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1.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(1): e025220, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156219

ABSTRACT

Abstract Southern cattle tick resistance to pour-on and injectable acaricides has yet to be evaluated on a broader scope, and the paucity of information on the subject may hinder efforts to control this parasite. The objective of this study was to evaluate the resistance profile of ten populations of Rhipicephalus microplus to the acaricides fluazuron, fipronil and ivermectin in cattle herds in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The larval immersion test (LIT) was used to evaluate susceptibility to ivermectin and fipronil and the adult immersion test (AIT) was performed to evaluate fluazuron. Samples were randomly obtained in ten farms, and in general, we found resistance in five samples to fluazuron and in four samples to ivermectin and fipronil. Six samples showed incipient resistance to ivermectin and fipronil. Five of the ten evaluated samples showed resistance and/or incipient resistance to all the active ingredients, and the other five to two active ingredients. Among the samples classified as resistant, the average resistance ratio for ivermectin was 2.75 and 3.26 for fipronil. These results demonstrate the advanced status of resistance to the most modern chemical groups for the control of R. microplus in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul.


Resumo A resistência do carrapato-do-boi a acaricidas com modo de aplicação "pour-on" e injetáveis é pouco avaliada em estudos mais abrangentes, e essa escassez de informação pode resultar falhas no seu controle. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o perfil de resistência em dez populações de Rhipicephalus microplus aos acaricidas fluazuron, fipronil e ivermectina, em rebanhos bovinos em Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. A caracterização fenotípica da resistência foi realizada por meio do teste de imersão de adultos (AIT) para o fluazuron, e teste de imersão de larvas (LIT) para fipronil e ivermectina. As amostras foram obtidas aleatoriamente em dez fazendas, sendo diagnosticada resistência em cinco amostras ao fluazuron e em quatro amostras à ivermectina e fipronil. Seis amostras apresentaram resistência incipiente à ivermectina e fipronil. Cinco das dez amostras avaliadas apresentaram resistência e / ou resistência incipiente a todos os princípios ativos, e as outras cinco a dois princípios ativos. Entre as amostras classificadas como resistentes, a média do fator de resistência para ivermectina foi de 2,75 e de 3,26 para fipronil. Esses resultados demonstram o avançado estado de resistência aos mais modernos grupos químicos para o controle de R. microplus em Mato Grosso do Sul.


Subject(s)
Animals , Tick Infestations/parasitology , Tick Infestations/veterinary , Drug Resistance , Cattle Diseases/parasitology , Rhipicephalus/drug effects , Acaricides/pharmacology , Phenylurea Compounds/pharmacology , Pyrazoles/pharmacology , Ivermectin/pharmacology , Brazil , Cattle
2.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(6): e6141, 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839302

ABSTRACT

Cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1R) inhibition tends to be one of the promising strategies for the treatment of obesity and other related metabolic disorders. Although CB1R inhibition may cause adverse psychiatric effects including depression and anxiety, the investigation of the role of peripheral CB1R on weight loss and related metabolic parameters are urgently needed. We first explored the effect of rimonabant, a selective CB1R antagonist/inverse agonist, on some metabolic parameters in high fat-diet (HFD)-induced obesity in mice. Then, real-time PCR and electrophysiology were used to explore the contribution of high voltage-activated Ca2+ channels (HVACCs), especially Cav1.1, on rimonabant's effect in skeletal muscle (SM) in HFD-induced obesity. Five-week HFD feeding caused body weight gain, and decreased glucose/insulin tolerance in mice compared to those in the regular diet group (P<0.05), which was restored by rimonabant treatment compared to the HFD group (P<0.05). Interestingly, HVACCs and Cav1.1 were decreased in soleus muscle cells in the HFD group compared to the control group. Daily treatment with rimonabant for 5 weeks was shown to counter such decrease (P<0.05). Collectively, our findings provided a novel understanding for peripheral CB1R's role in the modulation of body weight and glucose homeostasis and highlight peripheral CB1R as well as Cav1.1 in the SM as potential targets for obesity treatment.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Calcium Channels/drug effects , Cannabinoid Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Muscle, Skeletal/drug effects , Piperidines/pharmacology , Pyrazoles/pharmacology , Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB1/antagonists & inhibitors , Body Weight/drug effects , Calcium Channels, L-Type/drug effects , Calcium Channels, L-Type/metabolism , Calcium Channels/metabolism , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Glucose Intolerance/etiology , Insulin Resistance , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Models, Animal , Muscle, Skeletal/metabolism , Obesity/etiology , Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB1/physiology
3.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2015 Feb; 52 (1): 23-28
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-157951

ABSTRACT

Crizotinib is the potential anticancer drug used for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) approved by FDA in 2011. The main target for the crizotinib is anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK). Evidences available indicate that double mutant ALK (L1196M and G1269A) confers resistance to crizotinib. However, how mutation confers drug resistance is not well-understood. Hence, in the present study, molecular dynamic (MD) simulation approach was employed to study the impact of crizotinib binding efficacy with ALK structures at a molecular level. Docking results indicated that ALK double mutant (L1196M and G1269A) significantly affected the binding affinity for crizotinib. Furthermore, MD studies revealed that mutant ALK-crizotinib complex showed higher deviation, higher fluctuation and decreased number of intermolecular H-bonds, when compared to the native ALK-crizotinib complex. These results may be immense importance for the molecular level understanding of the crizotinib resistance pattern and also for designing potential drug molecule for the treatment of lung cancer.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/etiology , Molecular Dynamics Simulation/statistics & numerical data , Pyrazoles/pharmacology , Pyridines/pharmacology
4.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-162168

ABSTRACT

Atrial Fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia. AF is a major risk factor for stoke. Warfarin has been available for more than 60 years and until recently it was the only oral anticoagulant used for the prevention of stroke. Despite the extensive studies and proven efficacy, its utility is limited by multiple factors. Warfarin interacts with a multitude of drugs and foods, has a delayed onset of action, has a narrow therapeutic range, requires routine lab monitoring and exhibits variable responses in patients. The novel agents dabigatran, rivaroxaban and apixaban have the potential to have some of the limitations of warfarin. This article will discuss the pharmacokinetic and pharmacological considerations and different characteristics of the novel anticoagulants when used for the prevention of AF.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anticoagulants/pharmacokinetics , Anticoagulants/pharmacology , Antithrombins/pharmacokinetics , Antithrombins/pharmacology , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Atrial Fibrillation/surgery , Atrial Fibrillation/therapy , Benzimidazoles/pharmacokinetics , Benzimidazoles/pharmacology , Factor Xa Inhibitors/pharmacokinetics , Factor Xa Inhibitors/pharmacology , Humans , Morpholines/pharmacokinetics , Morpholines/pharmacology , Pyrazoles/pharmacokinetics , Pyrazoles/pharmacology , Pyridones/pharmacokinetics , Pyridones/pharmacology , Thiophenes/pharmacokinetics , Thiophenes/pharmacology , Warfarin/pharmacokinetics , Warfarin/pharmacology , beta-Alanine/pharmacokinetics , beta-Alanine/pharmacology
5.
Acta cir. bras ; 29(7): 423-428, 07/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-714578

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the genotoxicity of propolis and L-lysine, as well as their effects on the possible cellular damage in erythroblasts (bone marrow) and leukocytes (peripheral blood) caused by the carcinogen BBN (n - butyl - n {4 - hydroxybutyl} nitrosamine) in rats subjected to bladder carcinogenesis and treated with green propolis and L-lysine. METHODS: One hundred and twenty five rats were distributed into the following groups: I, IIA, IIB, III, K, L M N, X, XI, XII and XIII. Groups I to X received BBN in drinking water for 14 weeks (wks). Group I was treated with intragastric (ig) propolis at 150 mg/kg body weight, for 44 wks, beginning 30 days before start of BBN. Groups IIA and III were treated with propolis (150 mg/kg), for 40 wks, subcutaneous (sc) and ig, respectively, beginning simultaneously with BBN. On the 32nd wk, the animals of groups L, M and N were treated ig with L-lysine (300 mg/kg), celecoxib (30 mg/kg) and propolis (300 mg/kg), respectively, up to the 40th wk. The groups that received only BBN (IIB and K) were treated with water, sc and orally, respectively, for 40 wks. Groups XI, XII and XIII received respectively propolis (150 mg/kg), L-lysine (150 mg/kg) and water ig for 40 wks. After 40 wks, the surviving animals were anesthetized and subjected to femoral bone marrow aspiration and blood collection from the aorta, for CA and MNT, respectively, for investigation of genotoxicity. RESULTS: Groups IIB and K, which received only BBN and water, showed the greatest DNA damage in peripheral leukocytes (CA) and largest number of micronuclei in bone marrow erythrocytes (MNT) in relation to all other groups that received BBN and lysine and/or propolis (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Both propolis and L-lysine are effective in protecting against genotoxicity, as well not being genotoxic themselves toward the cells evaluated, at the doses and times administered and according to the two tests utilized. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Bone Marrow Cells/drug effects , Carcinogenesis/drug effects , Lymphocytes/drug effects , Lysine/pharmacology , Propolis/pharmacology , Pyrazoles/pharmacology , Sulfonamides/pharmacology , Anticarcinogenic Agents/pharmacology , Carcinogenicity Tests , Comet Assay , DNA Damage , Micronucleus Tests , Rats, Wistar , Reference Values , Reproducibility of Results , Time Factors , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/pathology , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/prevention & control
6.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 47(1): 50-59, 01/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-697673

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, and evidence indicates a correlation between the inflammatory process and cardiac dysfunction. Selective inhibitors of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme are not recommended for long-term use because of potentially severe side effects to the heart. Considering this and the frequent prescribing of commercial celecoxib, the present study analyzed cellular and molecular effects of 1 and 10 µM celecoxib in a cell culture model. After a 24-h incubation, celecoxib reduced cell viability in a dose-dependent manner as also demonstrated in MTT assays. Furthermore, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the drug modulated the expression level of genes related to death pathways, and Western blot analyses demonstrated a modulatory effect of the drug on COX-2 protein levels in cardiac cells. In addition, the results demonstrated a downregulation of prostaglandin E2 production by the cardiac cells incubated with celecoxib, in a dose-specific manner. These results are consistent with the decrease in cell viability and the presence of necrotic processes shown by Fourier transform infrared analysis, suggesting a direct correlation of prostanoids in cellular homeostasis and survival.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , /pharmacology , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Myoblasts, Cardiac/drug effects , Pyrazoles/pharmacology , Sulfonamides/pharmacology , Blotting, Western , Cell Line , Cell Proliferation/genetics , Cell Survival/genetics , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Gene Expression Regulation/genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger/drug effects , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared , Time Factors
7.
Biol. Res ; 47: 1-9, 2014. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950723

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the last few years it has been shown in several laboratories that Celecoxib (Cx), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) normally used for pain and arthritis, mediates antitumor and antiangiogenic effects. However, the effects of this drug on a tumor cell line resistant to chemotherapeutical drugs used in cancer have not been described. Herein we evaluate the angiogenic and antitumor effects of Cx in the development of a drug-resistant mammary adenocarcinoma tumor (TA3-MTXR). RESULTS: Cx reduces angiogenesis in the chick embryonic chorioallantoic membrane assay (CAM), inhibits the growth and microvascular density of the murine TA3-MTXR tumor, reduces microvascular density of tumor metastases, promotes apoptosis and reduces vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production and cell proliferation in the tumor. CONCLUSION: The antiangiogenic and antitumor Cx effects correlate with its activity on other tumor cell lines, suggesting that Prostaglandins (PGs) and VEGF production are involved. These results open the possibility of using Celecoxib combined with other experimental therapies, ideally aiming to get synergic effects.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Chick Embryo , Mice , Pyrazoles/pharmacology , Sulfonamides/pharmacology , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/drug effects , Lung Neoplasms/secondary , Neovascularization, Pathologic/drug therapy , Pyrazoles/administration & dosage , Sulfonamides/administration & dosage , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor , Chickens , In Situ Nick-End Labeling , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/antagonists & inhibitors , Chorioallantoic Membrane , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Celecoxib
8.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2013 Dec; 50(6): 511-520
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-150265

ABSTRACT

The study focuses on the importance of Tyr11 amino acid (AA) and subsequent stereochemistry involved in the binding process of neurotensin (NT) with its receptor (NTR)/binding protein(s) as well as the size heterogeneity. Using the binding of 125I-NT with several chicken tissues, it is identified that one of the crucial factors behind all high affinity (Kd ~10 pM) interactions is due to phenolic-OH (Φ-OH) at the para (p) position of Tyr11 within RRPYIL-CO2H (NT8-13) sequence. Replacing the p-OH only in Tyr11 by substituting with p-Cl, p-F and p-NH2 results in significant change of the binding affinity (Kd); p-OH ≈ p-NH2 (~10 pM), p-Cl (~100 pM), p-F (~120 pM). Interestingly, p-NH2 equals to p-OH displaying the highest affinity. Experiments conducted by binding several of the 125I-azido–NT analogs having azido group attached at different positions within the NT molecule have further confirmed the necessity of RRPYIL sequence for high affinity ligand-receptor interaction. The role of Tryp11 in place of Tyr11 in addition to the results above establishes a significant possibility of H–bonding occurring between p-OH of NT and NTR inside the docking space. Photo labeling of the liver tissue by substituted 125I-Y3-azido-NT analogs shows several specifically labeled bands with considerable range of molecular weight (Mr ~90-30 kDa) variations. These results indicate the existence of molecular heterogeneity concerning the sizes of NTR or else any NT binding proteins in the avian tissues. Further, the study has revealed that besides liver, several other chicken tissues also express similar specific high affinity binding (Kd ~20 pM) with varying capacities (Bmax). The order for Bmax is: liver (1.2 pMol/mg) gall bladder (1.03 pMol/mg) > spleen (0.43 pMol/mg) > brain (0.3 pMol/mg) > colon lung (0.15 pMol/mg). In all cases, the binding was reduced by GTPgS (ED50 ~ 0.05 nM), NEM (ED50 ~ 0.50 mM) and NaCl (ED50 ~30 mM), indicating the existence of NTR identical to the mammalian type-1.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Amino Acid Substitution , Animals , Azides/chemistry , Binding, Competitive , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Chickens , Ethylmaleimide/pharmacology , Female , Guanosine 5'-O-(3-Thiotriphosphate) , Liver/cytology , Male , Molecular Weight , Neurotensin/chemistry , Neurotensin/genetics , Neurotensin/metabolism , Protein Binding/drug effects , Pyrazoles/pharmacology , Quinolines/pharmacology , Receptors, Neurotensin/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Neurotensin/chemistry , Receptors, Neurotensin/metabolism , Sodium Chloride/pharmacology , Stereoisomerism , Tyrosine
9.
IJFS-International Journal of Fertility and Sterility. 2013; 7 (1): 7-12
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-142773

ABSTRACT

The endometrium plays a pivotal role in implantation and pregnancy. Cyclooxygenase II [COX-2] has an important function in biological processes such as cell proliferation and inflammation. Celecoxib is a selective inhibitor of COX-2 with numerous pharmacologic functions. The aim of present study is to investigate the effects of celecoxib on the human endometrium in a three-dimensional [3D] culture model. In this experimental study, normal human endometria [n=10] obtained from reproductive age women were cut into 1x1 mm sections. Endometrial explants were placed between two layers of fibrin gel. To create the fibrin gel, we poured a thin layer of fibrinogen solution [3 mg/ml in medium 199 [M199]] into each well of a 24-well culture dish and added thrombin enzyme. Endometrial fragments were placed in the center of each well and covered with a second layer of fibrinogen solution. M199 supplemented with L-glutamine, fetal bovine serum [FBS, 5%] and antibiotics were added to each well. The media in each experimental well contained either1, 10 or 50 micro M of celecoxib. At the end of the study, we calculated endometrial tissue growth changes by scoring methods and determined the percentage of angiogenesis. Data were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis method. P<0.05 was considered significant. The growth scores were as follows: control [1.37 +/- 0.16], 1 micro M [1.96 +/- 0.28], 10 micro M [2.01 +/- 0.25], and 50 micro M [1.17 +/- 0.14] celecoxib, all of which were significantly different. The angiogenesis percentages were: 25.56 +/- 6.72% [control], 31.98 +/- 6.18% [1 micro M], 42.67 +/- 7.27% [10 micro M] and 23.44 +/- 4.03% [50 micro M], which were not significantly different from each other. Lower celecoxib concentrations had stimulatory effects on the growth of normal endometrium


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pyrazoles/pharmacology , Endometrium/drug effects , Endometrium/growth & development , Organ Culture Techniques , Angiogenesis Inducing Agents
10.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 44(11): 1148-1155, Nov. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-604273

ABSTRACT

The efficacy of endothelin receptor antagonists in protecting against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is controversial, and the mechanisms remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of CPU0123, a novel endothelin type A and type B receptor antagonist, on myocardial I/R injury and to explore the mechanisms involved. Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200-250 g were randomized to three groups (6-7 per group): group 1, Sham; group 2, I/R + vehicle. Rats were subjected to in vivo myocardial I/R injury by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery and 0.5 percent sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (1 mL/kg) was injected intraperitoneally immediately prior to coronary occlusion. Group 3, I/R + CPU0213. Rats were subjected to identical surgical procedures and CPU0213 (30 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally immediately prior to coronary occlusion. Infarct size, cardiac function and biochemical changes were measured. CPU0213 pretreatment reduced infarct size as a percentage of the ischemic area by 44.5 percent (I/R + vehicle: 61.3 ± 3.2 vs I/R + CPU0213: 34.0 ± 5.5 percent, P < 0.05) and improved ejection fraction by 17.2 percent (I/R + vehicle: 58.4 ± 2.8 vs I/R + CPU0213: 68.5 ± 2.2 percent, P < 0.05) compared to vehicle-treated animals. This protection was associated with inhibition of myocardial inflammation and oxidative stress. Moreover, reduction in Akt (protein kinase B) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation induced by myocardial I/R injury was limited by CPU0213 (P < 0.05). These data suggest that CPU0123, a non-selective antagonist, has protective effects against myocardial I/R injury in rats, which may be related to the Akt/eNOS pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Cardiotonic Agents/pharmacology , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Pyrazoles/pharmacology , Receptor, Endothelin A/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptor, Endothelin B/antagonists & inhibitors , Analysis of Variance , Disease Models, Animal , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Random Allocation , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Signal Transduction/drug effects
11.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 43(12): 1193-1202, Dec. 2010. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-569003

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of eight 5-hydroxy-5-trifluoromethyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-1-carboxyamidepyrazoles (TFDPs) on rat body temperature and baker’s yeast-induced fever. TFDPs or vehicle (5 percent Tween 80 in 0.9 percent NaCl, 5 mL/kg) were injected subcutaneously and rectal temperature was measured as a function of time in 28-day-old male Wistar rats (N = 5-12 per group). Antipyretic activity was determined in feverish animals injected with baker’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae suspension, 0.135 mg/kg, 10 mL/kg, ip). 3-Ethyl- and 3-propyl-TFDP (140 and 200 μmol/kg, respectively, 4 h after yeast injection) attenuated baker’s yeast-induced fever by 61 and 82 percent, respectively. These two effective antipyretics were selected for subsequent analysis of putative mechanisms of action. We then determined the effects on cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 (COX-1 and COX-2) activities on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) oxidation in vitro, on tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) levels and on leukocyte counts in the washes of peritoneal cavities of rats injected with baker’s yeast. While 3-ethyl- and 3-propyl-TFDP did not reduce baker’s yeast-induced increases of IL-1β or TNF-α levels, 3-ethyl-TFDP caused a 42 percent reduction in peritoneal leukocyte count. 3-Ethyl- and 3-propyl-TFDP did not alter COX-1 or COX-2 activities in vitro, but presented antioxidant activity in the DPPH assay with an IC50 of 39 mM (25-62) and 163 mM (136-196), respectively. The data indicate that mechanisms of action of these two novel antipyretic pyrazole derivatives do not involve the classic inhibition of the COX pathway or pyrogenic cytokine release.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antipyretics/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Pyrazoles/pharmacology , Antipyretics/chemistry , Cyclooxygenase 1/pharmacology , /pharmacology , Interleukin-1beta/drug effects , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Pyrazoles/chemistry , Rats, Wistar , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/drug effects , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
12.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2010 Oct; 47(5): 285-291
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135278

ABSTRACT

Cigarette smoke (CS) is a rich source of radicals, predisposing the cell to oxidative stress resulting in inflammation. Chronic inflammation is a recognized risk factor for carcinogenesis. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is a mediator of inflammatory pathway and may, therefore, contribute to carcinogenesis. There are several reports that suggest the association between CS and COX-2 associated risk to cancer. In the present study, we examined the role of celecoxib (a selective COX-2 inhibitor) in modulating the oxidative stress caused by CS inhalation in mice. CS exposure for a period of 10 weeks caused oxidative stress in the pulmonary and hepatic tissues, as evident from the increase in lipid peroxidation levels (LPO) and decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH) levels. Celecoxib (125 mg/kg body weight for 8 weeks) administration to CS inhaling mice reduced the oxidative stress by decreasing the LPO levels and enhancing the GSH levels in comparison to the CS-exposed group. CS exposure repressed the enzymatic antioxidant defense system, as evident from the decrease in catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. Co-adminstration of celecoxib considerably reversed the changes in the enzymatic antioxidant defense system. Histopathological studies of lungs showed that CS exposure induced alveolar wall destruction and air space enlargement. In co-treated group, the alveolar septa were thicker than normal with apparent infiltration of inflammatory cells. In CS-exposed group, hepatic tissue exhibited vacuolization and macrophage infiltration. Co-treatment with celecoxib restored the normal histoarchitechture in hepatic tissues of CS inhaling mice. Thus, the present study demonstrated that celecoxib adminstration reduced the oxidative stress-mediated risk to carcinogenesis, due to its ability to boost the antioxidant defense system.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors/pharmacology , Liver/drug effects , Liver/metabolism , Lung/drug effects , Lung/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Pyrazoles/pharmacology , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Sulfonamides/pharmacology , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects
13.
Acta cir. bras ; 24(6): 454-459, Nov.-Dec. 2009. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-533215

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To compare the therapeutic effect of rimonabant, a new drug which is a selective antagonist of CB1 receptors, with the sibutramine. METHODS: It is an experimental clinical trial, prospective, placebo controlled. Our test was performed in 38 rats, adults females with a hyper caloric diet. We collected their blood 3 times and weighted them once a week. We divided the rats in 3 groups: Rimonabant, Sibutramine and Control. Statistic analysis has been made through ANOVA test, Tukey test and t Student test. RESULTS: The Rimonabant group demonstrated a significant reduction of the weight increase in rats. The Sibutramine group showed a significant reduction on blood glycemia compared to Rimonabant group and Control group. CONCLUSIONS: Rimonabant showed to be more effective than Sibutramine by decreasing weight gain. Sibutramine has been more effective than Rimonabant and Control groups by decreasing the blood glycemia.


OBJETIVO: Comparar o efeito do rimonabanto, nova droga seletivamente antagonista dos receptores CB1, com a sibutramina. MÉTODOS: Ensaio clínico experimental, prospectivo, placebo controlado. Realizado com 38 ratas, adultas, submetidas a dieta hipercalórica. Foram coletadas 3 amostras de sangue e o peso controlado semanalmente. Foram divididas em 3 grupos: Rimonabanto, Sibutramina e Controle. Analise estatística realizada com ANOVA, teste t de Student e teste de Tukey. RESULTADOS: O grupo Rimonabanto obteve redução significante do ganho de peso. O grupo Sibutramina teve redução significativa da glicemia quando comparado aos demais grupos. CONCLUSÕES: Rimonabanto foi mais efetivo que a Sibutramina na redução do ganho de peso. A Sibutramina foi mais efetiva na redução da glicemia do que os grupos controle e Rimonabanto.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Appetite Depressants/pharmacology , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Body Weight/drug effects , Cyclobutanes/pharmacology , Dietary Fats/administration & dosage , Piperidines/pharmacology , Pyrazoles/pharmacology , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Compulsive Behavior/metabolism , Epidemiologic Methods , Models, Animal , Rats, Wistar , Weight Gain/drug effects
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-76610

ABSTRACT

AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase) is highly conserved in eukaryotes, where it functions primarily as a sensor of cellular energy status. Recent studies indicate that AMPK activation strongly suppresses cell proliferation in non-malignant cells as well as in tumor cells. In this study, quercetin activated AMPK in MCF breast cancer cell lines and HT-29 colon cancer cells, and this activation of AMPK seemed to be closely related to a decrease in COX-2 expression. The application of a COX-2 inhibitor or cox-2(-/-) cells supported the idea that AMPK is an upstream signal of COX-2, and is required for the anti-proliferatory and pro-apoptotic effects of quercetin. The suppressive or growth inhibitory effects of quercetin on COX-2 were abolished by treating cancer cells with an AMPK inhibitor Compound C. These results suggest that AMPK is crucial to the anti-cancer effect of quercetin and that the AMPK-COX-2 signaling pathway is important in quercetin-mediated cancer control.


Subject(s)
AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Anticarcinogenic Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Cell Cycle/drug effects , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cyclooxygenase 2/genetics , Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors/pharmacology , Enzyme Activation , Humans , Pyrazoles/pharmacology , Pyrimidines/pharmacology , Quercetin/pharmacology
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-98679

ABSTRACT

The selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and 5-lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitors might inhibit prostaglandin synthesis and reduce proteinuria. The present study was designed to investigate the anti-proteinuric effects of nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) as compared with celecoxib in puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN) nephrosis rats. Fifty five male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups; A, normal control; B, PAN group; C, PAN+COX-2 inhibitor (celecoxib) group; and D, PAN+5-LOX inhibitor (NDGA) group. After induction of PAN nephrosis through repeated injections of PAN (7.5 and 15 mg/100 g body weight), rats were treated with celecoxib, NDGA, or vehicle for 2 weeks. Twenty four hour urine protein excretions were significantly lower in PAN+celecoxib and PAN+NDGA groups than in PAN group. Serum creatinine (SCr) concentrations and 24 hr urine creatinine clearances (CCr) were not significantly different in the four groups. Electron microscopy showed that podocyte morphology was changed after the induction of PAN nephrosis and was recovered after celecoxib or NDGA administration. Celecoxib significantly recovered the expressions of nephrin, CD2AP, COX-2, and TGF-beta. NDGA also recovered TGF-betaexpression, but did not alter the expressions of nephrin, CD2AP and COX-2. The present study suggested that celecoxib and NDGA might effectively reduce proteinuria in nephrotic syndrome without impairing renal function.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Body Weight , Creatinine/blood , Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Male , Microscopy, Electron , Nephrosis/chemically induced , Masoprocol/pharmacology , Podocytes/metabolism , Puromycin Aminonucleoside/pharmacology , Pyrazoles/pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sulfonamides/pharmacology , Time Factors
16.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2008 Jun; 46(6): 476-81
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-62399

ABSTRACT

Atherosclerosis being considered as an inflammatory disorder, the present study was undertaken to investigate the effectiveness of anti-inflammatory drugs (ibuprofen, aspirin, and celecoxib) in hypercholesterolemia. Ibuprofen is a cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and COX-2) inhibitor known to reduce the production of prostaglandins that play prominent role in inflammation. Beside the anti-inflammatory effects that make ibuprofen interesting for the treatment of condition associated with hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis. Various other properties of ibuprofen were investigated, ibuprofen showed better reduction in total cholesterol, triglycerides, very low density lipo-protein, low density lipo-protein and atherogenic index than aspirin and celecoxib in hypercholesterolemic animals. These properties of ibuprofen may be due to inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase initiating the synthesis of fatty acids. Ibuprofen significantly elevated antioxidant (super oxide dismutase; catalase) levels and reduced lipid peroxidation. Ibuprofen inhibits COX enzymes and thereby inhibits generation of free radicals during prostaglandins synthesis, which may be responsible for reduction in lipid peroxidation, super oxide dismutase levels and for high catalase levels. Interestingly, ibuprofen decreased total leukocyte count, monocyte count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein levels. From the results of present study, it can be concluded that ibuprofen (non-selective COX inhibitor) showed promising antihyperlipidemic, antiatherosclerotic, antioxidant, antiinflammatory and non-ulcerogenic activity in atherosclerotic animals as compared to aspirin (preferential COX-1 inhibitor) and celecoxib (selective COX-2 inhibitors, suggesting the inducible role of COX in atherosclerosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Hypolipidemic Agents/pharmacology , Antiparasitic Agents/pharmacology , Aspirin/pharmacology , Atherosclerosis/drug therapy , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Hypercholesterolemia/drug therapy , Ibuprofen/pharmacology , Male , Pyrazoles/pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sulfonamides/pharmacology
17.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2007 Jul; 45(7): 654-6
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-59884

ABSTRACT

Experimental diabetes induced by streptozotocin (200 mg/kg, ip) markedly decreased the antinociceptive effect of morphine and significantly increased the urinary nitrite concentration. Administration of FR-167653 (a selective p38MAPKinase inhibitor) in a dose of 4 mg/kg improved the antinociceptive effect of morphine and attenuated the increase in urinary nitrite concentration in diabetic mice. It may be concluded that diabetes-induced decrease in antinociceptive effect of morphine may be due to induction of p38 MAPKinase activity.


Subject(s)
Analgesics/pharmacology , Analgesics, Opioid/pharmacology , Animals , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors/chemistry , Drug Design , Female , Male , Mice , Models, Statistical , Morphine/pharmacology , Nitrites/chemistry , Pyrazoles/pharmacology , Pyridines/pharmacology , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors
18.
Rev. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Córdoba) ; 64(2): 9-15, 2007. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-511492

ABSTRACT

La osteoartritis (OA) es una enfermedad articular crónica, progresiva que se instala como consecuencia de un proceso complejo que involcra alteraciones mecánicas y biológicas del sistema músculo-esquelético, siendo resultante de múltiples interacciones entre factores genéticos e injurias extrínsecas. La patogenia de esta enfermedad se ralaciona con alta y desviada producción de citokinas flogógenas y de enzimas proteolíticas, que degradan y destruyen la matriz extracelular en tejidos articulares y peri-articulares. Se estudiaron 20 casos con OA, de los cuales se obtuvo cartílago durante intervenciones quirúrgicas programadas. El cartílago se cultivó en medio Dulbecco-Eagle, con o sin agregado de AINEs o condromodulares. En los sobrenadantes se determinaron óxido nítrico por reacción de Giess y la medición espectrofotométrica; y colagenasa por ELISA doble sándwich en presencia de anticuerpos monoclonales. En ausencia de AINEs, los cultivos de condrocitos produjeron 1950 ± 665ng/ml de MMP-1, La adición de Diclofenac redujo esa cifra a 1140 ± 155 ng/ml, aunque esta diferencia no fue estadisticamente significativa, (p<0.60). Por el contrario, Celecoxib redujo el nivel de la enzima a 760 ± 75ng/ml (p<0,01) y la Glucosamina también provocó un descenso (950 ± 89 ng/ml) significativo (p<0.05). Los niveles de ON en ausencia de AINEs llegaron a 47,3 ± 4,9 µM. Su producción no varió significativamente con la adición de Diclofenac, Ceecoxib o Glucosamina (p=ns). Los resultados indicarían la incapacidad de Diclofenac para modificar la generación de enzimas proteolíticas, mientras que Celecoxib y Glucosamina disminuyen su producción significativamente. Ninguno de los fármacos utilizados en nuestro trabajo ha logrado alterar la concentración de ON. Muchos integrantes quedan aún sin resolver y todavía se carece de fármacos de eficacia comprobada para alterar el curso natural de la enfermedad.


Osteoarthritis is a chronic and progressive joint disease. It is established by a complex process involving mechanical and biological alterations of the musculoskeletal system, which are generated by a great variety of interactions between genetic factors and extrinsic injuries. The pathogenesis of this disease is related to an increased and divergent production of inflammatory markers and proteolytic enzymes that promote the degradation and destruction of the extracellular matrix of articular and periarticular tissues. Cartilage samples were taken from 20 osteoarthritic patients during programmed surgical interventions. The cartilage samples were cultured in Dulbecco-Eagle medium, with or without the addition of NSAIDs or modulators of chondrocyte metabolism. The content of nitric oxide in the supernatant was quantified using the Griess reaction; the concentration of MMP-1 was quantified via double-sandwich ELISA. Untreated chondrocyte cultures produced 1950 +/- 665 ng/ml MMP-1. With the addition of Diclofenac this value decreased to 1140 +/- 155 ng/ml, although this difference was not statistically significant (p < 0.06). However, in the presence of Celecoxib the level significantly dropped to 760 +/- 75 ng/ml (p < 0.01). Although the addition ofglucosamine did not produce such a noticeable reduction in the level of MMP-1 (950 +/- 89 ng/ml), it was statistically significant (p < 0.05). On the contrary, none of the drugs (Diclofenac, Celecoxib, Glucosamine) modified the level of nitric oxide which had a mean value of 47.3 +/- 4.9 microM in the control samples. This investigation evidenced the inability of Diclofenac to significantly modify the production of proteolytic enzymes in osteoarthritic chondrocyte cultures. However, both Celecoxib and Glucosamine significantly reduced the production of MMP-1. On the contrary, none of the drugs used in this study managed to modify the concentration of nitric oxide. To the present day, no drugs have been found to be...


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Cartilage, Articular/drug effects , Chondrocytes/drug effects , Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Matrix Metalloproteinases/metabolism , Osteoarthritis/drug therapy , Analysis of Variance , Biomarkers/metabolism , Chondrocytes/metabolism , Diclofenac/pharmacology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Glucosamine/pharmacology , Matrix Metalloproteinases/drug effects , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Osteoarthritis/enzymology , Pyrazoles/pharmacology , Sulfonamides/pharmacology
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-174057

ABSTRACT

Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone tumor, but the pathogenesis is not well understood. While cyclooxygeanse-2 (COX-2) is known to be closely associated with tumor growth and metastasis in several kinds of human tumors, the function of COX-2 in osteosarcoma is unclear. Therefore, to investigate the function of COX-2 in osteosarcoma, we established stable cell lines overexpressing COX-2 in U2OS human osteosarcoma cells. COX-2 overexpression as well as prostaglandin E(2) treatment promoted proliferation of U2OS cells. In addition, COX-2 overexpression enhanced mobility and invasiveness of U2OS cells, which was accompanied by increases of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 (MMP-2 and -9) activities. Selective COX-2 inhibitors, NS-398 and celecoxib, inhibited cell proliferation and abrogated the enhanced mobility, invasiveness and MMP activities induced by COX-2 overexpression. These results suggest that COX-2 is directly associated with cell proliferation, migration and invasion in human osteosarcoma cells, and the therapeutic value of COX-2 inhibitors should be evaluated continuously.


Subject(s)
Bone Neoplasms/enzymology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Movement , Cell Proliferation , Cyclooxygenase 2/biosynthesis , Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors/pharmacology , Dinoprostone/pharmacology , Enzyme Activation , Humans , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/metabolism , Neoplasm Invasiveness , Nitrobenzenes/pharmacology , Osteosarcoma/enzymology , Pyrazoles/pharmacology , Sulfonamides/pharmacology
20.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 82(5,supl): S206-S212, Nov. 2006. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-441742

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Analisar os antiinflamatórios não-hormonais (AINH) inibidores seletivos da Cox 2 quanto ao mecanismo de ação, principais indicações, posologia e efeitos adversos mais comuns. FONTES DOS DADOS: MEDLINE e LILACS, sites da Food and Drug Administration (FDA) e da Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA). Foram selecionados os artigos mais importantes, com destaque para as publicações dos últimos 5 anos. SíNTESE DOS DADOS: As principais indicações dos AINH são o controle da dor e da inflamação aguda e crônica. Não existem evidências que demonstrem maior efetividade de um AINH sobre outro. Até a presente data, nenhum inibidor da Cox2 foi liberado para uso na faixa etária pediátrica. Apenas o meloxicam e o etoricoxibe podem ser prescritos para adolescentes (13 e 16 anos, respectivamente). Os inibidores seletivos da Cox 2 são indicados em pacientes com efeitos adversos comprovadamente relacionados aos AINH não seletivos. Em alguns casos de alergia à aspirina, os Cox 2 seletivos podem ser prescritos, mas seu uso deve ser cuidadoso. Os principais efeitos adversos incluem os cardiovasculares e os fenômenos trombóticos. CONCLUSÕES: Os inibidores seletivos da Cox 2 são medicamentos que vêm sendo utilizados em algumas situações clínicas bem determinadas e podem oferecer algumas vantagens com relação aos AINH não seletivos. No entanto, devido ao custo mais elevado e aos potenciais efeitos adversos cardiovasculares, seu emprego deve ser criterioso.


OBJECTIVE: To analyze selective COX 2 inhibitor nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) in terms of their mechanism of action, principal indications, posology and most common adverse effects. SOURCES: MEDLINE and LILACS databases and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and National Agency for Sanitary Vigilance (ANVISA - Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária) websites. The most important articles were selected and preference was given to articles published within the last 5 years. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: The principal indications for NSAID are for control of pain and acute and chronic inflammation. There is no overwhelming evidence that demonstrates the superiority of one NSAID over another in terms of effectiveness. To date none of the COX 2 inhibitors has been liberated for use in the pediatric age group. Only meloxicam and etoricoxib can be prescribed for adolescents (13 and 16 years, respectively). Selective COX 2 inhibitors are indicated for patients with adverse effects that have proven to be associated with nonselective NSAID use. Selective COX 2 inhibitors can be prescribed in some cases of allergy to aspirin, but they must be used with care. Principal adverse effects include cardiovascular events and thrombotic phenomena. CONCLUSIONS: Selective COX 2 inhibitors are medicines that have been used in certain well-defined clinical situations and which may offer certain advantages over nonselective NSAID. Nevertheless, taking into consideration the higher cost involved and the potential for adverse cardiovascular effects, they should be employed only in accordance with strict criteria.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , /pharmacology , Naproxen/pharmacology , Pyridines/pharmacology , Sulfur Compounds/pharmacology , Aspirin/pharmacology , Aspirin/therapeutic use , /therapeutic use , Drug Interactions , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Fever/drug therapy , Hypersensitivity, Immediate/drug therapy , Inflammation/drug therapy , Leukotrienes/biosynthesis , Leukotrienes/pharmacology , Naproxen/therapeutic use , Pain/drug therapy , Prostaglandins/biosynthesis , Prostaglandins/pharmacology , Pyrazoles/pharmacology , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Pyridines/therapeutic use , Sulfur Compounds/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
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