels, probably I and inward-rectifier Kir channels. This effect of CPH may explain its apparent clinical efficacy as an antidepressant and antipsychotic.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cyproheptadine , Pharmacology , Female , Histamine H1 Antagonists , Pharmacology , Membrane Potentials , Physiology , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Patch-Clamp Techniques , Potassium Channel Blockers , Pharmacology , Potassium Channels , Metabolism , Prefrontal Cortex , Physiology , Pyramidal Cells , Physiology , Receptors, sigma , Metabolism , Tetraethylammonium , Pharmacology , Tissue Culture Techniques
18.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 120-128, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714114

ABSTRACT

µ-opioid receptor (MOR) is a class of opioid receptors with a high affinity for enkephalins and beta-endorphin. In hippocampus, activation of MOR is known to enhance the neuronal excitability of pyramidal neurons, which has been mainly attributed to a disinhibition of pyramidal neurons via activating Gαi subunit to suppress the presynaptic release of GABA in hippocampal interneurons. In contrast, the potential role of MOR in hippocampal astrocytes, the most abundant cell type in the brain, has remained unexplored. Here, we determine the cellular and subcellular distribution of MOR in different cell types of the hippocampus by utilizing MOR-mCherry mice and two different antibodies against MOR. Consistent with previous findings, we demonstrate that MOR expression in the CA1 pyramidal layer is co-localized with axon terminals from GABAergic inhibitory neurons but not with soma of pyramidal neurons. More importantly, we demonstrate that MOR is highly expressed in CA1 hippocampal astrocytes. The ultrastructural analysis further demonstrates that the astrocytic MOR is localized in soma and processes, but not in microdomains near synapses. Lastly, we demonstrate that astrocytes in ventral tegmental area and nucleus accumbens also express MOR. Our results provide the unprecedented evidence for the presence of MOR in astrocytes, implicating potential roles of astrocytic MOR in addictive behaviors.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies , Astrocytes , Behavior, Addictive , beta-Endorphin , Brain , Carisoprodol , Enkephalins , gamma-Aminobutyric Acid , Hippocampus , Interneurons , Mice , Microscopy, Electron , Neurons , Nucleus Accumbens , Presynaptic Terminals , Pyramidal Cells , Receptors, Opioid , Synapses , Ventral Tegmental Area
19.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1047-1057, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775479

ABSTRACT

Cognition and pain share common neural substrates and interact reciprocally: chronic pain compromises cognitive performance, whereas cognitive processes modulate pain perception. In the present study, we established a non-drug-dependent rat model of context-based analgesia, where two different contexts (dark and bright) were matched with a high (52°C) or low (48°C) temperature in the hot-plate test during training. Before and after training, we set the temperature to the high level in both contexts. Rats showed longer paw licking latencies in trials with the context originally matched to a low temperature than those to a high temperature, indicating successful establishment of a context-based analgesic effect in rats. This effect was blocked by intraperitoneal injection of naloxone (an opioid receptor antagonist) before the probe. The context-based analgesic effect also disappeared after optogenetic activation or inhibition of the bilateral infralimbic or prelimbic sub-region of the prefrontal cortex. In brief, we established a context-based, non-drug dependent, placebo-like analgesia model in the rat. This model provides a new and useful tool for investigating the cognitive modulation of pain.


Subject(s)
Action Potentials , Physiology , Analgesics , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Electric Stimulation , Female , In Vitro Techniques , Naloxone , Pharmacology , Narcotic Antagonists , Pharmacology , Optogenetics , Pain , Drug Therapy , Pathology , Pain Measurement , Pain Threshold , Physiology , Patch-Clamp Techniques , Physical Stimulation , Prefrontal Cortex , Metabolism , Pathology , Pyramidal Cells , Physiology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Time Factors
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728617

ABSTRACT

Echinacoside, an active compound in the herb Herba Cistanche, has been reported to inhibit glutamate release. In this study, we investigated the effects of echinacoside on spontaneous excitatory synaptic transmission changes induced by 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), by using the in vitro rat hippocampal slice technique and whole-cell patch clamp recordings from CA3 pyramidal neurons. Perfusion with echinacoside significantly suppressed the 4-AP-induced epileptiform activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Echinacoside reduced 4-AP-induced increase in frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) but it did not affect the amplitude of sEPSCs or glutamate-activated currents, implicating a presynaptic mechanism of action. Echinacoside also potently blocked sustained repetitive firing, which is a basic mechanism of antiepileptic drugs. These results suggest that echinacoside exerts an antiepileptic effect on hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons by simultaneously decreasing glutamate release and blocking abnormal firing synchronization. Accordingly, our study provides experimental evidence that echinacoside may represent an effective pharmacological agent for treating epilepsy.


Subject(s)
4-Aminopyridine , Animals , Anticonvulsants , Cistanche , Epilepsy , Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials , Fires , Glutamic Acid , Hippocampus , In Vitro Techniques , Perfusion , Pyramidal Cells , Rats , Synaptic Transmission
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