Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 46
Filter
1.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 86(5): 587-592, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132628

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: This study presents the effect of cypermethrin on the cochlear function in Wistar rats post-subchronic inhalation exposure. Worldwide several pesticides are described as causing health disorders. Cypermethrin is currently one of the most commonly used, however, little is known about its harmful effects, especially related to hearing. Human studies have associated pesticides with hearing disorders, but they present limited conclusions due to the multiple factors to which the population is exposed, such as noise. Objective: Mimic human exposure to cypermethrin and to verify the effects on cochlear function. Methods: It is a subchronic inhalation animal study (6 weeks, 4 hours/day), using 36 male Wistar aged 60 day. Rats were randomly assigned into three groups: Control (12 rats exposed to inhalation of water); Positive Control for auditory lesion (12 rats administrated with 24 mg/kg intraperitoneal cisplatin); Experimental (12 rats exposed to inhalation of cypermethrin - 0.25 mg/L). Animals were evaluated by distortion product otoacoustic emissions pre- and post-exposure. Results: The frequencies of 8, 10 and 12 kHz in both ears (right p = 0.003; 0.004; 0.008 and left 0.003; 0.016; 0.005 respectively) and at frequencies 4 and 6 in the right ear (p = 0.007 and 0.015, respectively) in the animals exposed to cypermethrin resulted in reduction. Conclusion: Subchronic inhalation exposure to cypermethrin provided ototoxicity in rats.


Resumo Introdução: Este estudo apresenta o efeito da cipermetrina sobre a função coclear em ratos Wistar após exposição por inalação subcrônica. Em todo o mundo, vários pesticidas são descritos como causadores de distúrbios de saúde. A cipermetrina é atualmente um dos mais utilizados, porém pouco se conhece sobre seus efeitos deletérios, principalmente relacionados à audição. Estudos em humanos associaram pesticidas a alterações auditivas, mas apresentaram conclusões limitadas devido aos múltiplos fatores aos quais a população está exposta, como, por exemplo, o ruído. Objetivo: Mimetizar a exposição humana à cipermetrina e verificar os seus efeitos na função coclear. Método: Estudo de inalação subcrônica em animais (6 semanas, 4 horas/dia), 36 ratos machos Wistar com 60 dias. Os ratos foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em três grupos: controle (12 ratos expostos à inalação de água); controle positivo para lesão auditiva (12 ratos com administração de 24 mg/kg de cisplatina intraperitoneal); e experimental (12 ratos expostos a inalação de cipermetrina - 0,25 mg/L). Os animais foram avaliados por emissões otoacústicas por produto de distorção, pré e pós-exposição. Resultados: As frequências de 8, 10 e 12 kHz em ambas as orelhas (direita p = 0,003; 0,004; 0,008 e esquerda 0,003; 0,016; 0,005 respectivamente) e frequências 4 e 6 na orelha direita (p = 0,007 e 0,015, respectivamente) apresentaram redução nos animais expostos à cipermetrina. Conclusão: A exposição subcrônica por inalação à cipermetrina resultou em ototoxicidade em ratos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Pyrethrins/toxicity , Otoacoustic Emissions, Spontaneous , Cisplatin , Rats, Wistar , Ototoxicity , Antineoplastic Agents
2.
Acta toxicol. argent ; 26(1): 19-31, mayo 2018. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-973613

ABSTRACT

Los piretroides son insecticidas ampliamente usados no sólo en el ámbito agropecuario y doméstico sino también en salud pública. Una vez absorbidos, son rápidamente metabolizados a compuestos polares eliminados por vía renal. Uno de los metabolitos común a un gran número de piretroides es el ácido 3-fenoxibenzoico (3-PBA) el cual es utilizado como marcador de exposición. Se presenta en este trabajo, la validación de una metodología analítica para la determinación del 3-PBA utilizando QuEChERS acoplado a microextracción líquido-líquido dispersiva con tricloroetileno como disolvente extractivo y cromatografía líquida de alta resolución con detector de foto-arreglo de diodos. La validación se realizó con muestras aisladas de orina de voluntarios adultos de ambos sexos sin exposición conocida y orina sintética. El método resultó lineal en el intervalo 9 μg L-1-79 μg L-1; los límites de detección y cuantificación fueron de 3 μg L-1 y 9 μg L-1, respectivamente. No se observaron señales de interferentes a los tiempos de retención del 3-PBA y del ácido 2-fenoxibenzoico (2-PBA), estándar interno, en las muestras de orina blanco. Las señales cromatográficas en las muestras enriquecidas fueron espectralmente homogéneas. Las precisiones intradiarias (RSDr%) (n= 5) para 9 μg L-1 estuvieron comprendidas entre 9,3%-9,9% y para 27 μg L-1 entre 5,9%-10,6%. Las precisiciones interdiarias (RSDint%) (n=15) para los mismos niveles de concentración fueron de 11,8% y 9,1%, respectivamente. El rango de porcentajes de recuperación para 9 μg L-1 fue de 87%-119% y para 27 μg L-1 de 70%-91%. Se evaluó la estabilidad del analito en la muestra y en el extracto. El analito resultó estable a -20 °C durante 7 días en la muestra y durante 1 día en el extracto. Los valores de incertidumbre relativa e incertidumbre expandida fueron evaluados mediante la ecuación de Horwitz, los resultados obtenidos fueron para el nivel 9 μg L-1 de 33% y 65% y para el nivel 27 μg L-1 de 28% y 55%. La aplicabilidad del método validado fue evaluada con muestras reales de personas sin exposición laboral conocida, quienes declararon haber usado insecticidas piretroides. El método resultó sensible y selectivo.


Pyrethroid insecticides are used not only in the agricultural and domestic environment, but also in public health. Once absorbed, they are rapidly metabolized into polar compounds eliminated by the kidneys. One of the metabolites common to many pyrethroids is 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) which are used to evaluate exposure. We present in this paper the validation of an analytical methodology for the determination of 3-PBA using QuEChERS coupled to dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction with trichloroethylene as an extractive solvent and high-performance liquid chromatography with a photodiode array detector. Validation was carried out with isolated samples of urine from adult volunteers of both sexes without exposure and synthetic urine. The method was linear in the interval 9 μg L-1-79 μg L-1; the limit of detection and quantitation were 3 μg L-1 and 9 μg L-1, respectively. Interfering signals were not observed in the blank urine samples and the chromatographic signals in the enriched samples were spectrally homogeneous. The within-run precision (RSDr%) (n = 5) for 9 μg L-1 were between 9.3%-9.9% and for 27 μg L-1 between 5.9%-10.6%. The between-run precision (RSDint%) (n = 15) for the same concentration levels were 11.8% and 9.1%, respectively. The recovery for 9 μg L-1 ranged from 87%-119% and for 27 μg L-1 from 70%-91 %. The stability of the analyte was evaluated in the sample and in the extract. The analyte in the sample was stable at -20 °C for 7 days and in the extract was stable for 1 day. The values of relative uncertainty and expanded uncertainty obtained by the Horwitz equation were 33% and 65% for 9 μg L-1, and 28% and 55% for 27 μg L-1. The applicability of the validated method was evaluated with real samples of people without known occupational exposure, who declared having used pyrethroid insecticides. The method was sensitive and selective.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pyrethrins/poisoning , Pyrethrins/toxicity , Biomarkers/urine , Biomarkers/analysis , Chromatography, Liquid/methods , Insecticides/poisoning , Insecticides/toxicity
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-44148

ABSTRACT

Chlorfenapyr is a widely used, moderately hazardous pesticide. Previous reports have indicated that chlorfenapyr intoxication can be fatal in humans. We reported the first non-fatal case of chlorfenapyr-induced toxic leukoencephalopathy in a 44-year-old female with resolution of extensive and abnormal signal intensities in white matter tracts throughout the brain, brain stem, and spinal cord on serial magnetic resonance imaging.


Subject(s)
Adult , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Brain Stem/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Insecticides/toxicity , Leukoencephalopathies/etiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Pyrethrins/toxicity , Spinal Cord/diagnostic imaging , White Matter/diagnostic imaging
4.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135578

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: Under the national antimalaria programme DDT was introduced in early 1950s for vector control and later hexachloro cyclohexane (HCH) followed by malathion and recently synthetic pyrethroids in 1990s to manage the insecticide resistance in Anopheles culicifacies. Subsequent replacement led to development of multiple resistances in An. culicifacies in Surat district in Gujarat State. Indoor residual spray (IRS) was completely withdrawn in southern villages in Surat in 2002. This study was undertaken in these areas to study the persistence of resistance to DDT, malathion and deltamethrin after sequential withdrawal of IRS with these insecticides at different times. Methods: Susceptibility tests on An. culicifacies were conducted using standard WHO methods and kits. Mortality, knockdown time and lethal times were calculated for An. culicifacies exposed to WHO prescribed diagnostic concentrations of different insecticide impregnated papers. Results: Persistence of DDT-resistance was observed even after 30 yr of its withdrawal from IRS. Similarly, persistence of malathion resistance was also observed after 9 yr of its withdrawal from IRS, while reversal of deltamethrin-resistance was observed very fast within 2-3 yr after its withdrawal from IRS in 2002. Interpretation & conclusion: Present data indicate that the quantum of reversion of insecticide resistance in a population is relative and depends on the genetic stability of the respective resistance genes in the mosquitoes. In the present study withdrawal of pyrethroid-IRS resulted in increased susceptibility against pyrethroids alone and was independent of existence of resistance to insecticides of other groups. This study emphasizes that appropriate rotation of different insecticides; including carbamates may prevent or delay the onset of resistance.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anopheles/drug effects , Anopheles/genetics , Anopheles/physiology , DDT/toxicity , Genetics, Population , India , Insecticide Resistance/genetics , Insecticides/toxicity , Malathion/toxicity , Mortality , Mosquito Control/methods , Nitriles/toxicity , Pyrethrins/toxicity , Regression Analysis , Time Factors
5.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 25(6): 518-523, jun. 2009. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-523127

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To confirm the episode of eosinophilic pneumonitis that occurred in March 2001 in Manaus, Amazon, northern Brazil, as secondary to home aerosolization with 2 percent cypermethrin diluted in diesel compared with the more conventional 1 percent cypermethrin and soybean solution used in prophylaxis of dengue. METHODS: Four groups of Swiss mice were kept in polycarbonate cages aerosolized with one of the following solutions: diesel, diesel and cypermethrin, soy oil and cypermethrin, and saline. Three and 6 days after exposure, resistance and compliance of the respiratory system and white cell kinetics in peripheral blood and lung tissue were analyzed. RESULTS: The group exposed to diesel and cypermethrin showed higher respiratory system resistance (p < 0.001), lower compliance (p = 0.03), and increased eosinophils in blood (p = 0.03) and lung tissue (p = 0.005) compared with the other groups. There was an increase of neutrophils in the blood of all experimental groups on the third day after exposure (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that diesel associated with cypermethrin induced lung hyperresponsiveness in this experimental model and was associated with increased polymorphonuclear cells (eosinophils and neutrophils) in blood and lungs. This effect is strongest on the third day after exposure. These results are similar to the episode that occurred in Manaus in 2001 and suggest that diesel plus cypermethrin home aerosolization for arbovirosis prophylaxis should be revised.


OBJETIVO: Confirmar el episodio de neumonía eosinofílica ocurrido en marzo de 2001 en Manaus, Amazonas, en el norte de Brasil, secundario al uso de aerosol de cipermetrina diluida al 2 por ciento en aceite diésel en las viviendas en comparación con la profilaxis más convencional contra el dengue, basada en cipermetrina al 1 por ciento con aceite de soya. MÉTODOS: Se mantuvieron cuatro grupos de ratones suizos en jaulas de policarbonato y se aplicó aerosol con una de las siguientes soluciones: aceite diésel, aceite diésel y cipermetrina, aceite de soya y cipermetrina, y solución salina. Se analizaron la resistencia y el funcionamiento del sistema respiratorio y la cinética de leucocitos en sangre periférica y tejido pulmonar a los tres y seis días después de la exposición. RESULTADOS: El grupo expuesto a aceite diésel y cipermetrina mostró mayor resistencia del sistema respiratorio (P < 0,001), peor funcionamiento (P = 0,03) y más eosinófilos en sangre (P = 0,03) y tejido pulmonar (P = 0,005) que los otros grupos. Se observó un aumento de neutrófilos en sangre en todos los grupos experimentales al tercer día después de la exposición (P < 0,001). CONCLUSIONES: El aceite diésel con cipermetrina indujo una hiperrespuesta pulmonar en este modelo experimental y se asoció con un aumento en las células polimorfonucleares (eosinófilos y neutrófilos) en sangre y tejido pulmonar. Este efecto es mayor al tercer día después de la exposición. Estos efectos son similares a los observados en el episodio ocurrido en Manaus en 2001 e indican que se debe reevaluar el uso de aerosol de aceite diésel con cipermetrina para la profilaxis de arbovirus en las viviendas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Gasoline/toxicity , Insecticides/toxicity , Pulmonary Eosinophilia/chemically induced , Pyrethrins/toxicity , Aerosols
6.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135831

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: A longitudinal study was carried out to assess the impact of indoor residual spray with Vectron® 20 WP (etofenprox) against Anopheles culicifacies and on malaria transmission in a selected village of Dadri primary health centre (PHC), District Gautam Budh Nagar, Uttar Pradesh, India. Methods: Two villages, namely Patadi and Anandpur in District Gautam Budh Nagar, Uttar Pradesh, with similar malaria incidence and vector prevalence were selected for the present evaluation. In one village two rounds of indoor spraying of etofenprox (0.1 g/m2) were done at an interval of 12 wk and the other village was kept as control where no intervention except intensive active surveillance for early detection and prompt treatment (EDPT) was undertaken during the study period. Entomological and epidemiological data were collected using standard procedures. Results: Persistence of the effectiveness of etofenprox against An. culicifacies was observed up to 12 wk. Spraying of etofenprox signifi cantly reduced the density signififi (P<0.001) and proportion of parous An. culicifacies mosquitoes (P<0.05) in the experimental village. There was a signififi cant reduction in malaria cases in the experimental village during the post-spray period when compared to the control village (P<0.05). No adverse effect was reported by the spraymen and inhabitants during and after the spray. Interpretation & conclusion: Indoor residual spray of etofenprox (0.1 g/m2) with an interval of three months in between two rounds of spray produced the desired impact in reducing the indoor resting density of vector mosquitoes and also in curtailing malaria transmission in the sprayed village when compared with the control village without spray.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anopheles/drug effects , Anopheles/pathogenicity , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Humans , India , Insecticides/toxicity , Longitudinal Studies , Malaria/prevention & control , Malaria/transmission , Pyrethrins/toxicity
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-164459

ABSTRACT

Present study was undertaken to study the effect of cypermethrin on oxidative stress after chronic dermal application. The insecticide was applied dermally at 50 mg/kg body weight in different groups of Wistar rats of either sex weighing 150~200 g. Significant (p < 0.05) increase in catalase activity was observed after 30 days of exposure. However, the superoxide dismutase activity declined significantly after 60 days of exposure. The activity of glutathione peroxidase and blood glutathione levels declined significantly (p < 0.05) after 30 days of cypermethrin dermal application. However, the activity of glutathione S-transferase increased significantly (p < 0.05) in all groups after 60 days of dermal exposure. Significant increase in lipid peroxidation was observed from 30 days onwards and reached a peak after 120 days of application.


Subject(s)
Administration, Cutaneous , Animals , Female , Glutathione/blood , Insecticides/toxicity , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Male , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Oxidoreductases/metabolism , Pyrethrins/toxicity , Rats , Rats, Wistar
8.
Int. j. morphol ; 26(1): 19-26, 2008. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-558568

ABSTRACT

La cipermetrina es un pesticida ampliamente utilizado en agricultura y en salud pública. Sus efectos histopatológicos a nivel de sistema nervioso central han sido poco estudiados, aún cuando se han demostrado casos de intoxicación en humanos, con importante compromiso neurológico. El propósito de este trabajo es conocer los efectos de una dosis única intraperitoneal de cipermetrina sobre la morfología neuronal de corteza somatosensorial (láminas superficiales y profundas) de ratones CF-1. 35 ratones fueron separados en tres grupos: control (n=5), control vehículo (n=15) y experimental (n=15); los dos últimos grupos sacrificados los días 1, 8, 18, 26 y 35, en grupos de a tres. Los encéfalos fueron removidos, fijados, y procesados con técnica de rutina, para un análisis morfométrico. Análisis estadístico con Kruskal Walli's test. Fueron evidenciadas alteraciones morfológicas correspondientes a muerte neuronal en todas las láminas estudiadas, a los distintos intervalos de tiempo.


The cypermethrin is a pesticide widely used in agriculture and public health. Their histopathological effects at central nervous system level, little have been studied, even though has demonstrated cases of poisoning in humans with important neurological commitment. The aim of this work is to know the effects a intraperitoneal single dose of cypermethrin on neuronal morphology of somatosensory cortex (superficial and deep laminae) of mice CF-1. 35 mice were separated in three groups: control (n=5), control vehicle (n=15) and experimental (n=15); the two last sacrificed groups 1, 8, 18, 26 and 35 days, three animals per group. The brain were removed, fixed, and process with routine technique, for a morphometric analysis. Statistical analysis with Kruskal Wallís test. We demonstrated corresponding morphologic alterations until death neuronal, in all studied laminae, at the different time intervals.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Somatosensory Cortex/pathology , Insecticides/toxicity , Pyrethrins/toxicity , Apoptosis , Somatosensory Cortex , Insecticides/administration & dosage , Pyrethrins/administration & dosage , Time Factors , Tissue Survival
9.
Journal of the Egyptian Society of Toxicology. 2008; 39: 85-94
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-88311

ABSTRACT

Five insecticides namely; abamectin, carbosulfan, fenpropathrin, methomyl and profenofos were given by gavages to male albino rats. These insecticides were administered daily for 28 days with doses equaled 1/20 LD 50 either singly or in a mixture of all the insecticides together. The study revealed significant decreases in body and kidneys weights, while increases in liver weights in all the treatments. Most of the treatments induced significant elevations in serum alanine aminotransferase [ALT] and aspartate aminotransferase [AST], while caused decreases in acetylcholinesterase [AChE] activities. Fenpropathrin and the mixture induced significant increase in total protein content of the serum, while the other treatments induced significant decreases. Creatinine concentrations recorded significant elevations in fenpropathrin and methomyl treatments, while significant decrease in case of Profenofos. Degenerative changes and granularity of hepatocytes with Kupffer cells activation were observed in the treatments with the mixture or and methomyl. Shrinking in Bowman's capsule and degenerative changes of epithelium lining renal tubules were observed in rats treated with the mixture. Moreover, necrotic changes associated with desquamation of epithelium lining tubules were shown in rats treated with the mixture, fenpropathrin and methomyl. From the biochemical data, the joint action was estimated for the mixture composed of the five insecticides. The mixture interacts antagonistically with most of the measured biochemical parameters


Subject(s)
Animals, Laboratory , Animals , Liver/pathology , Kidney/pathology , Liver Function Tests , Kidney Function Tests , Rats , Drug Combinations/toxicity , Carbonates/toxicity , Pyrethrins/toxicity , Ivermectin/toxicity , Methomyl/toxicity , Organothiophosphates/toxicity
10.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-35342

ABSTRACT

With a goal of minimal application of environmentally hazardous chemical insecticides, the larvicidal activity of cypermethrin was studied alone and in combination with the root extract of Solanum xanthocarpum against anopheline larvae. Petroleum ether extract was observed to be the most toxic, with LC,, of 1.41 and 0.93 ppm and LC90 of 16.94 and 8.48 ppm at 24 and 48 hours after application, respectively, followed by carbon tetrachloride and methanol extracts. The values for cypermethrin were an LC50 of 0.0369 ppm after 24 hours and 0.0096 ppm after 48 hours and LC90 of 0.0142 and 0.0091 ppm after 24 and 48 hours, respectively. The ratios of cypermethrin and petroleum ether extracts tested were 1:1, 1:2 and 1:4. Of the various ratios tested, the cypermethrin and petroleum ether extract ratio of 1:1 was observed to be more efficient than the other combinations. From the individual efficacy of each constituent, synergism was noted. This is an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi.


Subject(s)
Toxicity Tests, Acute , Alkanes/toxicity , Animals , Anopheles/drug effects , Biological Assay , Carbon Tetrachloride/toxicity , Drug Combinations , Insect Vectors/drug effects , Insecticides/toxicity , Larva/drug effects , Malaria/parasitology , Mosquito Control/methods , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Roots/chemistry , Pyrethrins/toxicity , Regression Analysis , Solanum/toxicity
11.
J Environ Biol ; 2007 Jan; 28(1): 147-9
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-113776

ABSTRACT

Freshwater fish Prochilodus lineatus were exposed to sublethal concentrations of cypermethrin (0.3 and 0.6 microg/l) for 2, 5 and 8 days. It was observed that with the increase of exposure time total erythrocyte (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Ht) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) values decreased but mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) values increased. These reports indicate that hematological parameters, may be useful as a diagnostic test for cypermethrin exposure in aquatic organisms.


Subject(s)
Animals , Erythrocyte Count , Erythrocyte Indices , Fishes/blood , Hematocrit , Hemoglobins/analysis , Insecticides/toxicity , Pyrethrins/toxicity , Water Pollutants, Chemical/toxicity
12.
J Environ Biol ; 2007 Jan; 28(1): 35-7
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-113664

ABSTRACT

Cypermethrin was administered to Heteropneustes fossilis in chronic concentration to determine lesion of liver as indicators of tissue damage. The cypermethrin dose used was 1/4 of 96 hr LC50. Histopathological changes in liver ranged from vacuolization, necrosis, fibrosis of perivascular region and disposition of yellow brown grains at different time of exposure viz; 20th, 30th, 40th and 60th days.


Subject(s)
Animals , Catfishes , Fibrosis , Hepatocytes/drug effects , Insecticides/toxicity , Liver/drug effects , Pyrethrins/toxicity , Water Pollutants, Chemical/toxicity
13.
Biocell ; 30(2): 309-320, ago. 2006. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-491556

ABSTRACT

CAS might have a key role in the apoptosis induced by toxins, acting as anti-apoptotic factor, stimulating the cellular proliferation and the cell contact stabilization. To start to elucidate their role in the brain apoptosis of Bufo arenarum induced by cypermethrin (CY), the expression patterns of CAS and several cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) were established. Bufo arenarum tadpoles of the control and acute bioassay survival at different doses (39, 156, 625 and 2,500 microg CY/L) and times (24, 48, 72 and 96 h) of CY treatment were fixed in Carnoy, embedded in paraffin and sectioned. CAS and CAMs expression was determined by immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry, respectively. When the bioassay starts, CAS increases suggesting a proliferative or regenerative effect, but decreases when the doses and/or the bbiocide exposure time increases, suggesting compromise of the cellular cycle control and trigger of an apoptotic wave. However, these neurotoxic mechanisms should not involve degradation of N-cadherin and alpha-catenin, in contrast of beta-catenin and axonal N-CAM180, at least in the initial apoptotic phase. Additionally, an adhesion compensatory mechanism by N-CAM180 is observed in the neuron cell body. These results suggest a dual role of CAS in the cellular cycle control during the CY-induced apoptosis: induction of cell proliferation and stabilization of the cell-cell junctions by modulating CAMs expression.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Axons , Bufo arenarum , Brain/cytology , Brain , Cell Adhesion Molecules/metabolism , Cellular Apoptosis Susceptibility Protein/metabolism , Biological Assay , Insecticides/toxicity , Pyrethrins/toxicity , Survival Analysis
14.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 101(1): 89-94, Feb. 2006. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-430845

ABSTRACT

The aim of the currrent investigation was to evaluate (a) the toxicity of three pyrethroids (deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, and tetramethrin); (b) the effect of these insecticides on the locomotor activity; and (c) the repellent effect of N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) on two deltamethrin-resistant strains of Triatoma infestans from Argentina (El Chorro and La Toma), and one susceptible strain. The resistance ratios (RRs) obtained for the La Toma strain were: > 10,769, 50.7, and > 5.2 for deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, and tetramethrin respectively. The RRs for the El Chorro strain were: > 10,769, 85.8, and > 5.2 for deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, and tetramethrin respectively. The hyperactivity usually caused by the three pyrethroids was in both the deltamethrin-resistant strains compared to the susceptible reference strain. No differences were observed in the repellent effect of DEET between the three groups. These results indicate that the deltamethrin-resistant insects have a cross resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin and tetramethrin, and are also resistant to the first symptom of pyrethroid poisoning (hyperactivity). However, the sensorial process related to DEET repellency does not appear to be altered.


Subject(s)
Animals , DEET , Insect Repellents/pharmacology , Insecticides/toxicity , Motor Activity/drug effects , Pyrethrins/toxicity , Triatoma/drug effects , Nymph/drug effects
15.
Journal of Drug Research of Egypt. 2006; 27 (1-2): 82-89
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-77752

ABSTRACT

Deltamethrin is a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide that kills on contact and through digestion. It is used in the environmental health market. The widespread domestic use of household mosquito killers has drawn our attention to study their effects on the development of some laboratory animals. Deltamethrin was given daily by oral intubation in the form of emulsifiable concentrates [5%] at three dose levels 1/100, 1/40 and 1/20 of LD50/day [5.35, 13.38 and 26.75 mg/kg/day] from 8[th] to 16[th] day of gestation and from 1[st] to 20[th] day of gestation. T he obtained results showed decrease in maternal body weight gain during pregnancy, lethargy in their movement, increase in abortion rate and a decrease in maternal uterine weight. The effects of deltamethrin on the fetuses were high percentage of resorption, growth retardation, hematoma, paralysis in both limbs and growth retardation of their skeletal elements and some skeletal malformation


Subject(s)
Female , Animals, Laboratory , Pyrethrins/toxicity , Rats , Pregnancy, Animal , Fetus/abnormalities
16.
Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health ; 2005 ; 36 Suppl 4(): 152-7
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-35729

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to assess insecticide resistance in anopheline mosquito populations in agroecosystems with high and low insecticide use in a malaria endemic area in Chiang Mai province in northern Thailand. Anopheline mosquitoes were collected in May and June 2004 from two locations with different agricultural insecticide intensity (HIGH and LOW), but similar in vector control strategies. The F1-generation of Anopheles maculatus s.s. and An. sawadwongporni were subjected to diagnostic doses of methyl parathion (MeP) and cypermethrin (Cyp), both commonly used insecticides in fruit orchards in Thailand. An. minimus A from the HIGH location was subjected to diagnostic doses to Cyp. CDC bottle bioassays were used to determine insecticide susceptibility. Time-mortality data were subjected to Probit analyses to estimate lethal time values (LT50 and LT90). Lethal time ratios (LTR) were computed to determine differences in lethal time response between populations from HIGH and LOW locations. The mortality of An. maculatus to MeP was 74% and 92% in the HIGH and LOW locations, respectively. The corresponding figures for An. sawadwongporni were 94% and 99%. There was no indication of resistance to Cyp for all species tested in either location. The LT90 and LT50 values of An. maculatus s.s. subjected to diagnostic doses of MeP were significantly different between locations (p<0.05). Reduced susceptibility to MeP in mosquito populations in the HIGH location is caused by intensive agricultural pest control and not by vector control activities, because organophosphates have never been used for vector control in the area. Our results indicate that there are still susceptible anopheline populations to pyrethroids, which is consistent with other research from the region. Therefore, there is presently no direct threat to vector control. However increased use of pyrethroids in agriculture may cause problems for future vector control.


Subject(s)
Agrochemicals/toxicity , Animals , Anopheles/classification , Endemic Diseases , Insect Vectors/drug effects , Insecticide Resistance , Malaria/epidemiology , Parathion/toxicity , Pyrethrins/toxicity , Thailand/epidemiology , Time
17.
J Environ Biol ; 2005 Oct; 26(4): 725-7
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-113667

ABSTRACT

Cybil, 25%EC formulation of Cypermethrin, induces biochemical changes in the liver of wistar rats after oral intubation of the same at acute (one day) and subacute (7, 14 and 21 days) levels. The changes were tallied with the controls run simultaneously. LD50 of Cybil was estimated to be 622mg/kg body weight The acute dose is 80mg/kg body weight exposed for one day i.e. 24 hours and subacute dose is 4mg/kg body weight exposed for 7, 14 and 21 days. When compared with the control values, both the doses enhanced the level of glycogen, cholesterol, total lipid and acid phosphatase activities, while decreased activity of alkaline phosphatase. Alterations in glycogen, cholesterol, total lipid, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase resulted in the impairement in liver physiology.


Subject(s)
Acid Phosphatase/metabolism , Alkaline Phosphatase/metabolism , Animals , Cholesterol/metabolism , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Glycogen/metabolism , Insecticides/toxicity , Lethal Dose 50 , Lipids/analysis , Liver/drug effects , Pyrethrins/toxicity , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Time Factors
18.
J Environ Biol ; 2005 Jun; 26(2 Suppl): 363-7
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-113621

ABSTRACT

The effects of sublethal concentrations of a synthetic pyrethroid, beta-cyfluthrin (Bulldock 025 SC) were investigated in the F1 generations of white and sepia mutants of Drosophila melanogaster after various cross combinations of the parents which were exposed separately to the insecticide mixed diet for 24 hours. The experiment was carried out under the laboratory conditions at a temperature of 25+/-5 degrees C and 60+/-5% relative humidity. The insecticide had deleterious effect on the growth and development of both the mutant flies. Larval, pupal and total developmental periods were found to be increased as compared to controls, whereas the number of adult emerged decreased in all the treatment sets. Larval period index (LPI), pupal period index (PPI) and growth index (GI) were observed to be decreased in the entire cross combinations. Maximum effects were observed in those sets where both the sexes were treated, crossed and F1 generation was studied on the treated food having sublethal concentration of the insecticide, followed by similar treatment sets but on the fresh untreated food. Females were found to be resistant as compared to the males, whereas white mutant files were more susceptible to the test insecticide beta-cyfluthrin as compared to sepia mutant flies.


Subject(s)
Animals , Crosses, Genetic , Drosophila melanogaster/drug effects , Insecticides/toxicity , Larva/drug effects , Lethal Dose 50 , Mutation/genetics , Nitriles/toxicity , Pigmentation/genetics , Pupa/drug effects , Pyrethrins/toxicity , Time Factors , Toxicity Tests
19.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2005 Feb; 43(2): 158-62
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-57189

ABSTRACT

Deltamethrin (DLT; 0.7mg/kg/body wt/day, i.p., dissolved in propylene glycol) administration during postnatal days 913 in Albino rat pups, resulted in a delayed appearance of radial glial fibers, that guide the migration of granule cells. Moreover, the radial glial fibers in the DLT-treated pups were disorganized, hypertrophied and heavily stained. Thus, it is being proposed that although after exposure to DLT the neuronal proliferation occurs at normal rate, the neuronal migration along the stumpy and crumpled radial fibers hamper the journey of the healthy neurons to their proper destination.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Newborn , Cell Movement/drug effects , Cerebellum/cytology , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Insecticides/toxicity , Neuroglia/cytology , Nitriles , Pyrethrins/toxicity , Rats , Rats, Wistar
20.
J Environ Biol ; 2005 Jan; 26(1): 141-4
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-113438

ABSTRACT

The toxicity of insecticide cypermethrin to the freshwater fish, Cirrhinus mrigala was studied using static bioassay method. The 96 h LC50 was found to be 5.13 microg/l. Increase in opercular movement, loss of equilibrium, increase in surface behaviour, change in body colour, increase secretion of mucus, irregular swimming activity, rapid jerk movement, 'S' jerky, partial jerk, and aggressiveness were observed in fish exposed to lethal concentration of cypermethrin. But in sub lethal concentration changes were observed from that of lethal and with the approach of 14 and 21 day, fish attained to normalcy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Fishes/physiology , Pyrethrins/toxicity
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL