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1.
An. bras. dermatol ; 95(3): 343-346, May-June 2020. graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1130895

ABSTRACT

Abstract Cutaneous tuberculosis is a rare extrapulmonary manifestation of tuberculosis which, like disseminated tuberculosis, commonly occurs in immunocompromised patients. Poncet reactive arthritis is a seronegative arthritis affecting patients with extrapulmonary tuberculosis, which is uncommon even in endemic countries. We report a previously healthy 23-year-old male patient with watery diarrhea associated with erythematous ulcers on the lower limbs and oligoarthritis of the hands. Histopathological examination of the skin showed epithelioid granulomatous process with palisade granulomas and central caseous necrosis. AFB screening by Ziehl-Neelsen staining showed intact bacilli, the culture was positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and colonoscopy revealed multiple shallow ulcers. Disseminated tuberculosis associated with reactive Poncet arthritis was diagnosed, with an improvement of the clinical and skin condition after appropriate treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Young Adult , Tuberculosis, Cutaneous/immunology , Tuberculosis, Cutaneous/pathology , Immunocompromised Host , Arthritis, Reactive/immunology , Immunocompetence , Pyrazinamide/therapeutic use , Rifampin/therapeutic use , Skin Ulcer/immunology , Skin Ulcer/pathology , Skin Ulcer/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Cutaneous/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome , Ethambutol/therapeutic use , Isoniazid/therapeutic use , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use
4.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719529

ABSTRACT

Anagen effluvium is an abrupt loss of hair in its growing phase due to an event that impairs the mitotic or metabolic activity of the hair follicle. Anagen effluvium is commonly associated with the administration of chemotherapy, radiation, and drugs as well as exposure to toxic chemicals. However, alopecia due to the administration of anti-tuberculosis drugs has rarely been reported in the literature. A 50-year-old female was diagnosed with intestinal tuberculosis and was started on anti-tuberculosis therapy with isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide. After starting the treatment, erythematous to brown patches appeared all over her body, which was followed by diffuse hair loss on the scalp and body. Hair examination showed intact inner and outer root sheaths with fully pigmented hair bulbs, and histopathological examination of a scalp biopsy showed vacuolar degeneration in the interfollicular epidermis and perifollicular infiltration of mononuclear cells and eosinophils. The condition was diagnosed as anagen effluvium with drug eruption, and a potent corticosteroid lotion was prescribed for scalp application twice a day. After complete hair loss, the anti-tuberculosis medications were withdrawn, and hair regrowth started 4 months later. Here, we report a rare case of anagen effluvium with generalized drug eruption due to anti-tuberculosis medication.


Subject(s)
Alopecia , Biopsy , Drug Eruptions , Drug Therapy , Eosinophils , Epidermis , Ethambutol , Female , Hair , Hair Follicle , Humans , Isoniazid , Middle Aged , Pyrazinamide , Rifampin , Scalp , Tuberculosis
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719509

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Although there have been reported cases of drug reactions with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome caused by antituberculosis drugs, there has been no research to examine its prevalence. This study assessed the prevalence and clinical characteristics of DRESS syndrome caused by antituberculosis drugs. METHODS: The electronic medical records of a cohort consisting of adult patients diagnosed with tuberculosis between July 2006 and June 2010 were reviewed and retrospectively inspected. We searched the surveillance system for adverse drug reactions and the electronic medical records to identify patients who reported severe cutaneous adverse reactions to antituberculosis drugs. These patients were then re-assessed using a European Registry of Severe Cutaneous Adverse Reactions to Drugs and Collection of Biological Samples (RegiSCAR) scoring system. Clinical characteristics, including the symptoms and latency of DRESS syndrome, the therapeutic dosage and period of steroids, and the final duration of tuberculosis therapy, were examined. RESULTS: Of the 1,253 adult patients with tuberculosis receiving antituberculosis drugs, 15 were identified as potential cases of DRESS syndrome (prevalence of 1.2%). Ethambutol was the most frequently used drug (53.5%), followed by rifampicin (26.7%), pyrazinamide (20.0%), streptomycin (13.3%), and isoniazid (6.7%). The median latency after day 1 of antituberculosis medication was 42 days. The median daily dose of steroids, expressed in prednisone-equivalent units, was 33-mg/day, and the median dosing period was 14 days. The duration of tuberculosis treatment was 76 days longer than the standard treatment period of 180 days. There was a significant difference in the peak eosinophil counts of DRESS syndrome patients according to RegiSCAR scores. Moreover, there was a significant quantitative correlation between the RegiSCAR score and peak eosinophil count. A negative correlation was also found between the RegiSCAR score and latency. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirmed the prevalence of DRESS syndrome in a cohort of adult patients with tuberculosis.


Subject(s)
Adult , Cohort Studies , Drug Hypersensitivity Syndrome , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Electronic Health Records , Eosinophilia , Eosinophils , Ethambutol , Humans , Isoniazid , Prevalence , Pyrazinamide , Retrospective Studies , Rifampin , Steroids , Streptomycin , Tuberculosis
6.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766543

ABSTRACT

Tuberculosis (TB) remains the world's leading cause of death from a single infectious disease. In addition, the incidence of TB is high in South Korea. Effective TB control requires early diagnosis and initiation of appropriate treatment. Therefore, it is very important for clinicians to understand evidence-based practical recommendations and to be familiar with up-to-date treatment regimens. In this review, we first describe anti-TB drugs, including new drugs. Secondly, we discuss the treatment of drug-susceptible TB. Finally, we present treatment strategies for drug-resistant TB, which is divided into isoniazid-resistant TB, rifampin-resistant TB, and multi-drug resistant TB. For the treatment of drug-susceptible TB, we recommend 2 months of 4 drugs (isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide) followed by 4 months of 2 drugs (isoniazid and rifampin). For the treatment of isoniazid-resistant TB, we recommend 6 to 9 months of 4 drugs (rifampin, ethambutol, pyrazinamide, and levofloxacin or moxifloxacin). For the treatment of multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB), we recommend a minimum of 5 secondary drugs, including an injectable agent and quinolone. Although the World Health Organization recommended a shorter MDR-TB regimen in 2016, the Korean guidelines for tuberculosis have not yet accepted the shorter regimen. The treatment regimen of TB differs depending on the drug resistance pattern. Therefore, it is important to treat TB properly after confirming the drug resistance pattern. In addition, as new drugs are developed, new treatment guidelines for MDR-TB should be developed that are appropriate for circumstances in Korea.


Subject(s)
Cause of Death , Communicable Diseases , Drug Resistance , Early Diagnosis , Ethambutol , Incidence , Korea , Levofloxacin , Pyrazinamide , Rifampin , Tuberculosis , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary , World Health Organization
8.
INSPILIP ; 2(1): 1-9, ene.-jun. 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-987251

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Determinar el perfil de sensibilidad de Mycobacterium tuberculosis a drogas de primera línea en cepas que llegan de diferentes unidades de salud de la provincia del Guayas. Materiales y métodos. Se trabajó con 614 cepas de Mycobacterium tuberculosis, las cuales se le realizó las pruebas de sensibilidad a drogas de primera (rifampicina, isoniacida, estreptomicina y etambutol) por el por el método de proporciones (Rist, Canetti, Grosset) y pirazinamida evaluada por el método Wayne. Resultado: Se realizó perfil de sensibilidad a 614 cepas, de las cuales el 70 % (n=427) es sensible a todas las drogas, 20 % (n=124) presentó resistencia al menos a una droga, el restante corresponden a cepas MDR. TB-Monorresistente tiene mayor incidencia (n=83) que la MDR (n=12) en pacientes sin tratamiento previo. Por otro lado en pacientes antes tratado la TB-Monorresistente es menor a la MDR (n=41 y n=51 respectivamente). Conclusiones: el método de proporciones sigue siendo la técnica de referencia. Se observa mayor sensibilidad a drogas de primera línea en pacientes sin tratamiento previo. Es de importancia clínica llevar un correcto seguimiento a pacientes que presenten algún tipo de resistencia, pero es prioridad preventiva la no conversión de los pacientes sensibles a fin de evitar la diseminación de cepas resistentes.


Objective: Difine first line susceptibility drug profile of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, to diferent strain from Province Guayas health establishments. Material and Methods.614 Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain were analized by first line susceptibility drug test (rifampicin, isoniazid, streptomycin, ethambutol) used proportions method (Rist, Canetti, Grosset) and pyrazinamide Wayne´s methods. Results: 614 strain were studied, 70 % strains (n=427) result sensible, 20 % (n=124) have at least resistence one drug; the residue responds to MDR strains. The TB-Monoresistence haved more incidence (n=83) than MDR (n=12) in virgin treatments patients. Nevertheless; in previous treatment patients, the TB-Monoresistence is smaller than MDR (n=41 y n=51 respectively). Conclutions: The proportion method is the reference technique. The analize shown biggest sensibility in virgin treatment patients for first line drugs. Is very important have a correct control of resistant pactients, but is preventive priority the non conversion of sensibility patients to avoid dissemination resistance strain.


Subject(s)
Humans , Primary Prevention , Incidence , Mobile Health Units , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Pyrazinamide , Tuberculosis , Health Planning Technical Assistance
9.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(3): 159-165, May-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974215

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Tuberculosis is an infectious disease of global importance with major economic and social burden accounting for 25% of all avoidable deaths in developing countries. Extrapulmonary involvement may occur either in association with clinically apparent pulmonary tuberculosis or in isolation. This cross-sectional descriptive study aimed to evaluate the impact of ocular tuberculosis in visual acuity at baseline and after two months of intensive anti-tuberculous therapy. A sample of 133 pulmonary tuberculosis patients, seven disseminated tuberculosis, and three pleural tuberculosis patients was evaluated. All patients underwent routine ophthalmic evaluation, including assessment of visual acuity, biomicroscopy, applanation tonometry, indirect ophthalmoscopy, and fluorescent angiography as appropriate. None of the patients had impaired visual acuity due to tuberculosis. A rate of 4.2% (6/143) of ocular involvement was found. None of the patients with ocular involvement were HIV-infected. Of the six patients with ocular involvement, five met the diagnostic criteria for probable and one for possible ocular lesions. As for the type of ocular lesions, two patients had bilateral findings: one had sclerouveitis and the second had choroidal nodules. The other four patients presented with unilateral lesions: peripheral retinal artery occlusion in the right eye (one case), choroidal nodules in the left eye (one case), and choroidal nodules in the right eye (two cases). Patients progressed favorably after two month of intensive therapy, with no significant reduction in vision.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Vision, Ocular/physiology , Visual Acuity/physiology , Tuberculosis, Ocular/physiopathology , Tuberculosis, Ocular/drug therapy , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , Pyrazinamide/therapeutic use , Rifampin/therapeutic use , Vision Disorders/physiopathology , Vision Disorders/microbiology , Tuberculosis, Ocular/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Ethambutol/therapeutic use , Isoniazid/therapeutic use
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715663

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We examined the feasibility of a full-length gene analysis for the drug resistance-related genes inhA, katG, rpoB, pncA, rpsL, embB, eis, and gyrA using ion semiconductor next-generation sequencing (NGS) and compared the results with those obtained from conventional phenotypic drug susceptibility testing (DST) in multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MDR-TB) isolates. METHODS: We extracted genomic DNA from 30 pure MDR-TB isolates with antibiotic susceptibility profiles confirmed by phenotypic DST for isoniazid (INH), rifampin (RIF), ethambutol (EMB), pyrazinamide (PZA), amikacin (AMK), kanamycin (KM), streptomycin (SM), and fluoroquinolones (FQs) including ofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and levofloxacin. Enriched ion spheres were loaded onto Ion PI Chip v3, with 30 samples on a chip per sequencing run, and Ion Torrent sequencing was conducted using the Ion AmpliSeq TB panel (Life Technologies, USA). RESULTS: The genotypic DST results revealed good agreement with the phenotypic DST results for EMB (Kappa 0.8), PZA (0.734), SM (0.769), and FQ (0.783). Agreements for INH, RIF, and AMK+KM were not estimated because all isolates were phenotypically resistant to INH and RIF, and all isolates were phenotypically and genotypically susceptible to AMK+KM. Moreover, 17 novel variants were identified: six (p.Gly169Ser, p.Ala256Thr, p.Ser383Pro, p.Gln439Arg, p.Tyr597Cys, p.Thr625Ala) in katG, one (p.Tyr113Phe) in inhA, five (p.Val170Phe, p.Thr400Ala, p.Met434Val, p.Glu812Gly, p.Phe971Leu) in rpoB, two (p.Tyr319Asp and p.His1002Arg) in embB, and three (p.Cys14Gly, p.Asp63Ala, p.Gly162Ser) in pncA. CONCLUSIONS: Ion semiconductor NGS could detect reported and novel amino acid changes in full coding regions of eight drug resistance-related genes. However, genotypic DST should be complemented and validated by phenotypic DSTs.


Subject(s)
Amikacin , Clinical Coding , Complement System Proteins , DNA , Drug Resistance , Ethambutol , Fluoroquinolones , Isoniazid , Kanamycin , Levofloxacin , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Mycobacterium , Ofloxacin , Pyrazinamide , Rifampin , Semiconductors , Streptomycin
11.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 306-310, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715340

ABSTRACT

Pyrazinamide (PZA) is an anti-tuberculosis drug and an essential component of the standard four-drug regimen for tuberculosis. Here, we report a case of immediate angioedema secondary to PZA administration intended for pulmonary tuberculosis treatment. A previously healthy 48-year-old woman was diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis and tuberculous lymphadenitis. Thirty minutes after taking the first dose of isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol, the patient developed facial edema, generalized rash, and dizziness. An oral provocation test was performed on the four drugs, and 1,000 mg pyrazinamide showed a positive result characterized by 50 minutes of urticaria, angioedema, and hypotension. As the prevalence of tuberculosis increases, prescriptions for anti-tuberculosis drugs may increase as well. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of immediate hypersensitivity as well as delayed hypersensitivity to anti-tuberculosis drugs.


Subject(s)
Angioedema , Dizziness , Drug Hypersensitivity , Edema , Ethambutol , Exanthema , Female , Humans , Hypersensitivity, Delayed , Hypersensitivity, Immediate , Hypotension , Isoniazid , Middle Aged , Prescriptions , Prevalence , Pyrazinamide , Rifampin , Tuberculosis , Tuberculosis, Lymph Node , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary , Urticaria
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715029

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis that can affect many organs of the body but usually affects the lungs. The prevalence of TB in Korea is considerably higher than that in other countries with similar economic levels, and is much higher in elderly people. Pharmacotherapy is important in the treatment of TB and requires relatively high compliance for a prolonged duration. METHODS: We analyzed sample data of elderly patients obtained from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service. We used logistic regression analysis and frequency analysis to identify factors that could affect prevalence of TB in elderly patients, compliance with prescribed medication regimes in these patients, and use of medical institutions. Korean Standard Classification of Diseases, version 7 (KCD-7) was used to diagnose pulmonary TB, and medications were analyzed using Korean standardized drug classification codes. RESULTS: 1,276,331 patients were analyzed in the sample of the elderly population, and 16,658 TB patients were included in the study. The mean age of the TB patients was 76.19 years (SD 6.899). A total of 699 patients were prescribed isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol, or pyrazinamide at least once. Of these, 352 (50.4%) were prescribed all four medications and 101 (14.4%) were prescribed only isoniazid, rifampicin, and ethambutol. The mean duration of prescription was 28.75 days (SD 36.13). CONCLUSION: In the elderly population, old age and poor socioeconomic conditions correlated with TB prevalence. Most patients did not meet the criteria for effective pharmacotherapy of TB.


Subject(s)
Aged , Classification , Communicable Diseases , Compliance , Drug Therapy , Ethambutol , Humans , Insurance, Health , Isoniazid , Korea , Logistic Models , Lung , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Prescription Drugs , Prescriptions , Prevalence , Pyrazinamide , Rifampin , Tuberculosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary
13.
Arch. pediatr. Urug ; 88(6): 322-328, oct. 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-887801

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: en Uruguay se ha notificado un aumento en el número de casos de tuberculosis en niños con formas pulmonares y extrapulmonares. La infección osteoarticular representa 10%-15% de las formas extrapulmonares. Objetivo: alertar sobre una etiología poco habitual de osteomielitis cuya forma de presentación genera dificultades diagnósticas. Caso clínico: niña de 18 meses, previamente sana. Consulta por edema e impotencia funcional de tobillo derecho de tres meses de evolución, en apirexia. La radiografía muestra múltiples imágenes geódicas en el sector distal de la diáfisis con secuestro en peroné derecho. Se realiza punción ósea obteniéndose líquido serohemático. El cultivo de dicha muestra y el hemocultivo fueron negativos. Luego de recibir clindamicina 21 días más gentamicina 10 días por via intravenosa y dos limpiezas quirúrgicas, se otorga alta con cefuroxime acetil vía oral. El cultivo de la muestra ósea desarrolló Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Se inició tratamiento con isoniacida, rifampicina y piracinamida. No fue identificado el caso índice. Discusión: la presentación clínica de la tuberculosis ósea es generalmente insidiosa lo que generando dificultades y retraso en el diagnóstico. Sólo la biopsia permite confirmar el diagnóstico. La situación epidemiológica actual obliga a descartar posible etiología tuberculosa ante un proceso inflamatorio osteoarticular de evolución tórpida. El tratamiento oportuno y adecuado requiere alto índice de sospecha y realización sistemática de punción ósea y/o articular.


Summary Introduction: in Uruguay, an increase in the number of cases of TB with pulmonary and extra-pulmonary involvement in children has been reported. Osteoarticular infections represent 10%-15% of extra-pulmonary involvement. Objective: to warn about an uncommon etiology of osteomyelitis whose presentation results in diagnostic difficulties. Clinical case: 18 month-old girl, previously healthy. Consultation was due to edema and right ankle functional insuficiency with three-month evolution, under apyrexia. X-ray imaging revealed multiple geodesic images in the distal portion of diaphysis, as well as a small sequestrum in right fibula. Through a bone puncture, serohematic fluid was extracted. Culture and hemoculture were negative. Treatment consisted of 21 days of intravenous clindamycin and 10 days of gentamicin. Two surgical debridements were performed. Progressive recovery followed. The child was discharged under cefuroxime axetil oral suspension and later a bone culture showed positive results for Mycobacterium TB. Treatment with isoniazid, rifampin and pyrazinamide was started. Index case could not be identified. Discussion: clinical presentation of bone tuberculosis is generally insidious. This explains difficulties and delays in diagnosis. It is remarkable that only biopsy allows the confirmation of diagnosis. The present epimediologic condition forces us to rule out possible TB etiology in the presence of an inflammatory osteoarticular process of lethargic evolution. Timely and accurate treatment requires a high degree of suspicion, as well as the performance of systematic bone and/or joint puncture.


Subject(s)
Humans , Osteomyelitis , Osteomyelitis/diagnosis , Osteomyelitis/etiology , Tuberculosis/complications , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Pyrazinamide/therapeutic use , Tuberculosis , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Ankle Injuries , Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Diagnosis, Differential , Isoniazid/therapeutic use
14.
J. bras. pneumol ; 43(2): 113-120, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-841272

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To estimate the rates of recurrence, cure, and treatment abandonment in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis treated with a four-drug fixed-dose combination (FDC) regimen, as well as to evaluate possible associated factors. Methods: This was a retrospective observational study involving 208 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis enrolled in the Hospital Tuberculosis Control Program at the Institute for Thoracic Diseases, located in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Between January of 2007 and October of 2010, the patients were treated with the rifampin-isoniazid-pyrazinamide (RHZ) regimen, whereas, between November of 2010 and June of 2013, the patients were treated with the rifampin-isoniazid-pyrazinamide-ethambutol FDC (RHZE/FDC) regimen. Data regarding tuberculosis recurrence and mortality in the patients studied were retrieved from the Brazilian Case Registry Database and the Brazilian Mortality Database, respectively. The follow-up period comprised two years after treatment completion. Results: The rates of cure, treatment abandonment, and death were 90.4%, 4.8%, and 4.8%, respectively. There were 7 cases of recurrence during the follow-up period. No significant differences in the recurrence rate were found between the RHZ and RHZE/FDC regimen groups (p = 0.13). We identified no factors associated with the occurrence of recurrence; nor were there any statistically significant differences between the treatment groups regarding adverse effects or rates of cure, treatment abandonment, or death. Conclusions: The adoption of the RHZE/FDC regimen produced no statistically significant differences in the rates of recurrence, cure, or treatment abandonment; nor did it have any effect on the occurrence of adverse effects, in comparison with the use of the RHZ regimen.


RESUMO Objetivo: Estimar as taxas de recidiva, cura e abandono de tratamento em pacientes com tuberculose pulmonar tratados com o esquema de dose fixa combinada (DFC) de quatro drogas e avaliar possíveis fatores associados. Métodos: Estudo observacional retrospectivo com 208 pacientes com diagnóstico confirmado de tuberculose pulmonar registrados no Programa de Controle da Tuberculose Hospitalar do Instituto de Doenças do Tórax, localizado na cidade do Rio de Janeiro. Os pacientes tratados entre janeiro de 2007 e outubro de 2010 receberam o esquema rifampicina-isoniazida-pirazinamida (RHZ), e aqueles tratados entre novembro de 2010 e junho de 2013 receberam o esquema rifampicina-isoniazida-pirazinamida-etambutol em DFC (RHZE/DFC). Os dados dos pacientes sobre recidiva e óbito foram obtidos no Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação e no Sistema de Informação de Mortalidade, respectivamente. O período de acompanhamento foi de dois anos após o encerramento do tratamento. Resultados: As taxas de cura, abandono e óbito foram de 90,4%, 4,8% e 4,8%, respectivamente. Houve 7 casos de recidivas durante o período de acompanhamento. Não houve diferenças significativas na taxa de recidiva entre os grupos de tratamento RHZ e RHZE/DFC (p = 0,13). Não foram identificados fatores associados com a ocorrência de recidiva, nem houve diferenças estatisticamente significativas na ocorrência dos efeitos adversos ou nas taxas de cura, abandono e óbito entre os grupos de tratamento. Conclusões: A adoção do esquema de tratamento RHZE/DFC não produziu diferenças estatisticamente significativas nas taxas de recidiva, cura e abandono nem na ocorrência de efeitos adversos em comparação com o esquema RHZ.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Antibiotics, Antitubercular/therapeutic use , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Antibiotics, Antitubercular/classification , Brazil/epidemiology , Cities/epidemiology , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Ethambutol/therapeutic use , Incidence , Isoniazid/therapeutic use , Pyrazinamide/therapeutic use , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Rifampin/therapeutic use , Risk Factors , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-161597

ABSTRACT

Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome is a rare but potentially fatal drug-induced systemic hypersensitivity response characterized by erythematous eruption, fever, leukocytosis with eosinophilia, and internal organ involvement. Antitubercular agents are potential causative agents for DRESS syndrome but difficult to verify as a culprit drug, since antitubercular agents are coadministered as a combination regimen. A 42-year-old female with endobronchial tuberculosis was diagnosed with DRESS syndrome after 4-week treatment of isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide with prednisolone 50 mg. All the antitubercular agents were stopped and replaced with levofloxacin, cycloserine, p-aminosalicylic acid, and kanamycin. However, severe exacerbation of DRESS syndrome compelled the patient to discontinue the administration of the second-line antitubercular agents. Two months later, the patient underwent a patch test for all the antitubercular agents which had been used, and the results showed positivity to isoniazid and cycloserine. We report a rare case of DRESS syndrome that reacted to cycloserine as well as isoniazid. Development of coreactivity to other drugs should be differentiated with a flare-up reaction in the management of DRESS syndrome.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aminosalicylic Acid , Antitubercular Agents , Cycloserine , Drug Hypersensitivity Syndrome , Eosinophilia , Ethambutol , Female , Fever , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Isoniazid , Kanamycin , Leukocytosis , Levofloxacin , Patch Tests , Prednisolone , Pyrazinamide , Rifampin , Tuberculosis
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-182398

ABSTRACT

The incidence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) in pediatric populations is a critical indicator of national TB management and treatment strategies. Limited data exist regarding the rate of pediatric DR-TB. In this study, we aimed to analyze the status of DR-TB in Korean children from 2007 to 2013. We analyzed specimens submitted to the Korean Institute of Tuberculosis using Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture and drug susceptibility tests (DSTs) from January 2007 through December 2013. Specimens from patients ≤ 19 years of age were included. Among the 2,690 cases, 297 cases were excluded because of insufficient data, leaving 2,393 cases for the final analysis. In total, resistance to one or more TB drugs was 13.5%. The resistance rates of each of the drugs were as follows: isoniazid (INH) 10.2%, rifampin (RFP) 5.1%, ethambutol (EMB) 3.7%, and pyrazinamide (PZA) 3.1%. The resistance rate of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) was 4.2%, and that of extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) was 0.8%. The overall drug resistance rate demonstrated significant increase throughout the study period (P 15 years (P < 0.001). The drug resistance rate has increased throughout the study period.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Drug Resistance , Ethambutol , Humans , Incidence , Isoniazid , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Pyrazinamide , Rifampin , Tuberculosis , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant
17.
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 52(3): 575-580, July-Sept. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828265

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The use of drugs in fixed-dose combination (FDC) is now recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) due to the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. FDC uses different drugs against tuberculosis (TB) in a single tablet for phase-intensive therapeutic intervention. This therapy aims to optimize treatment, to prevent inappropriate use of drugs, and to prevent the emergence of new resistant strains. This study aims to evaluate the susceptibility of clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis against rifampicin, isoniazid, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide. The antimicrobials were tested separately and in associations according to FDC. This was used for broth microdilution method, which was compared to the proportions method previously considered as the gold standard. In antimicrobials testing alone, several strains were resistant to one, two, or three drugs. However, when applied to association of drugs in FDC, there was no antimicrobial resistance. The results strengthen the FDC's concept, which aims to unite the four anti-TB drugs to combat bacterial resistance.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/analysis , Ethambutol/administration & dosage , Isoniazid/administration & dosage , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/classification , Pyrazinamide/administration & dosage , Rifampin/administration & dosage , Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests , Pharmaceutical Preparations
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-108722

ABSTRACT

Hypersensitivity reactions to antituberculosis medicine are obstacles to the treatment of tuberculosis. However, rapid drug desensitization can secure successful treatment with essential antituberculosis medicines in pediatric patients. A 17-year-old boy with active pulmonary tuberculosis complained of generalized erythematous rashes, pruritus on the 11th day of tuberculosis treatment. He was diagnosed with hypersensitivity reactions to isoniazid and rifampin by the oral provocation test. After desensitization, the patient continued to take antituberculosis treatment with isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol. We report here a case of successful desensitization in an adolescent with hypersensitivity to isoniazid and rifampin.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Antitubercular Agents , Desensitization, Immunologic , Drug Hypersensitivity , Ethambutol , Exanthema , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Isoniazid , Male , Pruritus , Pyrazinamide , Rifampin , Tuberculosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary
19.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 564-569, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-209981

ABSTRACT

Mediastinal tuberculous lymphadenitis rarely mimics esophageal submucosal tumor, particularly in the case of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Herein, we report the case of a 61-year-old woman who visited a local hospital complaining of odynophagia. An initial esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed an esophageal submucosal tumor, and subsequent chest computed tomography showed subcarinal lymphadenopathy with an esophagomediastinal fistula. The patient was then referred to Samsung Medical Center, and a second esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed deep central ulceration, as well as a suspicious fistula in the esophageal submucosal tumor-like lesion. A biopsy examination of the ulcerative lesion confirmed focal inflammation only. Next, an endobronchial, ultrasound-guided lymph node biopsy was performed, and TB was confirmed. The patient initially began a course of isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide. However, after a drug sensitivity test, she was diagnosed with MDR-TB, and second-line anti-TB medications were prescribed. She recovered well subsequently.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Endoscopy, Digestive System , Esophageal Fistula , Ethambutol , Female , Fistula , Humans , Inflammation , Isoniazid , Lymph Nodes , Lymphadenitis , Lymphatic Diseases , Middle Aged , Pyrazinamide , Rifampin , Thorax , Tuberculosis , Tuberculosis, Lymph Node , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant , Ulcer
20.
Rev. Inst. Adolfo Lutz ; 74(3): 190-199, jul.-set. 2015. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP, SESSP-CTDPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-ACVSES, SESSP-IALPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-IALACERVO | ID: lil-786798

ABSTRACT

Os comprimidos utilizados no tratamento da tuberculose possuem quatro fármacos associados, isoniazida, pirazinamida, etambutol e rifampicina, e são distribuídos gratuitamente pelo Sistema Único de Saúde. Os métodos analíticos oficiais para analisar este medicamento estão especificados na Farmacopeia Americana 36a edição e na Farmacopeia Internacional 4a edição. Porém, estes compêndios oficiais não possuem monografias para análise simultânea dos quatro fármacos. O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver uma metodologia para determinar simultaneamente os princípios ativos em comprimidos dose fixa combinada, utilizando-se cromatografia a líquido de alta eficiência com detector de ultravioleta-visível, pois é de grande importância para o controle da qualidade do medicamento. O método desenvolvido utilizou coluna cromatográfica C18 (250 x 4,6) mm e 5 μm, fase móvel constituída de fase aquosa (85 % tampão formiato de amônio 0,3 mol/L pH 5, 15 % metanol e 0,005 mol/L de Cu2+ ou 250 mg/L de CuSO4.5H2O) e fase orgânica (metanol, 0,1 % de trietilamina e 0,2 % de ácido fórmico). O fluxo foi de 1,0 mL/min e comprimento de onda de 265 nm para isoniazida, pirazinamida e o etambutol e de 335 nm para rifampicina. Este método apresentou desvio padrão relativo inferior a 2,0 % na precisão e linearidade para os quatro fármacos estudados.


Tablets containing isoniazid, pyrazinamide, ethambutol and rifampicin are used for tuberculosis treatment, and theyare freely distributed by the Brazilian National Health System. The official analytical methods for testing those substances in fixed-dose combined tablet are described in the United States Pharmacopeia and theInternational Pharmacopoeia. None of these official compendiums refers to the methodologies forconducting the simultaneous analysis of these four drugs. This study aimedatdeveloping an analytical methodology to determine simultaneously allof four drugs in tablets for tuberculosis treatment, bymeans ofhigh performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet-visible detector. The developed method used a chromatographic column with octadecylsilane stationary phase (250 mm x 4.6 mm x 5 μm particle size). The mobile phase was aqueous (85 % ammonium formate buffer pH 5, 15 % methanol and 250 mg CuSO4.5H2O), and organic phase (methanol, 0.1 % triethylamine and 0.2 % formic acid). The flow was 1.0 mL/min, at a wavelength of 265 nm or, when the equipment allowed, a wavelength of 265 nm for isoniazid, pyrazinamide and ethambutol and 335 nm for rifampicin. The developed methodology showed satisfactory results regarding the precision parameter, with relative standard deviation lower than 2.0 % for the studied drugs.


Subject(s)
Tablets , Chromatography, Liquid , Ethambutol , Isoniazid , Pyrazinamide , Rifampin , Tuberculosis
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