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1.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(2): e6373, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889016

ABSTRACT

Cyclosporin-A (CsA) is an immunosuppressant associated with acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease. Nephrotoxicity associated with CsA involves the increase in afferent and efferent arteriole resistance, decreased renal blood flow (RBF) and glomerular filtration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Endothelin-1 (ET-1) receptor blockade with bosentan (BOS) and macitentan (MAC) antagonists on altered renal function induced by CsA in normotensive and hypertensive animals. Wistar and genetically hypertensive rats (SHR) were separated into control group, CsA group that received intraperitoneal injections of CsA (40 mg/kg) for 15 days, CsA+BOS and CsA+MAC that received CsA and BOS (5 mg/kg) or MAC (25 mg/kg) by gavage for 15 days. Plasma creatinine and urea, mean arterial pressure (MAP), RBF and renal vascular resistance (RVR), and immunohistochemistry for ET-1 in the kidney cortex were measured. CsA decreased renal function, as shown by increased creatinine and urea. There was a decrease in RBF and an increase in MAP and RVR in normotensive and hypertensive animals. These effects were partially reversed by ET-1 antagonists, especially in SHR where increased ET-1 production was observed in the kidney. Most MAC effects were similar to BOS, but BOS seemed to be better at reversing cyclosporine-induced changes in renal function in hypertensive animals. The results of this work suggested the direct participation of ET-1 in renal hemodynamics changes induced by cyclosporin in normotensive and hypertensive rats. The antagonists of ET-1 MAC and BOS reversed part of these effects.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Pyrimidines/pharmacology , Cyclosporine/toxicity , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Acute Kidney Injury/prevention & control , Endothelin Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Immunosuppressive Agents/toxicity , Urea/blood , Immunohistochemistry , Immunoblotting , Reproducibility of Results , Rats, Wistar , Creatinine/blood , Acute Kidney Injury/physiopathology , Endothelin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Bosentan , Hemodynamics , Kidney/drug effects
2.
Biol. Res ; 50: 1, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838973

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pathologic vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and migration after vascular injury promotes the development of occlusive vascular disease. Therefore, an effective chemical agent to suppress aberrant proliferation and migration of VSMCs can be a potential therapeutic modality for occlusive vascular disease such as atherosclerosis and restenosis. To find an anti-proliferative chemical agent for VSMCs, we screened an in-house small molecule library, and the selected small molecule was further validated for its anti-proliferative effect on VSMCs using multiple approaches, such as cell proliferation assays, wound healing assays, transwell migration assays, and ex vivo aortic ring assay. RESULTS: Among 43 initially screened small molecule inhibitors of kinases that have no known anti-proliferative effect on VSMCs, a spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) inhibitor (BAY61-3606) showed significant anti-proliferative effect on VSMCs. Further experiments indicated that BAY61 attenuated the VSMC proliferation in both concentration- and time-dependent manner, and it also significantly suppressed the migration of VSMCs as assessed by both wound healing assays and transwell assays. Additionally, BAY61 suppressed the sprouting of VSMCs from endothelium-removed aortic rings. CONCLUSION: The present study identified a Syk kinase inhibitor as a potent VSMC proliferation and migration inhibitor and warrants further studies to elucidate its underlying molecular mechanisms, such as its primary target, and to validate its in vivo efficacy as a therapeutic agent for restenosis and atherosclerosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Pyrimidines/pharmacology , Cell Movement/drug effects , Niacinamide/analogs & derivatives , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Syk Kinase/antagonists & inhibitors , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/drug effects , Aorta, Thoracic/drug effects , Time Factors , Wound Healing/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Blotting, Western , Reproducibility of Results , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Niacinamide/pharmacology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Cell Migration Assays , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/cytology
3.
Cad. saúde pública ; 31(4): 722-732, 04/2015.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-744848

ABSTRACT

We aimed to verify doctor's perception of the qualitative research method, via a qualitative study of interviews with questions on the academic profile of doctors and on the methodology. We interviewed 42 professionals, of which 18 had experience with the qualitative method and 24 with the quantitative method. The results showed that knowledge on the qualitative method was virtually nil among "quantitative researchers", who did not value qualitative research, although some of those realized that it would be important to be more accepting in clinical practice. Others only considered the method as subsidiary to quantitative. The majority considered qualitative methods as lacking academic structure, taking too long to conduct empirical studies, and being difficult to publish. All of them criticized the misuse of the method, and the "quantitatives" pointed out the problem of being unable to reproduce. We concluded that widening the use of the qualitative method by doctors requires investment from the beginning of the academic career and participation in qualitative research projects.


El objetivo es verificar la percepción de médicos sobre el método de investigación cualitativa. Se trata de un estudio cualitativo por medio de entrevistas con preguntas sobre el perfil de los médicos y sobre el método. Entrevistamos a 42 profesionales, 18 con experiencia en el método cualitativo y 24 con el cuantitativo. Los resultados mostraron que el conocimiento sobre lo cualitativo es casi nulo entre los "cuantitativistas", que no valoran la investigación cualitativa, aunque algunos se dan cuenta de que sería importante tener un enfoque más amplio en la práctica clínica. Otros la ven como subsidiaria a lo cuantitativo. Sus dificultades para utilizar ese abordaje son: falta de formación, cantidad de tiempo que exigen y problemas de publicación. Todos han criticado el mal uso del método. Los "cuantitativistas" han destacado como fragilidad, la no reproductibilidad. Llegamos a la conclusión de que para ampliar el uso de los abordajes cualitativos entre los médicos es importante invertir en su formación desde el inicio del curso y la participación en proyectos de investigación cualitativa.


Objetivamos verificar a percepção de médicos sobre o método qualitativo de pesquisa. Estudo qualitativo por meio de entrevistas com questões sobre o perfil acadêmico do médico e perguntas abertas a respeito do método. Entrevistamos 42 profissionais, sendo 18 com experiência no método qualitativo e 24 com o quantitativo. Os resultados evidenciaram que o conhecimento sobre o qualitativo é quase nulo entre os pesquisadores "quantitativistas", os quais não valorizam a pesquisa qualitativa, embora alguns percebam que seria importante ter uma postura mais compreensiva na prática clínica. Outros só a veem como subsidiária ao quantitativo. As principais dificuldades da maioria são: falta de formação, tempo longo despendido nos estudos empíricos e dificuldade de publicação. Todos os entrevistados criticaram o mau uso do método, e os "quantitativistas" ressaltaram, como problema, sua não reprodutibilidade. Concluímos que ampliar o uso do método qualitativo por médicos exige investimento na formação desde o início da graduação e participação em projetos de pesquisa qualitativa.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Anilides/pharmacology , Benzodiazepinones/pharmacology , /pharmacology , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Pyrimidines/pharmacology , Repressor Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Cells, Cultured , Cell Movement/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Enzyme Activation/drug effects , Neoplasms/pathology , Protein Kinases/genetics , Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/genetics , Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/physiology , Repressor Proteins/agonists , Repressor Proteins/genetics , Substrate Specificity , Tumor Suppressor Proteins/physiology
4.
Rev. paul. pediatr ; 33(1): 42-49, Jan-Mar/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-744699

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate differences in children's eating behavior in relation to their nutritional status, gender and age. METHODS: Male and female children aged six to ten years were included. They were recruited from a private school in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, in 2012. Children´s Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) subscales were used to assess eating behaviors: Food Responsiveness (FR), Enjoyment of Food (EF), Desire to Drink (DD), Emotional Overeating (EOE), Emotional Undereating (EUE), Satiety Responsiveness (SR), Food Fussiness (FF) and Slowness in Eating (SE). Age-adjusted body mass index (BMI) z-scores were calculated according to the WHO recommendations to assess nutritional status. RESULTS: The study sample comprised 335 children aged 87.9±10.4 months and 49.3% had normal weight (n=163), 26% were overweight (n=86), 15% were obese (n=50) and 9.7% were severely obese (n=32). Children with excess weight showed higher scores at the CEBQ subscales associated with "food approach" (FR, EF, DD, EOE, p<0.001) and lower scores on two "food avoidance" subscales (SR and SE, p<0.001 and p=0.003, respectively) compared to normal weight children. Differences in the eating behavior related to gender and age were not found. CONCLUSIONS: "Food approach" subscales were positively associated to excess weight in children, but no associations with gender and age were found. .


OBJETIVO: Avaliar diferenças no comportamento alimentar infantil em função do estado nutricional, do sexo e da idade. MÉTODOS: O estudo incluiu crianças na faixa de seis a dez anos, de ambos os sexos, de uma escola privada em Pelotas (RS), em 2012. Para avaliar o comportamento alimentar usaram-se as subescalas do questionário Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ): resposta à comida (FR), prazer de comer (EF), desejo de beber (DD), sobreingestão emocional (EOE), subingestão emocional (EUE), resposta à saciedade (SR), seletividade (FF) e ingestão lenta (SE). Avaliou-se o estado nutricional por meio do escore-z do IMC/idade. RESULTADOS: Participaram 335 crianças de 87,9±10,4 meses. Apresentaram eutrofia 49,3% (n=163), sobrepeso 26% (n=86), obesidade 15% (n=50) e obesidade grave 9,7% (n=32). Crianças com excesso de peso tiveram maior pontuação nas subescalas de "interesse pela comida" (FR, EF, DD, EOE, p<0,001) e menor pontuação nas subescalas de "desinteresse pela comida" (SR e SE, p<0,001 e p=0,003, respectivamente), se comparadas com as crianças com peso adequado. Não foram observadas diferenças no comportamento alimentar segundo sexo e idade. CONCLUSÕES: Observou-se que comportamentos alimentares que refletem "interesse pela comida" estão associados positivamente ao excesso de peso, mas não foi encontrada associação com o sexo e a idade da criança. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Mice , Aniline Compounds/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Drug Discovery , Microtubules/drug effects , Neoplasms, Experimental/drug therapy , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Pyrimidines/pharmacology , Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Water/chemistry , Aniline Compounds/chemistry , Aniline Compounds/chemical synthesis , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/chemical synthesis , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor , HeLa Cells , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Nude , Neoplasms, Experimental/pathology , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/chemistry , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/chemical synthesis , Pyrimidines/chemistry , Pyrimidines/chemical synthesis , Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/metabolism , Solubility , Structure-Activity Relationship
5.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 48(1): 18-25, jan-feb/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-742970

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Dengue is the most prevalent arboviral disease in tropical areas. In Mato Grosso, outbreaks are reported every year, but studies on dengue in this state are scarce. METHODS: Natural transovarial infection of Aedes aegypti by a flavivirus was investigated in the Jardim Industriário neighborhood of Cuiabá, Mato Grosso. Eggs were collected with ovitraps during the dry, intermediate, and rainy seasons of 2012. After the eggs hatched and the larvae developed to adulthood, mosquitoes (n = 758) were identified and allocated to pools of 1-10 specimens according to the collection location, sex, and climatic period. After RNA extraction, multiplex semi-nested RT-PCR was performed to detect the four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes, yellow fever virus, West Nile virus and Saint Louis encephalitis virus. RESULTS: DENV-4 was the only flavivirus detected, and it was found in 8/50 pools (16.0%). Three of the positive pools contained females, and five contained males. Their nucleotide sequences presented 96-100% similarity with DENV-4 genotype II strains from Manaus, Amazonas. The minimum infection rate was 10.5 per 1000 specimens, and the maximum likelihood estimator of the infection rate was 11.6 (95% confidence interval: 4.8; 23.3). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides the first evidence of natural transovarial infection by DENV-4 in Ae. Aegypti in Mato Grosso, suggesting that this type of infection might serve as a mechanism of virus maintenance during interepidemic periods in Cuiabá, a city where dengue epidemics are reported every year. These results emphasize the need for efficient vector population control measures to prevent arbovirus outbreaks in the state. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Kinesin/metabolism , Protein Biosynthesis , Cell Line , Centrifugation, Density Gradient , Gene Knockdown Techniques , Immunoprecipitation , Interphase , Kinesin/antagonists & inhibitors , Kinesin/genetics , Microtubules/metabolism , Peptide Chain Initiation, Translational , Protein Binding , Pyrimidines/pharmacology , RNA Interference , Ribosomes/metabolism , Thiones/pharmacology
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-42472

ABSTRACT

An F-box protein, beta-TrCP recognizes substrate proteins and destabilizes them through ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis. It regulates the stability of diverse proteins and functions as either a tumor suppressor or an oncogene. Although the regulation by beta-TrCP has been widely studied, the regulation of beta-TrCP itself is not well understood yet. In this study, we found that the level of beta-TrCP1 is downregulated by various protein kinase inhibitors in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. A PI3K/mTOR inhibitor PI-103 reduced the level of beta-TrCP1 in a wide range of TNBC cells in a proteasome-dependent manner. Concomitantly, the levels of c-Myc and cyclin E were also downregulated by PI-103. PI-103 reduced the phosphorylation of beta-TrCP1 prior to its degradation. In addition, knockdown of beta-TrCP1 inhibited the proliferation of TNBC cells. We further identified that pharmacological inhibition of mTORC2 was sufficient to reduce the beta-TrCP1 and c-Myc levels. These results suggest that mTORC2 regulates the stability of beta-TrCP1 in TNBC cells and targeting beta-TrCP1 is a potential approach to treat human TNBC.


Subject(s)
Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cyclin E/genetics , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Female , Furans/pharmacology , Gene Knockdown Techniques , Humans , Models, Biological , Multiprotein Complexes/antagonists & inhibitors , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Phosphorylation/drug effects , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Proteolysis/drug effects , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc/genetics , Pyridines/pharmacology , Pyrimidines/pharmacology , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms/genetics , beta-Transducin Repeat-Containing Proteins/genetics
7.
J. bras. nefrol ; 36(4): 535-541, Oct-Dec/2014. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-731148

ABSTRACT

A doença renal crônica (DRC) é caracterizada por uma perda progressiva da função renal e suas principais causas são hipertensão arterial (HA) e diabete melito. Entre as causas de HA, podemos destacar a doença renal aterosclerótica (DRA). O desenvolvimento de DRC nos pacientes com DRA parece ser decorrente não apenas do acometimento das artérias renais principais, mas também da microcirculação renal, o que pode justificar o fato de o sucesso do procedimento não garantir uma melhora da evolução da DRC. Até o presente momento, não existe evidência de benefício da angioplastia em relação ao tratamento clínico exclusivo nos pacientes com DRA. O presente trabalho analisa os estudos mais significantes sobre os desfechos renais em pacientes portadores de DRA submetidos à revascularização ou ao tratamento clínico exclusivo.


Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by a progressive loss of renal function and its main causes are hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Among the causes of hypertension is atherosclerotic renal disease (ARD). The development of CKD in patients with ARD appears to be due not only to the involvement of the main renal arteries, but also of the renal microcirculation, which may explain the fact that the success of the procedure does not guarantee an improvement in the progression of CKD. To date there is no evidence of benefit of angioplasty compared to medical treatment alone in patients with ARD. The present paper analyzes the most significant studies on renal outcomes in patients with ARD undergoing revascularization or medical treatment alone.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Mice , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/pharmacology , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Oxidoreductases/antagonists & inhibitors , Paclitaxel/administration & dosage , Pyrimidines/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/administration & dosage , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Dihydrouracil Dehydrogenase (NADP) , Floxuridine/administration & dosage , Floxuridine/pharmacology , Mice, Inbred ICR , Neoplasm Transplantation , Tegafur/administration & dosage , Tegafur/pharmacology , Uracil/administration & dosage , Uracil/pharmacology
8.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 23(4): 534-538, Oct-Dec/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-731264

ABSTRACT

With the aim of studying the endoparasite fauna of horses from the Formiga city, located in center-west region of the state of Minas Gerais, 25 animals that were naturally infected with helminths were evaluated. By means of parasitological necropsies, different endoparasites were found. The subfamily Cyathostominae presented the highest incidence, followed by Trichostrongylus axei, Oxyuris equi, Triodontophorus serratus, Strongyloides westeri, Strongylus edentatus, Habronema muscae, Parascaris equorum, Probstmayria vivipara, Strongylus vulgaris, Gasterophilus nasalis, Anoplocephala magna and Anoplocephala perfoliata. In the present study, if the species Probstmayria vivipara was not considered in the prevalence, the frequency of Cyathostominae was equivalent to 94.85%. The results obtained in this study allowed us to detect and identify different species of helminths in horses, and confirmed the high incidence of nematodes belonging to the subfamily Cyathostominae in the center-west region of Minas Gerais.


Com o objetivo de estudar a fauna de endoparasitas de equinos da Região Centro-Oeste do Estado de Minas Gerais, 25 animais naturalmente infectados por helmintos foram avaliados. Por meio de necropsias parasitológicas, diferentes endoparasitas foram identificados. A sub - família Cyathostominae apresentou maior incidência, seguido por Trichostrongylus axei, Oxyuris equi, Triodontophorus serratus, Strongyloides westeri, Strongylus edentatus, Habronema muscae, Parascaris equorum, Probstmayria vivipara, Strongylus vulgaris, Gasterophilus nasalis, Anoplocephala magna e Anoplocephala perfoliata. No presente estudo, se não for considerada a espécie Probstmayria vivipara na prevalência, a frequência de Cyathostominae é equivalente a 94,85%. Os resultados obtidos neste estudo, permitiu detectar e identificar diferentes espécies de helmintos em equinos, bem como confirmar a elevada incidência de nematódeos pertencentes à sub-família Cyathostominae na Região Centro-Oeste de Minas Gerais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alcohol Oxidoreductases/antagonists & inhibitors , Pyrimidines/chemistry , Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Enzyme Inhibitors/chemistry , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Pneumocystis/enzymology , Pyrimidines/pharmacology , Regression Analysis
9.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 47(12): 1096-1101, 12/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-727664

ABSTRACT

p15INK4B, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, has been recognized as a tumor suppressor. Loss of or methylation of the p15INK4B gene in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cells enhances myeloid progenitor formation from common myeloid progenitors. Therefore, we examined the effects of overexpressed p15INK4B on proliferation and apoptosis of CML cells. Overexpression of p15INK4B inhibited the growth of K562 cells by downregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) and cyclin D1 expression. Overexpression of p15INK4B also induced apoptosis of K562 cells by upregulating Bax expression and downregulating Bcl-2 expression. Overexpression of p15INK4B together with STI571 (imatinib) or BCR-ABL1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) also enhanced growth inhibition and apoptosis induction of K562 cells. The enhanced effect was also mediated by reduction of cyclin D1 and CDK4 and regulation of Bax and Bcl-2. In conclusion, our study may provide new insights into the role of p15INK4B in CML and a potential therapeutic target for overcoming tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance in CML.


Subject(s)
Humans , Apoptosis/drug effects , Benzamides/pharmacology , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , /metabolism , Fusion Proteins, bcr-abl/metabolism , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/drug therapy , Piperazines/pharmacology , Pyrimidines/pharmacology , RNA, Small Interfering/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Benzamides/metabolism , Cyclin D1/drug effects , Cyclin D1/metabolism , /drug effects , /metabolism , /genetics , Drug Combinations , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm , Down-Regulation/drug effects , Fusion Proteins, bcr-abl/antagonists & inhibitors , Fusion Proteins, bcr-abl/genetics , Gene Expression/genetics , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/metabolism , Piperazines/metabolism , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , /drug effects , /metabolism , Pyrimidines/metabolism , /drug effects
10.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 21(4): 1417-1436, Oct-Dec/2014.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-732509

ABSTRACT

Recupera a atuação do antropólogo Charles Wagley como alto funcionário do Serviço Especial de Saúde Pública, programa de cooperação estabelecido entre EUA e Brasil na Segunda Guerra Mundial. Convocado a colaborar nos esforços de guerra, atuou na política de migração do Programa da Borracha. À luz dessa experiência de intervenção, do contexto marcado pela promoção do desenvolvimento e por questões então prementes no campo da antropologia, este estudo propõe-se retomar a obra Uma comunidade amazônica. Trata-se de discutir o estudo de comunidade conduzido na localidade amazônica que Wagley conheceu ainda durante as missões do Serviço e cuja realidade considerou ilustrativa de uma região subdesenvolvida, levando-o a refletir sobre mudança social e o papel das ciências.


The article focuses on the work of Charles Wagley as a top staff member with Serviço Especial de Saúde Pública (Special Public Health Service), a US-Brazil cooperation program established during World War II. Taking into consideration Wagley’s experience with migration policy under Brazil’s Rubber Program, as well as the context of development promotion and the issues then on the anthropological agenda, the article explores Wagley’s community study of the Amazon town he visited while on SESP missions, published in the book Uma comunidade amazônica (Amazon Town). Encountering a reality that he believed emblematic of underdevelopment, Wagley was led to reflect on social change and the role of science.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Rats , Folic Acid Antagonists/chemical synthesis , Pyrimidines/chemistry , Tetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase/metabolism , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Folic Acid Antagonists/pharmacology , Liver/enzymology , Pneumocystis , Pyrimidines/chemical synthesis , Pyrimidines/pharmacology , Toxoplasma , Trimetrexate/pharmacology
11.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 21(4): 1437-1455, Oct-Dec/2014.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-732514

ABSTRACT

In 1915 the Rockefeller Foundation took its hookworm eradication campaign to Suriname, but was soon disappointed because of opposition from its main target group: the Javanese. Moreover, authorities and planters objected to the construction of latrines because of the costs and their belief that the Javanese were “unhygienic”. In describing the labor migration from Java to Suriname, I show that this “lack of hygiene” was closely related to the system’s organization. I argue that uncleanliness was the consequence of harmful socio-economic and ecological conditions. Secondly I suggest that even though the Foundation did not manage to cleanse Suriname of hookworm, its educational efforts, its emphasis on prevention, and its training of local health workers probably had more impact than Rockefeller officials thought.


Em 1915, a Fundação Rockefeller levou sua campanha de erradicação da ancilostomíase ao Suriname, logo sofrendo a oposição de seu principal alvo, os javaneses. Autoridades e proprietários rurais também reagiram à instalação de latrinas devido aos custos implicados e à crença de que os javaneses eram “anti-higiênicos”. Ao descrever a migração de trabalhadores de Java para o Suriname, mostro que a “falta de higiene” ligava-se à organização do sistema. Argumento que a sujeira era consequência de condições ecológicas e socioeconômicas danosas. Sugiro ainda que, embora a Fundação não tenha livrado o Suriname da anciolostomíase, seus esforços educacionais, sua ênfase na prevenção e o treinamento de profissionais de saúde locais tiveram maior impacto do que o imaginado pelos funcionários da agência norte-americana.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Rats , Analgesics/pharmacology , Dimaprit/analogs & derivatives , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Folic Acid Antagonists/pharmacology , Histamine Agonists/pharmacology , Histamine N-Methyltransferase/antagonists & inhibitors , Pyrimidines/pharmacology , Analgesics/administration & dosage , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Dimaprit/administration & dosage , Dimaprit/pharmacology , Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Folic Acid Antagonists/administration & dosage , Histamine Agonists/administration & dosage , Injections, Intraventricular , Methylhistamines/pharmacology , Muscle Contraction/drug effects , Pain Measurement/drug effects , Postural Balance/drug effects , Psychomotor Performance/drug effects , Pyrimidines/administration & dosage , Pyrimidines/antagonists & inhibitors , Rats, Wistar
12.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 47(8): 637-645, 08/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-716279

ABSTRACT

Tissue engineering encapsulated cells such as chondrocytes in the carrier matrix have been widely used to repair cartilage defects. However, chondrocyte phenotype is easily lost when chondrocytes are expanded in vitro by a process defined as “dedifferentiation”. To ensure successful therapy, an effective pro-chondrogenic agent is necessary to overcome the obstacle of limited cell numbers in the restoration process, and dedifferentiation is a prerequisite. Gallic acid (GA) has been used in the treatment of arthritis, but its biocompatibility is inferior to that of other compounds. In this study, we modified GA by incorporating sulfamonomethoxine sodium and synthesized a sulfonamido-based gallate, JJYMD-C, and evaluated its effect on chondrocyte metabolism. Our results showed that JJYMD-C could effectively increase the levels of the collagen II, Sox9, and aggrecan genes, promote chondrocyte growth, and enhance secretion and synthesis of cartilage extracellular matrix. On the other hand, expression of the collagen I gene was effectively down-regulated, demonstrating inhibition of chondrocyte dedifferentiation by JJYMD-C. Hypertrophy, as a characteristic of chondrocyte ossification, was undetectable in the JJYMD-C groups. We used JJYMD-C at doses of 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5 µg/mL, and the strongest response was observed with 0.25 µg/mL. This study provides a basis for further studies on a novel agent in the treatment of articular cartilage defects.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Benzamides/chemical synthesis , Cell Dedifferentiation/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Chondrocytes/drug effects , Phenotype , Pyrimidines/chemical synthesis , Aggrecans/genetics , Aggrecans/metabolism , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Benzamides/pharmacology , Cell Survival , Cell Dedifferentiation/immunology , Chondrocytes/cytology , Chondrocytes/metabolism , Chondrogenesis/drug effects , Collagen Type I/genetics , Collagen Type I/metabolism , Collagen Type II/genetics , Collagen Type II/metabolism , Glycosaminoglycans/analysis , Immunohistochemistry , Laser Scanning Cytometry , Primary Cell Culture , Pyrimidines/pharmacology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SOX9 Transcription Factor/genetics , SOX9 Transcription Factor/metabolism , Tissue Engineering
13.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 46(2): 111-118, jun. 2014. tab, mapas
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-734573

ABSTRACT

El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar los resultados de sensibilidad a los antifúngicos de diversas especies de Candida utilizando el sistema semiautomatizado Vitek 2 (tarjetas AST-YSO1; bioMérieux), y compararlos con los obtenidos por el método de referencia del Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), la microdilución en caldo (Documento M27-A3, 2008). La concordancia esencial fue > 90 %, excepto en el caso de Candida glabrata frente al voriconazol (VCZ) y de Candida krusei frente al fluconazol (FCZ). La concordancia global por categoría (variación no mayor que 2 diluciones, sin discriminar por especie) fue > 90 % cuando se evaluó el FCZ, y 89,5 % a las 24 h y 80,7 % a las 48 h con el VCZ. El tiempo promedio para obtener los resultados fue de 15,5 h. Los errores menores (sensible o resistente por un método y dosis dependiente por el otro) para FCZ fueron de 7,8 % a las 24 h y 6,1 % a las 48 h; para VCZ, 10,5 % a las 24 h y 19,3 % a las 48 h. Solo se detectó 1 error muy mayor (resistente por el método de referencia y sensible por Vitek 2) con Candida parapsilosis frente a FCZ a las 48 h. No se observaron errores mayores (sensibles por el método de referencia y resistentes por Vitek 2). Con respecto a la anfotericina B, solo 3 cepas presentaron una CIM = 2 ?g/ml. El sistema Vitek 2 detectó correctamente el valor de CIM para diversas especies de Candida y presentó una excelente concordancia con el método de referencia propuesto por el CLSI.


The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the results of antifungal susceptibility for various Candida species using the Vitek 2 semi-automated system (AST-YSO1 cards, bioMérieux), and to compare them with those obtained by the CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute) broth microdilution reference method (Document M27-A3,2008). The essential agreement (EA) was > 90%, except for Candida glabrata against voriconazole (VCZ); and for Candida krusei against fluconazole (FCZ). The overall categorical agreement (CA) was > 90% when FCZ was evaluated and 89.5% at 24 h and 80.7% at 48 h for VCZ. The average time for obtaining results was 15.5 h. Minor errors were 7.8% at 24 h and 6.1% at 48 h for FCZ, and 10.5% at 24 h and 19.3% at 48 h for VCZ. There was only one very major error for FCZ against Candida parapsilosis and no major errors were observed. For amphotericin B, only three isolates showed MICs = 2 ?g/ml. The Vitek 2 system detected the MIC value for various Candida species and showed excellent agreement with the reference method proposed by the CLSI.


Subject(s)
Humans , Amphotericin B/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Candida/drug effects , Fluconazole/pharmacology , Pyrimidines/pharmacology , Triazoles/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Mycology/methods , Voriconazole
14.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 108(7): 850-853, 1jan. 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-696014

ABSTRACT

Imatinib, a drug used for treatment of human chronic myeloid leukaemia, due to its activity against protein kinases, has been also evaluated in vitro against Schistosoma mansoni showing high schistosomicidal activity. In the present experiments imatinib activity in vitro was confirmed at the doses of 25 µM, 50 µM and 100 µM. The first drug activity observed with the lower dose was interruption of egg-laying and with the higher dosages was the death of the worms. In mice infected with S. mansoni no activity was found even with 1,000 mg/kg/day, 500 mg/kg/day, single oral dose or when administered for three consecutive days. This is another example of the difference of results related to in vitro and in vivo trials using S. mansoni worms.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Benzamides/pharmacology , Piperazines/pharmacology , Pyrimidines/pharmacology , Schistosoma mansoni/drug effects , Schistosomiasis mansoni/drug therapy , Schistosomicides/pharmacology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Parasite Load , Schistosomiasis mansoni/parasitology , Time Factors
15.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 46(1): 73-78, Jan.-Feb. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-666799

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Amphotericin B, azole or sulfamide drugs are used for treatment of patients with paracoccidioidomycosis. Among the azole drugs, voriconazole was active in vitro against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and showed efficacy in the treatment of patients infected with this fungus.In the present study the antifungal activity of voriconazole and of other drugs was compared in a rat model of paracoccidioidomycosis. METHODS: Wistar rats were inoculated intravenously with the BOAS strain of P. brasiliensis and antifungal drugs were administered to the animals by gavage at the following doses (mg/kg weight/day): voriconazole (5 to 20), ketoconazole (12 to 15), fluconazole (6), itraconazole (4), and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (120 to 150). The antifungal activity of the drugs was assessed by determining the P. brasiliensis colony forming units in the lungs and spleen of the animals at the end of treatment and by a survival study. RESULTS: Voriconazole reduced the total tissue fungal burden of P. brasiliensis, particularly at doses of ≥10mg/kg weight/day but its antifungal activity was less intense than that of fluconazole, itraconazole and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. The mean survival of animals treated with the last three drugs, 29.1±10.7, 26.1± 10.1 and 28.4±9.6 days, respectively, was higher than that achieved with voriconazole 10mg/kg weight/day (18.5±8.3 days) and that observed in untreated animals (15.7±3.6 days). CONCLUSIONS: At doses similar to those used for clinical treatment, voriconazole showed lower antifungal activity in experimental rat paracoccidioidomycosis than that obtained with itraconazole and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Paracoccidioidomycosis/drug therapy , Disease Models, Animal , Pyrimidines/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Triazoles/pharmacology
16.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 46(1): 39-51, 11/jan. 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-665801

ABSTRACT

Imatinib mesylate (IM) is used to treat chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) because it selectively inhibits tyrosine kinase, which is a hallmark of CML oncogenesis. Recent studies have shown that IM inhibits the growth of several non-malignant hematopoietic and fibroblast cells from bone marrow (BM). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of IM on stromal and hematopoietic progenitor cells, specifically in the colony-forming units of granulocyte/macrophage (CFU-GM), using BM cultures from 108 1.5- to 2-month-old healthy Swiss mice. The results showed that low concentrations of IM (1.25 µM) reduced the growth of CFU-GM in clonogenic assays. In culture assays with stromal cells, fibroblast proliferation and α-SMA expression by immunocytochemistry analysis were also reduced in a concentration-dependent manner, with a survival rate of approximately 50% with a dose of 2.5 µM. Cell viability and morphology were analyzed using MTT and staining with acrydine orange/ethidium bromide. Most cells were found to be viable after treatment with 5 µM IM, although there was gradual growth inhibition of fibroblastic cells while the number of round cells (macrophage-like cells) increased. At higher concentrations (15 µM), the majority of cells were apoptotic and cell growth ceased completely. Oil red staining revealed the presence of adipocytes only in untreated cells (control). Cell cycle analysis of stromal cells by flow cytometry showed a blockade at the G0/G1 phases in groups treated with 5-15 µM. These results suggest that IM differentially inhibits the survival of different types of BM cells since toxic effects were achieved.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Benzamides/pharmacology , Hematopoietic Stem Cells/drug effects , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/drug effects , Piperazines/pharmacology , Pyrimidines/pharmacology , Cell Proliferation , Cell Survival , Cells, Cultured , Colony-Forming Units Assay , Fibroblasts , Hematopoietic Stem Cells/cytology , Immunohistochemistry , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-144112

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: At present, the clinical breakpoints (CBPs) of both fluconazole and voriconazole are available only for 3 common Candida species in the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) methods. Epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) were recently applied to both methods to detect the emergence of acquired resistance (i.e., non-wild-type isolates) among 5 common Candida species. METHODS: We performed a nationwide study to determine the fluconazole and voriconazole susceptibility of Candida bloodstream isolates (BSIs) using both the CLSI and EUCAST methods. A total of 423 BSIs of 5 Candida species were collected from 8 hospitals. The azole susceptibilities were assessed on the basis of the species-specific CBPs and ECVs. RESULTS: Of the 341 BSIs of 3 common Candida species (i.e., C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. parapsilosis), 0.3% and 0.9%, 0.0% and 1.5% of isolates were categorized as fluconazole and voriconazole resistant according to the CLSI and EUCAST CBPs, respectively. Of 423 total BSIs, 1.4% and 2.6% had fluconazole minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) exceeding the ECVs according to the CLSI and EUCAST, respectively; 1.0% and 2.1% had voriconazole MICs exceeding the ECVs according to the CLSI and EUCAST, respectively. Categorical agreement between the methods using ECVs was 98.3% for fluconazole and 98.3% for voriconazole. CONCLUSIONS: The EUCAST and CLSI methods using ECVs provide highly concordant results. Moreover, non-wild-type isolates with possibly acquired azole resistance were rare among the BSIs of 5 common Candida species in Korea.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Candida/drug effects , Candidiasis/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Fungal/drug effects , Fluconazole/pharmacology , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pyrimidines/pharmacology , Republic of Korea , Triazoles/pharmacology
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-144105

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: At present, the clinical breakpoints (CBPs) of both fluconazole and voriconazole are available only for 3 common Candida species in the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) methods. Epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) were recently applied to both methods to detect the emergence of acquired resistance (i.e., non-wild-type isolates) among 5 common Candida species. METHODS: We performed a nationwide study to determine the fluconazole and voriconazole susceptibility of Candida bloodstream isolates (BSIs) using both the CLSI and EUCAST methods. A total of 423 BSIs of 5 Candida species were collected from 8 hospitals. The azole susceptibilities were assessed on the basis of the species-specific CBPs and ECVs. RESULTS: Of the 341 BSIs of 3 common Candida species (i.e., C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. parapsilosis), 0.3% and 0.9%, 0.0% and 1.5% of isolates were categorized as fluconazole and voriconazole resistant according to the CLSI and EUCAST CBPs, respectively. Of 423 total BSIs, 1.4% and 2.6% had fluconazole minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) exceeding the ECVs according to the CLSI and EUCAST, respectively; 1.0% and 2.1% had voriconazole MICs exceeding the ECVs according to the CLSI and EUCAST, respectively. Categorical agreement between the methods using ECVs was 98.3% for fluconazole and 98.3% for voriconazole. CONCLUSIONS: The EUCAST and CLSI methods using ECVs provide highly concordant results. Moreover, non-wild-type isolates with possibly acquired azole resistance were rare among the BSIs of 5 common Candida species in Korea.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Candida/drug effects , Candidiasis/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Fungal/drug effects , Fluconazole/pharmacology , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pyrimidines/pharmacology , Republic of Korea , Triazoles/pharmacology
19.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 99(6): 1082-1091, dez. 2012. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-662371

ABSTRACT

FUNDAMENTO: O Imatinib é um inibidor do receptor tirosina-quinase que foi confirmada como exercendo um efeito inibidor sobre a atividade do receptor do PDGF, fator de crescimento plaquetário (PDGFRα e PDGFRβ). OBJETIVO: Investigar o efeito protetor do Imatinib na fibrose miocárdica em acetato de deoxicorticosterona (DOCA)/ratos com hipertensão induzida por sal. MÉTODOS: Sessenta ratos Sprague-Dawley machos, uninefrectomizados foram distribuídos em três grupos: ratos controles (grupo CON): grupo deoxicorticosterona (grupo DOCA); grupo deoxicorticosterona e Imatinib (grupo DOCA IMA). A Pressão Arterial Sistólica (PAS) foi medida quinzenalmente. Foi estudada a porção apical do ventrículo esquerdo. Foram empregados: coloração vermelho sirius, coloração de hematoxilina-eosina, imuno-histoquímica e ensaio de western blot. RESULTADOS: A PAS nos grupos DOCA e IMA+DOCA foi maior que no grupo CON nos dias 14 e 28. Os animais do grupo DOCA apresentaram fibrose intersticial e perivascular grave no dia 28, e as expressões de PI, PIII, tenascina-C e fibronectina foram significativamente maiores que nos grupos DOCA+IMA e CON. Quando comparados com o grupo CON, os grupos DOCA e DOCA+IMA apresentaram resposta inflamatória de tecido miocárdico e infiltração de monócitos/macrófagos de diferentes graus. As expressões proteicas do PDGF-A, PDGF-C e PDGFRα foram significativamente maiores nos grupos DOCA e DOCA+IMA que no grupo CON, mas a expressão proteica do p-PDGFRα no grupo DOCA+IMA foi menor que no DOCA. CONCLUSÃO: O Imatinib pode exercer efeitos inibitórios sobre a fibrose miocárdica em ratos com hipertensão induzida por DOCA/sal, os quais podem ser atribuídos à inibição da atividade do PDGFR-α.


BACKGROUND: Imatinib is a tyrosine kinase receptor inhibitor that has been confirmed to exert inhibitory effect on the platelet derived growth factor PDGF receptor (PDGFRα and PDGFRβ) activity. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the protective effect of imatinib on the myocardial fibrosis in deoxycorticosterone-acetate (DOCA)/salt induced hypertensive rats. METHODS: Sixty male uninephrectomized Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to three groups: control rats (CON group); deoxycorticosterone group (DOCA group); deoxycorticosterone and imatinib group (DOCA+IMA group). Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured biweekly. The apical portion of the left ventricle was studied. Sirius-Red staining, Hematoxylin-Eosin staining, immunohistochemistry and Western blot assay were employed. RESULTS: SBP in the DOCA group and DOCA+IMA group was higher than that in the CON group on day 14 and 28. Animals in the DOCA group showed severe interstitial and perivascular fibrosis on day 28, and the expressions of PI, PIII, tenascin-C and fibronectin were significantly higher than those in the DOCA+IMA group and CON group. When compared with the CON group, myocardial tissue inflammatory response and monocyte/macrophage infiltration of different degrees were observed in the DOCA group and DOCA+IMA group. Protein expressions of PDGF-A, PDGF-C and PDGFRα were signiflcantly higher in the DOCA and DOCA+IMA groups than those in the CON group, but the p-PDGFRα protein expression in the DOCA+IMA group was lower than that in the DOCA group. CONCLUSION: Imatinib can exert inhibitory effects on myocardial fibrosis in DOCA/salt induced hypertensive rats, which may be attributed to the inhibition of PDGFR-α activity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Benzamides/pharmacology , Endomyocardial Fibrosis/drug therapy , Piperazines/pharmacology , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Pyrimidines/pharmacology , Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha/antagonists & inhibitors , Blotting, Western , Benzamides/therapeutic use , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Desoxycorticosterone , Disease Models, Animal , Endomyocardial Fibrosis/pathology , Fibronectins/analysis , Fibronectins/metabolism , Fibrosis/drug therapy , Fibrosis/pathology , Hypertension/chemically induced , Hypertension/physiopathology , Nephrectomy/methods , Piperazines/therapeutic use , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pyrimidines/therapeutic use , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha/metabolism , Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor beta/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor beta/metabolism , Treatment Outcome , Tenascin/analysis , Tenascin/metabolism
20.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 107(3): 433-436, May 2012. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-624029

ABSTRACT

The extensive use of azole antifungal agents has promoted the resistance of Candida spp to these drugs. Candida glabrata is a problematic yeast because it presents a high degree of primary or secondary resistance to fluconazole. In Brazil, C. glabrata has been less studied than other species. In this paper, we compared the activity of three major classes of antifungal agents (azoles, echinocandins and polyenes) against fluconazole-susceptible (FS) and fluconazole-resistant (FR) C. glabrata strains. Cross-resistance between fluconazole and voriconazole was remarkable. Among the antifungal agents, the echinocandins were the most effective against FS and FR C. glabrata and micafungin showed the lowest minimal inhibitory concentrations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Amphotericin B/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Candida glabrata/drug effects , Echinocandins/pharmacology , Fluconazole/pharmacology , Pyrimidines/pharmacology , Triazoles/pharmacology , Candida glabrata/isolation & purification , Drug Resistance, Fungal/drug effects , Lipopeptides/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
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