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1.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(3): 667-672, July-Sept. 2015. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755816

ABSTRACT

Pyrethroid pesticide cypermethrin is a environmental pollutant because of its widespread use, toxicity and persistence. Biodegradation of such chemicals by microorganisms may provide an cost-effective method for their detoxification. We have investigated the degradation of cypermethrin by immobilized cells of Micrococcus sp. strain CPN 1 in various matrices such as, polyurethane foam (PUF), polyacrylamide, sodium alginate and agar. The optimum temperature and pH for the degradation of cypermethrin by immobilized cells of Micrococcus sp. were found to be 30 °C and 7.0, respectively. The rate of degradation of 10 and 20 mM of cypermethrin by freely suspended cells were compared with that of immobilized cells in batches and semi-continuous with shaken cultures. PUF-immobilized cells showed higher degradation of cypermethrin (10 mM and 20 mM) than freely suspended cells and cells immobilized in other matrices. The PUF-immobilized cells of Micrococcus sp. strain CPN 1 were retain their degradation capacity. Thus, they can be reused for more than 32 cycles, without losing their degradation capacity. Hence, the PUF-immobilized cells of Micrococcus sp. could potentially be used in the bioremediation of cypermethrin contaminated water.

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Subject(s)
Biodegradation, Environmental , Cells, Immobilized/metabolism , Insecticides/metabolism , Micrococcus/metabolism , Pyrethrins/metabolism , Alginates , Glucuronic Acid , Hexuronic Acids , Micrococcus/classification , Polyurethanes
2.
J Environ Biol ; 2008 Mar; 29(2): 187-91
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-113420

ABSTRACT

Synthetic pyrethroids are the recent major class of broad spectrum, photostable, organic insecticides used in agricultural, domestic and veterinary applications and now account for more than 30% of global insecticide use. Cypermethrin is metabolized and eliminated significantly more slowly by fish than by mammals or birds, which may explain this compound's high toxicity in fish compared to other organisms. The present communication deals with histoanatomical alterations in the gonads of a local fresh water food fish, Channa punctatus exposed to 0.033 ppm (96 hr LC50 X 1/10) concentration of a synthetic pyrethroid, devicyprin (cypermethrin 25%) in aquatic medium of aged tap water for 15, 30 and 45 days respectively. In testis, exposure dependent histological damage has been observed in terms of vacuolization, condensation of spermatogonic cells, distortion of tubular epithelium, shrinkage of interstitial cells and general inflammatory responses. Longest exposure of 45 days has resulted in peculiar starry-sky appearance of the testicular tissue. Gross histo-anatomy of ovarian tissue reveals epithelial lesions, inflammatory responses, stromal hemorrhage, increased interstitium and shrinkage of yolk vesicles towards periphery These findings are quite suggestive of reproductive impairments leading to delayed gonadal maturity and adversely affecting processes of sperm production and ovulation and thus, the fish production.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Fresh Water , Gonads/drug effects , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Insecticides/metabolism , Male , Perciformes/physiology , Pyrethrins/metabolism , Temperature , Time Factors , Toxicity Tests , Water Pollutants, Chemical/metabolism
3.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 1994 Oct; 32(10): 752-6
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-59631

ABSTRACT

Subacute toxicity study of fenvalerate was carried out in broiler chicks after oral administration @ 525.6 mg/kg once daily for 28 days. The blood concentration of fenvalerate following 1 day post-administration (pd) was 39.65 +/- 2.67 micrograms/ml and maintained plateau thereafter up to day 21 pd, and then declined (18.46 +/- 1.47 micrograms/ml) on day 28 pd. Intestine contained maximum residue (7.46 +/- 1.96 micrograms/g) followed by fat (5.95 +/- 1.16 micrograms/g), brain (5.06 +/- 0.96 micrograms/g), liver (3.93 +/- 0.51 micrograms/g), kidney (3.79 +/- 0.72 micrograms/g) and heart (1.72 +/- 0.35 micrograms/g). Histopathological examinations showed focal areas of necrosis in liver, proliferation and fibrosis of bile duct, larger size of glomeruli, glomerular and tubular necrosis in treated birds. Fenvalerate significantly increased the cholesterol level in brain, GPT activity in liver and heart, GOT activity in heart, and alkaline phosphatase activity in heart and brain tissue. It significantly decreased the glycogen content in liver and heart, GOT activity in brain and acid phosphatase activity in all the tissues analyzed. It appears that comparatively fowl is resistant to fenvalerate toxicity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Survival/drug effects , Chickens , Insecticides/metabolism , Lethal Dose 50 , Nitriles , Pyrethrins/metabolism
4.
Colet. Inst. Tecnol. Alimentos ; 21(1): 1-11, jan.-jun. 1991. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-123392

ABSTRACT

Nesta segunda parte da revisäo bibliográfica, procurou-se abordar as propriedades dos piretróides naturais e sintéticos com referência ao poder inseticida à luz das suas estruturas moleculares. Também säo apresentadas algumas consideraçöes sobre o metabolismo desses inseticidas, focalizando quais grupos dos ésterespiretróides sofrem açäo química de degradaçäo, quais as técnicas analíticas mais usuais para quantificaçäo e finalmente conclui-se sobre a importância de seu emprego em funçäo do baixo risco de contaminaçäo do meio ambiente


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Pyrethrins/chemistry , Insecticides , Pest Control , Pyrethrins/analysis , Pyrethrins/classification , Pyrethrins/metabolism
5.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 1991 Apr; 29(4): 379-84
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-59128

ABSTRACT

Role of mono-oxygenases as a mechanism of resistance to the synthetic pyrethroid, deltamethrin in the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say, Aedes aegypti L. and Anopheles stephensi Liston developed by laboratory selections with deltamethrin, DDT or deltamethrin and the synergist, piperonyl butoxide (PBO) in the ratio of 1:5, was investigated. There was a significant correlation with mono-oxygenase activity and larval LC50 to deltamethrin in various strains of all the three species. In addition, the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), the main NADPH generating enzyme for mono-oxygenases, also showed enhanced activity in deltamethrin and DDT-selected strains. The present data, therefore, clearly suggest that deltamethrin resistance in the larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus, Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi is mainly due to the detoxification of deltamethrin by microsomal mono-oxygenases. High activity of G6PD observed in DDT-selected strains seems to be related to its role as a rate-limiting enzyme in GSH-dependent dehydrochlorination of DDT.


Subject(s)
Aedes , Animals , Anopheles , Culex , Culicidae/enzymology , Drug Resistance , Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase/metabolism , Insecticides/metabolism , Mixed Function Oxygenases/metabolism , Nitriles , Oxygenases/metabolism , Piperonyl Butoxide/pharmacology , Pyrethrins/metabolism
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