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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 499-507, 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153369

ABSTRACT

Increased agricultural production has been increased use of pesticides worldwide, which poses a threat to both human and environmental health. Recent studies suggest that several non-target organisms, from bees to mammals, show a wide variety of toxic effects of pesticides exposure, including impaired behavior, development and reproduction. Among mammals, bats are usually a neglected taxon among ecotoxicological studies, although they play important ecological and economical roles in forest ecosystems and agriculture through to seed dispersal and insect population control. Considering their wide variety of food habits, bats are exposed to environmental pollutants through food or water contamination, or through direct skin contact in their roosting areas. In order to better understand the risk posed by pesticides to bats populations, we compiled studies that investigated the main toxicological effects of pesticides in bats, aiming at contributing to discussion about the environmental risks associated with the use of pesticides.


O aumento da produção agrícola tem levado ao aumento do uso de pesticidas em todo o mundo, o que representa uma ameaça para a saúde humana e ambiental. Estudos recentes sugerem que vários organismos não-alvo, de abelhas a mamíferos, apresentam uma grande variedade de efeitos tóxicos após a exposição aos pesticidas a pesticidas, incluindo alterações de comportamento, no desenvolvimento e na reprodução. Entre os mamíferos, os morcegos geralmente são negligenciados entre os estudos ecotoxicológicos, embora desempenhem importantes papéis ecológicos e econômicos nos ecossistemas florestais e na agricultura por meio do controle de dispersão de sementes e de populações de insetos. Considerando sua ampla variedade de hábitos alimentares, eles estão expostos a poluentes ambientais através da contaminação de alimentos ou água, ou através do contato direto com a pele em suas áreas de descanso. Para entender melhor o risco que os agrotóxicos representam para as populações de morcegos, compilamos estudos que investigaram os principais efeitos toxicológicos de agrotóxicos em morcegos, visando à discussão sobre os riscos ambientais associados ao uso de agrotóxicos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Pesticides/toxicity , Pyrethrins/analysis , Chiroptera/physiology , Environmental Pollutants/toxicity , Insecticides, Organochlorine/analysis , Bees , Ecosystem , Agriculture , Bioaccumulation
2.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 37(2): 97-104, fev. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-833981

ABSTRACT

A survey of veterinary drug residues in bulk milk tank from Minas Gerais State, Brazil, was carried out through a broad scope analysis. Here, 132 raw milk samples were collected at 45 dairy farms in Minas Gerais from August 2009 to February 2010, and analyzed for 42 analytes, comprising pyrethroids, macrocyclic lactones and antibacterials, using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry in tandem mode and gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Within all milk samples, at least one veterinary drug residue was identified in 40 milk samples (30.30%) by confirmatory tests, whereas 16 samples (12.12%) showed the presence of at least two residues. With regard to the Brazilian maximum residue levels, 11 milk samples (8.33%) were non-compliant according to Brazilian Legislation. The veterinary drugs detected in the non-compliant milk samples include penicillin V (one sample), abamectin (one sample) and cypermethrin (nine samples). Furthermore, the antibacterial screening methods failed to identify most of the positive samples that were detected by confirmatory tests, leading to a large discrepancy between the screening and confirmatory antimicrobial tests. Thus, the present study indicated that the veterinary drugs residues still represents a great concern for the milk production chain.(AU)


Avaliou-se a presença de 42 analitos, incluindo piretróides, lactonas macrocíclicas e antimicrobianos em 132 amostras de leite de tanque proveniente de 45 propriedades leiteiras localizadas no Estado de Minas Gerais. Para tal, utilizou-se a cromatografia líquida acoplada a espectrofotometria de massas tandem e cromatografia gasosa com detector com captura de elétrons. Dentre todas as amostras de leite, 40 (30,30%) amostras de leite de tanque apresentaram a presença de pelo menos um analito, enquanto 16 amostras (12,12%) de leite demonstraram a presença de pelo menos dois analitos. Considerando os limites estabelecidos pela legislação brasileira, 11 amostras de leite (8,33%) seriam consideradas como não conforme. Ademais, os testes de triagem para detecção de antimicrobianos no leite não conseguiram identificar a maioria das amostras positivas nos testes confirmatórios, levando a grande discrepância entre estes testes. Desta forma, os resultados do presente estudo indicam que os períodos de descarte do leite, especialmente para piretróides, não foram plenamente respeitados por todos os produtores de leite. Além disto, uma discrepância entre os resultados dos testes confirmatórios e os testes de triagem foi observada.(AU)


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/analysis , Drug Residues/analysis , Lactones/analysis , Milk/chemistry , Pyrethrins/analysis , Anthelmintics , Cattle , Pesticides , Veterinary Drugs/analysis
3.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 68(6): 1721-1726, nov.-dez. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-827955

ABSTRACT

The present study attempted to identify climate conditions that are associated with the occurrence of pyrethroid residues using a multivariate principal component analysis (PCA). A total of 132 raw milk samples were collected from dairy farms in Minas Gerais State - Brazil and analyzed for seven analytes using gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Of the 132 milk samples, pyrethroid residues were identified in 14 (10.6%) milk samples, of which 12 (9.1%) and two (1.5%) milk samples had the identification of cypermethrin and deltamethrin, respectively. From those samples, nine (6.8%) milk samples were regarded as non-compliant for cypermethrin with this analyte concentration above the maximum residue limits set by Brazilian legislation. A PCA assessing pyrethroid residues in bulk tank milk demonstrated that the average temperature and the Temperature-Humidity Index were associated with pyrethroids residues in bulk milk tank, although the relative humidity was inversely correlated. Thus, the data analysis indicated that the pyrethrid residues associated with some climate conditions can predict the moments with higher risk of occurrence of pyrethroid residues in bulk tank milk.(AU)


O presente trabalho objetivou identificar fatores climáticos associados à ocorrência de resíduos de piretroides em amostras de leite de tanque por análise multivariada de componentes principais (ACP). Para o presente trabalho, 132 amostras de leite cru foram coletadas em fazendas leiteiras localizadas no estado de Minas Gerais (Brasil) e analisadas por sete analitos por cromatografia gasosa com detector por captura de eletróns para detecção de resíduos de piretroides. Das 132 amostras de leite analisadas, a presença de resíduos de piretroides foi detectada em 14 amostras (10,6%), e em 12 (9,1%) e duas (1,5%) foram detectados cipermetrina e deltametrina, respectivamente. Destas amostras, em nove (6,8%) a concentração de cipermetrina encontrada foi maior que a permitida pela legislação brasileira. A ACP demonstrou que a presença de resíduos de piretroides no leite de tanque ocorreu menos frequentemente nos dias com maior umidade relativa, embora a presença desses resíduos estivesse associada a maior temperatura média e a maior índice de temperatura e umidade. Dessa forma, conclui-se que alguns índices climáticos podem predizer períodos com maior risco de ocorrência de resíduos de piretroides no leite de tanque.(AU)


Subject(s)
Drug Residues/analysis , Hot Temperature , Humidity , Milk/toxicity , Pesticides/analysis , Pyrethrins/analysis , Cattle
4.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-114092

ABSTRACT

Cypermethrin is a pyrethroid pesticide and is used in the control of a wide range of insects on crops like vegetables, cereals, maize etc. In the present study, the adsorption efficiency of coconut shell based activated carbon for the removal of color and organic matter from cypermethrin pesticide manufacturing industrial wastewater was investigated. Effect of carbon dosage, pH and contact time on the removal of COD was also studied. Equilibrium and kinetic studies were carried out and the data was fitted in Freundlich and Langmuir models. The study proved that activated coconut shell carbon (acc) is an efficient adsorbent for treatment of cypermethrin industrial wastewaters under study.


Subject(s)
Adsorption , Carbon/analysis , Charcoal/chemistry , Cocos/chemistry , Environmental Restoration and Remediation/methods , Industrial Waste , Industry , Kinetics , Particle Size , Pyrethrins/analysis , Waste Disposal, Fluid/methods , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Water Purification/methods
5.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-114064

ABSTRACT

Anaerobic digestion of vegetable waste slurry carried out in the laboratory using 2.5L capacity bottle reactors for 60 days at ambient temperature conditions resulted in a biogas yield of 0.391 L/g of VS fed. The methane content of the biogas generated from the reactors was in the range of 67%-70%. The biochemical methane potential obtained from the laboratory was 0.269 L CH4/g VS added.


Subject(s)
Adsorption , Biodegradation, Environmental , Bioreactors , Carbon/analysis , Chemistry, Physical/methods , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Kinetics , Methane/analysis , Pesticides , Pyrethrins/analysis , Refuse Disposal/methods , Surface Properties , Time Factors , Vegetables , Waste Disposal, Fluid
6.
J Environ Biol ; 2001 Jan; 22(1): 19-21
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-113841

ABSTRACT

The toxic effect of Cypermethrin 10 EC (0.125, 0.25 and 0.5%) was estimated in the bodywall and digestive system of the larvae of Oryctes rhinoceros by HPLC after exposing them to different concentrations (0.125, 0.25 and 0.5%). Among the various concentrations used maximum residues were detected in bodywall (0.25%), whereas at higher concentration (0.5%) the residue detected was minimum. The treatment of Cypermethrin was found to be highly toxic upto 12 h of treatment, after which it declined reaching the minimum by 24 h. The residue of Cypermethrin could not be detected in digestive system. The experiments indicate the pesticide get concentrated in the bodywall to a maximum extent.


Subject(s)
Animals , Coleoptera/drug effects , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Insecticides/analysis , Larva/drug effects , Lethal Dose 50 , Pyrethrins/analysis
7.
Pesticidas ; 5: 69-82, jan.-dez. 1995. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-186310

ABSTRACT

Foram analisadas 78 amostras de espigas de milho, após tratamento com deltametrina e armazenamento em paióis, localizados em algumas regioes de atuaçao da EMATER e no Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Milho e Sorgo da EMBRAPA, Sete lagoas. A primeira amostragem foi retirada em maio de 1992 e as seguintes bimestralmente até fevereiro de 1993. Cada amostra foi subdividida em amostras de graos, palha e rolao de milho sendo as duas últimas obtidas por moagem. Nao foi detectada a presença de deltametrina nos graoes e os níveis encontrados nas amostras de palha foram em geral acima de 1 mg/Kg, o que indica que nao houve penetraçao do inseticida no interior da espiga. O rolao de milho, que é usado como raçao animal, apresentou resíduos dentro do limite permitido pela legislaçao (1 mg/Kg). Os resultados encontrados mostraram que nao houve degradaçao da deltametrina durante os meses de armazenagem.


Subject(s)
Insecticides , Pyrethrins , Pesticide Residues/analysis , Zea mays , Biodegradation, Environmental , Chromatography , Insecticides/analysis , Pyrethrins/analysis
8.
Bol. chil. parasitol ; 49(3/4): 49-52, jul.-dic. 1994. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-144135

ABSTRACT

A clinical and entomological trial was carried out in 88 head louse (pediculus humanus capitis) infested children treated with a single dose of 1 percent permethrin shampoo or lotion. The sex distribution was 47 males and 41 females with ages ranging between 5 and 14 years old. In order to assess the efficiency of treatments, search for adult forms, nymphs and eggs (nits) of the parasite was performed in each of the children, before and after treatment (30 minutes, 7 days and 21 days). The entomological evaluations consisted in stereoscopic and microscopic examination of a mean of 12 hair samples taken from the retroauricular and occipital regions of each of the children, the biological condition of eggs, viable (inmature, mature), dead ans empty, was recorded. The cure rates, both clinical and entomological, obtained were 91,5 percent for shampoo and 95.2 percent for lotion. No adverse reactions with the 2 formulations used were reported. In conclusion, 1 percent permethrin shampoo or lotion is an effective and safe treatment for pediculosis capitis


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Adolescent , Lice Infestations/drug therapy , Phthiraptera/drug effects , Pyrethrins/analysis , Pyrethrins/pharmacology , Parasite Egg Count , Scalp/parasitology , Pyrethrins/administration & dosage , Soaps/administration & dosage
9.
Colet. Inst. Tecnol. Alimentos ; 21(1): 1-11, jan.-jun. 1991. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-123392

ABSTRACT

Nesta segunda parte da revisäo bibliográfica, procurou-se abordar as propriedades dos piretróides naturais e sintéticos com referência ao poder inseticida à luz das suas estruturas moleculares. Também säo apresentadas algumas consideraçöes sobre o metabolismo desses inseticidas, focalizando quais grupos dos ésterespiretróides sofrem açäo química de degradaçäo, quais as técnicas analíticas mais usuais para quantificaçäo e finalmente conclui-se sobre a importância de seu emprego em funçäo do baixo risco de contaminaçäo do meio ambiente


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Pyrethrins/chemistry , Insecticides , Pest Control , Pyrethrins/analysis , Pyrethrins/classification , Pyrethrins/metabolism
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